# Contents

A Modern Formal Logic Primer
Sentence Logic
Volume I

PREFACE TO VOLUMES I AND 11:

A Guide to the Primer

ix
.1

1.

BASIC IDEAS AND TOOIS
1-1. 1-2. 1-3. 1 1-5. 1-6.

Logic As the Science of Argument Sentences and Connectives
4

1

Truth Tables and the Meaning of '-', '&', and 'v' Truth Functions
9

7

Compounding Compound Sentences

11 16

Rules of Formation and Rules of Valuation

2.

TRANSCRIPTION BETWEEN ENGLISH AND SENTENCE LOGIC
2-1. 2-2. 2-3.

Transcription vs. Translation Grouping in Transcription Adequacy of Transcriptions
22

21

24

4. and Points to Watch out for 88 . 134 NATURAL DEDUCTION FOR SENTENCE LOGIC: Fundamentals 5-1. 3-4. 7-2. TRUTH TREES FOR SENTENCE LOGIC: Applications 9-1. Definitions. 5-2. AND CONTRADICTIONS 3. 8-5. 7-4. 4-3. 113 Proving Validity with Truth Trees The General Strategy for the Rules Proving Invalidity with Truth Trees 113 119 121 124 Validity 46 Invalidity and Counterexamples 47 Soundness 48 The Conditional 50 The Biconditional 54 8-4. 3-3. 4-5. Constructing Correct Derivations Recognizing the Main Connective 75 84 - 6 - 3 Derivations: Overview. 94 Logical Equivalence 29 Derived Rules 94 99 102 106 Substitution of Logical Equivalents and Some More Laws 33 Logical Truths and Contradictions 38 Argument by Cases Further Derived Rules Derivations without Premises Disjunctive Normal Form and the Sheffer Stroke 40 8. Application of the Rules to Complex Sentences 134 Other Uses for Truth Trees 139 59 9-2. TRUTH TREES FOR SENTENCE LOGIC: Fundamentals 8-1. 8-3. VALIDITY AND CONDITIONALS 4-1. 7. NATURAL DEDUCTION FOR SENTENCE LOGIC: Strategies 6-1. NATURAL DEDUCTION FOR SENTENCE LOGIC: Derived Rules and Derivations without Premises 7-1. LOGICAL TRUTHS. The Idea of Natural Deduction Subderivations 64 The Complete Rules of Inference 59 68 INDEX 6. LOGICAL EQUIVALENCE. 3-2. 5. 5-3. The Complete Rules for the Connectives In Which Order Should You Work on the Sentences in a Tree? 129 . 7-3. 8-2.1. 4-2.3. 9.

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