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Chilled Water system
Introduction For large installations the Condenser, Evaporator, Compressor and Expansion device can be purchased as a package unit, known as a Chiller . The usual package consists of electrically driven compressor(s) mounted on top of two shell and tube heat exchangers, one for the evaporator and the other for the condenser. The cooling coil(s) are piped up to the chiller in the conventional manner as shown below. In some countries the Cooling tower is the preferred method of removing heat from the system. Cooling towers that are open to atmosphere are not often used since the water may become contaminated. A closed cycle cooling tower or evaporative cooler can be used to reduce contamination risk.
Pipe Design Lecture No.(2) By Badran M. Salem
Refrigerant Gas Compressor
Refrigerant Liquid + Vapour
Evaporator 4 Chilled Chilled Water return
Chiller Schematic Diagram with Air Cooled Condenser
(2) By Badran M.Pipe Design Lecture No. Salem Condenser Water Cooling Tower Chiller Heat Rejection 3 Condenser 2 Refrigerant Gas Compressor Expansion valve Refrigerant Liquid + Vapour 4 Heat Input Evaporator Chilled Water flow Pump 1 Chilled Water return Control Valve Cooling Coil(s) Chiller Schematic Diagram with Cooling Tower 3 .
This is known as a Direct Expansion (or DX) coil. Salem Alternative arrangements are shown for smaller installations where the condenser may be mounted on the roof or external wall of a building and cooled by outside air. This avoids using condenser water and chilled water in the system and installing the accompanying plant.(2) By Badran M. The evaporator may be installed directly into the ductwork or air handling unit (AHU) for smaller installations.Pipe Design Lecture No. Heat Rejection Fans Air Cooled Condenser incorporating Compressor(s) 2 Refrigerant Gas Compressor 3 Expansion valve Condenser Refrigerant Liquid + Vapour 4 1 Refrigerant Return Refrigerant Flow Heat Input Direct Expansion Cooling Coil also known as DX coil in Air Handling Unit (AHU) Direct Expansion (DX) System 4 . A typical Direct Expansion (or DX) system is shown below.
0oC. 5 . or the amount of duct work and the length of ducts becomes unmanageable.Pipe Design Lecture No. It cools water to between 4. Either running the pipe between the condenser and the air handler exceeds distance limitations (runs that are too long start to cause lubrication difficulties in the compressor). In a chilled-water system. the split-system approach begins to run into problems. At this point. it is time to think about a chilled-water system.0oC and 8. Salem Chilled-water System In larger buildings and particularly in multi-story buildings.(2) By Badran M. There is no practical limit to the length of a chilled-water pipe if it is wellinsulated. the entire air conditioner is situated on the roof or behind the building. This chilled water is then piped throughout the building and connected to the cooling coils in air handlers as needed.
depending upon the dew point to be maintained. the following water temperatures may be used: Apparatus dew point 12°C Cooling coil outlet 10°C Cooling coil inlet 6°C Water at evaporator outlet 5.(2) By Badran M.5°C for heat transfer. it must generally be slightly above freezing point. Ethylene/glycol solutions may be used in cooling coils in order to allow lower air temperatures to be obtained. the refrigerant must be at some temperature below that of the leaving water but.Pipe Design Lecture No. the form of the coil surface and the velocity of the air flow. An apparatus dew point of 3°C is normally considered as the practical minimum for such coils if frosting is to be avoided. In order that the necessary heat transfer may take place. 6 . The surface temperature of the coils is a function of the leaving air temperature required. the refrigerant is piped directly to cooling coils in the air stream which thus become the evaporator. or lower as required.5°C The refrigerant in the evaporator would in this case be maintained at about 1°C giving a differential for 4. Salem Chilled Water Temperatures Typically chilled water flow and return temperatures to cooling coils is generally between 7oC and 12oC. As will be appreciated. The temperatures of the fluid circulating may be -7°C from the evaporator and -3°C returning to it. Refrigerant temperatures much below freezing point are inadmissible owing to the risk of build-up of ice on the coil surface when dehumidification is taking place. at the same time. In a typical case. In instances where cooling for an air-conditioning system is provided from a refrigeration machine by direct expansion. When this water is pumped through the evaporator section of the chiller this water temperature will be lowered by about 4oC to 6oC. this small temperature potential means that the cooling surface of a simple tubular type would need to be very extensive: a variety of devices has been developed to augment the transfer rate.
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