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PREFACE

The first serious attempt to study the role of Phoenicians in the culture of Cyprus was
made by Einar Gjerstad in 1948.
1
Several scholars in the past and even a few recently, perhaps
sharing Homer's prejudice, tried to diminish or ignore, for one reason or another, the role of
the Phoenicians in the development of Mediterranean culture during the first half of the first
millennium B.C. The situation has now changed. Unbiased research and extensive excava-
tions in various places around the Mediterranean which were reached by the Phoenicians have
demonstrated very convincingly their important role. Not only did they give the alphabet to
the Greeks but they also produced works of art of a high standard and were responsible for the
interchange of ideas and goods throughout the Mediterranean basin, from the Levantine coast
to the shores of Spain. Cyprus was of course the first land which they visited on their westward
expansion. We now see their presence in Crete, the Dodecanese, North Africa, South Italy
(Sicily and Sardinia), as well as the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts of Spain. International
congresses, specialized scholarly periodicals, and numerous monographs all testify to the seri-
ousness with which they are now studied.
Epigraphy was the first field through which we were exposed to Phoenician culture, but
we now know a great deal about their jewelry, their coroplastic art, their metallic bowls, their
ivories, and their pottery. Patricia Bikai has devoted much work and enthusiasm to research-
ing on the spot the pottery of the Phoenicians. With her pioneer work on the pottery of Tyre,
2
she laid the foundations for its typology and chronology. Further study, again on the spot, of
the pottery in the museums of Cyprus, made it possible to establish the more refined typology
and chronological sequence which are presented in this volume.
Twenty-two years of excavation at Kition, the Phoenician colony par excellence have
brought to light a vast amount of ceramic material in well-stratified contexts, which will pro-
vide 'food for research' for many scholars in the years to come. Dr. Bikai has already pub-
lished a preliminary study on this materiaJ3 and she has prepared for publication a more
detailed work which will be published in vol. VI of the Kition series. Recent excavations in
the cemeteries of Palaepaphos and Amathus, and earlier on at Salamis, have provided com-
plete Phoenicians vases, some of excellent quality, which will help not only to classify and cor-
rectly date this pottery, but also to trace its origins and to distinguish what is really Phoenician
and what is local imitation, and thus avoid using the very unfortunate term 'Cypro-Phoeni-
cian. ' The discovery of Greek pottery together with Phoenician will no doubt provide very
valuable synchronisms. Current scientific analysis will no doubt be of considerable assistance
and may even solve the problem of the origin of Black-on-Red ware, which scholars have been
discussing for more than half a century.
The publication of this book, which will serve for many years to come as a handbook for
all archaeologists excavating Iron Age sites in the Mediterranean region, has been made possi-
ble through the generosity of the A. G. Leventis Foundation and the J. Paul Getty Trust.
V. Karageorghis
I. Einar GjeNad, The Swedish Cyprus Expedition IV:2: The Cypro-Geometric, Cypro--Archaic and Cypro--C/assical
Periods (1948).
2. Patricia M. Bikai, The Pottery ofTyre (1978).
3. Excavations at Kition IV: The Non-Cypriote Pottery (1981), 23-35.
2 THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
of Dr. Vassos Karageorghis' excavations there, and all of the material from that excavation
was made available to the writer with the result that types which appear in Cyprus only in very
fragmentary form could be documented. Where possible, reference has been made to material
which has been published but which, for one reason or another, was not examined directly.
These include materials from the Swedish Cyprus Expedition now in Sweden, from the British
excavations of the last century and the first part of this century now in Great Britain, and from
the Cesnola collection, now mainly housed at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Such refer-
ences should not be taken to be all inclusive nor even as conclusive, as by photo or drawing
only, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate between local Cypriote products and imports.
Indeed, even with direct access to the material, it is still often difficult to decide what is
Phoenician and what is "Cypro-Phoenician" -Cypriote copies of Phoenician forms, and
Phoenician copies of Cypriote forms. The most difficult part of this problem revolves around
the lack of (published) comparative material from the mainland. There have been, after all,
only a few small excavations in Phoenicia proper: the University of Pennsylvania excavations
at Sarepta, the Ecole Biblique excavations at Tell Keisan, the various excavations at Tell Abu
Hawam, and this writer's excavation at Tyre. The total excavated area of all ofthis is only sev-
eral hundred square meters, a tiny fraction of ancient Phoenicia, and all in south Phoenicia at
that. During the preparation of this work, it became increasingly apparent that not only has the
time for a true corpus of Phoenician pottery in Cyprus passed, because of the quantities of
known Phoenician types, but that in another sense, the time for such a corpus has not yet come
since it is more than likely, indeed this writer feels it is certain, that there are Phoenician pot-
tery types in Cyprus which will not be recognized until there is much more comparative mate-
rial from the mainland. What are needed, in particular, are large groups from north Phoenica,
and it is likely that the excavations at Ras el Bassit and Ras Ibn Hani will contribute substan-
tially to our understanding of the full range of Phoenician types. In any case, the time had
come for collecting what we are certain of and leaving those cases which are uncertain for
others to identify.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS:
The writer would like to thank Dr. V assos Karageorghis for inviting her to undertake this
work, for making available both the material itself and other resources of the Department of
Antiquities of Cyprus, and for much encouragement. Many members of the Department of
Antiquities of Cyprus contributed to the effort involved in locating the Phoenician material
among the vast holdings of the department. Indeed, after the project began it seemed that
everyone was keeping an eye out for Phoenician pottery. Among those who were especially
helpful, mention must be made of Mr. M. Loulloupis, Mrs. Ino Nicolaou, Mr. Sophocles Had-
jisavvas, Dr. Pavlo Flourentzos, Mr. Yiannis Hadjisavvas, Mrs. Maria Hadjinicolaou, Mrs.
Lyghia Ieromonachou, as well as the staffs of the Lamaca, Limassol, Paphos, and Kouklia
Museums, and of the Cyprus Survey. The writer would like to extend a special thank you to
Mr. Gregoris Christou of the Cyprus Museum for the patience he showed during hours of
tracking down material from the collections there, and to Dr. Maria Hadjicosti and Mr.
Andreas Georgiou who assisted with the preparation of the examples from Kition, and were
helpful in many other ways. Dr. Kris Tytgat assisted with the preparation of the material from
the Amathus tombs, and the writer profited from her knowledge of Cypriote pottery. Mrs.
Theodora Z. Pierides and Miss Tonia Georghiou of the Museum of the Pierides Foundation
INTRODUCTION 3
were very helpful. Appreciation also goes to Drs. Jean Poyilloyx, Marguerite Yon and to H.
W. Catling for permission to include examples from the excavations at Salamis, Kition-Bam-
bouJa, and Kouklia-SkaJes.
Publication was made possible by the A. G. Leventis Foundation and the writer would like
to thank those responsible. It is published with the further assistance of the J. Paul Getty Trust
and appreciation goes also to them, in particular to Mrs. Deborah Marrow.
The work was undertaken as a project under the Fulbright program and during its prepa-
ration the writer used the facilities of the Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute
at Nicosia, and would like to thank its director, Dr. Stuart Swiny, for his help during the pro-
ject. The othe CAARI "Fulbrighters" for 1984--85, Dr. Karl Petru so and Mr. Clark Walz
made many helpful suggestions.
The photographs of Department of Antiquites holdings were taken by Mr. Xerophon
Michael. The cover design comes from the imagination of Barbie Garfi. The drawings were
taken from a variety of sources: where possible previously published Department of Anti-
quities drawings from the Kition, Salamis and Palaepaphos-SkaJes publications were reused.
The pottery from Amathus was drawn by Mr. Pierre Bikai, and the writer drew the rest of the
pottery. Both the drawings and the photographs of material from the French excavations at
Salamis and at Kition-Bamboula were provided by Dr. Yves Calvet, an effort that is
appreciated. The plates were prepared for publication by Mr. Andreas Petrides of Zavallis
Press. Miss Lenia Aristidou inked all of the drawings and assisted in the preparation of the
plates. Her efforts over many long hours are very much appreciated. Finally, the writer would
like to thank her husband, Pierre, for his contributions to this project; they were substantial.
This work is dedicated to all the people of Cyprus who, in modern times, as in antiquity,
have aided refugees from the Lebanon.
NOTES ON THE PLATES:
The conventions used in the drawings are as follows: dots represent red, black represents
black and grey, and vertical parallel lines represent white. Profiles in drawings of closed
forms are dotted in to show the probable thickness of the pot but are black only where the body-
wall thickness could actually be observed; where a drawing was reused and already had a fully
inked section this was not modified. Many of the Phoenician bichrome neck-ridge jars have
decoration in the panel opposite the handle, beginning just below the neck; to conserve space
on the plates, this decoration is shown next to the neck and rim of the jar (e.g., Pl. V). Where
reconstruction was possible, a complete profile is shown, rather than just a sherd. The
catalogue notes specify the condition of the vessel.
NOTES ON THE CATALOGUE:
For ease of use, it was decided to number the catalogue consecutively; this posed some
obvious problems, which were approached in a common-sense fashion: the numbering, very
generally, is from the chronologically earlier to the later, except for the plates and storage jars
which are grouped together at the end; that is, no. 10 is likely to be earlier than no. 350, but
no. 360 is not necessarily chronologically later than no. 350; in some cases, more than one ves-
sel is included under a single entry number; a few vessels were located too late for inclusion
as numbered catalogue entries, and rather than leave them out, they are entered as "see also's",
4 THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
amongst other "see also's" which give information on groups of vessels which are not indi-
vidually entered or which have been previously identified as Phoenician and are thought by this
writer to be Cypriote. In the catalogue, vessels are grouped under very broad catagories with
similar material under a general description.
2
Miscellaneous or unique vessels are
interspersed among the larger groupings wherever it seemed appropriate to insert them. The
general description is not repeated for each entry, and features visible in the drawings or photo-
graphs are not belabored in the catalogue entry. Under the general headings, the vessels are
grouped regionally by district: Limassol, Lamaca, Famagusta, Paphos, Nicosia and Kyrenia;
the final grouping is "Other", which usually means material without provenience from the
various museums and collections.
3
The district groups are further diveded by site and, where
necessary, by toponym; thus, in the case of Lamaca, V. Karageiorghis' Kition excavation is
entered under Lamaca (Kition)-Kathari, a little-used toponym which is necessary here to dis-
tinguish it from numerous other sites at Lamaca which have produced Phoenician pottery.
The actual catalogue entries are as follows: If the writer did not examine the vessel
directly, the entry is preceded by an asterisk (*); if there is any doubt as to whether the vessel
is non-Cypriote, the entry is preceded by a question mark. The actual entry begins with the
provenience such as the tomb or locus number,
4
if there is one, or a musuem number if there
isn't. Next, the present location of the vessel is given,
5
with two exceptions: the material from
V. Karageorghis' excavations at Kition will be permanently housed at the Lamaca Museum
and that information is not repeated for each entry; the material from the Department of
Antquities excavations at Palaepaphos-Skales is presently in the Cyprus Museum, but it is
expected that it will be housed permanently in the Kouklia Museum; locations for all other
materials are given if known, along with registry numbers if they are other than tomb or exca-
vation locus numbers. This is followed by information on the condition of the vessel, details
of the vessel form which differ from the general description, dimensions,
6
Munsell readings
on the ware and decoration, a description of the decoration, and notes on previous publication;
references to plates in this work are in parentheses.
2. An index by type will be found in Appendix C.
3. An index grouping the catalogue entries by provenience can be found in Appedix A.
4. For the Larnaca (Kition)-Kathari entries, there are two types of designations: for example, no. 465 says, "Kition Area II,
Bothros 4, floor 3, no. 1952", meaning that the vessel is no. 1952 in the registry of Kition Area II, while no. 469 says, "Kition
Area II, Courtyard C/60, floor 3", meaning that the vessel has not been catalogued but comes from sherd tray 60 of Courtyard C,
floor 3. "Floor 3", "floor 2A", etc., mean on that floor.
5. An index by museum or collection is in Appendix B.
6. The diameters are exclusive of handles
II. CATALOGUE
Large two-handled flask with everted rim and handles from below the rim to the body:
EPISKOPI - Kaloriziki:
1. *Tomb 25/49: University Museum, Philadelphia 49-12-656; H: 25 em; D: 17.8 em; described as, "Handles
twisted and sl[ightly] grooved ... [ware: light] cinnamon brown; sandy." Slip: "die reddish brown; vert.
hand bur [nished]" with dark "gray-brown" vertical concentric circles. Benson 1973: 118, no. K973, pl. 20;
Daniell937: 66, type lis, pl. IV.
2. Tomb 41118(A): Curium House Museum P2259a; repaired; H: 19 em; D: 11.8 em; ware: 2.5YR 5/8 red; traces
of red slip; black vertical concentric circles; Benson 1973: 118, no. K974, pl. 20; (Pl. II).
KOUKLIA (Palaepaphos)- Skales:
3. Tomb 58/6: worn; H: 24 em; D: 18.2 em X 18.3 em; ware: 2.5YR 5/8 red, soft, red inclusions; slip: lOR 4/6
red, burnished; black vertical concentric circles; Karageorghis 1983: 113, pl. LXXXVIII, fig. CVIII; Bikai
1983: 401; (Pl. II).
4. Tomb 671166: worn; H: 24.5 em: D: 17.8 em x 17.3 em; ware: lOR 5/6 red; traces of burnished red slip; black
vertical concentric circles; Karageorghis 1983: 169, pl. CXI, fig. CXXIX; Bikai 1983: 401; (Pl. II).
5. Tomb 83/83: worn; H: 23.5 em; D: 16.9 em X 15 em; ware: 2.5YR 5/8 red, soft, many red inclusions; slip:
lOR 4/6 red, burnished; black vertical concentric circles; Karageorghis 1983: 285, pl. CLXXI, fig. CLXVI;
Bikai 1983: 401; (Pl. XXIV).
6. Tomb 85116: rim lacking; H: 16.7 em preserved; D: 11.5 em X 8.8 em; traces of burnished red slip and black
vertical circles; Karageorghis 1983: 295, pl. CLXXVII, fig. CLXXIII; Bikai 1983:401.
7. Tomb U94: Kouklia Museum; repaired, surface damaged; H: 37 em; D: 25.1 em X 19 em; ware: lOR 5/6 red;
self slip, burnished; traces of black, white and red vertical concentric circles; (Pl. II).
8. Tomb Ul56: KoukliaMuseum; restored, surface damaged; H: 27.5 em; D: 19.2cmX17.2 em; ware: 2.5YR
6/6light red; slip: lOR 5/6 red, hand burnished; black and white vertical concentric circles; (Pl. II).
KOUKLIA (Palaepaphos) - Xerolimni:
9. Tomb 9117: Kouklia Museum 135; rim chipped, surface worn; H: 17.1 em; D: 11.55 em X 9.2 em; ware:
2.5YR 6/8 light red; slip: lOR 4/8 red, hand burnished, surface patchy; black and white vertical concentric
circles; Karageorghis 1967: 6, fig. 8; (Pl. II).
SALAMIS:
10. *Tomb Ul94: rim and handles lacking; H: 14.7 em preserved; D: 12.8 em X 8.6 em; described as "pate rouge
orange a coeur gris; engobe rouge orange poli; peinture brune; surface tres endommagee et fendilee." Yon
1971: 48, no. 106, pl. 29; the reconstruction of the rim and handles here (Pl. II) differs from that published
by the excavator.
Large single-handled dipper juglet with trefoil rim:
KOUKLIA (Palaepaphos) - Skales:
11. Tomb 431159: fragmentary; H: 18.5 em; D: 10.5 em; ware: 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow; slip: lOR 4/6 red, bur-
nished; black horizontal bands around body; Karageorghis 1983:21, pl. XXV, fig. XLI; Bikai 1983: 401; (Pl.
II).
12. Tomb 491184: intact, worn; H: 18.5 em; D: 11.5 em; burnished red slip; black horizontal bands around body;
Karageorghis 1983:71, pl. LIV, fig. LXXXVII; Bikai 1983: 401; (Pis. II and XXIV).
13. Tomb 50/146: repaired; H: 20.5 em; D: 11.2 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow; slip: lOR 5/6red, burnished;
Karageorghis 1983: 84, pl. LXVI, fig. XCIII; Bikai 1983: 401.
6 THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
14. Tomb 78/52: repaired; H: 18.5 em; D: 11 em; burnished red slip; black (and white?) horizontal bands around
body; Karageorghis 1983: 239, pl. CXLIX, fig. CXLVI; Bikai 1983: 401; (Pl. II).
15. Tomb 93/63: repaired; H: 20.5 em; D: 10.8 em; burnished red slip; Karageorghis 1983: 345, pl. CXCVII, fig.
CCI; Bikai 1983: 401.
The following seem, on the basis of ware and decoration, to be related to the vessels
above:
AMATHUS:
16. *To.mb 7/239: Medelhavsmuseet, Stockholm; H: 18.5 em; rounded base comes to a slight point; described as
havmg a rather worn surface and a "light red, mat slip"; vertical concentric circles, color not described; SCE
II: 41, pl. IX, fig. 2; SCEIV:2, fig. XXV. 8.
17 T ~ ~ b 312171-3: Limassol Museum; repaired, part of rim lacking; groove down center of handle, raised ridge
at JOin of neck to body; H: 24.4 em; D: 17.5 em; ware: 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow; slip: lOR 5/4 weak red, traces
of burnishing; black and white vertical concentric circles; crossed white and black lines on black ground in
panel opposite handle; ribbon-like decoration around base of neck; (Pis. III and XXIV).
18. Tomb 379/20: Limas sol Museum; pilgrim flask with neck ridge and plain flaring rim; surface badly damaged;
H: 16.6 em; D: 10.4 em X 9.1 em; ware: 2.5YR 5.5/8light red/red, large red inclusions; traces of red slip;
traces of black vertical concentric circle decoration; (Pl. III).
KOUKLIA (Palaepaphos)- Skales:
19. :omb 58/l30: fragments of the upper half only; jar with concave rim, handle from rim to body; H: ca. 25 if
It were complete; ware: 2.5YR 5!6 red, soft, red inclusions; slip: lOR 5/6 red, burnished; traces of black and
white vertical concentric circles; Karageorghis 1983: 122, pl. LXXXVIII, fig. CVIII; Bikai 1983: 401; simi-
lar to no. 21; (Pis. III and XXV).
20. Tomb 75/64: restored; raised ridge at base of neck, knob at base of handle; H: ca. 27.5 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/8
light red; slip: lOR 4/6 red, soft, red inclusions, patchy; traces of black and white(?) vertical concentric cir-
cles; Karageorghis 1983: 207, pl. CXXVII, fig. CXXXVIII; Bikai 1983: 401; (Pis. III and XXV).
SALAMIS:
21. *Tomb I/199: intact; H: 14.4 em; D: 11 em; described as, "pate rouge orange a graviers; engobe orange poli
(?),surface endommagee; peintures noire et blanche ... Importation phenicienne." Yon 1971:45, no. 94,
pl. 27; form similar to no. 19, supra; (Pl. III).
Jug with plain flaring rim, neck ridge, handle from neck ridge to body, and a globular
body; these vary widely as to size and fabric:
22.
23.
24.
25.
AMATHUS:
*Tomb 71129 is described (SCE II: 37, and see pis. X andCXXXVIII.9) as foreign but appears from the illust-
ration to be Cypriote.
*Tomb 10/53: Medelhavsmuseet, Stockholm; H: 34 em; described as having a knob at the base of the handle,
a "slightly polished, buff slip ... vertical black, blue, red and white circles ... three black crossed lines as
front and back ornament. .. black transverse lines on handle." SCE II: 67, pis. XVI, CXXXVIII.ll, and pl.
IV, upper right (in color).
Tomb 15/24: Cyprus Museum; intact but worn; H: 16.6 em; D: 11.1 em; ware: 5YR 7/5 pink/reddish yellow,
red inclusions; burnished self slip; black, white and red vertical concentric circles; traces of decor in panel
opposite hande; hotizontallines on handle; SCE II: 92, pis. XXIII, fig. 1, and CXXXIX.2; (Pl. V).
Tomb 15/34: Cyprus Museum; repaired, parts missing; H: 18 em; D: 12.2 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/4light reddish
brown, uneven core; black, white and 2.5YR 5/6 red vertical concentric circles; traces of crossed lines in front
panel; horizontal lines on handle; SCE II: 92, pl. XXIII, fig. 1; (Pl. V).
*Tomb 22/l5 is described (SCE II: 122, and see pl. XXVII, fig. 1) as foreign, but it appears from the illust-
ration to be Cypriote.
*Tomb 23/30: Medelhavsmuseet, Stockholm; repaired, very worn; H: 26 em; decoration worn off; SCE II:
128, pl. XXVIII.
CATALOGUE
7
26. *Tomb 23/66: Medelhavsmuseet, Stockholm; repaired; H: 24.7 em; described as having "vertical black, red
and white circles ... four crossed lines as front ornament." SCE II: 129, pl. XXVIII.
27. Tomb 310/8: Limassol Museum; repaired; double-rope handle; H: 25.2 em; D: 17.2 X 15.7 em; ware: 5YR
7/3 pink; black and red vertical concentric circles and four crossed lines in panel opposite handle; (Pl. XXIV).
28. Tomb 310/l3: Limassol Museum; repaired; double-rope handle, knob at base ofhand1e, raised ridge at join
of neck to body; H: 40.5 em; D: 30.5 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, very patchy; traces of burnishing;
black and red vertical concentric circles; horizontal bands on neck; decor in panel opposite handle only partly
preserved; (Pl. VI).
29. Tomb 310/30: Limassol Museum; restored, part of rim and area below handle lacking; double-rope handle;
H: 37.2 em; D: 24.4 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, uneven core; burnished self slip; black and lOR 5/6 red vertical
concentric circles; on one side, between sets of circles, two vertical lines with two crossed-hatched lozenges
between; crossed-hatched lozenge in panel opposite handle; (Pis. VI and XXIV).
30. Tomb 311139: Limassol Museum; restored, surface worn; body globular to pear shaped; H: 22.2 em; D: 15.2
em; ware: 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow; black and red vertical concentric circles; (Pl. XXV).
31. Tomb 312/71-1: Limassol Museum; repaired; grooved handle, knob at base of handle, slight ridge at base of
neck; H: 25.2 em; D: 17.2 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, uneven core; burnished self slip; black, white and lOR
4/4 weak red vertical concentric circles; four crossed lines in panel opposite handle; (Pl. XXIV).
32. Tomb 312171-2: Limassol Museum; repaired; groove down center of handle, knob at base of handle; H: 25
em; D: 16.3 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, soft; self slip, traces of burnishing; black and lOR 4/3 weak
red vertical concentric circles; two sets of parallel lines crossed in panel opposite handle; horizontal lines on
handle; (Pis. IV and XXIV).
33. Tomb 313/94: Limassol Museum; rim lacking; grooved handle; H: 16.5 em preserved; D: 11.4 em; bottom
of jug is 1.9 em thick; ware: 2.5YR 6/4lightreddish brown, red inclusions, uneven core, patchy surface; faint
traces of vertical concentric circle decoration on body; similar to no. 35.
34. Tomb 370/l5-3: Limassol Museum; intact, surface flaking; double-rope handle; H: 23.5 em; D: 16.5 em X
15.5 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, red inclusions to 3 mm; self slip, may have been burnished; black, white and
lOR 5/4 weak red vertical concentric circles; traces of red paint on rim; traces of decoration in panel opposite
handle.
35. Tomb 37119: Limassol Museum; neck, rim and handle lacking; H: 14 em preserved: D: 11.9 em; bottom of
jug is ca. 2 em thick; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, soft and flaking, red inclusions; burnished self slip,
patchy surface; black and red vertical concentric circles; similar to no. 30.
36. ?Tomb 376/16: Limassol Museum; handle lacking; jug with flaring mouth, incision below rim, thick neck
ridge, remains of a double handle; H: 24 em; D: 16.5 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/6light red, uneven core, thin body
walls; slip: lOR 4/6; the ware is unknown to the writer, and it is non-Cypriote, but the form is Phoenician; (Pis.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
IV and XXIV).
Tomb 382/35: Limassol Museum; rim repaired; knob below handle; H: 38.2 em; D: 29.5 em; ware: 5YR 7/6
reddish yellow; surface: 7 .5YR 8/2 pinkish white, very patchy; burnished; black, white and 2.5YR 4/4 red-
dish brown vertical concentric circles; in panel opposite handle: cross-hatched lozenge with eight pendant
lines; Karageorghis, BCH 1984: 918, fig. 91; (Pis. VI and XXIV).
A YIOS TYKHONAS - Mandres:
Tomb 3/3: Limas sol Museum; surface very damaged; knob at base of handle, irregular globular to ovoid body;
H: 36 em; D: 26.5 em; ware: 7.5YR 7/4 pink; self slip; black and 7.5YR 6/4light brown vertical concentric
circles; traces of cross-hatched lozenge in panel opposite handle; similar to no. 30.
Tomb 3/5: Limassol Museum; rim lacking; H: 20.5 em preserved; D: 17.5 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, soft, very
heavy; burnished self slip, very patchy; black, white and red vertical concentric circles.
EPISKOPI - Kaloriziki:
Tomb 7/l3: Curium House Museum; repaired, part of rim lacking; knob at base of handle; H: 27.9 em; D: 19
em; ware: 2.5YR 6/6light red, uneven core; thick self slip, wheel burnished; black, white and lOR 4/3 weak
red vertical concentric circles; star design below handle and in panel opposite handle; horizontal lines on han-
dle; (Pl. IV).
*Tomb 36-W/20: University Museum, Philadelphia 49-12-1001; H: 14 em; D: 8 em X 7.7 em; described as
i
8 THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
"Rotting; surface almost entirely eroded." Ware: "orange-brown ... Traces of dk. gray paint." Benson
1973: 89, no. K413 and pl. 28.
EPISKOPI - Bamboula:
42. *Tomb 30/2: University Museum, Philadelphia 49-12-396; no neck, rim or handle; D: 12.5 em; "Surface
much eroded"; ware: gritty "gray-purple to It. gray-green; very coarse and heavy like cement." Vertical con-
centric circles in "purple brown and dull blood red"; in panel: latticed lozenge "with upper sides drawn down
in strokes and lower sides extended like kite-tail." Benson 1972: 94, no. B738, pl. 29.
LARNACA (Kition) - Kathari:
There are about thirty fragments, possibly of such jugs, in the Phoenician levels at Kition; they are so small,
however, that they might belong to one of the later forms of Phoenician neck-ridge jugs.
See no. 170 from Larnaca (Kition) - Bamboula which may be of this type, as it is similar to no. 42.
KOUKLIA (Palaepaphos)- Skales:
43. Tomb 49/67: repaired; H: 26.8 em; ware: 7.5YR 6/4light brown, very heavy; self slip, burnished; black and
2.5YR 5/4 reddish brown vertical concentric circles; star design in panel opposite handle; horizontal lines on
handle, vertical strokes on rim edge; Karageorghis 1983: 65, pl. LV, fig. LXXXIX; Bikai 1983: 402; (Pis.
III and XXIV).
44. ?Tomb 49173: H: 30.5 em; triple-rope handle; ware 7 .5YR 7/4 pink; black and 2.5YR 5/4 reddish brown ver-
tical concentric circles; horizontal bands around mouth; traces oflatticed lozenge below handle; Karageorghis
1983:66, pl. LV, fig LXXX; Bikai 1983:402.
45. Tomb 49174: double-rope handle, knob at base of handle, raised ridge at base of neck; H: 23.5 em; ware;
2.5YR 6/8light red; self slip, wet-smoothed; black and lOR 5/6 red vertical concentric circles; black horizon-
tal strokes on handle; vertical strokes on rim; two black crossed lines in panel opposite handle; Karageorghis
1983:66, pl. LVI, fig. LXXX; Bikai 1983: 402; (Pl. XXIV).
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
?Tomb 49176: H: 25 em; double-rope handle; ware: 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow; surface: 7.5YR 8/2 pinkish
white, burnished; black and lOR 4/6 red vertical concentric circles; black and red horizontal strokes on handle;
Karageorghis 1983:66, pl. LVI, fig. LXXX; Bikai 1983: 402; (Pl. IV).
Tomb 58/44: H: 27.5 em; cup-shaped mouth; ware 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow; self slip, traces of burnishing,
large white inclusions, very patchy surface; lOR 5/6 red vertical concentric circles below handle and opposite
handle; Karageorghis 1983: 116, pl. LXXXVIII, fig. CVIII; Bikai 1983: 402; (Pis. III and XXV).
Tomb 67/196: rim lacking, groove down center of handle, knob at base of handle; H: 20 em restored; undeco-
rated; Karageorghis 1983: 171, pl. CVI, fig. CXXV; Bikai 1983:402.
Tomb 75/28: repaired; H: 17.5 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, soft and flaking; thick body walls, uneven
core; burnished self slip, patchy surface; faded black and red vertical concentric circles; Karageorghis 1983:
205, pl. CXXVIII, fig. CXXXVIII; Bikai 1983: 402; (Pis. V and XXV).
Tomb 76/62: H: 22 em, very thick body walls; black and red vertical concentric circles, horizontal strokes on
handles; Karageorghis 1983:219, pl. CXXXIV, fig. CXL; Bikai 1983:402: (Pl. XXV).
Tomb 76/63: repaired, rim lacking; H: 21 em; black and red vertical concentric circles; Karageorghis 1983:
219, pl. CXXXIV; Bikai 1983: 402; (Pl. XXV).
Tomb 76/67: repaired; H: 23 em; vertical concentric circles; horizontal strokes on handle; Karageorghis 1983:
219, pl. CXXXIV; Bikai 1983: 402; (Pl. XXV).
Tomb 77/19: repaired; ridge at base of neck; H: 24 em; ware: 7 .5YR 6/4light brown, very heavy; surface:
lOYR 8/2 white; wet smoothed; Karageorghis 1983:232, pl. CXLV; Bikai 1983: 402; (Pl. XXV).
Tomb 80/87: heavily restored; double-rope handle; H: 26.7 restored; D: 19.1 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/6lightred,
uneven core, patchy surface; burnished self slip; black and 2.5YR 5/6 red vertical concentric circles; horizon-
tallines on handle; Karageorghis 1983: 255, pl. CLVII, fig. CLIII; Bikai 1983: 402-3; (Pl. IV).
Tomb 80/88:neck, rim and handle lacking; H: 15 em preserved; D: 15.9 X 14.5 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/6light
red, uneven core; traces of burnishing; black, white and lOR 5/6 red vertical concentric circles; in panel oppo-
site handle: black and white cross-hatched lozenges; below handle: three crossed lines; Karageorghis 1983:
255, pl. CLVII, fig. CLIII; Bikai 1983: 402-3; (Pis. IV and XXV).
CATALOGUE
9
56. Tomb 86/23: H: 12cm; worn red slip; Karageorghis 1983:304, pl. CLXXXI, fig. CLXXXI; Bikai 1984: 404;
(Pl. XXV).
57. ?Tomb 89/22: everted rim, double-rope handle; H: 27; vertical black, white and red concentric circles; hori-
zontal strokes on handle; horizontal bands on upper neck; six lines joined at bottom below handle; in panel
opposite handle: six crossed lines; Karageorghis 1983: 314, pl. CLXXXVI, fig. CLXXXVIII; Bikai 1983:
402.
58.
KTIMA (Paphos)- Iskender:
Tomb VIU67: Paphos Museum; restored, surface damaged; grooved handle, knob at base of handle, body
somewhat irregular; H: 27 em; D: 18.8 em; ware 5YR 7/4 pink, soft; burnished self slip; black and lOR 4/4
red vertical concentric circles; Desha yes 1963: 110; pl. LIV .2; (Pl. IV).
LAPITHOS:
59. *Tomb 417/86: Medelhavsmuseet, Stockholm; rim lacking; H: 21.3 em; black, white and red vertical concen-
tric circles; in panel opposite handle: latticed lozenges; SCE 1: 230, pis. Land CXXXIX.21; SCE IV:2, p.
270, n. 10.
CYPRUS MUSEUM:
60. 1935/B96: intact; grooved handle, base slightly pointed; H: 19 em; D: 13.75 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/4light red-
dish brown; self slip, vertically burnished, patchy surface; black, white and I OR 5/6 red vertical concentric
circles; two sets of parallel lines intersecting in panel opposite handle; two horizontal lines at handle base;
(Pis. V and XXIV).
61. 1935/B 1144: pieces missing from rim; raised ridge at join of neck to body; H: 38 em; D: 28.3 em; ware: 5YR
7/4 pink, surface patchy; self slip, vertically burnished; black, white and lOR 5/4 weak red vertical concentric
circles; two sets of parallel lines intersecting in panel opposite handle; (Pl. VI).
62. 1966/XII-16/12: H: 23.5 em; D: 16.1 em: ware: 2.5YR 6/8light red; vertically burnished below neck ridge;
faded black and red vertical concentric cirles; (Pl. IV).
Jug with plain flaring or slightly squared-off rim, neck ridge, handle from neck to body,
globular body and, unlike the jugs above, a ring base:
AMATHUS:
63. *Tomb 21132: Medelhavsmuseet, Stockholm; knob at base of handle; H: 27.3 em; described as having a "red-
dish washed and somewhat polished" surface; "black, red, and white, vertical circles ... black, double
crossed lines as front ornament and black transverse lines on handle." SCE II: 117, pis. XXVI, fig. 1, and
CXXXIX.1; it appears from the illustration to be from the same maker as nos. 69 and 72.
64. Tomb 329/51: Limassol Museum; restored; H: 19.1 em; D: 12 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/4light reddish brown,
traces of burnishing; black, white and red vertical concentric circles; decor in panel opposite handle only
partly preserved; (Pl. V).
65. Tomb 332/6: Limas sol Museum; chipped, surface damaged; raised ridge at base of neck; H: 18.7 em; D: 11.2
em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, soft and flaking; red inclusions to 8 mm; traces of black, white and red
vertical concentric circles; (Pl. V).
66. Tomb 333115: Limassol Museum; intact; shallow groove at join of neck to body; grooved handle; H: 28 em;
D: 20.3 em; ware: 5YR 6/4 light reddish brown; burnished self slip; black, white and 2.5YR 5/4 reddish
brown vertical concentric circles; cross-hatched lozenge in panel opposite handle; horizontal strokes on han-
dle and rim; (Pis. V and XXIV).
67. Tomb 370/9: Limassol Museum; intact; raised ridge atjoin of neck to body; H: 21.9 em; D: 15 em; ware:
2.5YR 6/6light red, red inclusions; horizontally burnished self slip, patchy surface; black, white and lOR 3/4
dusky red vertical concentric circles; three sets of parallel lines crossed in panel opposite the handle; horizon-
tal strokes on handle and rim; (Pis. V and XXIV).
AYIOS TYKHONAS- Mandres:
68. Tomb 6/3: Limassol Museum; upper neck and rim lacking; ridge at join of neck to body; H: 31 em preserved;
D: 26.2 em; ware: 5YR 8/4 pink; surface: lOYR 8/3 very pale brown; black, white and lOR 4/3 weak red ver-
tical concentric sircles; three sets of parallel lines crossed in panel opposite handle.
10 THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
LIMAS SOL:
69. Ahmed Rashim' s Coffee Shop: Limas sol Museum 46/7; intact, small hole in body; ridge at join of neck to
body; knob at base of handle; H: 25.1 em; D: 17.8 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/8lightred, uneven core, red inclusions;
burnished self slip; black, white and red vertical concentric circles; two sets of parallel crossed lines in panel
opposite handle, horizontal strokes on handle and rim; Desborough 1957: 212, fig. 2a; compare with nos. 63
and 72 (Pl. V).
KOUKLIA - Teratsoudhia:
70. Tomb 76/21: Kouklia Museum 312; rim and handle lacking; H: 16.6 em preserved; D: 14 em; ware: 2.5YR
6/8light red, soft and flaking, uneven core; burnished self slip, surface patchy; black vertical concentric cir-
cles are not centered on either side of body and nearly join in panel opposite handle.
OTHER:
71. Cyprus Museum 1935/B881: rim chipped; H: 25.5 em; D: 16.4 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, uneven core, red
inclusions; black and red vertical concentric circles; pendant inverted triangles on rim interior; in panel oppo-
site handle: three horizontal black lines with red wavy-line motif between; vertical black lines on either end
with black and red crossed lines below; lack of burnishing (it is wet-smoothed only), width of rim and place-
ment of handle (below the neck ridge), make this unusual; the ware, however, appears Phoenician; (Pl. V).
72. Collection of G. Assiotis, Nicostia: intact, surface somewhat damaged; ridge at join of neck to bady; H: 23.5
em; D: 16.5 em; ware: 5YR 6/4light reddish brown; self slip, burnished horizontally on body, vertically on
neck; patchy surface; black, white and 7 .5R 4/4 weak red vertical concentric circles; in panel: crossed black
lines; horizontal strokes on handle and rim; see nos. 63 and 69; (Pl. V).
The pilgrim flask with lenticular body, two handles and tubular neck is the most common
mainland import to Cyprus; no attempt was made to catalogue every example, and only some
examples are numbered for this catalogue.
AMATHUS:
The pilgrim flasks excavated by the Swedish Cyprus Expedition at Amathus and described as foreign are:
Tombs 5/28, 31; 6/8, 10, 16, 17; 7176, 236, 237, 259; 10/28; 11/85, 90; 14/32; 15/12, 13, 19, 20, 28, 32, 50,
53, 54; 18/37, 47, 49; 19115, 29, 30; 21116; 22/39, 43, 44, 49, 50; 25/5, 18, 19; see SCE II; the following
were examined:
73. Tomb 15112: Cyprus Museum; intact; H: 13 em; D: 7.9 X 6.5 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, a few red
inclusions; vertically burnished; black and lOR 5/4 weak red vertical concentric circles; horizontal strokes on
handles; "X" below handles; SCE II: 91, pl. XXIII; (Pl. VII).
74. Tomb 15113: Cyprus Museum; intact but worn; H: 13 em; D: 8.2 X 7.85 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow,
red inclusions to 5. 5 mm; self slip with traces of burnishing; traces of vertical concentric circles (only black
now visible); traces of decoration below handle (only black now visible); traces of decoration below handle;
SCEII: 91, pl. XXIII, fig. 1.
75. Tomb 15/20: Cyprus Museum; rim chipped; H:l3.9 cm;D:8.8 X7.4cm; ware: 5YR 7/4pink, a few red inclu-
sions; traces of burnished self slip; black and lOR 6/4 pale red vertical concentric circles around latticed
lozenges; not considered foreign by the Swedish Cyprus Expedition; SCE II: 92, pl. XXIII, fig. 1, pl. CII.2;
(Pl. VII).
76. Tomb 15/32: Cyprus Museum; rim lacking, handles broken, surface damaged; H: 9.5 em preserved; D: 9 X
7.5 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/6light red, uneven core, very few red inclusions, soft and flaking; traces of burnished
self slip; traces of black vertical concentric circles; neck opening is only 7 mm; SCEII: 2 , pl. XXIII, fig. 1.
77. Tomb 15/48: Cyprus Museum; repaired, worn; H: 13.3 em; D: 8.4 X 7.5 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/6light red,
uneven core; traces of burnished self slip; traces of black vertical concentric circles; SCE II: 93, pl. XXIII,
fig. 1.
78. Tomb 15/53: Cyprus Museum; handles fragmentary, worn; H: 16.1 em; D: 10.2 X 8.6 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/4
light reddish brown, soft and flaking, uneven core, red inclusions to 1.5 mm; traces of burnished self slip;
traces of black and red vertical concentric circles; SCE II: 93, pl. XXIII, fig. 1; (Pl. VII).
79. Tomb 15/54: Cyprus Museum; part of rim lacking: H: 13.8 em; D: 8.6 X 7.9 em; ware: 7.5YR 7/5 pink/red-
dish yellow, soft and flaking, red inclusions; vertically burnished self slip; black and lOR 6/4 pale red vertical
CATALOGUE 11
concentric circles; horizontal strokes on handles; SCE II: 93, pl. XXIII, fig. 1; (Pl. VII).
80. Tomb 18/49: Cyprus Museum; rim lacking; H: 12.8 em preserved: D: 8.6 X 7.35 em; ware: 7.5YR 7/4pink;
traces of bichrome vertical concentric circles; SCE II: 107, pl. XXIV, fig. 1.
The following were also examined in the Cyprus Museum and appear to be Phoenician: Tomb 5/28 (fragmen-
tary); Tomb 5/31; Tomb 15/19. Tombs 11/85 and 14/32 appear to be Cypriote.
81. Tomb 227113: Limassol Museum; intact; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, large red inclusion; traces of black
vertical concentric circles; traces of black horizontal strokes on handles.
82. Tomb 329/42: Limassol Museum; intact, surface very worn; H: 14 em; D: 9.4 X 7.6 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 red-
dish yellow, soft and flaking, red inclusions; if there was decoration, it is completely worn off.
83. Tomb 329/53: Limassol Museum; surface worn; H: 13.4 em; D: 9.2 X 7.8 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, patchy
surface; if there once was decoration, it is completely worn off.
84. ?Tomb 370/5: Limassol Museum; worn; H: 13.8 em; D: 8.2 X 6.8 em; ware: 7.5YR 7/4 pink, red inclusions;
traces of brown vertical concentric circles.
85. Tomb 371110: Limassol Museum; intact; H: 13.9 em; D: 9.3 X 7.8 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, red inclusions;
burnished self slip; black and faded red vertical concentric circles.
86. ?Tomb 376111: Limas sol Museum; repaired; H: 13.8 em; D: 9 X 7.6 em; ware: lOR 6/6light red; burnished
self slip; faded red and black vertical concentric circles.
See also Amathus Tombs 11717, 164111, 179/37, 308115, 312117, 331/2, 366/18, 376112, 377112, 378/28,
381/13 and four flasks in Tomb 382.
PENTAKOMO- Shamma:
87. Tomb 1/33: Cyprus Museum 1957111-311; part of rim lacking; H: 13.25 em; D: 8.8 X 6.95 em; ware: 5YR
7/6 reddish yellow, soft and flaking, red inclusions; burnished self slip; black and 1 OR 4/4 red vertical concen-
tric circles; (Pl. VII).
EPISKOPI - Kaloriziki:
88. Tomb 4/101: Curium House Museum; intact; H: 13.25 em; D: 9 X 7.25 em; ware: 5YR 7/3 pink, soft and flak-
ing, red inclusions; burnished self slip; traces of vertical concentric circles, only black preserved.
89. Tomb 6B/15: Curium House Museum; rim and one handle lacking, surface damaged; H: 13.2 em restored;
D: 8.8 X 7.75 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, soft and flaking; traces of self slip; burnish (?) and decoration (?)
effaced.
90. Tomb 12/8: Curium House Museum; repaired, surface damaged; H: 13.2 em; D: 9 X 7.5 em; ware: 5YR 7/4
pink, very soft and flaking, red inclusions to 3.5 mm; slip(?), burnish(?) and decoration(?) effaced.
91. Tomb 12115: Curium House Museum; intact; H: 13.4 em; D: 9 X 8.2 em; ware: 5YR 7/5 pink/ reddish yellow;
surface patchy; no trace of slip, burnish or decoration; (Pl. VII).
92. *Tomb 35/40: Univesity Museum, Philadelphia; rim lacking; H: 11.3 em; D: 7.5 X 6.7 em; brown and red
(?)vertical concentric circles; Benson 1973: 118, no. K971, pl. 20. This is the only pilgrim flask described
as foreign in the publication, but K915 (Benson 1973: 115) also appears foreign from the photograph in
McFadden 1954: pl. 23, fig. 23, no. 10.
EPISKOPI - Bamboula:
93. *Tomb 2/5(B): University Museum, Philadelphia 49-12-10; cup-shaped mouth; H: 14.3 em; D: 9.6 X 7.9
em; described as "yellowish brown to orange brown; self slipped," burnished; black, white and red vertical
concentric circles. "Long red vert. line on handles terminated above by arrowhead(?)"; Benson 1972: 122,
no. B1213, pis. 34, 51. See also Benson 1972: 122, nos. Bl209-1212.
LARNACA (Kition)- Kathari:
94. Kition, Area II, no. 4390, Temple 5, Room 58, between floors 3 and 1: fragments of body only; ware: 7.5YR
7/4 pink, red inclusions, surface patchy; burnished self slip; black vertical concentric circles.
95. Kition Area II, North of Temple 1111, between floors 3 and 2A: fragmentary; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow,
uneven core; self slip, patchy, traces of burnishing; faded black paint; (Pl. VII).
12
THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
*See also Kition Area II catalogue numbers 584 (Room 14, floor I); 2114,2115 (both from Bothros 10, floor
3).
HALA SULTAN TEKKE:
*See Hult 1978:77, fig. 122; Obrink 1979:82, fig. 83, fig. 191.
KOUKLIA (Palaepaphos)- Skales:
The following were examined by the writer in 1982 and determined to be Phoenician: Tombs 43/27, 30; 44/
Ill; 45/24; 49/189, 191, 193, 194, 195; 50179, 145; 52/9, 20, 21; 54/20, 21; 55/26, 27; 57/2; 58/92, 93, 94,
95, 108; 671198; 76/2,40,54, 95, 107, 122; 83/34,43, 120; 85/3; 87115; 9113; (Bikai 1983: 400). Ofthese,
only the following are included here:
96. Tomb 50179: restored; wide everted rim; H: 23 em; ware: 2.5Y 6/2light brownish gray, vertically burnished;
Karageorghis 1983:81, pl. LXVI, fig. XCII; Bikai 1983: 403; (Pl. VII).
97. Tomb 58/93: worn; H: 12 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink; black and lOR 5/6 red vertical concentric circles;
Karageorghis 1983: 119, pl. LXXXVIII, fig. CVIII; Bikai 1983: 400; (Pl. XXV).
98. Tomb 76/54: repaired; H: 18 em; D: 11.9 X 9.8 em; ware: 5YR 7/3 pink; black, white and 2.5YR 6/6 red ver-
tical concentric circles; Karageorghis 1983:218, pl. CXL, fig. CXL, Bikai 1983: 400; (Pis. VII and XXV).
99. Tomb 76/95: surface damaged; H: 14 em; D: 9.2 X 7.4 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, soft and flaking, many red
inlusions; self slip vertically burnished; black, white and red vertical concentric circles; red horizontal strokes
on handles; Karageorghis 1983: 221, pl. CXL, fig. CXL; Bikai 1983: 400; (Pis. VII and XXV).
100. Tomb 83/34: repaired; H: 14.2 em; D: 8.8 X 7.8 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink; burnished: very faded black and
red vertical concentric circles; Karageorghis 1983:281, pl. CLXXI, fig. CLXVI; Bikai 1983: 400; (Pis. VII
and XXV).
101. Tomb 87115: intact; H: 12.5 em; D: 7.5 X 6.8 em; vertical concentric circles; horizontal strokes on handles;
Karageorghis 1983: 310, pl. CLXXXIII, fig. CLXXXI; Bikai 1983: 400; (Pis. VII and XXV).
KTIMA (Paphos) - Iskender:
102. Tomb VIU50: Paphos Museum; intact, surface worn; H: 12.9 em; D: 8.4X6.75 em; ware: 5YR 7/4pink, soft
and flaking, red inclusions to 2 mm; traces of burnished self slip; black vertical concentric circles; Desha yes
1963: 108, pl. LVII. I; (Pl. VII).
ALAAS:
103. Tomb 19/25: Cyprus Museum; rim chipped; surface damaged; H: 11.7 em; D: 8.2X6.6cm; ware: 5YR 7/4
pink, soft, red inclusions to 2 mm; slip: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, burnished, surface patchy; black and 2.5YR
6/8 light red vertical concentric circles; vertical line down length of handles; horizontal strokes on handles;
Karageorghis 1975: 23, pis. XIX, LXIV.
SALAMIS:
104. *Tomb Ul59: fragmentary; H: 14 em; D: 9.5 X 8.1 em; undecorated; described as a Phoenician import; Yon
1971:47, no. 104, pl. 29.
105. *Tomb Ul69: repaired, surface damaged; H: 17.5 em; D: 11 X 6.5 em; undecorated; described as a Phoeni-
cian import; Yon 1971:47-48, no. 105, pl. 29; (Pl. VII).
LAPITHOS - Ayia Anastasia:
106. *Tomb 2/55: intact; H: not given; "soft, red gritty ware with thin buff slip"; brown vertical concentric circles;
horizontal strokes on handles; Pieridou 1966: 6, pl. IV .15.
LAPITHOS - Prostemenos:
107. *Tomb P. 74179: rim lacking; H: 11 em preserved; described as "light brown gritty ware with thin buff slip";
vertical concentric circles in "brown and dark red"; Pieridou 1965: 84, pl. XIII.l2.
108. *Tomb P. 74/98: part of one handle lacking; H: 12.2 em; described as "soft red gritty ware with thin buff slip";
vertical concentric circles in "brown and dark red"; Pieridou 1965: 86, pl. XIII.ll.
See also Philia-Aeras- Vassilikou Tomb 6/5; Cyprus Museum 1953/III-9/3.
CATALOGUE 13
OTHER:
109. Cyprus Museum 1935/B612; note on the catalogue card says "Larnaca Tomb 4, 1919"; repaired; H: 14 em;
D: 8.4 X 7.3 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/4light reddish brown, soft; burnished self slip, surface patchy; black, white
and 7 .5YR 4/4 weak red vertical concentric circles; horizontal strokes on handles; strokes on rim; (Pis. VII
and XXIV).
110. Cyprus Museum 1935/B616: intact; H: 12.8 em; D: 7.4 X 6.2 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/6lightred; burnished self
slip; black vertical concentric circles; horizontal strokes on handles; strokes on rim; (Pl. VII).
Ill. Cyprus Museum 1935/B617: intact; unusually long neck; H: 14.8 em; D: 8 X 7 em; ware: 2.5YR6/4lightred-
dish brown, red inclusions to 2.5 mm; burnished self slip; black vertical concentric circles; horizontal strokes
on handles; strokes on rim; (Pl. VII).
112. Paphos Museum 1802/21: repaired; H: 12.55 em; D: 8.1 X 6.55 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, red inclusions to
2.5 mm; burnished self slip; black vertical concentric circles; horizontal strokes on and below handles; (Pl.
VII).
113. Collection of George Taramides, Nicosia: repaired, surface damaged; H: 13 em; D: 8.4 X 6.7 em; ware:
2.5YR 6/6light red, soft, red inclusions; slip(?), burnish(?), and decoration(?) effaced.
Jug with plain flaring rim, handle from neck to body, globular body, ring base, and
strainer spout or tubular spout at a ninety-degree angle to the handle:
AMATHUS:
114. *Tomb 19/16: Medelhavsmuseet, Stockhom; H: 23.5 em; bands around body and neck; on shoulder: "vertical
latticed bands and black bordered red band; black ladder-pattern on handle; parallel black and red lines on
spout," as described in SCE II: 112, pl. XXV, fig. 1, pl. CII.l; SCE IV:2: fig. XVI.9.
115. Tomb 331118: Limassol Museum; repaired; H: 21.1 em; strainer spout, slight ridge at join of neck to body;
ware: 2.5YR 6/6light red; self slip, burnished horizontally and vertically on body, vertically on neck and han-
dle; black and lOR 5/5 red horizontal bands on neck and rim; black, white and red horizontal bands around
body; five sets of three black lines from base of neck to mid-body; strokes on spout and handle; Karageorghis
BCH 1982: 692, fig. 16; (Pis. VIII and XXIV).
KOUKLIA (Palaepaphos) - Skales:
116. Tomb 53/39: rim and base lacking; ware: 2.5R 6/6light red, gritty; surface: 7.5YR 8/2 pinkish white; black
and lOR 5/4 weak red horizontal bands on neck and at base of neck; on shoulder: vertical red band with vertical
lattice decoration on either side; horizontal strokes on handle; Karageorghis 1983: 98, fig. XCIX; Bikai 1983:
403 and note 62; (Pl. VIII).
117. Tomb 64118: restored; H: 20 em; D: 11.2 em; with tubular spout; ware: 5YR 6/4 light reddish brown; red
inclusions and a 7 mm grey inclusion; self slip, vertically burnished; black and red horizontal bands on upper
neck and rim; inverted triangles in black and red pendant from raised ridge at base of neck; horizontal strokes
on spout; black, white and lOR 5/6 red horizontal bands around body; Karageorghis 1983: 154, pl. LXXX,
fig. CXX; Bikai 1983: 403; (Pis. VIII and XXIV).
118. Tomb 80/89: restored; spout lacking; H: 26.5 em; ware: 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, few red inclusions; surface
patchy; self slip, hand burnished; black and 2.5YR 5/6 red horizontal bands on neck and body; on shoulder:
three inverted triangles, outlined in black and filled with red, pendant from raised ridge at base of neck; on
one side of spout: vertical lattice decoration; above spout: black star; horizontal strokes on handle; Karageor-
ghis 1983:255, pl. CLVII, fig. CUll; Bikai 1983: 403; (Pis. VIII and XXIV).
CYPRUS MUSEUM:
119. ?1943/III-9/l: prounounced ledge at base of neck, spout lacking, depressed base; H: 19.5 em; D: 13.2 em;
ware: 5YR 7/3 pink, made on a fast wheel; slip: 2.5YR 5!6 red, widely spaced vertical burnish; (Pl. VIII).
Jars which are similar in form to those above but have no spout:
AMATHUS:
120. Tomb 382115: Limassol Museum; part of handle lacking, surface damaged; jug with plain flaring rim, handle
from neck to shoulder, nearly globular body, low ring base; H: 21.3 em; D: 13.6 em; ware: 5YR 7/5 pink/red-
14
THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
dish yellow, soft and crumbling, red inclusions, thick body walls; self slip, traces of burnishing, patchy sur-
face; black and lOR 4/4 weak red horizontal bands around rim, neck and body; (Pl. VIII).
KOUKLIA (Palaepaphos)- Skales:
121. Tomb 491183: repaired; groove at base of neck; H: 18 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, soft and flaking,
red inclusions; self slip, burnished horizontally; Karageorghis 1983: 71, pl. LIII, fig. LXXXVII; Bikai 1983:
404; (Pl. XXV).
122. Tomb 50/121: repaired; H: 19 em; Karageorghis 1983:82, pl. LXVI, fig. XCIII; Bikai 1983: 404; (Pl. VIII).
123. Tomb 69/1: repaired; unlike the others in this group in that the handle goes up to the rim and the mouth is
pinched; H: 24.5 em; Karageorghis 1983: 178, pl. CXVI, fig. CXXXIV; Bikai 1983: 404; (Pl. XXV).
124. Tomb 78/21: repaired; H: 31.2 em; Karageorghis 1983:237, pl. CXLIX, fig. CXLVI; Bikai 1983: 404; (Pl.
XXV).
125. Tomb 78/55: repaired; high footed base; H: 25 em; Karageorghis 1983: 240, pl. CXLIX, fig. CXLVI; Bikai
1983:404.
126. Tomb 82/95: rim lacking; H: 17.5 em preserved; Karageorghis 1983: 275, pl. CLXV, fig. CLXIV; Bikai
1983: 404.
The following two vessels are unique:
KOUKLIA (Palaepaphos)- Skales:
127. Tomb 43/25: restored; jar with cup-shaped mouth, two handles from neck to globular body, depressed disc
base; H: 28.4 em; D: 19.8 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, uneven core; self slip, traces of burnishing, patchy sur-
face; faded black and red vertical concentric circles; Karageorghis 1983: 12, pl. XXV, fig. XLII; Bikai 1983:
403; (Pis. III and XXIV).
128. Tomb 84/6: rim and upper neck lacking; similar to a lenticular pilgrim flask but only one handle; H: 11.5 em
preserved; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, very soft and flaking; self slipped, burnished; Karageorghis 1983: 291, pl.
CLXXV, fig. CLXIX; Bikai 1983: 404.
Kraters:
AMATHUS:
129. *Tomb 24112: Medelhavsmuseet, Stockholm; repaired, surface damaged; D: 35.5 em; described as "deep
bowl with base-ring; curved sides; contracted rim ... black, white, and red lines around body, and below rim;
on shoulder, alternating three and four vertical, black lines, the interstices being filled with white paint. Two
of these fields decorated with inverted filled triangles." SCE II, 133, pl. XXVII, fig. 2., pl. CXXVIII.lO.
130. Tomb 111110, Limassol Museum 303/10: repaired; three handles as a base, rolled rim, two incisions below
rim; H; 31.9 em; D: 35 em; ware: 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, uneven core; patchy surface, wet smoothed; ver-
tically burnished around handles; (Pis. VIII and XXIX).
131. Tomb 315/2: Limassol Museum; krater identical to no. 130; surface very damaged; H: 29 em; D: 37 em; ware:
5YR 6/2 pinkish gray.
LARNACA (Kition)- Bamboula:
132. *K84!1171: rim fragment only; krater with everted rim; black and red horizontal bands; (Pl. XXI).
Juglet with small heavy-walled globular body, long neck with neck-ridge, everted rim,
either plain or squared-off, and single handle from neck to body. The decoration can be red
slip or painted, but in some cases, it is undecorated.
AMATHUS:
133. Tomb 113/14: Limassol Museum 306/14; upperneckandrim lacking; H: 12.4 em preserved; D: 9.2 em; ware:
5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, soft and flaking, red inclusions to 7 mm; traces of self slip; traces of black and 1 OR
5/4 weak red vertical concentric circles; in panel opposite handle: two horizontal lines with three crossed lines
below; similar to no. 136; Gjerstad 1970: 88, pl. XL
134. Tomb 223/20: Limassol Museum; upper neck, rim and handle lacking; H: 12.8 em preserved; D: 7.5 em;
ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, soft; traces of black and red concentric circles; similar to no. 136.
CATALOGUE
15
135. Tomb 223/22: Limassol Museum; rim lacking; H: 14.8 em preserved; D: 8.4 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, soft
and flaking; black and lOR 5/4 weak red vertical concentric circles on either side of body; in panel: two hori-
zontal lines with three crossed lines below, all in red; red horizontal strokes on handle; similar to no. 136.
136. Tomb 223/24: Limassol Museum; rim chipped; H: 18.6 em; D: 8 em; ware: 5YR pink, soft; white, black and
1 OR 5/6 red vertical concentric circles on either side of body; in panel: three horizontal lines with tassel below,
all in red; red horizontal strokes on and below handle; traces of red on rim; (Pis. IX and XXVIII).
137. Tomb 223/47: Limassol Museum; repaired, surface damaged; H: 17.3 em; D: 9.2 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish
yellow, soft and flaking, many red inclusions; traces of burnished self slip, patchy surface; (Pl. IX).
138. Tomb 223/67: Limassol Museum; rim lacking; H: 12.2 em preserved; D: 7.5 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, soft
and flaking, red inclusions to 3 mm; black and red vertical concentric circles; similar to no. 136.
139. Tomb 225/22: Limas sol Museum; rim lacking; H: 11.3 em preserved; D: 7.4 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yel-
low, soft; black and 1 OR 4/4 weak red vertical concentric circles on either side of body; traces of decoration
in panel opposite handle; similar to no. 136.
140. Tomb 225/62: Limassol Museum; rim lacking; H: 11.8 em preserved; D: 7. 7 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yel-
low, soft and flaking; thick burnished slip: 1 OR 5/6 red; similar to no. !55.
141. Tomb 321/18: Limassol Museum; rim lacking, surface scarred; H: 13.4 em preserved; D: 7.8 em; ware: 5YR
7/4 pink, many red inclusions; may have been decorated; similar to no. 136.
142. Tomb 321119: Limassol Museum; rim lacking; H: 11 em preserved; D: 7. 9 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, red inclu-
sions; black and red vertical concentric circles; in panel: red tassle ornament; red horizontal strokes on handle;
similar to no. 136.
143. Tomb 321/46: Limassol Museum; rim lacking, surface damaged; H: 15 em preserved; D: 8.1 em; ware: 5YR
7/4 pink, red inclusions; probably once had decoration; similar to no. 136.
144. Tomb 334/27: Limassol Museum; rim, upper neck and handle lacking; H: 10.2 em preserved; D: 8.8 em;
ware, 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow; black and lOR 4/4 red vertical concentric circles; in panel: three horizontal
lines with tassel below; black horizontal strokes at base of handle; similar to no. 136.
145. Tomb 371111: Limassol Museum; rim, neck and handle lacking; H: 7.4 em preserved; D: 7 em; ware: 5YR
7/4 pink, soft and flaking, red inclusions; burnished(?) self slip; black, white(?) and lOR 4/4 weak red ver-
tical concentric circles; similar to no. 136.
146. Tomb 371/12: Limassol Museum; handle lacking; H: 13.6 em; D: 5.9 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink; black, white
and red vertical concentric circles; (Pl. IX).
Tomb 321152 and 280 are Cypriote versions of the same form.
LARNACA (Kition) - Bamboula:
147. *KEF 644: Larnaca Museum; rim and handle lacking; H: 10 em preserved; D: 9.3 em; black and red vertical
concentric circles; Karageorghis, BCH 1982: fig. 92b; (Pl. IX and XXIX).
148. *K84.1127: LamacaMuseum; lower part of body only; H: 3.8 em preserved; D: 11 em preserved; red vertical
circle decoration.
149. *K84.1386: Larnaca Museum; upper part of body only; H: 4 em preserved; D: 6.4 em; traces of vertical con-
centric circle decoration.
KOUKLIA (Palaepaphos - Skales:
150. Tomb 62/40: repaired; H: 19.5 em; D: 8.5 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, soft and flaking; thick flaking slip: lOR
5/6 red, vertically burnished; Karageorghis 1983: 138-39. pl. XCVII, fig. CXX; Bikai 1983: 404; (Pis. X and
XXVIII).
151. Tomb 75/2: rim lacking; H: 15.4 em; Karageorghis 1983: 203, pl. CXXVIII, fig. CXXXVIII; Bikai 1983:
404.
152. Tomb 75/20: repaired, worn; H: 11 em; traces of red horizontal bands on upper neck and at base of neck; ver-
ticallines around upper body; Karageorghis 1983: 205, pl. CXXVIII; fig. CXXXVIII: Bikai 1983: 404; (Pl.
XXIX).
See also Tomb 75/29: fragments of two other juglets.
153. Tomb 75178: intact: H: 20 em; D: 9.5 em; ware: 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow, soft and flaking; lOR 5/8 red vertical
concentric circles; two horizontal lines with tassel below in panel opposite handle; horizontal strokes on han-
16
THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
die; strokes on rim; Karageorghis 1983: 209, pl. CXXVIII, fig. CXXXVIII; Bikai 1983: 404; (Pis. IX and
XXVIII).
154. Tomb 81/130: intact: rounded base; H: 15 em; traces of vertical concentric circles; Karageorghis 1983: 266,
pl. CLXI, fig. CLVIII; Bikai 1983: 404; (Pl. XXIX).
SALAMIS:
155. Tomb 119: Cyprus Museum 1957/V-13/1; rim and part of handle lacking; H: 11.6 em preserved; D: 7.8 em;
ware: 7 .5YR 7/4 pink, soft, red inclusions; thick burnished slip: 7 .5R 4/3 red; Dikaios 1963: 179; (Pl. X).
156. Tomb l/213: Cyprus Museum 1957/V-13/1; repaired, surface damaged, part of handle lacking; H: 16.4 em;
D: 7.8 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, soft, red inclusions; self slip, traces of burnishing; Dikaios 1963: 195; (PI,
IX).
157. Tomb l/226: Cyprus Museum 1957/V-13/1; rim and base lacking; H: 6.8 em preserved; D: 8.1 em; ware:
5YR 7/4 pink, soft and flaking; burnished self slip; black, white and lOR 4/4 red vertical concentric circles;
Dikaios 1963: 198; (Pl. IX).
RIZOKARPASO- Anavrysi:
158. Tomb l/25: Cyprus Museum 1937/V-l/3; fragmentary; D: 8.6 em; ware: 5YR 7/5 pink/ reddish yellow, soft
and crumbling, red inclusions; white inclusions up to 6 mm; burnished slip: 7 .5R 4/4 red; Taylor 1937-1939:
20; (Pl. X).
CYPRUS MUSEUM:
159. 1935/B885: intact, surface very damaged; H: 16.6 em; D: 8.1 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink; self slip; traces of
black and lOR 5/4 weak red vertical concentric cicles on either side of body; horizontal strokes on handle; ver-
tical strokes on rim; weight: 465.4 grams; (Pl. IX).
160. 1950/V-2/l(d): intact; H: 19 em; D: 8.2 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/8light red, red inclusions to 3 mm; white inclu-
sions to 3.5 mm; vertically burnished slip: 7.5R 4.5/4 red; (Pis. X and XXVIII).
161. 1962/XII-19/1: intact, slip flaking off; H: 16.6 em; D: 8 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, sandy; slip: lOR
4/6 red, vertically burnished; (Pl. X).
162. 1976/III-417: intact but lower body is flaking; H: 16.6 em; D: 7.4 em preserved; ware: 7 .5YR 7/4 pink, soft,
uneven core; patchy slip: lOR 6/6light red to 5YR 7/4 pink; (Pl. X).
The following jars are similar to some of those above in having a squared-off rim, funnel
neck with neck ridge, handle from neck to body, and globular body, but this jug is larger and
the body is larger in proportion to the whole vessel. The jug above gives the impression, by
virtue of its small capacity, of having been made to contain a commodity which was distributed
in small quantities (a spice or unguent), while the vessels below might simply have been for
water or wine; formally, however, they are quite similar, even to appearing in both red-slipped
and bichrome versions.
AMATHUS:
163. *Tomb 7/59: Medelhavsmuseet, Stockholm; intact; H: 21 em; described as being of "very thick clay," and
having vertical concentric circles in black and red, "red neck line with perpendicular, rhombical front orna-
ment; two red strokes on handle"; there are also horizontal bands on the upper neck and rim; SCE II: 34, pis,
X and CVI.5; it appears to be a mate to no. 176.
164. *Tomb 71175: Medelhavsmuseet, Stockholm; rim lacking; knob at base of handle; H: 17 em preserved; it is
described as "Grey, gritty clay; light, lustrous slip." SCE II: 39, pl. IX, fig. 2; similar to no. 178.
165. *Tomb 9/140: Medelhavsmuseet, Stockholm; worn; H: 19.5 em; described as having "vertical black and red
circles"; similar to no. 176; SCE II: 62, pl. XV.
166. *Tomb 13/37: Medelhavsmuseet, Stockholm; repaired; H: 20.5 em; described as having a "dark,red, lustrous
slip"; SCE II: 82, pis. XIX, CXXVI.I; SCE IV:2, fig. XXVII.3; similar to no. 178.
167. Tomb 313/98: Limassol Museum; part of handle lacking, surface damaged; H: 16.6 em; D: 10.3 em; ware:
5YR 7/4 pink, soft, crumbling; thick 2.5YR 5/8 red slip; traces of burnishing; (Pis. X and XXVIII).
CATALOGUE 17
EPISKOPI:
168. Old Paphos road n. of plot 187 in Episkopi Village; Curium House Museum 316; repaired; H: 22 em; D: 13.6
em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, uneven core; self slip, burnished vertically below neck ridge, horizontally
above; faded black and red vertical concentric circles; in panel opposite handle: cross-hatched lozenge with
two pendant lines below; horizontal strokes on and below handle; strokes on rim; horizontal bands at base of
neck and above neck ridge; (Pl. IX).
PENT AKOMO - Shamma:
169. Tomb l/12: Cyprus Museum 1957!11-3/1; intact, surface encrusted; H: 22.7 em; D: 13.8 em; ware: 5YR 6/6
reddish yellow; self slip, traces of hand burnishing; blck and 7 .5R 4/6 red vertical concentric circles; horizon-
tal strokes on handle; strokes on rim; horizontal bands around base of neck and above neck ridge; it may once
have had decoration in the panel opposite the handle; (Pl. IX).
LARNACA (Kition) - Bamboula:
170. *K80!1309: Larnaca Museum; fragments only; no rim, neck, handle or base; D: 13.6 em; black and red ver-
tical concentric circles; cross-hatched lozenge in panel opposite handle; see Calvet, Actes: fig. 8; this is some-
what similar to no. 42, supra, and may be of the earlier round-based type; (Pl. XXIX).
LARNACA (Kition)-Kathari:
171. Kition, Area II, Temple 1, Bothros 10, floor3, no. 2225; base lacking; H: l9.6cm restored; D: 11.4 em; ware:
5YR 7/4 pink; black and 2.5YR 6/6 light red vertical concentric circles; horizontal strokes below handle;
panel opposite handle is lacking; Bikai 1981: 28, no. 75, pis. XXIII.1 and XXVI.I1; (Pl. IX).
172. Kition Area II: E 15, level210-265, pit; rim only; H: 6.2 em preserved; ware: 2/5YR 6/4light reddish brown;
slip: lOR 5/6 red; hand burnished; Bikai 1981: 26, no. 63, C.k, pl. XXVI.2; (Pl. X); see also Bikai 1981: 26,
no. 63, C.c, g, h, j, pl. XXVII.1 which are similar.
KOUKLIA (Palaepaphos)- Skales:
172B. Tomb 81/94: rim and upper neck lacking but it may have been of this type; H: 15.7 em preserved; black and
red vertical concentric circles; red band at base of neck; Karageorghis 1983: 264-65, pl. CLXI, fig. CL VIII;
Bikai 1983: 404.
SALAMIS:
173. Tomb l/72: Cyprus Museum 1975/V-13/1; repaired, very worn; H: 15.5 em; D: 9.4 em; ware: 7 .5YR 7/6red-
dish yellow, soft, red inclusions to 5. 5 mm; traces of burnishing, surface patchy; faint traces of black and red
vertical concentric circles and of horizontal bands above neck ridge; Dikaios 1963: 187; (Pl. IX).
174. Tomb 11234: Cyprus Museum 1957/V-13/1; fragments only; ware: 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow; core: 5YR 5/1
dark grey; self slip, traces of burnishing; black and 7. 5R 5/6 red vertical concentric circles; horizontal bands
at base of neck and above neck ridge; remnants of the decoration in the panel opposite the handle; see Dikaios
1963; to judge by the size of the rim and the thickness of the body walls, this vessel must originally have been
quite large; a similar vessel with red slip, black vertical concentric circles and a cross-hatched band in the
panel is in the collection of the American University of Beirut Museum (no. 4939) and measures 41.5 em
(Wooley 1921: 186 and fig. 44; Chapman 1972: 192); (Pl. IX).
OTHER:
175. Cyprus Museum 1935/B874: intact, surface damaged; H: 25.9 em; D: 14.6 em; ware: 5YR 6/4lightreddish
brown, core uneven, patchy surface, very heavy, large white inclusions; self slip, traces of burnishing; faded
red and black vertical concentric circles; cross-hatched lozenge with three pendant lines below in panel oppo-
site handle; strokes on rim; horizontal band at base of handle; two horizontal lines below handle; (Pis. IX and
XXVIII).
176. Cyprus Museum 1935/B884: repaired; H: 23 .l em; D: 11.1 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, core uneven;
red inclusions to 8 mm; weight: 962.3 grams; self slip, traces of burnishing; black and lOR 4/6 red vertical
concentric circles; cross-hatched lozenge with three pendant lines below in panel opposite handle, horizontal
band at base of neck; traces of decoration on rim and on and below handle; (Pis. IX and XXVIII).
177. Cyprus Museum 1935/B1858; intact; H: 21.8 em; D: 12.8 em; ware: 5YR 7/5 pink/reddish yellow; lOR 4/8
red slip, burnished vertically except at mid-body; (Pis. X and XXVIII).
18 THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
178. Cyprus Museum 1935/0547; intact; H: 23.2 em; D: 12.5 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink; slip: 2.5YR4/6 red to 5YR
6/4 reddish yellow; lower body and neck above ridge, horizontally burnished; upper body and lower neck ver-
tically burnished; (Pis. X and XXVIII).
179. *See also Corp. Vas. Ant., Great Britain 2, BritishMuseum2, IIC.c, pl. 20.6; H: 19.2 em; described as "Buff
clay, bright brown slip." SCE IV:2, fig. XLIII.?; Walters 1912: Catalogue C.1018, Amathus 1880.
The following vessels are quite similar to those above, but the fabric and the brownish
color of the slip, as well as the method of burnishing, tend to the conclusion that they may be
Cypriote copies of the Phoenician form; this class of pottery, provisionally dubbed "brown-
burnished," needs further study, and they are documented here as a step toward that end.
AMATHUS:
180. *?Tomb 7/99: Medelhavsmuseet, Stockholm; H: 16.5 em; SCE II:35, pl. X.
181. *?Tomb 9/41: Medelhavsmuseet, Stockholm; H: 16.4 em; SCE II, 58, pl. XV.
182. ?Tomb 160/8; Limassol Museum 655/8; intact; H: 25 em; D: 14.5 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, hard, many sandy
inclusions; thick slip: 2.5YR 5/4 reddish brown, vertically burnished; Karageorghis, BCH 1980: fig. 27.
183. ?Tomb 244/64: Limassol Museum; intact; H: 19.1 em; D: 13.7 em; ware: 5YR 7/3 pink, sandy; slip: 2.5YR
6/4light reddish brown; vertically burnished; similar to no. 186.
184. ?Tomb 321/41: Limassol Museum; rim lacking; H: 18.6 em preserved; D: 12.1 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink,
sandy; slip: lOR 6/4 pale red, cross burnished; similar to no. 182.
LARNACA - Sotira:
185. ?Tomb 8/15: LamacaMuseum 1939/X-3/16; surface damaged; H: 18.3 em; D: 13.5 em; ware: 5YR 7/3 pink;
slip: 5YR 5.5/4 yellowish red; burnished horizontally on the body, vertically on the neck; on Tomb 8, see
Nicolaou 1976: 185, no. 28; (Pl. XXVIII).
MARONI- (Village):
186. ?Tomb 2/12: Cyprus Survey 1805/12; repaired; H: 19.9 em; D: 15.2 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, red inclusions
to 4 mm; slip: 2.5YR 516 red; hand burnished: horizontally on body, vertically on neck; Christodoulou 1972:
158, pl. XXVII.2; (Pl. X).
ORMIDHIA:
187. ?Tomb l/18: Lamaca Museum 1182; heavily restored; H: 20.7 em; D: ca. 12 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, red
inclusions; slip: lOR 4/4 weak red, thick and flaking; vertically burnished; similar to no. 182.
CYPRUS MUSEUM:
188. ?1963/VII-18/9: intact; H: 21.6 em; D: 12.8 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/8light red, gritty; slip: lOR 4/4 weak red,
vertically burnished; similar to no. 182.
189. ?1968/V-30/236: part of rim lacking; H: 20.7 em; D: 14.4 em; ware: 5YR 6/4light reddish brown, red inclu-
sions; wheel burnished on lower body, vertically on upper body and neck; similar to no. 186.
Jug with depressed base, globular body, funnel neck with neck ridge, single handle from
neck to body, and everted, squared-off rim. This is usually decorated with black and red hori-
zontal bands above the neck ridge, and is the immediate predecessor of the true mushroom-lip-
ped jug.
AMATHUS:
190. Tomb 11/67: Cyprus Museum; intact; H: 12.8 em; D: 8.25 em; ware: 7.5YR 8/4 pink, red inclusions to 1 mm;
hand burnished horizontally below handle, vertically from base of handle to neck ridge; black and 2.5YR 6/6
light red horizontal bands; SCE II: 74, pis. XVIII and CVI. 7; (Pl. XI).
191. Tomb 151/22: Cyprus Survey 2256/22; base lacking; H: 13.1 em restored; D: 8.8 em; ware: 7.5YR 7/6 red-
dish yellow, red inclusions to 2.5 mm; thick self slip, burnished horizontally below handle, vertically from
base of handle to neck ridge; black and 7.5R 5/6 red horizontal bands above neck ridge; Christou 1978, 140;
(Pl. XI).
CATALOGUE 19
MESA YITONIA:
192. Tomb l/16: Limassol Museum 332/16; handle lacking, surface damaged: H: 23.2 em; D: 13 em; ware: 5YR
6/4 light reddish brown, red inclusions to 8 mm; self slip, vertically burnished below neck ridge; black and
7 .5R 5/4 weak red horizontal bands above neck ridge; very heavy; (Pis. XI and XXVIII).
LARNACA (Kition) - Kathari:
193. Kition Area II, Courtyard C/38, between floors I and 3: rim and part of neck only; H: 7.8 em preserved; ware:
2.5YR 6/4light reddish brown, soft, many red inclusions; self slip burnished below the neck ridge; black and
7. 5R 5/4 red horizontal bands above the neck ridge; (Pl. XI).
194. Kition Area II, Bothros 21, floor3, no. 4393: rim and neck only; ware: 7.5YR 7/4 pink; faded black and lOR
5/3 weak red horizontal bands on upper neck; Bikai 1981:28, no. 76, pis. XXIII.9, XXVI.IO; (Pl. XI); see
also Bikai 1981: 28, no. 78, pl. XXII.ld, from Kition Area II, floor3; there are ca. 30 rim fragments of this
type in the sherds trays of this level at Kition; upon reconsideration, Bikai 1981: 28, nos. 77, 79 and 80 are
probably Cypriote rather than Phoenician.
LARNACA- Phaneromeni:
195. Tomb l/9: Lamaca Museum 9; intact; H: 15.8 em; D: 10.5 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, red inclusions; self slip,
patchy surface; burnished horizontally below handle, vertically from base of handle to neck ridge; traces of
red and black horizontal bands above neck ridge; Nicolaou 1976: 201, no. 60; 252, no. 5, and pl. XXVIII.5;
(Pl. XI).
196. Tomb l/10: Lamaca Museum 9; repaired; H: 13.4 em; D: 13 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, red inclusions to 3 mm;
self slip, horizontally wheel burnished below handle; vertically hand burnished from base of handle to neck
ridge; black and 7.5R 4/4 weak red horizontal bands above neck ridge; red horizontal strokes on handle;
Nicolaou 1976: 201, no. 60; 252, no. 3, and pl. XXVIII.3; (Pis. XI and XXVIII).
KOUKLIA (Palaepaphos)- Skales:
197. Tomb 62/11: repaired; small knob below base of handle; H: 13.6 em; D: 9.2 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/4lightreddish
brown, soft and flaking, red inclusions to 5 mm; self slip, burnished horizontally on lower body, vertically
on upper body and lower neck; black and 7.5R 5/4 weak red horizontal bands on upper neck and rim;
Karageorghis 1983: 137, pl. XCVII; Bikai 1983: 404; (Pis. XI and XXIX).
198. Tomb 81/137: rim lacking; H: 15.8 restored; burnished self slip; black horizontal bands around upper neck;
Karageorghis 1983:266, pl. CLXI, fig. CLVIII; Bikai 1983:404.
SALAMIS:
199. Tomb 1/Supplementary 4: Cyprus Museum 1964/VI-6/4; fragmentary; ware: 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, soft
and flaking, red inclusions to 3 mm; thick self slip, traces of burnishing; traces of decoration on neck and rim;
rim, base, and body do not join; on the tomb, see Dikaios 1963; (Pl. XI).
200. Tomb 1/Supplementary 5: Cyprus Museum 1964/VI-6/5; neck and rim only; as no. 199; H: 5.65 em pre-
served; ware: 7 .5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, soft; black and 1 OR 4/4 weak red horizontal bands; on the tomb, see
Dikaios 1963.
201. Tomb 1/17: Cyprus Museum 1957/V-13/1; repaired, part of rim lacking; H: 16.9 em; D: 10.4 em; ware: 5YR
7/6 reddish yellow, very soft, red inclusions; self slip, traces of burnishing; very faded black and red horizon-
tal bands above neck ridge; Dikaios 1963: 183; (Pl. XI).
202. Tomb l/21: Cyprus Museum 1957/V-13/1; repaired; H: 17.3 em; D: 11 em; ware: 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow,
soft, red inclusions; slip: 2.5R 6/8light red, traces of burnishing; black and lOR 5/4 weak red horizontal bands
above neck ridge; Dikaios 1963: 183; (Pl. XI).
203. Tomb l/24: Cyprus Museum 1957/V-13/1; rim and base lacking; as no. 201; H: 14.8 em preserved; ware:
5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, very soft and flaking, red inclusions; self slip, cross-burnished on body, vertically
on neck; faded black and red horizontal bands on neck; Dikaios 1963: 183.
204. Tomb 11212: Cyprus Museum 1957/V-13/1; rim lacking; H: 14.4 em preserved; D: 9.5 em; ware: 5YR 7/3
pink; self slip, burnished horizontally below handle, vertically above; faded black and red horizontal bands
above neck ridge; Dikaios 1963: 195; (Pl. XI).
205. Tomb 11223: Cyprus Museum 1957/V-13/1; lower body and base lacking; H: 17.6 em preserved; D: 15.9 em;
ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, soft and flaking, red inclusions to 1.5 mm; self slip, patchy surface; traces of
20 THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
burnishing; black and 7 .5R 4/6 red horizontal bands above neck ridge; Dikaios 1963: 198; (Pl. XI).
206. Tomb 11225: Cyprus Museum 1957/V-13/1; repaired; H ~ 7 . 4 em; D: 12.4 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yel-
low, soft, red inclusions; self slip, wheel burnished horizontally below handle, vertically from handle to neck
ridge; Dikaios 1963: 198; (Pl. XI).
207. Tomb 11238: Cyprus Museum 1957/V-13/1; fragments; H: ca. 14.5 restored; D: ca. 8.8 em restored; ware:
5YR 7/8 reddish yellow, soft, red inclusions; self slip, traces of burnishing; faded black and red horizontal
bands above neck ridge; see Dikaios 1963; (Pl. XI).
208. Tomb 11239: Cyprus Museum 1957/V -13/1; fragments; H: ca: 27.5 em restored; D: 20. 2; ware: 5YR 6/6 red-
dish yellow, soft, red inclusions to 5 mm; self slip, traces of burnishing; traces of red paint on upper neck;
see Dikaios 1963; (Pl. XI).
There is great variety in that most characteristic of all Phoenician vessels, the "mush-
room-lipped" jug. For the purposes of this catalogue, they are divided into two groups: those
with red slip and those without. The significance of other differences will be discussed below.
AMATHUS:
209. Tomb 8/45: Cyprus Museum; rim lacking; depressed base, depressed globular body; H: 18.2 em preserved;
D: 11.8 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/4light reddish brown, uneven core, red inclusions; self slip, burnished horizon-
tally on lower body, vertically on upper body and lower neck, patchy surface; faded black and red bands on
upper neck; SCE II: 50, pl. XIII.
210. Tomb 8/69: Cyprus Museum; repaired; depressed base, globular body; H: 17 em; D: 10 em; ware 5YR 7/4
pink, many red inclusions; self slip, patchy surface, burnished horizontally on body, vertically on neck; black
and red bands on upper neck and rim; SCE II: 50, pl. XIII; (Pl. XII).
*See also Tomb 4116; Tomb 9/43, 74, 89, 94, 95, 118, 127; SCE II.
211. Tomb 130/87-2: Limassol Museum 502/87-2; fragments only; ware: 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow, soft and flak-
ing, many red inclusions, black and red paint on upper neck and rim; the form is similar to no. 268.
212. Tomb 1351100; Limassol Museum 507/100; rim lacking, two incisions for neck ridge, eleongated ovoid
body, flat base; H: 11.4 em preserved; D: 5. 7 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink; self slip, burnished; the form is similar
to no. 232.
213. Tomb 137/59-6: Limassol Museum 509/59-6; repaired; incision for neck ridge, ovoid body, depressed base;
H: 15.6 em; D: 7.2 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, soft and flaking, red inclusions; self slip burnished horizontally
on body, vertically on lower neck; black and 7. 5R 6/4 pale red horizontal bands on upper body and rim; (Pl.
XII).
214. Tomb 145/48: Limassol Museum 551148; repaired; globular body, depressed base; H: 20.5 em; D: 13.5 em;
ware: 7.5YR 7/4 pink, many red inclusions, patchy surface; burnished horizontally on body, vertically on
lower neck; traces of paint on neck and rim; similar to no. 268.
215. Tomb 168/26; Limassol Museum 679/26; intact; incision for neck ridge; globular body, depressed base; H:
12.6 em; D: 7.3 em; ware: 10YR 8/2 white, red inclusions; traces of horizontal burnishing on body; faded
black and red paint on upper neck and rim; similar to no. 217.
216. Tomb 192/30: Limassol Museum 706/30; intact; two incisions representing neck ridge, pear-shaped body,
depressed base; H: 12.2 em; D: 7.2 em; ware: 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow, many red inclusions; tracesofselfslip;
faded black and red paint on upper neck and rim; (Pl. XII).
217. Tomb 223115: Limassol Museum; intact; incision for neck ridge, globular to pear-shaped body, depressed
base; H: 13.2 em; D: 7.1 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, red inclusions, patchy surface; burnisbed horizontally on
body, vertically on lower neck; black and red paint on upper neck and rim; (Pl. XII).
218. Tomb 227/11: Limassol Museum; rim lacking; incision for neck ridge, elongated ovoid body, flat base; H:
12 em preserved; D: 5.8 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, soft, patchy surface; faded black and red paint
on upper neck; the form is similar to no. 232.
219. Tomb 227112: Limassol Museum; part of rim and handle lacking; incision for neck ridge, pear-shaped body,
flat base; H: 9 em; D: 4. 7 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, soft and flaking, many red inclusions; faded black and red
paint on upper neck; faded black lines around upper body.
CATALOGUE 21
220. Tomb 244171: Limassol Museum; rim lacking; incision for neck ridge; pear-shaped body, depressed base; H:
12.7 em preserved; D: 6.5 em; ware: 5YR 7/3 pink, many red inclusions burnished; black and 5YR 6/4light
reddish brown horizontal bands around upper neck; similar to no. 216.
221. Tomb 250/63: Limassol Museum; intact; incision for neck ridge, elongated ovoid body, flat base; H: 13.1 em;
D: 5.6 em; ware: 7.5YR 8/4pink, burnished; faded black and red horizontal bands on upper neck; single black
horizontal band on upper body; similar to no. 230.
222. Tomb 266174-20: Limassol Museum; rim lacking; globular body, depressed base; H: 12.6 em preserved; D:
9.7 em; ware: 5YR 7/3 pink, soft; self slip, horizontally burnished; traces of black and red bands on upper
neck; the form is similar to no. 210.
223. Tomb 276/ 163: Limassol Museum; intact; two incisions for neck ridge, elongated ovoid body, wide flat base;
H: 12.9 em; D: 6.7 em; faded black and red paint around neck; two black lines around upper body; (Pl.
XXIX).
224. Tomb 276/254: Limas sol Museum; rim and handle lacking; incision for neck ridge, elongated ovoid body,
flat base; H: 10.2 em preserved; D: 4.9 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, soft and flaking, red inclusions; burnished
horizontally; traces of black paint on upper body and neck; similar to no. 230.
225. Tomb 276/280: Limassol Museum; rim lacking; incision for neck ridge, eleongated ovoid body, depressed
base; H: 16 em preserved; D: 7.6 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, patchy surface, horizontally burnished;
faded black and red paint on upper neck and top of handle.
226. Tomb 276/334: Limas sol Museum; rim lacking; incision for neck ridge, elongated ovoid body, flat base;
ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, red inclusions; patchy surface, horizontally burnished; faded black and red paint on
upper neck; similar in form to no. 232.
227. Tomb 279119: Limassol Museum; lower body and base lacking; incision for neck ridge, oviod body; H: 14.4
em preserved; D: 9.1 em; ware: 5YR 7/5 pink/reddish yellow, red inclusions; self slip, burnished horizontally
on body, vertically on lower neck; black and 7 .5R 5/4 weak red horizontal bands on upper neck and rim.
228. Tomb 292/6: Limassol Museum; part of rim lacking; two incisions for neck ridge, ovoid body, flat base; H:
11.8 em; D: 5.7 em; ware: 7.5YR 7/4 pink, soft and crumbling, large red inclusions; traces of black and red
paint on neck and rim; (Pl. XII).
229. Tomb 294/29: Limassol Museum; part of rim lacking; two incised lines for neck ridge, ovoid body, slightly
depressed base; H: 12.6 em; D: 6 em; ware: 5YR 8/4 pink, patchy, red inclusions to 6 mm; traces of black
and red paint on upper neck and rim; similar to no. 228.
230. Tomb 294/4 7: Limassol Museum; part of rim lacking; incision for neck ridge: elongated ovoid body, flat base;
H: 11 em; D: 5.1 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, many red inclusions; black and red paint on upper rim interior;
black paint on upper neck and around upper body; (Pl. XXIX).
231. Tomb 302/23: Limas sol Museum; repaired; incision for neck ridge, ovoid body, depressed base; H: 24.2 em;
D: 13.5 em; ware: 5YR 7/5 pink/reddish yellow, soft, red inclusions; faded black and red painton upper neck
and rim; (Pl. XII).
232. Tomb 302/42: Limassol Museum; part of rim lacking; two incisions for neck ridge, elongated ovoid body,
wide flat base; H: 14.8 em; D: 6.8 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, soft, burnished; (Pl. XII).
233. Tomb 302/51: Limassol Museum; repaired; incision for neck ridge, pear-shaped body, flat base; H: 18.4 em;
D: 11.1 em; ware: 5YR 7/5 pink/reddish yellow, red inclusions, wet-smoothed, not burnished; black paint on
upper neck and rim; similar to no. 264.
234. Tomb 321116: Limassol Museum; rim lacking; incision for neck ridge, eleongated ovoid body, flat base; H:
13 em preserved; D: 6.7 em; ware: 5YR 6/4light reddish brown, red inclusions, patchy surface, burnished
horizontally; traces of red paint on upper neck; similar in form to no. 232.
235. Tomb 321128: Limassol Museum; incision for neck ridge, elongated ovoid body, ring base; H: 19.2 em; D:
9.9 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, uneven core, burnished; black and red paint on upper neck and rim; black paint
around upper body; similar in form to no. 230.
236. Tomb 3211202: Limassol Museum; rim lacking; incision for neck ridge; depressed globular body, depressed
base; H: 11.5 em preserved; D: 8.2 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/8light red, surface patchy; faded black and red paint
on upper neck; similar to no. 248.
237. Tomb 3211246: Limassol Museum; elongated ovoid body, flat base; H: 12.3 em D: 5.7 em; red paint around
upper neck and upper body; similar to no. 230.
22 THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
238. Tomb 324/1: Limassol Museum; neck, rim and most of handle lacking; globular body, depressed base; H: 9
em preserved; D: 8.6 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, very heavy, not burnished; similar to no. 210.
239. Tomb 338/47: Limassol Museum; repaired; two incisions for neck ridge, elongated ovoid body, flat base; H:
12.7 em; D: 6 em; ware: 5YR 8/4 pink; faded black and red paint on upper neck; faded black paint around
upper body; similar to no. 230.
240. Tomb 347/49: Lirnassol Museum; pieces missing from rim; incision for neck ridge, pear-shaped body, de-
pressed base; H: 13.1 em; D: 6.8 em; ware: 7.5YR 7/4 pink, burnished; black and red bands around upper
neck and rim; similar to no. 217.
241. Tomb 354/99: Limas sol Museum; part of rim lacking; incision for neck ridge, elongated pear-shaped body,
small depressed base with round projection at center; H: 12.6 em; D: 5.6 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow,
red inclusions; traces of black bands around upper neck and on upper body; (Pl. XXIX).
242. Tomb 3541108: Limas sol Museum; part of rim lacking; incision for neck ridge, ovoid body, depressed base;
H: 13 em; D: 7.3 em; ware: 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow, red inclusions, surface patchy; black and lOR 4/6 red
paint on upper neck and rim; (Pis. XII and XXVIII).
243. Tomb 357/35: Limassol Museum; rim chipped; pear-shaped body, flat base; H: 15.6 em; D: 8.6 em; ware:
7.5YR 7/4 pink, very heavy, crudely made; black and red paint on upper neck and handle; (Pl. XII).
244. Tomb 357/52: Limas sol Museum; part of rim lacking; incision for neck ridge, ovoid body, depressed base;
H: 13.3 em; D: 6.8 em; ware: lOYR 8/4 very pale brown; faded black and red paint on upper neck and rim;
form similar to no. 217.
245. Tomb 376/6: Limas sol Museum; neck, rim and most of handle lacking; globular body, depressed base; H: 7. 9
em preserved; D: 8.3 ern; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, many red inclusions; self slip, vertically burnished; similar to
no. 210.
LIMASSOL DISTRICT:
246. Limassol Tomb 741130: Limassol Museum 372/130; base lacking; neck ridge, globular body; H: 19.9 em
restored; D: 12.5 em; ware: lOR 6/8light red, red inclusions, surface patchy, burnished; black and red paint
on upper neck and rim; (Pl. XII).
247. Ko!ossi-Katkalla Tomb 1144: Lirnassol Museum 154/44; no rim, no base; H: 11.4 em preserved; D: 8 em;
ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, red inclusions, burnished horizontally; faded black and red paint on upper neck.
248. Kolossi-Panayia Vounarkotissa Tomb 5/19: Curium House Museum 29; repaired; sightly ovoid body, de-
pressed base; H: 15.4 em; D: 8.8 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, soft; self slip, burnished horizontally on body, ver-
tically on neck; black and lOR 5/4 weak red horizontal bands on upper neck and rim; Karageorghis, BCH
1963: 359 and fig. 52; (Pl. XII).
LARNACA (Kition)- Kathari:
249. Kition Area II, Temple 1, fl. 2A, no. 1568: rim lacking, base broken; Bikai 1981:28, no. 81, pl. XXIII.2.
250. Kition Area II, Bothros 10, floor 3, no. 1642: Bikai 1981:28, no. 82, pl. XXIII.5; (Pl. XXIX).
251. Kition Area II, Temple 1, floor 3, no. 1749: Bikai 1981:28, no. 83, pl. XXIII.6; (Pl. XXIX).
252. Kition Area II, Temple 1, floor 3, no. 1756: rim lacking; Bikai 1981:28, no. 84, pl. XXIII.3.
253. Kition Area II, Temple 1, floor 3, no. 1883: Bikai 1981: 28, no. 85, pl. XXIII.4; (Pl. XXIX).
254. Kition Area II, Temple 1, floor 3, no. 1884: intact; globular body, depressed base with small knob at center;
H: 11 em; D: 6.65 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, soft and flaking, many red inclusions; self slip, burnished on body
only; black and lOR 5.5/8 red/light red horizontal bands on upper neck and rim; red paint on upper handle;
surface patchy and covered with fingerprints; Bikai 1981: 28, no. 86, pl. XXIII.?; (Pl. XII).
255. Kition Area II, Temple 1, floor 3, no. 1921: repaired, handle lacking; depressed gobular body; H: 12.5 em;
D: 7.2 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, soft and flaking, many red inclusions; self slip, burnished on the
body only; black and lOR 6/81ight red bands around upper neck and rim; surface very patchy; Bikai 1981:
28, no. 87, pl. XXIII.8; (Pl. XII).
LARNACA (Kition) - Tourabi:
256. *Tomb 2 (1963)/1: ovoid body, incision for neck ridge; H: 18.6 em; Karageorghis 1974a: 103, pis. XCIX,
CLXXIX.
257. *Tomb 2 (1963)/2: rim lacking; ovoid body; H: 18.4 em; Karageorghis 1974a: 103, pis XCIX, CLXXIX.
258. *Tomb 30/3: now lost; H: 18.8 em; ovoid body; black bands on upper neck; Tomb 30/5: now lost; H: 22 em;
CATALOGUE 23
ovoid body, red paint of upper neck and rim; Tomb 30/ 10; now lost; rim lacking; H: 17 em; Nicolaou 1976:
191 and n. 123; Excavation Records Lamaca Town I, with drawings (kept in the Cyprus Museum).
SKARINOU - Kokkalos:
259. *Tomb 1: Cyprus Survey 1549; two mushroom-lipped jugs, one similar to no. 268, the other like 260;
Karageorghis BCH 1960: 295 and fig. 72a.
SALAMIS:
260. Tomb 23/16: Cyprus Museum; repaired; incision for neck ridge, pear-shaped body, wide rim, depressed base;
H: 18.5 em; D: 9 ern; ware: 5YR 7/5 pink/reddish yellow, red inclusions to 3 mm; self slip, burnished horizon-
tally on lower body, vertically on upper body and lower neck; black and red bands on upper neck and rim;
Karageorghis 1970: 49, pis. CI, CCXIX; (Pis. XII and XXVIII).
261. Tomb 79/897: Cyprus Museum; repaired, part of rim lacking; ovoid body, ring base; H: 22 em; D: 12.2 em;
ware: 5YR 7/3 pink; black and red bands on upper neck and rim; traces of tin covering; Karageorghis 1974b:
56, pis. XLIX, CCXXVI; (Pl. XII).
262. Tomb 79/898: Cyprus Museum; rim lacking; identical with no. 261; H: 22.3 em; traces of tin covering;
Karageorghis 1974b: 56-7, pl. XLIX.
263. Tomb 79/899: Cyprus Museum; rim lacking; identical with no. 261; Karageorghis 1974b: 57, pis. XLIX,
CCXXVI.
IDALION - Eliouthkia tou Kouzourtou:
264. Tomb 1/6: Cyprus Museum 1963/X-11/1: intact; wide pear-shaped body, depressed base; H: 19 em; D: 11.6
em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, many red inclusions; self slip, horizontally burnished; very patchy sur-
face; black, white and lOR 6/4 pale red bands on upper neck and rim; Karageorghis 1964:43, fig. 12.6; (Pl.
XII); see also rim fragment, Tomb 1/23, Karageorghis 1964: 43, fig. 12.23.
NICOSIA - Old Municipality:
265. Tomb 3/21: Cyprus Museum 1951/XI-1711; part of rim lacking; globular body, ring base; H: 20.1 em; D: 13.6
em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, soft, red inclusions to 3 mm, patchy surface; wet-smoothed; Flourentzos
1981: 122, pl. XVIII.l9; (Pl. XII)
266. Tomb 3/27: Cyprus Museum 1951/Xl-17 I 1; rim lacking; globular body, depressed base; H: 15.7 preserved;
D: 11.8 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/8 light red, soft, patchy; self slip, burnished horizontally on body, vertically on
lower neck; traces of black and red bands on upper neck; Flourentzos 1981: 123.
A YIA IRINI - Paleokastro:
267. Tomb 5/15: Cyprus Museum; lower body lacking; H: ca. 14.7 em preserved; ware: 10YR 7/4 very pale
brown, very soft and flaking; faded black and red bands on upper neck and rim; Rochetti 1978: 26, 27.
268. Tomb 7/2: Cyprus Museum; restored, handle lacking; globular body, depressed base; H: 22.1 em; D: 14.2 em;
ware: 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, soft, red inclusions to 3 rnrn; self slip, burnished vertically on neck and hori-
zontally on body; black and 7.5R 5/6 red bands on upper neck and rim; Pecorella 1977: 52; (Pl. XII).
269. ?Tomb 46/2: Cyprus Museum; globular body, depressed base; H: 17.5 em; D: 11 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink;
surface: lOYR 8/3 very pale brown; black and 7.5R 7/4 pink bands on upper neck and rim; Rochetti 1978:77.
270. Tomb 47/5: Cyprus Museum; rim and lower body lacking; globular body; H: 21 em preserved; D: 15.3 em;
ware: 7 .5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, soft and flaking, red inclusions to 5 mm; self slip, burnished horizontally
on body, vertically on lower neck; faded black and red bands on upper neck; Rochetti 1978: 83.
OTHER:
271. Cyprus Museum 1954/Ill-4/3: intact; elongated ovoid body, depressed base, incision for neck ridge; H: 24.7
em; D: 11.7 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, white inclusions to 3 mm; self slip, burnished horizontally on body, ver-
tically on lower neck; surface very patchy; black and 1 OR 6/4 pale red bands on upper neck and rim; (Pl. XII).
272. Cyprus Museum 1969/VIII-30/1: intact; globular to ovoid body, depressed base; H: 22 em; D: 13.5 em; ware:
7.5YR 7/4 pink, surface patchy; horizontally burnished; black and lOR 6/4 pale red bands on upper neck and
rim; (Pl. XII).
273. Collection ofChristos Zembylas, Nicosia; lower body lacking; wide rim, pear-shaped body; H: 22.3 em pre-
served; D: 13.2 em; ware: 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, soft and flaking; self slip, burnished horizontally on body,
24 THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
vertically on lower neck; faded black and red bands on upper neck and rim; (Pl. XII).
*?See also Brown and Catling 1975: fig. Illb.8, Ashmolean Museum = Harden 1962, pl. 112a, from Lar-
naca, Ashmolean 1959.363, described as "buff ware, reddish brown paint on lip and neck." H: c. 22 em.
Mushroom-lipped jugs with red slip decoration:
AMATHUS:
274. Tomb 8/98: Cyprus Museum; rim lacking; pear-shaped body with carinated shoulder, depressed base; H: 10.2
em preserved; D: 5.85 em; ware: 7 .5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, soft, red inclusions to 3 mm; slip: 7 .5YR 5/6 red,
burnished horizontally below handle, vertically above; SCE II: 51, pl. XIII, fig. 2; (Pl. XIII).
275. *Tomb 16175: Medelhavsmuseet, Stockholm; pear-shaped body with carinated shoulder; H: 16.7 em; SCE
II: 98, pis. XXI and CXXVII.4.
276. *Tomb 2517: Medelhavsmuseet, Stockholm; ovoid body with carinated shoulder; H: 12.7 em; SCE II: 135,
pl. XXIX, fig. 8.
277. Tomb 137/59-7: Limassol Museum 509/59-7; body only; pear-shaped body, depressed base, two incised
lines around shoulder; H: 8.8 em; D: 8.5 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, soft and flaking; slip: 7.5R 5/3
weak red, burnished horizontally; catalogued under the same number: two mushroom-lipped rim fragments.
278. ? Tomb 179/96; Limas sol Museum 693/96; drooping pear-shaped body with slight carination at shoulder, flat
base; H: 8.6 em; D: 5 em; slip: lOR 5.5/6light red/red; the ware is hard and sounds metallic; Tombs 222/2,
294/53, 237/45 and 357/43 ( = Pl. XIII, number 278) are nearly identical and may be Cypriote imitations.
279. Tomb 213/37: Limassol Museum 727/37; parts of rim lacking; slightly ovoid body, ring base, very heavy; H:
13.6 em; D: 7.4 em; ware: 7.5YR 7/4 pink, soft and flaking; slip: 5YR 7/4 pink, traces of burnishing.
280. Tomb 222/20: Limassol Museum; rim lacking; pear-shaped body, slightly carinated shoulder, flat base; H:
10.9 em preserved; D: 5. 9 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, soft; slip: lOR 6/6light red traces of burnishing;
similar to no. 274.
281. Tomb 226/5: Limassol Museum; rim lacking; pear-shaped body, flat base; H: 9.1 em preserved; D: 4.8 em;
ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, soft, cracking, red inclusions; washy red slip, very faded; form similar to no. 304.
282. Tomb 229/43: Limassol Museum; no neck, rim or handle; elongated pear-shaped body, carinated shoulder,
depressed base with small knob at center; H: 8.4 em preserved; D: 5. 3 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, soft
and flaking, red inclusions; slip: 7. 5R 5!6 red, burnished horizontally.
283. Tomb 232172: Limassol Museum; disintegrating, handle lacking; elongated pear-shaped body, flat base, cari-
nated shoulder; H: 12.2 em; D: 6 em; ware: 5YR 6/4light reddish brown, flaking, large red inclusions; traces
of red slip; form similar to no. 289.
284. Tomb 233/5: Limassol Museum; handle lacking; elongated pear-shaped body, carinated shoulder, flat base;
H: 10.6cm;D: 4.3 em; ware: 5YR 7/4pink, soft and crumbling; slip: 2.5YR 5/6red; form similar to no. 296.
285. Tomp 276/278: Limas sol Museum; wide rim, swollen neck, carinated shoulder, pear-shaped body, depressed
base; H: 22 em; D: 12.1 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink; slip: 7 .5R 4.5/8 red, wheel burnished horizontally on body
and upper rim, burnished vertically on neck; Karageorghis, BCH 1981: fig. 109; (Pis. XIII and XXVIII); see
nos. 315 and 316.
286. Tomb 279/9: Limassol Museum; chipped; incision for neck ridge, carinated shoulder, pear-shaped body, flat
base; H: 9.8 em; D: 4.6 em; ware: 7 .5YR 7/4 pink, soft; slip: 7 .5R 5/4 weak red; (Pl. XIII).
287. Tomb 294/48: Limassol Museum; rim, neck and handle lacking; carinated shoulder, pear-shaped body,
depressed base; H: 9.9 em preserved; D: 7 em; ware: 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow; slip: 7.5R 5/6 red, horizontally
burnished; form similar to no. 289.
288. Tomb 301/14: Limassol Museum; pear-shaped body, flat base; H: 9.8 em; D: 4.5 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink,
red inclusions; slip: lOR 5/4 weak red, horizontally burnished in a few wide strokes; (Pl. XIII).
289. Tomb 302/18: Limassol Museum; part of rim lacking, surface damaged; incision for neck ridge, carinated
shoulder, pear-shaped body, small flat base; H: 12.5 em; D: 6.1 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, soft and
flaking, red inclusions; slip: 7 .5R 5/6 red, burnished; (Pl. XIII).
290. Tomb 321/45: Limassol Museum; rim lacking; two incisions for neck ridge, carinated shoulder, pear-shaped
body, flat base; H: 13.8 em preserved; D: 8.5 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, sandy; slip: lOR 5.5/6light red/red,
horizontally burnished; (Pl. XIII).
291. Tomb 3541103: Limassol Museum; rim, neck and handle lacking; as no. 288; H: 6.6 em preserved; D: 5.1 em.
CATALOGUE 25
292. Tomb 354/105: Limassol Museum; rim, neck and handle lacking; as no. 288; H: 7. 7 em preserved; D: 5.4 em.
293. Tomb 357/19: Limassol Museum; rim and handle lacking; slight carination at shoulder, nearly bell-shaped
body, flat base; H: 10 em preserved; D: 6.2 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, soft; slip: 7 .5R 5/6 red, horizontally bur-
nished; the form is similar to no. 290, but the lower body is wider.
294. ?Tomb 365/4: Limassol Museum; carinated shoulder, pear-shaped body, flat base with disc at center; H: 12.3
em; D: 7.4 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, not soft; washy slip: lOR 5/6 red.
295. Tomb 367/51-2: Limassol Museum 905/51-2; repaired, parts missing, surface encrusted; two incisions for
neck ridge, globular body, disc base with well-formed button at center; H: 11.7 em; D: 6.9 em; ware: 5YR
6/4 light reddish brown, red inclusions; slip: 7 .5R 5/4 weak red, horizontally burnished; (Pis. XIII and
XXVIII).
LIMASSOL DISTRICT:
?Limassol Tomb 65/113 and 115; Limassol Museum 313/113 and 155; as no. 278.
296. Limnati-Mia Krernmos: Cyprus Survey 1785/IV/2: ovoid body with carinated shoulder, flat base; H: 9.15 em;
D: 4.1 em; ware: 5YR 6/8 yellowish red, soft, red inclusions; slip: lOR 5/6 red, thick and flaking; (Pl. XIII).
297. ?Episkopi-Kaloriziki Tomb 31!25(A): Curium House Museum Pl695; flat mushroom lip, globular body, ring
base; H: 16.6 em; D: 11.5 em; ware: 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow, soft, many white inclusions; thick slip: lOR
5/6 red, wheel burnished on lower body, vertically burnished above; Benson 1973: 109, pl. 36, K800; this
may be related to nos. 180-89, supra.
LARNACA - Ayios Georgios Kontos:
298. Ploutonos Street Tomb 35; Cyprus Survey 1548/18; Larnaca Museum 312; repaired, part of rim lacking; two
incisions for neck ridge, carinated shoulder, pear-shaped body, depressed base; H: 20.1 em; D: 10.9 em;
ware: 5YR 6/4light reddish brown, soft; slip (below neck ridge): 1 OR4/6 red, burnished horizonally by wheel
on body, vertically on lower neck; black and red paint on upper neck and rim; Nicolaou 1976: 182, no. 24,
256, no. 7, pl. XXX.7; Karageorghis, BCH 1967:291, fig. 40; (Pis. XIII and XXVIII).
LARNACA (Kition) - Kathari:
299. Kition Area II, BB 14, level 330-345, pit of floor 1: rim and neck only; two incisions for neck ridge; ware:
5YR 7/4 pink; slip: 7.5R 5/6 red, burnished; Bikai 1981:26, no. 58, pis. XX.12 and XXVI.l; (Pl. XIII).
See also Bikai 1981: 26, no. 62, group B.d, pl. XX.l7.d, incised shoulderfragment from another vessel, and
no. 63, group C.a, pl. XXII. Ia, rim fragment.
300. Kition Area II, Bothros 21, floor 3, no. 4740: lower body and base only, depressed base; horizontally wheel
burnished; Bikai 1981: 26, no. 59, pl. XX.l3.
301. Kition Area II, Bothros 23 + 13, floor 3: fragment of upper body only; carinated shoulder; Bikai 1981: 26,
no. 62, group B.e, pl. XX.l7 .e.
See Bikai 1981: 26, no. 64, thirty-three heavy-walledjuglets including the following:
302. Kition Area II, Bothros 9, floor 3, no. 2310: repaired; juglet with very heavy body walls, inverted pear-shaped
body, somewhat flat mushroom lip; H: 14.2 em; D: 8. 75 em; ware: lOYR 7/6 yellow to 5YR 7/6 reddish yel-
low, patchy; traces of red slip on body; black bands on upper neck and rim; weight: 499 grams; Bikai 1981:
26, no. 64, pis. XXII.2, XXVI.3; (Pl. XIII).
303. Kition Area II, Bothros 9, floor3, no. 2315: as no. 302; part of rim lacking; H: 13.6 em; D: 8.4 em; ware:
2.5YR 6/6light red; slip: 7 .5R 4.5/6 red, traces of a light burnish; black bands on upper neck and rim; weight:
350 grams (with plaster on rim); Bikai 1981: 26, no. 64, pis. XXII.3, XXVI.4; (Pis. XIII and XXVIII).
On Kition Area II, Bothros 9, floor 3, no. 1523, similar to nos. 302 and 303, with inscription, see Masson
1971.
See Bikai 1981: 27, no. 65, twenty-three small juglets, including:
304. KitionAreaii, Bothros6A, floor2A, no. 1523: H: lOcm; washyredslip;Bikai 1981:27, no. 65, pl. XXII.6;
(Pl. XXIX).
LARNACA - Tourabi:
305. *Tomb 30/27: now lost; rim lacking; globular body with no carination at shoulder; H: 14 em; red slip on body,
26 THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
black bands on upper neck; Nicolaou 1976: 191 and n. 123; Excavation Records Lamaca Town I, with draw-
ings (kept in the Cyprus Museum).
KTIMA - Iskender:
306. *Tomb V .6: Musee du Louvre; H: 10.5 em; D:6 em. "Argile chamois ... Bandes noires et violacees sur le
col et le rebord." Desha yes 1963: 93, pl. LIII. 15.
SALAMIS:
307. Tomb 23/42: Cyprus Museum; chipped; carinated shoulder, pear-shaped body, ring base; H: 15.9 em; D: 8. 7
em; ware: 5YR 6/4light reddish brown; thin washy slip: lOR 5/6 red, soft and flaking; Karageorghis 1970:
51, pis. CI and CCXX; see also Tomb 23/44 and 45.
308. ?Tomb 47/53: Cyprus Museum; H: 16 em; red slip on body, black bands on upper neck and rim; Karageorghis
1967b: 82, pl. CXXXVIII; see also Tomb 47/50, 54, 55, 56; (Pl. XIII).
309. Tomb 50/126: Cyprus Museum; fragmentary; carinated shoulder, pear-shaped body, three shallow incisions
below shoulder, ring base; H: 14.5 em; ware: 5YR 6/4light reddish brown, soft and crumbling; slip: 7 .5R 5/6
red, burnished; Karageorghis 1967b: 110, pis. CV, CXLIX; Tomb 50!126 through 131 are identical; (Pl.
XIII).
There are many red-slipped mushroom-lipped jugs in the tombs of Salamis; a number of these were examined
and appear to be of Cypriote manufacture: Tomb 2/14, 27 (Karageorghis 1967b ); Tomb 83!11, 16; Tomb 105/
9, 11, 14, 30, 35, 36, 40, 42, 44, 45, 46, 48, 54, 56, 58, 65 (Karageorghis 1970).
A YIA IRINI - Paleokastro:
310. Tomb 3/4: Cyprus Museum; part of rim lacking; pronounced incision for neck ridge, globular body, depressed
base; H: 19.9 em; D: 12.6 em; ware: 5YR 6/41ight reddish brown, soft; slip on lower neck and body: 2.5YR
416 red, burnished horizontally on body, vertically on neck; black and red bands on upper neck; Rochetti
1978: 105; Pecorella 1971: 61; Pecorella 1977: 17, 18, 48; (Pl. XIII).
311. Tomb 3!139: Cyprus Museum; neck and rim lacking; similar to nos. 302-3; H: 10.9 em preserved; D: 9.2 em;
ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, soft, red inclusions to 3 em; slip: 1 OR 6/4 pale red; Rochetti 1978: 105; Pecorella 1977:
41,42,48.
312. Tomb 47/28: Cyprus Museum; rim lacking; two incisions for neck ridge, carinated shoulder, three incisions
below carination, ovoid body, depressed base; H: 23.7 em preserved; D: 13.3 em; ware: 5.YR 6/6 reddish yel-
low, very soft, red inclusions; slip: 7 .5R 5/8 red, burnished horozontally on body; Rochetti 1978: 90; (Pl.
XIII).
OTHER:
313. ?Cyprus Museum 1963/XI-22/4; carinated shoulder, ring base; H: 19.9 em; D: 8.4 em; ware: 5YR 6/4light
reddish brown; slip: 2.5YR 4.5/6 red, somewhat metallic; (Pl. XIII).
314. Cyprus Museum 1966/XII-10/10; part of rim lacking, surface worn; carinated shoulder, pear-shaped body,
depressed base; H: 16.2 em; D: 8 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, soft, red inclusions; heavy, flaking slip: lOR 5/5
red to 5Y 8/2 white, burnished horizontally; covered with fingerprints; probably from Ypsonas-Poupoutsis,
Limassol District; (Pl. XIII).
315. Cyprus Museum 1966/XII-10!11: part of rim lacking; mate to no. 314, supra; H: 16.2 em; D: 8.4 em; ware:
5YR 7/4 pink, soft, red inclusions to 5.5 mm; slip: lOR 5/5 red, horizontally burnished; covered with finger-
prints; probably from Ypsonas-Poupoutsis, Limassol District.
316. Cyprus Museum 1981/XII-14/3: intact; carinated shoulder, pear-shaped body, depressed base; H: 22.7 em;
D: 12.5 em; ware: 7.5YR'6/5light brown/reddish yellow, red inclusions; slip: lOR 5/6 red, burnished hori-
zontally by wheel on lower body and rim, vertically on upper body and neck; nearly identical with no. 285;
(Pis. XIII and XXVIII).
317. *Collection of Desmond Morris, Oxford: DM-WRS-01; this appears from the illustration to be identical with
nos. 285 and 316; H: 19.7 em; Morris 1985: pl. 4l.c.
318. *?California Palace of the Legion of Honor 1925.346: Karageorghis, Amyx, and Associates 1974: 31, fig.
68; H: 9.2 em; D: 5.3 em.
319. *Hadjiprodromou Collection, Famagusta, now lost: described in the catalogue as "Ring base, ovoid sack-
shaped body, carinated shoulder, convex neck, flat everted rim; vertical handle, round in section, from mid-
CATALOGUE
neck to shoulder; rim chipped; deposits on surface." H: 15 em; D: 7 em; red-slipped; (Pl. XXVIII).
*See also Myers 1914:59, nos. 476-78.
27
320. *Metropolitan Museum of Art 74.51.1402; Myers 1914: no. 480; H: 6 1/8"; similar to nos. 302-3, but with
an inscription on the base in the Cypriote syllabary; Cesnola, Atlas II: pl. CXLII, no. 1062, Atlas III: pl.
CXL. 7, found at Lamaca; Masson 1971: pl. XXI. 3, 4; Karageorghis and Karageorghis 1956: 358-59, pl.
118, fig. 2.
321. *Metropolitan Museum of Art 74.51.1403; similar to nos. 302-3, but with an inscription on the shoulder in
the Cypriote syllabary; H: 5 1/4"; Myers 1914: no. 481; Cesnola, Atlas II: pl. CXLII, no. 1064, pl. CXL.l,
found atLamaca; Masson 1971: pl. XXI.2; Karageorghis and Karageorghis 1956:359, pl. 118, figs 1b and 3.
322. *Metropolitan Museum of Art 75.51.1401; juglet related to nos. 320-1, above, and to the ones from the
Kition excavations (nos. 302-3), but which has a squared-off rim of the type earlier than that of the true mush-
room-lipped jug; in addition, it appears to have a thick red burnished slip from the neck-ridge downward in
addition to horizontal bands around the neck and rim; H: 5 3/16"; with a Phoenician inscription on the shoul-
der; Myers 1914: no. 479; Cesnola, Atlas II: pl. CXLI, no. 1052, Atlas III: pl. XXIII.23, from Larnaca; Mas-
son and Sznycer 1972:114--5, fig. 4, pl. XV .1; Amadasi and Karageorghis 1977: 134, D6, pl. XXV .I.
The following five vessels are similar in shape to the mushroom-lipped jugs but lack the
actual mushroom lip:
AMATHUS:
323. *?Tomb 7/19: Medelhavsmuseet, Stockholm; described as "jug with flat base; spherical body; slightly con-
cave neck with handle-ridge; stilted rim; handle from neck to shoulder. Red lustrous slip with traces of
polishing tool. Grey, gritty clay". H: 17.3 em; SCEII: 33, pl. XII. Tombs 16/45, 80 and 23/46 (SCE II) are
similar.
A YIA IRINI - Paleokastro:
324. Tomb 7172: Cyprus Museum; repaired; plain straight rim, neck ridge, pear-shaped body with carinated shoul-
der and depressed base; H: 21.1 em; D: 13.5 em; ware: 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow, soft; thick, flaking slip: lOR
416 red, burnished horizontally on body and vertically on neck; Rochetti 1978: 63; (Pl. XIII).
KTIMA (Paphos)- Iskender:
325. *Tomb F/309: Louvre; described as "Argile chamois fonce; engobe de meme couleur en partie efface." H:
16 em; D: 12 em; globular body; neck ridge with handle from ridge to body and plain straight rim above;
Deshayes 1963: 158, 192, pl. LIII.l9.
326. Collection of V. Assandourian, Nicosia; globular body with carinated shoulder, depressed base; four inci-
sions below the shoulder; H: 21.1 em; D: 15.2 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink; slip: lOR 4/8 red, burnished horizon-
tally on body and vertically on lower neck; the rim edge is unfinished and actually appears to have been chip-
ped away; over this chipped rim edge and over the red slip on the upper neck, there is black paint; there is also
black paint over the slip at mid-body; it is unclear whether this was originally a mushroom-lipped jug which
was tampered with in antiquity or in modern times or whether this is the original form; (Pl. XIII).
327. *Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, 1959.364; H: ca. 15.5 em; pear-shaped body, two incisions for neck ridge,
plain, slightly everted rim; Brown and Catling 1975: 46, fig. Illb.IO, apparently from Larnaca; Harden 1980:
pl. llla.
Jug with depressed base, globular body, neck ridge, handle from mid-neck to body and
"stilted" rim:
AMATHUS:
*?See Tombs 7/81; 9/125, 137; 11113, 40, 70; 16/17, 64, 79, 105, 109; 23/6, 39, 46, 47, all with flat bases;
SCEII.
LARNACA (Kition) - Kathari:
328. Kition Area II, Bothros 9: rim fragments only; Bikai 1981:28, no. 90, sherds 2.1, 2; pl. XXIII.12.1, 2.
28 THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
A YIA IRINI - Paleokastro:
329. Tomb 311: Cyprus Museum; H: 19.7 em; D. 14.5 em; intact; the suface was treated during conservation mak-
ing the ware, slip and burnish difficult to see. Black and red horizontal bands; black paint on handle; Rochetti
1978: 106; Pecorella 1977: 17, 48; (Pl. X).
See also Tomb 3/5 which lacks a rim but may have been of this type; Pecorella 1977: 17, 18, 48.
330. Tomb 15/2: Cyprus Museum; H.: 13.6 em; fragmentary; ware: 7 .5YR 7/4 pink; self slip; black and lOR 6/6
light red horizontal bands: Rochetti 1978: 40; (Pl. X).
331. Tomb 46/5: Cyprus Museum; H: 21.3 em; D: 14.8 em; intact; ware: 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow, soft, red inclu-
sions to 5 mm; black and lOR 5/6 red horizontal bands; Rochetti 1978: 78; (Pl. X).
See also Tombs 4/2, 3; 5/5; 13/10; 1811, 2; 33/11, 15; 47110, 12, 19, 38, 44, 51 (no rim); Tombs 511 and43/l
appear to be Cypriote (Rochetti 1978); see also Tombs 10/1, 11; 19/47 (Pecorella 1977).
?Collection of Andreas Pitsillides, Nicosia, ajar from the Morphou area (originally from Ayia Irini?); intact;
H: 18.8 em; D: 16 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/4light reddish brown; surface: lOYR 8/2 white; 4 mrn red inclusion,
patchy surface; black horizontal bands; ring base (may be Cypriote).
PHILIA - Aeras Vassilikou:
332. Tomb 6/2: Cyprus Museum 1953/III-9/3; intact; H: 23.2 em; D: 16.6 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/6light red; black
and 2.5YR 516 red horizontal bands; black lines on handle; (Pl. X).
NICOSIA - Old Municipality:
333. Tomb 3110: Cyprus Museum 1951/XI-1711; repaired; H: 21.7 em; D: 16.2cm; ware: 5YR6/6reddish yellow;
surface: lOYR 8/3 very pale brown; black horizontal bands; Flourentzos 1981: 122, pl. XVIII.5; (Pl. X).
Related to those above are jugs of similar form but with everted rims:
LARNACA (Kition) - Kathari:
334. Kition Area II, Temple 1, floor 3, no. 1639: jug with depressed base, short neck, everted rim; Bikai 1981:
28, no. 91, pl. XXIII.13; (Pl. XXIX); see also Bikai 1981: no. 90, sherd 2.3, Bothros 9, pl. XXII.l2.3.
A YIA IRINI - Paleokastro:
335. ?Tomb 28/8: Cyprus Museum; jug with ovoid body, depressed base, vertical neck above neck ridge, everted
rim; H: 17.8 em; D: 13.6 em; ware: 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow; surface: lOYR 8/2 white, very patchy;-blackand
lOR 6/1 reddish gray horizontal bands on upper neck; Rochetti 1978: 52.
The following three juglets have elongated ovoid bodies, flat bases, thick body walls and
two vertical strap handles:
AMATHUS:
336. Tomb 189110: Limassol Museum 703110; flaring rim; H: 15.3 em; D: 5.6 em; ware: 7.5YR 8/4 pink; washy
slip: 2.5YR 6/8 light red; similar to no. 337.
337. Tomb 294/8: Limassol Museum; crudely made juglet with a plain slightly everted rim, flat base: H: 13.7 em;
D: 4/9 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, very soft, red inclusions to 6 mm; washy slip: lOR 6/6light red;
(Pl. XIII).
SALAMIS:
338. No. 1232: rim lacking; horizontal bands; Calvet, Actes, fig. 9; (Pis. X and XXIX)'.
339.
The following are miscellaneous:
EPISKOPI - Kaloriziki:
Tomb 4/31: Curium House Museum; pitcher with trefoil rim, crudely formed handle from rim to body, long
concave neck, inverted pear-shaped body, disc base; H: 23.3 em; D: 13.7 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, soft and
flaking, red inclusions to 3.5 mm; self slip; black and 7 .5R 4/4 red horizontal bands; traces of paint on handle
traces of an "eye" oneithersideoftherim; cf. Chapman 1972, fig. 10.15, fig. 11.21, 23, 24; Bararnki 1967,
pl. XIII; (Pl. XI).
CATALOGUE
29
LARNACA (Kition) - Bamboula:
340. *KEF 741: Larnaca Museum; body only, no base, neck, rim or handle, perhaps from a vessel similar to 339,
supra; H: 9 em preserved; D: 12.2 em; black and red horizontal bands around body.
LARNACA (Kition) - Kathari:
341. Kition Area II, Room 107, floor 3, no. 4724: pitcher with wide neck, slightly pinched rim inverted pear-
shaped body, depressed base, incised at base of neck; H: 27.6 em; D: 18 em; ware: 5YR 7/3 pink; black and
2.5YR 6/4light reddish brown horizontal bands around body; the paint is very thin and washy; Bikai 1981:
28, no. 95, pis. XXIII.l4, XXV1.12; (Pis. XI and XXVII).
OTHER:
342. ?Hadjiprodromou Collection, Famagusta, now lost; juglet, described in the catalogue as Phoenician, having
"Ring base, ovoid body, cylindrical neck with carination at lower part, nearly flat everted rim; vertical handle
round in section from lower neck to upper body." Horizontal bands on neck; H: 13.5 em; D: 8 em; (Pl.
XXVIII).
A pear-shaped bottle, with a short swollen neck and depressed base, dubbed by Culican
( 197 0) the oil bottle:
AMATHUS:
343. Tomb 357/37: Limassol Museum; intact: H: 12.6 em; D: 7.9 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink; (Pl. X).
A YIA IRINI - Paleokastro:
344. Tomb 8/1: Cyprus Museum; intact: H: 13 em; D: 8.8 em; ware 5Y 8/2 white, soft; Rochetti 1978: 30; (Pl. X).
345. Tomb 8/2: Cyprus Museum; rim chipped; H: 12.5 em; D: 8.85 em; ware: 2.5Y 8/2 white, red inclusions;
Rochetti 1978: 30.
Relatively little attention was paid in this study to "dipper juglets"; they do, however,
occur on Cyprus and a few are noted below:
AMATHUS:
346. Tomb 11/20: Limassol Museum; H: 12.3 em; D: 7 em; described as "Pate brun orange, texture homogene, fri-
able; surface ravale et rugueuse." Aupert and Tytgat 1984: 637, pl. 5.20.
LARNACA (Kition) - Kathari:
There are a number of dipper juglets in the catalogue of the Kition excavations: see for examples nos. 1644,
1731,2104,2125,2127,2133,2137,2139,2140,2149,2150,2160,2166,2168,2187,2366,2563,2795,
2886, all from Area II, Bothros 10, floor 3.
KOUKLIA (Palaepaphos) - Skales:
347. Tomb 82/106: trefoil rim, round base; H: 12.3 em; Karageorghis 1983: 276, pl. CLXV, fig. CLXIV; (Pl.
XXIX).
KTIMA (Paphos - Iskender:
348. Tomb Illb/57: Paphos Museum P382; Deshayes 1963: 70, pis. XIX.7. LXVII.ll.
Pitcher with trefoil rim, long conical neck, handle from rim to body, inverted pear-shaped
body, wide footed base:
349.
350.
AMATHUS:
*Tomb 7/276: Medelhavsmuseet, Stockholm; most of double-rope handle lacking; knobs on rim and at base
of handle; H: 32.8 em; described as having "Buff gritty clay, fine polished slip." SCEII: 42, pl. XIII, fig. 1.
*Tomb 13/39: Medelhavsmuseet, Stockholm; restored; double-rope handle; knobs at sides of rim and at base
of handle; H: 26.5 em; ware not described. "Light red, lustrous, polished slip." SCE II, 82, pl. XIX, fig. 1,
pl. CXXXV1.3 and pl. IV, lower right (in color); Karageorghis, Styrenius, and Winbladh 1977: 34, pl.
XIV.3.
30 THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
351. Tomb 136/1: Limassol Museum 508/1; neck and rim only; H: 11.8 em preserved; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, sandy;
thick, flaking slip: lOR 5/4 weak red, vertically burnished.
352. *Tomb 151/62: Cyprus Survey 2256/62; upper body only; H: 11.3 em preserved; described as, "Grey, hard
clay with a black polished slip all over surface." Probably identical with no. 353; Christou 1978: 144, pl.
XIII.
353. Tomb 321/67: Limassol Museum 834/67; slightly chipped; double-rope handle; knobs on rim; H: 22.3 em;
D: 9.8 em; ware: 5YR 7/1 light gray; core: 5YR 7/2 pinkish gray; thick slip: 5YR 4/1 dark gray; highly bur-
nished: horizontally and vertically on body, vertically on neck and handle; (Pis. XIV and XXVII).
354. Tomb 321/205: Limassol Museum; rim and handle lacking; H: 19 em preserved; D: 9.7 em; ware: 5YR 6/4
light reddish brown; slip patchy: 7 .5R 5/4 weak red to 5YR 7/4 pink; vertically burnished; form identical with
no. 353.
355. Tomb 384/1: Limas sol Museum 92411; repaired; double-rope handle, knobs on rim and at base of handle; H:
25.9 em; D: 10 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, sandy; slip: lOR 5/6 red, vertically burnished; Karageorghis, BCH
1984: 918 and fig. 93; (Pis. XIV and XXVII).
CYPRUS MUSEUM:
356. 1935/B1866: handle lacking, surface damaged; H: 29.5 em; D: ll.5 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink; slip: lOR 4/8
red, burnished vertically excapt at mid-body; (Pl. XIV).
The following pitcher is similar to the one above but the neck is less conical and is shorter
in proportion to the body; it can have a flat or ring base:
AMATHUS:
357. British Museum Excavations (1893-94) Tomb 4; Cyprus Museum 1935/B 1886; surface worn; H: 24.2 em;
D: 14.2 em; ware: 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow; slip: 7 .5R 4/6 red, burnished vertically except at mid-body; Myers
and Ohnefalsch-Richter 1899: 70, no. 1039, and seep. 176 on Tomb 4; (Pl. XIV).
358. *Tomb 7115: Medelhavsmuseet, Stockholm; double-rope handle, knobs on rim, flat base; H: 15.5 em;
described as having "white, gritty clay"; red slip; SCE II: 33, pis. XII and CXXVI.4; SCE IV:2: fig. XXVII.4.
359. Tomb 138/7: Limassol Museum 510/7; intact; slightly depressed base, double-rope handle; H: 18.6 em; D:
10.9 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink; slip: lOR 4/6 red; burnished: vertically on lower body and neck and handle,
cross burnished on upper body and horizontally at mid-body; except for the base, the form is similar to no.
360.
360. Tomb 266/74-11: Limassol Museum; restored; knobs on rim; H: 29 em; D: 15.3 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish
yellow, soft, sandy; slip: 7 .5R 4/4 weak red, surfce patchy; vertically burnished; (Pis. XIV and XXVII).
361. Tomb 3211258: Limassol Museum 834/258; part of rim and most of handle lacking; double-rope handle; H:
25 em; D: 12.4 em; ware: 7.5YR 7/4 pink; slip: lOR 6/6light red, burnished vertically; similar to no. 363.
362. Tomb 366/37: Limassol Museum; intact; double-rope handle, flat base; H: 15.3 em; D: 9 em; ware: 5YR 7/6
reddish yellow, sandy; slip: 2.5YR 6/6light red, hand burnished horizontally on body, vertically on neck and
handle; similar to no. 359.
OTHER:
363. Cyprus Museum 1935/B1856: rim chipped, slip flaking off; H: 21.7 em; D: 12.1 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink,
soft and flaking, sandy; slip: lOR 4/6 red, very thick; vertically burnished; (Pl. XIV).
364. Collection of the Pancyprian Gymnasium, Nicosia, no. 220: (ex-Kolokasides Collection no. 425); repaired,
surface damaged; ring base, globular body, double-rope handle; H: 21.3 em; D: 10cm; ware: 7.5YR 7/4 pink;
slip: 7 .5R 4/4 weak red, burnished vertically; (Pl. XV).
365. *See also Corp. Vas. Ant., Great Britain 2, British Museum 2, II Cc, pl. 20.1, with double-rope handle;
described as having "Red clay; smooth dark red polished slip." H: 23 em; Cesnola 1876; SCE IV:2, fig.
XLIII.lO; Walters 1912: Catalogue C.l016.
366. *See also, Corp. Vas. Ant., pl. 20.4; Amathus 1880; described as having "Buff clay; pink polished slip." H:
19.4 em; SCE IV:2, fig. XLIII.11; Walters 1912: Catalogue C.1017.
367. *See also Myers 1914: 58, no. 471, pitcher with double-rope handle and a vertically burnished red slip, Met-
ropolitan Museum of Art, Cesnola Collection.
CATALOGUE
31
The following are trefoil-rimmed jugs with inverted conical neck, handle from rim to
body, and globular to piriform body. There is wide variation as to form among them and the
chronological implications of those variations will be discussed below.
AMATHUS:
368. *Tomb 13/38: Medelhavsmuseet, Stockholm; strap handle, knobs on rim and at base of handle; H: 18.5 em;
described as having "light red, lustrous, polished slip." SCE II: 82, pl. XIX, fig 1, pl. CXXVI.2; SCE IV:2:
fig. XXVII.6.
369. Tomb 138/8: Limassol Museum 510/8; repaired; strap handle, knob below handle, high footed base; H: 17
em; D: 10.3 em; ware: lOR 6/2 pale red, uneven core, sandy; slip patchy: 10YR 7/3 very pale brown to IOYR
4/1 dark gray, cross burnished; similar to no. 375.
370. Tomb 151/55: Cyprus Survey 2256/55; repaired; globular body, single strap handle, small knob at center of
base exterior, three incisions around upper body; H: 27.3 em; D: 18.6 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink; slip patchy:
7/5R 5/6 red to 2.5YR 6/6light red, burnished horizontally on body, vertically on neck and handle; appears
to be from the same maker as Salamis Tomb 1/209 (no. 379, infra); Karageorghis, BCH 1976: fig. 25; Chris-
tou 1978: 143, pl. XIII; (Pis. XIV and XXVII).
371. Tomb 242/57: Limassol Museum; neck, rim and most of handle lacking; depressed globular body, double-
rope handle with knob below, four raised ridges around upper body; H: 9.3 em preserved; D: 10 em; slip: 7.5R
4/4 weak red, horizontally burnished; the form is similar to no. 402.
372. Tomb 266/74-12: Limassol Museum; rim lacking; strap handle, knob at base of handle, wide footed base; H:
17.7 em restored; D: 9.5 em; ware: 5YR 8/4 pink, soft, red inclusions; thick slip: 7 .5R 4/4 weak red, vertically
burnished; the form is similar to no. 363, but the upper body is more conical.
373. Tomb 302/52: Limassol Museum 815/52; intact; double-rope handle, ridge at join of neck to body, three
incised lines around upper body, inverted pear-shaped body with a wide base; H: 24.8 em; D: 13.5 em; ware:
5YR 7/4 pink; slip: 1 OR 5/6 red, burnished horizontally on body, vertically on neck and handle; Karageorghis,
BCH1981: 1018andfig.118;(Pls.XVIandXXVII).
374. Tomb 321/204: Limassol Museum; repaired, surface damaged; small trefoil rim, double-rope handle from
neck to body, inverted pear-shaped body with a wide base, ridge at join of neck to body, three incised lines
around upper body; H: 21.2 em; D: 13.4 em; ware: 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow; slip: 2.5YR 6/6light red, bur-
nished horizontally on body, vertically on neck and handle; (Pis. XVI and XXVII).
375. Tomb 341/4: Limassol Museum 555/81; double-rope handle, knob at base of handle, slight ridge at base of
neck, footed base; H: 17.3 em; D: 10.1 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, sandy; patchy slip: lOR 5/8 red to 5YR 6/4
light reddish brown, hand burnished, vertically and horizontally on body, vertically on neck and handle;
Karageorghis, BCH 1982: 697 and fig. 39; (Pl. XIV).
EPISKOPI - Kaloriziki:
376. Tomb 31118: Curium House Museum P1862; repaired, handle lacking; H: 19 em; D: 12 em; ware: 5YR 7/4
pink; slip: 7.5R 5/6 red, burnished horizontally on body, vertically on neck; Benson 1973: 109, no. K802,
pl. 51; the form is similar to no. 359.
LARNACA (Kition) - Kathari:
377. See Bikai 1983:26, nos. 60 (pl. XX.I4,15), 61 (pl. XX.l6), 62/a, b, c, and f(pl. XX.17). There are over
fifty rim fragments of this type in the sherd trays of Kition.
LARNACA (Kition) - Bamboula:
378. KEF 580: Larnaca Fort Museum; rim only; there is a pierced strainer in the rim which had knobs on either side
(only one is preserved); D: 10.3 em; ware: 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow; slip: lOR 4/6 red, patchy, burnished; Cal-
vet Actes: fig. 12; (Pis. XV and XXIX); Amathus Tomb 7/173 (SCEII: 38, pl. X = SCEIV:2, fig. XLIII.l2)
is also a trefoil-rimed pitcher with a strainer, but the form of this indicates that it is of Cypriote manufacture.
SALAMIS:
379. Tomb 1/209: Cyprus Museum 1957/V-1311; repaired; strap handle, ridge at join of neck to body; H: 27.4 em;
D: 18.4 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/4light reddish brown, soft; patchy slip: 7.5R 4/6 red to 5YR 6/4light reddish
brown, burnished horizontally on body, vertically on rim; appears to be from the same maker as Amathus
32
380.
381.
382.
383.
384.
385.
386.
387.
388.
389.
390.
391.
392.
393.
THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
Tomb 151/55 (no. 370) which, however, has three incised lines around the shoulder; Dikaios 1963: 195 and
fig. 35:28; (Pl. XIV).
Tomb 11233: Cyprus Museum 1957/V-13/1; sherd: upper shoulder and lower neck with raised ridge at base
of neck and three incised lines around upper body; ware: 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow; slip: I OR 5/6 red, burnished;
from a vessel similar to no. 370; on the tomb, see Dikaios 1963.
Tomb 2/3: Cyprus Museum; repaired; strap handle, ridge at base of neck, ring base; H: 31.4 em; D: 20.6 em;
ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow; thick, flaking slip: lOR 5/6 red, traces of burnishing; covered with tin;
Karageorghis 1967b: 11, pl. CVIII and see Appendix I on the tin covering; (Pl. XVI).
Tomb 2/81: Cyprus Museum; repaired; strap handle, ridge at base of neck, ring base; H: 27.3 em; D: 19.2 em;
ware: 2.5YR 6/4light reddish brown, soft and flaking; thick, flaking slip: I OR4/4 weak red, traces of burnish-
ing; Karageorghis 1967b: 15, pis. XIII, CVIII; (Pis. XVI and XXVII).
Tomb 31146: Cyprus Museum; repaired; strap handle, ridge at base of neck, very shallow incisions around
upper body, ring base; H: 22.5 em; D: 14.6 em; ware: 5YR 7/5 pink/reddish yellow, very soft; slip: lOR 4/4
weak red, traces of burnishing; Karageorghis 1967b: 60, pis. LIX, CXXXIII; (Pl. XVI).
*Tomb 47/38, 42, 44, 46, 47,49: Cyprus Museum; all with strap handle, ridge at base of neck, ring base and
tin covering; these may be of local manufacture; Karageorghis 1967b: 81, 85, pis. LXXVIII.43,
CXXXVIII.43, 49.
Tomb 79/848-50, 855-59, 870-75, 879-81, 894-96, 900-2; Cyprus Museum; all nearly identical but of
varying sizes; all with double rope handle, ridge at base of neck, three incised lines around upper body, tin
covering. Two were examined in detail:
Tomb 79/896: repaired; ring base; H: 19 em; D: 12.1 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink; slip: 2. 5YR 5/6 red, burnished
horizontally on body, vertically on neck under the tin covering; Karageorghis 197 4b: 56, pl. XLIX; (Pl. XVI).
Tomb 79/901: rim and handle lacking; depressed base; D: 13 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/4light reddish brown; slip:
2.5YR 5/6 red, burnished horizontally on body, vertically on neck under the tin covering; Karageorghis
1974b: 57, pis. XLIX, CCXXVI.
A YIA IRINI - Paleokastro:
Tomb 1117: Cyprus Museum; base and most of lower body lacking; double-rope handle, ridge at base of neck,
three incised lines around upper body; H: ca. 20 em preserved; ware: 7 .5YR 6/6 reddish yellow; slip: lOR 5/6
red, burnished horizontally on body, vertically on neck; Pecorella 1977: 69-80; Rochetti 1978: 108.
Tomb 28/9: Cyprus Museum; base and lower body lacking; strap handle, ridge at base of neck, three incised
lines around upper body; H: ca. 20 em preserved; ware: 7 .5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, red inclusions to 5.5 mm;
slip: 2.5YR 5/6 red, burnished horizontally on body, vertically on neck; Rochetti 1978: 53.
Tomb 33/10: Cyprus Museum; intact; double-rope handle, ridge at base of neck, four incised lines around
upper body, stepped base; H: 22.3 em; D: 13.9 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow; slip: lOR 5/6 red, bur-
nished horizontally by wheel on body, vertically on neck and handle; Rochetti 1978: 64; (Pl. XVI).
Tomb 39/2: Cyprus Museum; base and most of body lacking; double-rope handle, ridge at base of neck, four
lines incised around upper body; H: ca. 19 em preserved; ware: 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow; slip: lOR 6/6light
red, horizontally wheel burnished on body, vertically burnished on neck; surface patchy; Rochetti 1978: 70-71.
Tomb 39/3: Cyprus Museum; fragments of two different jars: from one only a base and lower body, from the
other a neck, rim and double rope handle; Rochetti 1978:70.
Tomb 46/3: Cyprus Museum; rim chipped; double-rope handle, ridge at base of neck, three incised lines
around upper body; H: 20.5 em; D: 13 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, soft; slip: lOR 4/6 red, burnished
horizontally by wheel on body, vertically on neck and handle; Rochetti 1978:78; (Pl. XVI).
*See also Tomb 47/50: rim and most of neck lacking; double-rope handle; H: 19 em preserved; D: 12.5 em;
Rochetti 1978:97.
See also nos. 397, 398, 399 and 406, all probably from Ayia Irini.
PHILIA- Aeras-Vassilikou:
Tomb 6/1: Cyprus Museum 1953/III-9/3; repaired; strap handle, ridge at join of neck to body, three incised
lines around upper body; H: 20.8 em; D: 14.6 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink; slip: lOR 4/4, burnished horizonally
by wheel on body, vertically on neck and handle; (Pis. XV and XXVII). This is the only pitcher with a prove-
CATALOGUE
33
nience from a group of five which probably came from the same maker: nos. 394, 396, 400, and 406. There
are variations among these as to details and finish but the impression when they are seen together is that they
are from the same shop.
IDALION:
*?See also SCE II: 552, no. 713, pl. CLXIX, fragmentary jug with flat base from the H7 Deposit.
NICOSIA- Ay. Omologites:
24/31: Cyprus Museum; globular body, very long conical neck, double-rope handle, prounounced
ndge at base of neck; self-slipped and burnished; black horizontal bands on upper body; to 'be published by
P. Flourentzos in RDAC.
OTHER:
394.
Cyprus Museum 1935/B 1873: rim chipped; strap handle, ridge at base of neck, three lines incised around
upper body; H: 21.6 em; D: 14.5 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/41ight reddish brown, red inclusions drawn across the
surface by burnishing; a rare self-slipped example of this type, burnished horizontally on body, vertically on
neck; see no. 393; (Pis. XV and XXVII).
395.
Cyprus Museum 1935/Bl885: strap handle, ridge at base of neck; H: 18.8 em; D: 12 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 red-
dish yellow; slip:. 2.5YR 4/8 red, burnished horizontally on body, vertically on neck; (Pl. XV).
396.
Museum 1942/VIII-2511(325), Grove B. White Collection: intact; strap handle, knobs on rim edge,
at base of neck, three lines incised around upper body; H: 21.9 em; D: 14.3 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink;
shp: lOR 4.5/4 red, burnished horizontally on body, vertically on neck; see no. 393; (Pl. XV).
397.
398.
399.
400.
401.
402.
403.
404.
*See also Cyprus Museum 1960/VIII-1811, from Soli: double-rope handle, ridge at base of neck, incisions
around upper body, depressed base; Karageorghis, BCH 1961: 278, fig. 28b.
Cyprus Museum 1965/X-8/66: said to have come from looted tombs at Ayia Irini; chipped, surface very
worn; double-rope handle, ridge at base of neck; three incised lines around upper body; H: 22 em; D: 13.8
em; ware: 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow, soft and flaking; slip: lOR 5/4 weak red; burnish worn off; Rochetti
1978:101; (Pl. XVI).
Museum 1965/X-8/67: said to have come from looted tombs at Ayia Irini; repaired, part of rim Iack-
mg; double-rope handle, ridge at base of neck, three incised lines around upper body; H: 19.9 em; D: 12.9
em; ware: :YR 7/5 pink/reddish yellow; patchy slip: lOR 5/6 red to 5YR 7/4 pink, burnished horizontally on
body, vertically on neck and handle; Rochetti 1978:101; (Pl. XVI).
Cyprus Museum 1965/IV-22/1: said to have come from looted tombs at Ayiairini; strap handle, ridge at base
neck, three lines incised around upper body; H: 22.6 em; D: 16.3 em; ware: 5YR 6/41ight reddish brown;
shp: lOR 4/4 red, burnished horizontally on body, vertically on neck; (Pis. XVI and XXVII).
also Cyprus Museum 1966/IV-2611: biconical body, strap handle, footed base; H: 17.5 em; Karageor-
ghis, BCH 1967: 280, no. 8 and fig. 14.
1984/XI-14/3: rim chipped; knobs on rim, double-rope handle, ridge at base of neck, three
hnes mcJsed around upper body; H: 21.7 em; D: 13.8 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/61ight red; surface wet-smoothed
only, no slip; see no. 393; (Pl. XV).
Museum of the Pierides Foundation, Larnaca, unnumbered:
(A)Double-rope handle; ridge at base of neck, three lines incised around upper body, small knob a center of
base exterior; rim chipped; H: 18.9 em; D: 10.75 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink; slip patchy: 7.5 4/6 red to 5YR
6/4Iight reddish brown, burnished horizontally on on body, vertically on neck; (Pl. XV).
(B)Strap handle, ridge at base of neck, three lines incised around upper body; part of rim Jacking, surface
worn; H: 19.6 em; D: 13 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, red inclusions to 4.5 mm, burnished horizonally on body
vertically on neck; (Pl. XV). '
of G. Assiotis, Nicosia: intact; strap handle, ridge at base of neck, six lines incised below ridge,
nng base; H: 17.4 em; D: 11.6 em; ware: 5YR 6/4light reddish brown, soft; slip: 7 .5R 5/6 red, vertically bur-
nished; (PI. XV).
Collection of Maroulla Panaouri, Nicosia: intact; strap handle, slight ridge at base of neck, three shallow inci-
si.ons around upper ?ody; H: 18.4 em; D: 12.4 em; ware not visible due to encrustation; slip patchy: 5YR 7/3
pmk to 2.5YR 6/6 hght red, burnished horizontally by wheel on body, vertically on neck; (Pl. XV).
34 THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
405. Collection of the Pedagogical Academy, Nicosia: possibly from the Kyrenia area; handle and part of rim lack-
ing; pronounced ridge at base of neck, three lines incised around upper body; H: 20.6 em; D: 12.6 em; ware:
5YR 7/4 pink, soft; slip: lOR 4/8 red, burnished horizontally on body, vertically on neck; (Pl. XV).
406. Collection of Christos Zembylas, Nicosia: said to have come from Ayia Irini in the 1960's; part of rim lacking;
strap handle, ridge at base of neck, three lines incised around upper body; H: 22.9 em; D: 14.9 em; ware: 5YR
6/6 reddish yellow; self slip, burnished horizontally on body, vertically on neck; see no. 393; very similar to
no. 394; (Pl. XV).
407. *Robert H. Lowie Museum of Anthropology, University of California at Berkeley 8/3288: described as hav-
ing "Chips missing from lip and foot; surface somewhat abraded. H. 0.156; Max. Body D. 0.094 ... Light
buff clay, with burnished reddish-orange slip." The illustration indicates that it is hand burnished, horizon-
tally on the lower third of the body, vertically above. Karageorghis, Amyx, and Associates 1974: 31, no. 69.
408. *See also Corp. Vas. Ant., Great Britain 2, British Museum 2, II Cc, pl. 20.2: H: 12.3; "Dark buff clay with
dull red slip." Cesnola, 1876; Walters 1912: Catalogue C. 1015.
409. *Metropolitan Museum of Art 75.51.1400; Cesnola, Atlas II: pl. CXLII, no. 1063, III, pl. CXL.2; from a
tomb at Kition, inscribed; the height is given as 6 112 inches; Myers 1914: no. 474, and seep. 525 on the
inscription; see SCE IV:2, fig. XLIII.l3 which shows that it has a ridge at the base of the neck and three inci-
sions around the upper body; Karageorghis and Karageorghis 1956: 352, no. I, pl. 118, fig. Ia.
*?See also Myers 1914: 59, no. 475, not illustrated; H: given as 9 3/8 inches.
*See also Myers 1914: 58, no. 473; H: 9 112 inches; high footed base; described as having its "body pinched
together into a flat ring shape about a horizontal axis." This would be unusual for a Phoenician pitcher but
the potter may have been imitating a common Cypriote form; Cesnola, Atlas II: 982.
The following are miniature black-slipped juglets with trefoil rims:
AMATHUS:
410. Tomb 232 (Excavation of 1894): Cyprus Museum 1935/Bl265; footed base, ridge at base of neck; H: 10.2
em; D: 5.7 em; ware: lOYR 611 gray; slip: IOYR 211 black, burnished; Myers and Ohnefalsch-Richter 1899:
70, no. 1038 and seep. 212; (Pl. XV).
LARNACA (Kition) - Kathari:
411. Kition Area II, Bothros 10, floor3, catalogue number 2113: LarnacaMuseum 716; footed base, rim and han-
dle lacking, two knobs at the base of what may have been a double-rope handle; H: 12.5 em restored; D: 7. 7
em; ware: 7.5YR 6.5/0 gray/light gray; slip: 7.5YR 3/0 very dark gray, burnished; Bikai 1981: 27, no. 66,
pis. XXII.7 and XXVI.5.
CYPRUS MUSEUM:
412. 1935/B1304: similar to no. 410; H: 9.2 em; D: 2.8 em; ware: IOYR 511 gray; slip: 7 .5YR 3/0 very dark gray,
burnished.
413. 1984/XII-20/2: repaired; similar to no. 410, but less biconica1; H: 8.6 em; D: 4.3 em; ware not visible; slip
varies from 5YR 3/1 very dark gray to 5YR 6/4 light reddish brown, burnished.
The following are all finished in the burnished slip (red, black or self slip) characteristic
of the second major phase of Phoenician pottery production:
Bowls:
LARNACA (Kition) - Kathari:
414. Kition Area II, Temple 1, Bothros 4/16, floor3: fragments only; bowl with everted rim and stepped base (only
the edge of this is preserved); H: 3.2 em preserved; D: 18.2 em; ware: 5YR 7.5/3 pink, red inclusions; self
slip, highly burnished; (Pl. XVII).
415. Kition Area II, Courtyard C/78, floor 3: fragments only, rim and base do not join; bowl with slightly everted
rim, carinated body, stepped base; H: 5.8 em restored; D: 18 em; ware: 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, soft, red
inclusions, surface patchy; self slip, wheel burnished; (Pl. XVII).
416. Kition Area II, Bothros 16/48, floor 3; fragments; bowl with rim thickened to the exterior, carination; H: 4.5
em preserved; D: 19 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, patchy surface, red inclusions, burnished; (Pl. XVII).
CATALOGUE 35
417. Kition Area II, Bothros 16/48, floor 3: fragments only, base lacking; bowl with slightly everted rim, carinated
body, three incised lines around mid-body; H: 4.6 em preserved; D: 17 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink; self slip, bur-
nished; (Pl. XVII).
418. Kition Area II, Temple 1, Bothros 4, floor 3, no. 1808: restored; bowl with flaring rim, stepped base; H: 4.75
em; D: 19.3 em; ware: 5YR 6/6reddish yellow, soft, red inclusions to 6.5 mm; slip interior and upper exterior,
reserve bands on lower body and base: 7 .5R 4.5/6 red, wheel burnished except interior base which is hand
burnished; Bikai 1981: 25, no. 48, pis. XXI.ll, XXV.25; (Pis. XVII and XXVI).
419. Kition Area II, Courtyard C/103, floor3: fragments only, rim and base do not join; bowl with slightly everted
rim, stepped base; H: 5 em restored; D: 18 em; ware: 7.5YR 7/6reddish yellow, red inclusions; slip on interior
and top of rim: 5R 5/6 red, wheel burnished interior and exterior; (Pl. XVII).
420. Kition Area II, Room 45A, floor 3, no. 4341; restored; bowl with everted rim and ring base; H: 7.3 em; D:
18 em restored; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, uneven core; slip: 2.5YR 5.5/4 reddish brown/light reddish brown,
wheel burnished; Bikai 1981:25, no. 47, pis. XXI.12, XXV.23; (Pl. XVII).
421. Kition Area II, Courtyard C/97(rim) and 109(base), floor 3: fragments only, rim and base do not join; bowl
with everted rim, three incisions around upper body; ring base with small raised ridge just above base; D: 17
em; ware: 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow; slip: 7.5R 5/6 red, wheel burnished; (Pl. XVII).
422. Kition Area II, Bothros 6A, between floors 2A and 2: upper part of body and rim only; everted rim, similar
in form to no. 420; red slipped and burnished; Bikai 1981: 25, no. 40, pis. XXI.l3 and XXV.22.
423. Kition Area II, Bothros 9, floor 2A: fragment only; bowl with vertical rim, three incisions around rim exterior;
H: 2.2 em preserved; D: 22.4 em; ware: 5YR 6/4light reddish brown; slip: 7/5R 5/4 weak red, wheel bur-
nished; Bikai 1981: 25, no. 51, pis XXI.l8.i and XXV.25; (Pl. XVII).
424. Kition Area II, Temple 1, Bothros 4, floor 3, no. 1948: restored; large open bowl with everted rim above a
carination, disc base; H: 4.1 em restored; D: 28.3 em restored; ware: 7. 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, red inclusions
to 2 mm; slip: 1 OR 5/6 red, wheel burnished; reserve slip band on exterior with incised lines on either side of
band; Bikai 1981:25, no. 52, pis. XXI.l6, 17, XXV.26; (Pis. XVII and XXVI).
425. Kition Area II, Temple 1139, floor 3: fragment only; wide plate with rim thickened to the interior; D: 28.3 em;
ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, soft and flaking, red inclusions; self slipped, highly burnished; (Pl. XVII).
426. Kition Area II, Room 112/2, between floors I and 3: fragment only;krater (?)with slightly everted body walls,
pendant rim; D: 30.2 em; ware: 5YR 8/4 pink, many red inclusions; self slipped, very highly burnished (the
highest luster this writer has seen); (Pl. XVII).
Covers:
427. Kition Area II, Bothros 6A, between floors 2A and 2, no. 3305A: fragments, rim lacking; ware: 5YR 7/4
pink, soft; slip exterior: 1 OR 4/6 red, burnished exterior; two sets of incisions around exterior; Bikai 1981: 24,
no. 22, pis. XX.7, 11, XXIV.l8; (Pl. XVII).
428. Kition Area II, Temple 1, Bothros 4, floor3, no. 1817: restored, knob lacking; D: 16 em; ware: 5YR 7/3 pink;
patchy slip exterior: 1 OR 5/6 red to 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, wheel burnished exterior; two sets of incisions
exterior; Bikai 1981: 24, no. 20, pis. XX.9, XXIV.l6; (Pis. XVII and XXVI).
429. Kition Area II, Temple 1, floor3, no. 1757: fragments, knob lacking; D: 15.2 em restored; ware: 7 .5YR 7/4
pink, soft and flaking, red inclusions; slip exterior: lOR 5/6 red, wheel burnished; two incised lines; thick self
slip interior, wet-smoothed; Bikai 1981: 24, no. 19, pis. XX.8, XXIV.l5; (Pl. XVII).
See also Bikai 1981: 24, nos. 21 and 23.
Kraters:
AMATHUS:
430. *Tomb 2/49: Medelhavsmuseet, Stockholm; krater with plain incurving rim, flattened globular body, ring
base; H: 25.5 em; SCEII: 12, pl. VI, fig. 2, pl. CXXVI.11; SCEIV:2, fig. XLIII. I.
431. *Tomb 13/36: Medelhavsmuseet, Stockholm; H: 28 em; described as "deep bowl with low foot; curved sides,
bent-in, wide rim. Below rim, encircling ridge. Gritty, buff clay; polished, red, lustrous slip." SCE II: 82,
pl. XIX, fig. 1, pl. CXXV .II, pl. III, upper left, in color; SCE IV:2, fig. XXVII.2.
36
THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
OTHER:
432. *Cesnola, Atlas II, pl. XCVI, no. 902; a red-slipped krater with vertical neck, everted rim, globular body and
"multiple handles, with lateral spurs ... suggestive of a metallic model." Myers 1914: 111, no. 920; SCE
II: fig. XLIII.2; H: 1' 2 3/8". Compare with Pritchard 1978: fig. 40, a handle frgment from Sarepta.
433. *?Cesnola, Atlas II, pl. CXVI, no. 904; krater with vertical neck, globular body and high footed base; the
form is non-Phoenician but these vessels warrant further investigation; Myers 1914: 111, no. 921; H: 1' 6 l/8".
Miscellaneous:
AMATHUS:
434. Tomb 288/20: Limassol Museum; base only, probably from a very large stand; H: 2.6 em preserved; D: 12.4
em; ware: 5YR 511 gray; slip exterior: 7. 5YR 3/0 very dark grey, wheel burnished; (Pis. XVII and XXVII).
435. Tomb 367/51-1: Limas sol Museum; restored; stand with wide horizontal rim with vertical ridge at inner edge,
wide flaring pedestal foot; the interiors of the cup and of the base are unfinished and show wheel and finger
marks; H: 15.45 em; D: 14.6 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink; patchy slip exterior: lOR 5/6 red to 7.5YR 7/4 pink;
black slip at midbody; black paint on interior and exterior edge of rim and on edge of base; wheel burnished;
two incisions on either side of black-slipped area at mid-body, and above the black paint on the base; 8ikai
1985; (Pis. XVII and XXVII).
LARNACA:
436. Lamaca Museum 10 (from the old Lamaca Museum): condition: almost perfect; bowl with concave rim (to
receive a cover), four horizontal handles, sharp carination at mid-body, convex disc base; H: 9.6 em; D: (at
the carination) 15.5 em; ware: 5YR 6/4light reddish brown, red inclusions to 3 mm; slip on exterior and upper
rim; 7 .5R 4/6 red to 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, patchy; wheel burnished below the carination; vertically hand
burnished above; interior unfinished; for a parallel, see 8ikai 1978b: pl. VI.13, Tyre Stratum III; (Pis. XVII
and XXVII).
LARNACA (Kition) - Kathari:
437. Kition Area II, Temple 1, floor 3, no. 927: restored; double bowl, each section carinated with simple vertical
rim, disc base withridgejustabove the base; H: 17.6 em; D: upper bowl, 30.5 em; lower bowl, 31.6 em; ware:
5YR 7/3 pink, soft and flaking, many red inclusions; slip on upper exterior of bowls and upper interior of
upper bowl: 7.5R 4.5/6 red to 5YR 6/4light reddish brown, patchy; wheel burnished exterior only; interior
wet smoothed; 8ikai 1981: 25, no. 53, pls. XXI.19, 20, XXV.29; (Pis. XVII and XXVII).
438. Kition Area II, Courtyard 8/3 and 13, Courtyard A/20, floor 3: rim fragments, possibly from a large vessel
such as no. 437; H: 4.5 em preserved; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, red inclusions to 3.5 mm; slip: 7 .5R 4/4 weak red;
at center, black slip with an incision on either side; burnished ext.; wet smoothed int.; two fragments of this
were published, 8ikai 1981:25, no. 55, pl. XXI.l8.f, g; (Pl. XVII).
439. Kition Area II, Courtyard A/5, floor 3: rim fragment only, also possibly from a large vessel such as no. 437;
H: 5.1 em preserved; the diameter is at least 28 em; ware: 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, soft; self slip, wet-
smoothed interior; slip exterior: 5R 5!6 red, burnished; two sets of two incisions exterior; (Pl. XVII).
440. Kition Area II, 8othros 16, floor3, no. 3451: restored, part of one handle lacking; lotus bowl with plain rim,
rounded base, two lotus handles; H: 6.6 em with handles; D: 11 em (bowl only); ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, soft,
many red inclusions; slip: lOR 5/6 red, hand burnished; 8ikai 1981: 27, no. 74, pis. XXII.14, XXVI.6; (Pis.
XVII and XXVI).
Black-slipped lotus bowls and related black-slipped vessels, mostly miniatures; see also
the miniature juglets, nos. 410-13, the jug, no. 353, and the black-slipped base, no. 434.
LARNACA (Kition) - Kathari:
441. Kition Area II, 8othros 10, floor3, no. 2107: lotus bowl, restored; height of bowl: 2.3 em; D: 6.3 em; ware:
7.5YR 6/0 gray; slip: 7.5YR 4/0 dark gray, burnished; 8ikai 1981: 27, no. 73; (Pl. XVII).
442. Kition Area II, 8othros 10, floor 3, no. 2108 + 2182: lotus bowl, restored; height of bowl: 4.6 em; D: 10.5
em; ware: 7. 5YR 510 gray; slip: 7. 5YR 3/0: very dark gray, burnished; 8ikai 1981: 27, no. 73.
443. Kition Area II, 8othros 10, floor3, no. 2128: lotus bowl, restored; height of bowl: 2.5 em; D: 7.9 em; ware:
7.5YR 5!0 gray; slip: 7.5YR 4/0 dark gray, burnished; 8ikai 1981: 27, no. 73; (Pl. XVII).
CATALOGUE
37
444. Kition Area II, 8othros 10, floor3, no. 2132: lotus bowl, restored; height of bowl: 3.5 em; D: 11.3 em; ware:
7.5YR 6/0 gray; slip 7.5YR 3/0 very dark gray, burnished; 8ikai 1981:27, no. 73.
445. Kition Area II, 8othros 10, floor 3, no. 2153: lotus bowl, restored; height of bowl: 2.5 em; D: 6.4 em; ware:
7.5YR 6/0 gray; slip: 7.5YR 3/0 very dark gray; 8ikai 1981: 27, no. 73.
CYPRUS MUSEUM:
446. 1935/81230: note on card says "Klyrou 1919"; lotus bowl, repaired; height of bowl: 4.5 em; D: 10 em; ware:
7.5YR 7/4 pink; traces of burnishing; the vessel appears to have been in a fire; SCE IV:2: fig. XLIII.22.
447. 1935/81234: similar to nos. 441-45, supra; SCE IV:2: fig. XLIII.20.
448. *CesnolaCollection: Myers 1914:61, no. 495; D: 21/8"; "gray clay."
449. *Cesnola Collection: Myers 1914: 61, no. 496; D: 4 3/8"; "reddish clay with a poor black slip."
Miscellaneous forms:
LARNACA (Kition) - Kathari:
450. Kition Area II, 8othros 2l/54, floor 3: bowl with curving sides, fragment only; D: 11 em; ware: 2.5YR 5/0
dark gray; slip: 2.5YR 3/0 very dark gray, burnished; (Pl. XVII).
451. Kition Area II, 8othros 21154, floor 3: bowl with everted rim thickened to the interior, fragment only; D: 17.9
em; ware: 2.5YR 5/0 gray, interior wheel burnished; (Pl. XVII).
452. Kition Area II, 8othros 10, floor 3, no. 2120: small chalice-like cup with wide footed base, incised around
the rim; H: 5 em; D: 5.9 em; ware: 7.5YR 6/0 gray; slip: 7.5YR 3/0 very dark gray; 8ikai 1981:27, no. 69,
pis. XXII. 9 and XXVI.8; (Pis. XVII and XXVI).
453. Kition Area II, Z-12, floor3, no. 2221: bowl with everted rim which has a horizontal depression at its exterior
midpoint, forming two rolls, two drilled holes near the rim; D: 19.5 em; gray ware; dark gray slip, burnished;
8ikai 1981: 27, number 70, pis. XXII.ll and XXVI.9.
454. Kition Area II, 8othros 10, floor 3, no. 2164: small bowl with ledge handle which has a hole at its center; H:
3 em; D: 8.6 em; ware: 7.5YR 510 gray; slip: 7.5YR 3/0 very dark gray, burnished; 8ikai 1981:27, number
71 , pl. XXVI. 7; (Pl. XVII).
CYPRUS MUSEUM:
455. 1958/I-17 /6: repaired; small bowl with ledge handle which has a hole in it, groove below rim; H: 3 em; D:
9.6 em; ware: 7.5YR 7/4 pink; slip: 7.5YR 510 gray, burnished; (Pl. XVII).
These plates (or or shallow bowls) have, in general, flaring rims and were, in different
eras, variously decorated; it is now possible to recognize at least five common types, as well
as some miscellaneous forms which, because of their very thin ware, are related:
1) Bowl of thin-walled golden-colored ware with a dark red slip (Bikai 1978a: 52, Fine
Ware Plate Class 1; Bikai 1978b: Fine Ware Plate 8). This type is represented in Cyprus by
approximately ten small sherds from V. Karageorghis' excavations at Kition; no complete
examples were located. For complete examples see Bikai 1978b: pl. XIX.1-8; Herrera
Gonzalez 1983: pl. 8.1-12.
2) Bowl with flaring rim, convex base with small platform incised into it or a thin disc
base applied; usually decorated with red slip on the interior and upper rim exterior (Bikai
1978a: Fine Ware Plate Class 2, Type 1; Bikai 1978b: 28, Fine Ware Plate 6).
3) Bowl with flaring rim, flat or convex base, reserve-slip and incised decoration on the
exterior base (Bikai 1978a: 52, Fine Ware Plate Class 2, included in Type 2; Bikai 1978b: 26,
included in Fine Ware Plate 2; Bikai 1981: 23, type I.A).
4) Bowl with flaring rim, flat or convex base with reserve-slip decoration (Bikai 1978a:
52, Fine Ware Plate Class 2, included in Type 2; Bikai 1978b: 26, included in Fine Ware Plate
2; Bikai 1981: 24, type I.B).
38 THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
5) A later derivative form in which the body walls are somewhat thicker, the slip is thin
and washy and is band-burnished or unburnished (Bikai 1978a: Fine Ware Plate Class 2, Type
3; Bikai 1978b: 26, Fine Ware Plate 1; Bikai 1981: 24, type I.D).
In the following catalogue, each bowl is assigned to type:
AMATHUS:
456. Tomb 162/34-22: Limassol Museum 671134-22; type 4; restored, most of base lacking; H: 3.4 em; D: 18 em;
ware: 5YR 7/4 pink; slip: 7/5R 5/4 weak red; black paint on rim edge; (Pl. XIX).
Tomb 137/49: Limassol Museum 509/49; this has a thin red wash on the interior and exterior rim only and
appears to be a Cypriote imitation of type 4; see also Limassol Museum 372174 and 372175 which are possibly
from the same maker.
LARNACA (Kition) - Bamboula
457. KEF643: LarnacaFort Museum; type 3; repaired; H: 4 em; D: 17.2 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, soft, red inclu-
sions; slip: 7 .5R 4/6 red, exterior and rim interior wheel burnished, interior base hand burnished; Karageor-
ghis, BCH 1982: 725 and fig. 92a; Cal vet Actes: fig. II; (Pis. XVIII and XXIX).
458. *K84!1146: Larnaca Museum; type 4 bowl; D: 20.5 em; H: 2.8 em; red-slipped with reserve band on base.
459. *K80!1296: Larnaca Museum: bowl slimilar to no. 476; D: 19.9 em; H: 2.6 em preserved.
LARNACA (Kition) - Kathari:
There are hundreds of rim fragments from bowls of types 3, 4 and 5 in the sherd trays of the Kition excava-
tions.
460. Kition Area II, Courtyard A/3, between floors I and 3: type I; rim fragment only, recut as a gaming piece;
ware: 2.5YR 6/6 light red; slip on interior: I OR 4/6 red; wheel burnished; there are approximately ten frag-
ments from bowls of type I in the sherd trays of Kition; see Bothros 3/7, floor 3 and Bikai 1981: 24, no. 24.
461. Kition Area II, Bothros 9, floor 3: type 2; fragment only; D: 16 em; H: 2.4 em preserved; ware: 7 .5YR 8/3
pink, soft; slip on interior and rim exterior: 7 .5R 5!6 red, burnished; Bikai 1981: 24, no. 32; (Pl. XVIII);
approximately a dozen rim fragments from plates of type 2 have been noted in the sherd trays of Kition, see
Temple 2/15, between floor I and 3; Courtyard C/ 18, between floors I and 3; Bothros 9/22, floor 3; Bothros
23 + 13/4, floor 3; Courtyard C/112, floor 3.
462. Kition Area II, Temple I, floor 3, no. 2685: type 3; fragments only; H: 3.2 em; D: 20.6 em; ware: 5YR 7/4
pink, red inclusions; patchy slip: lOR 4/6 red to 5YR 7/4 pink, wheel burnished; Bikai 1981: 23, no. 6.
463. Kition Area II, Bothros 4, floor 3, no. 1947: type 3; restored; H: 4.2 em; D: 19.9 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink;
slip: lOR 4.5/6 red, patchy, wheel burnished; black band on rim edge; Bikai 1981: 23, no. 3; (Pis. XVIII and
XXVI).
464. Kition Area II, Bothros 4, floor3, no. 1949: type 3; fragmentary; H: 3.1 em; D: 21 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink,
red inclusions; slip: lOR 5/6 red, wheel burnished; black band on rim edge; Bikai 1981: 23, no. 4.
465. Kition Area II, Bothros 4, floor 3, no. 1952: type 3; restored; H: 3.2 em; D: 17.9 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink,
red inclusions; slip: 7 .5R 4/6 red, wheel burnished; Bikai 1981: 23, no. 5.
466. Kition Area II, Bothros 10, floor 3, no. 1722: type 3; restored; H: 2. 7 em; D: 18.3 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink,
red inclusions; slip: 7 .5R 5/6 red; wheel burnished on exterior and rim interior; wheel and hand burnished on
base interior; black band on rim edge; Bikai 1981; 23, no. 11; (Pis. XVIII and XXVI).
467. Kition Area II, Bothros 12, floor3, no. 1743: type 3; restored; H: 3.4 em; D: 19.5 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink,
red inclusions; patchy slip: lOR 5/6 red to 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, wheel burnished exterior and interior
except at center base which is hand burnished; made up of over 65 pieces; black band on rim edge; Bikai 1981:
23, no. 2; (Pis. XVIII and XXVI).
468. Kition Area II, Courtyard A/41, floor 3: type 3; fragments; H: 3.7 em preserved; D: 16.7 em; ware: 5YR 7/6
reddish yellow; slip: 7/5YR 5/6 red; (Pl. XVIII).
469. Kition Area II, Courtyard C/60, floor3: type 3; fragmentary; H: 2.9 em; D: 18.2 em; ware: 7 .5YR 7/6 reddish
yellow, many red inclusions; slip: 7 .5R 5/6 red, patchy, burnished; (Pl. XVIII).
470. Kition Area II, Bothros 16, floor3, no. 3688: type 4; restored; H: 3.6 em restored; D: 21.7 em restored; ware:
5YR 7/3 pink, soft; slip: 7.5R 5/6 red, wheel burnished; Bikai 1981: 24, no. 14; (Pl. XIX).
CATALOGUE
39
471. Kition Area II, Bothros 9, floor3, no. 3109: type 5; fragmentary; H: 3.9 em; D: 18.6 em restored; ware: 5YR
7/4 pink, soft, red inclusions; thin, washy slip on interior and upper exterior: 7 .5R 4/4 weak red, traces of band
burnishing; Bikai 1981:24, no. 17; (Pl. XIX).
472. Kition Area II, Room 37, between floors 3 and 2A, no. 3610: type 5; restored; H: 5.2 em restored; D: 18.7
em restored; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, soft; thin, washy slip on interior and upper exterior: 1 OR 5/5 weak red/red,
wide ring burnishing on the interior; exterior base self slipped; Bikai 1981: 24, no. 18.
473. Kition Area II, Bothros 9A, floor 2A, no. 2549: type 5; repaired; H: 4.9 em; D: 18.9 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink,
soft; thin slip on upper rim interior and rim exterior: 7 .5R 4/6 red, not burnished; Bikai 1981: 24, no. 16; (Pl.
XIX).
474. Kition Area II, Courtyard C/97 and 109, floor 3: miscellaneous type (no reserve bands or incisions on base);
fragments only; H: 2. 7 em; D: 14 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow; slip: 7 .5R 4.5/6 red, wheel burnished
exterior and rim interior, base interior cross burnished; faded black paint on rim edge; very thin ware; (Pl.
XVIII).
475. Kition Area II, Courtyard A/33, floor 3: miscellaneous bowl (no reserve bands or incisions on base); H: 2.9
em preserved; D: 21 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, red inclusions; slip: 7.5R 5/6red, patchy, wheel burnished; (Pl.
XVIII).
476. Kition Area II, Temenos B/2, floor 3: miscellaneous type; fragment only; H: 3.6 em; D: 21 em; ware: 5YR
7/4 pink, soft; washy red slip: lOR 5/3 weak red, not burnished; (Pl. XIX).
477. Kition Area II, Courtyard C/27, between floors I and 3: miscellaneous type; D: 19 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/6light
red; slip: lOR 5/6 red, burnished; black paint on rim; (Pl. XIX).
478. Kition Area II, Bothros 16/3, floor 3: miscellaneous type; fragments only; D: 17 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink;
washy slip: lOR 5/4 weak red; (Pl. XIX).
479. Kition Area II, Bothros 9, floor 3, no. 3095: miscellaneous type; repaired; H: 4 em; D: 18.6 em; ware: 5YR
7/4 pink, soft; thin slip: 7.5R 5/6 red, wheel burnished; spiral incised on base; Bikai 1981: 25, no. 34; (Pis.
XIX and XXVI).
480. Kition Area II, Bothros 1112, floor 3: miscellaneous type; fragments only; H: 2.6 em preserved; D: 19 em;
ware: 2.5YR 6/4light reddish brown; red slip interior and upper exterior: 7 .5R 5/6 red, burnished; three lines
incised on upper exterior after the slip was applied; (Pl. XIX).
481. Kition Area II, Bothros 16/26, floor 3: miscellaneous type; fragment only; D: 22 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/4light
reddish brown, uneven core; slip: 7 .5R 5/4 weak red, not burnished; four incisions on the exterior; (Pl. XIX).
482. Kition Area II, Bothros 9118 and 22, floor 3: miscellaneous type; fragments only; H: 2.2 em preserved; D:
16 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow; slip: 1 OR 4/6 red, wheel burnished; unusual example with reserve bands
(not incisions) on the rim interior; a fragment from this bowl was published in Bikai 1981: 24, no. 32; (Pis.
XVIII and XXVI).
483. Kition Area II, Bothros 21117, floor 3: miscellaneous type; rim fragment only; H: 2.1 em preserved; D: 19
em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, highly burnished; black band on rim edge interior; (Pl. XVIII).
484. Kition Area II, Bothros 9115, floor 3: miscellaneous type; rim fragments only; D: 17 to 19 em, drawn as 18
em; body walls are 1.5 mm thick; ware: 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, burnished; paint on rim and on the interior;
(Pl. XVIII).
485. Kition Area II, Room 10611, between floors 3 and 2: miscellaneous type; rim fragments only; D: 18 to 20 em,
drawn as 19 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, many red inclusions, highly burnished; black paint; (Pl. XVIII).
486. Kition Area II, Courtyard C/82, floor 3: miscellaneous type; fragment only; H: 5.6preserved; D: 14cm; ware:
5YR 7/4 pink, soft, self slip, burnished interior and exterior; black paint on rim interior; (Pl. XIX).
487. Kition Area II, Bothros 10/5, floor 3: miscellaneous type; fragments only; D: 16 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, red
inclusions, burnished; black paint on rim; (Pl. XIX).
488. Kition Area II, Bothros 9/53, between floors 3 and 2A: miscellaneous type; rim fragment only; D: 13 em;
ware: 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, patchy, burnished; black paint on rim; Bikai 1981:24, no. 27; (Pl. XIX).
489. Kition Area II, Bothros 9/6, floor 3: fragments from the base of a rounded bowl; ware: 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yel-
low, red inclusions, highly burnished; black concentric circles exterior; (Pl. XIX).
490. Kition Area II, Bothros 9/15, floor 3: miscellaneous type; fragments only; D: 11.7 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink;
slip: 7 .5R 5/6 red, wheel burnished to a high luster; (Pl. XVII)
491. Kition Area II, Temenos B/2, between floors I and 3: miscellaneous bowl, rim fragments only; H: 2.7 em pre-
40
THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
served; D: 15 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink; slip: lOR 4/4 weak red, wheel burnished; (Pl. XIX).
492. Kition Area II, Bothros 10, floor 3: miscellaneous type; fragments only; bowl with everted rim, red-slipped
and highly burnished; black bands below rim exterior; Bikai 1981: 24, no. 25, pis. XXI.5 and XXV.l; (Pl.
XIX).
LARNACA- Phaneromeni:
493. Tomb 1/12: Lamaca Museum 9; type 3; fragmentary; H: 3.4 em; D: 15.4 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/4light reddish
brown; slip: 7.5R 5/6 red, wheel burnished exterior and on rim interior; base interior hand burnished;
Karageorghis, BCH 1969: 494 and fig. 128; Nicolaou 1976: 252 and pl. XXVIII.lO; (Pl. XVIII).
LARNACA - Tourabi:
494. *Tomb 30/36: now lost; H: 4 em; D: 20.5 em; similar to no. 496; Excavation Records, Lamaca Town I, with
drawings (kept in the Cyprus Museum); on the tomb, see Nicolaou 1976: 191.
495. Tomb 38: Cyprus Survey 1642/139; type 4; repaired; H: 3.7 em; D: 22.7 em; ware: 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow,
soft, red inclusions; slip: 7.5R 5/6 red, wheel burnished; black band on rim edge; (Pl. XIX).
496. Tomb 38: Cyprus Survey 1642/140; Lamaca Museum 295; type 4; repaired; H: 3.6 em; D: 21.1 em; ware:
5YR 7/4 pink, soft; slip: 2.5YR 6/6light red, wheel burnished; black band on rim edge; Karageorghis, BCH
1968: 283, fig. 48; (Pl. XIX)
497. Tomb 38: Cyprus Survey 1642/141; type 5; repaired; H: 4.1 em; D: 17 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow,
soft, red inclusions; slip: lOR 4/6 red, band burnished interior; (Pl. XIX).
498. Tomb 38: Cyprus Survey 1642/43; type 5; surface badly worn; H: 4.1 em; D: 16.1 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish
yellow, soft; traces of slip: 2.5YR 5/6 red; (Pl. XIX).
499. Tomb 38: Cyprus Survey 1642/132; type 5; restored; H: 2.4 em; D: 13.4 em; ware: 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow,
soft, red inclusions; no slip or burnish; (Pl. XIX).
KITI:
500. Tomb 1113: Lamaca Museum 1227; miscellaneous bowl; intact; H: 6.4 em; D: 13.8 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink,
red inclusions; self slip, wheel burnished; paint on upper rim interior and exterior: lOR 4/4 weak red; (Pl.
XIX).
MARONI- (Village):
501. Tomb 2/24: Cyprus Survey 1805/24; type 2 with very shallow disc base; repaired, very worn; H: 3.7 em; D:
17.4 em; ware: 7.5YR 7/4 pink; traces of a red slip; Christodoulou 1972: 159, pl. XXVII.6; (Pl. XVIII).
502. Tomb 2/25: Cyprus Survey 1805/25; type 2 with very shallow disc base; repaired, worn; H: 3. 7 em; D: 17 em;
ware: 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, red inclusions; slip on interior and rim exterior: 7 .5R 5/6 red, burnished; Chris-
todoulou 1972: 159, pl. XXVII.5; (Pis. XVIII and XXVII).
503. Tomb 2/29: Cyprus Survey 1805/29; miscellaneous cup with a ring base and a ridge on the exterior above the
base which must recall metal models; the form is otherwise unknown; H: 7.5 em; D: 13.4 em; ware: 5YR 7/4
pink; slip: lOR 5/6 red; Christodoulou 19J2: 159, pl. XXVII.3; (Pis XIX and XXVII).
SALAMIS:
504. Tomb 11227: Cyprus Museum 1957/V-13/1; type 2 with shallow incised base (2 em diameter); H: 3.5 em; D:
16 em; ware: 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, soft, many red inclusions; slip interior and upper rim exterior: 7.5R
516 red, wheel burnished; on the tomb, see Dikaios 1963; (Pl. XVIII).
505. Tomb 11228: Cyprus Museum 1957/V-13/1; miscellaneous type with a carination point below the high rim;
fragments of the rim only but some sherds of a shallow disc base were located; H: ca. 5 em preserved; D: 15.4
em; ware: 5YR 5/6 red, wheel burnished; black band on rim; on the tomb, see Dikaios 1963; (Pl. XIX).
506. Tomb 11229: Cyprus Museum 1957/V-13/1; type 2; fragmentary, base lacking; H: 3.5 preserved; D: 16.6 em;
ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, soft, many red inclusions; slip interior and rim exterior: 5R 5/6 red, wheel bur-
nished; on the tomb, see Dikaios 1963; (Pl. XVIII).
507. Tomb 11230: Cyprus Museum 1957/V-13/1; type 2 with shallow incised base (3.5 em diameter); fragmen-
tary; H: 3.4 em preserved; D: 14.5 em; ware: 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, soft, many red inclusions; slip interior
and rim exterior: 5R 5/6 red, wheel burnished; on the tomb, see Dikaios 1963; (Pis. XVIII and XXVI).
508. Tomb 11231: Cyprus Museum 1957/V-13/1; type 2 with shallow incised base (3 em diameter); H: 4.1 em; D:
CATALOGUE
41
15.1 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, soft, many red inclusions; slip on interior and rim exterior: 5R 5/6
red, wheel burnished; on the tomb, see Dikaios 1963; (Pis. XVIII and XXVI).
509. Tomb 11232: Cyprus Museum 1957/V-13/1; type 2 with shallow incised base; fragmentary; discolored by
burning: H: 3.5 em preserved; D: 15 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, soft, red inclusions; slip on interior
and rim exterior: 7 .5R 5/6 red, wheel burnished; shallow incision around upper rim exterior; on the tomb, see
Dikaios 1963; (Pl. XVIII).
A YIA IRINI - Paleokastro:
510. Tomb 14/3: Cyprus Museum; type 3; fragmentary; H: 3.4 em; D: 15.2 em; ware: 5YR 6/4lightreddish brown,
soft, red inclusions; slip: 7.5YR 5/6 red, wheel burnished; Rochetti 1978: 37; (Pl. XVIII).
511. Tomb 13/4: Cyprus Museum; type 4; repaired; H: 4 em; D: 16.5 em; ware: 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, soft and
flaking, red inclusions to 3 mm; slip: lOR 4/6 red, wheel burnished; black band on rim edge; Rochetti 1978:
34; (Pl. XIX).
See also no. 514.
OTHER:
512. Cyprus Mueseum 1960/ VI-25/3: said to have come from Morphou-ArnbeJia; type 4; repaired; H: 3.1 em; D:
18.8 em; ware: 7.5YR 7/4 pink, hard, no red inclusions; patchy slip: lOR 5/6 red to 5YR 6/2 pinkish grey,
burnished exterior and upper interior; black band on rim; this may be a Cypriote copy; the misfired slip looks
metallic; Karageorghis, BCH 1961: 262-66, fig. 14b, d; (Pl. XIX).
513. Cyprus Museum 1960/VI-25/3a: said to have come from Morphou-Ambelia; type 3; repaired; H: 2.4 em; D:
17.95 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/4light reddish brown; slip: lOR 5/5 weak red/red, horizontally burnished; black
bands on rim, at join of rim to base, and on base; Karageorghis, BCH 1961: 262-66, figs. 14a, c; (Pis. XVIII
and XXVII).
514. Cyprus Museum 19611X-31/l, no. 105: said to have come from looted tombs at Ayialrini-Paleokastro; type
3; intact, chipped; H: 3.1 em; D: 14.7 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink; patchy slip: lOR 6/5 red/light red to 7.5R 5/6
red, burnished horizontally; black band on rim edge; Karageorghis, BCH 1962: 367-8, figs. 56a, b; (Pl.
XVIII).
515. Collection of Andreas Pitsillides, Nicosia: purchased in Famagusta: type 2 with shallow disc base; intact but
cracked and chipped; H: 3.4 em; D: 18 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, soft; slip interior and upper rim exterior: lOR
4/6 red, wheel burnished; (Pl. XVIII).
Numbers 516 to 556 are common ware plates, most of which come from V. Karageor-
ghis' excavations at Kition and which appear to be of Phoenician manufacture:
516. Kition Area II, Bothros 10/14, floor3: fragmentary; D: 17.6cm; ware: 5YR 7/4pink, soft and flaking, uneven
core, self slip, wet smoothed; (Pl. XX).
517. Kition Area II, Bothros 10/14, floor3: fragmentary; D: 17.6 em; ware: 7.5YR 7/4 pink, flaking self slip; (Pl.
XX).
518. Kition Area II, Temple 5 (Room 58)/4, between floors I and 3: repaired; D: 18.4 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink,
soft and flaking, red inclusions, wet smoothed; (Pl. XX).
519. Kition Area II, Bothros 5/3, floor 3: fragmentary; D: 17.8 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, red inclusions, patchy sur-
face; (Pl. XX).
520. Kition Area II, Bothros 16, floor 3: rim fragment only; D: 20 em; ware: 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, self slip,
burnished interior, white inclusions; paint: black and 7.5R 516 red; Bikai 1981: 28, no. 96; (Pis. XX and
XXVI).
521. Kition Area II, H 11, 12, pit at base of column in floor 3: rim fragment only; D: 12 em; ware: 7.5YR 7/6 red-
dish yellow; paint: black and 7 .5R 6/4 pale red; Bikai 1981: 29, no. 98, pl. XXIII.l6; (Pl. XX).
522. Kition Area II, Courtyard B/14, between floors I and 3: fragmentary; D: 21 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, soft and
flaking, red inclusions, self slip; (Pl. XX).
523. Kition Area II, Bothros 5, floor 3, no. 2483: repaired; D: 21 em; ware: 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, wet
smoothed; (Pl. XX).
42 THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
524. Kition Area II, no. 1812, Bothros 4, floor 3: repaired; 0: 21 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink; slip: 7.5R 5/6 red; (Pl.
XX).
525. Kition Area II, Temple 1, floor 3, no. 1435: fragmentary; 0: 25 em; red-slipped and burnished; inscribed;
Amadasi and Karageorghis 1977, 021, pl. XVII.l, 2, fig. 23; (Pl. XX).
526. Kition Area II, Bothros 13/10, floor3: rim fragment only; 0: 20.6 em without the handle; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink,
red inclusions, soft; wheel burnished interior and exterior; (Pl. XX).
527. Kition Area II, Bothros 5/3, floor 3: fragment only; 0: 25 em; ware: 5YR 8/4 pink, red inclusions, surface
patchy; (Pl. XX).
528. Kition Area II, Bothros 10/14, floor 3: fragmentary; 0: 22.8 em; ware: 5YR 8/4 pink, red inclusions pulled
across the surface by burnishing; self slip; disc base; (Pl. XX).
529. Kition Area II, Bothros 10/14, floor 3: fragmentary; 0: 23 em; ware: 5YR 6/4light reddish brown, soft and
flaking, red inclusions to 4 mm; thick self slip, burnished interior and exterior; disc base; (Pl. XX).
530. Kition Area II, Temple 1, between floors 3 and 2A: fragmentary; 0: 35.2 em; ware: 7.5YR 7/4 pink, soft and
flaking, red inclusions, burnished; (Pl. XX).
531. Kition Area II, Bothros 9, floor 3, no. 1706: 0: 17.2 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, patchy surface; (Pl.
XX).
532. Kition Area II, Bothros 9/54, floor 3: fragmentary; 0: 18 em; ware: 7 .5YR 7/4 pink, red inclusions, surface
bloom; (Pl. XX).
533. Larnaca (Kition)-Turabi Tomb 38: Cyprus Survey 1642/133; 0: 22.8 em; ware: 7.5YR 7/4 pink, patchy mot-
tled surface, red inclusions to 4 mm; (Pl. XX).
534. Kition Area II, Bothros 9/33, floor 3: fragment only; 0: 22.4 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, soft, red inclusions;
slip: 7.5R 5/4 weak red, burnished; (Pl. XIX).
535. Kition Area II, Bothros 9/39, floor 3: fragmentary; 0: 19 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, patchy surface, wet-
smoothed; self slip lower interior; 2.5YR 6/6 washy slip upper interior; wide band burnishing upper interior;
black horizontal bands on interior base, at interior carination point and on rim edge; (Pl. XIX).
536. Amathus Tomb 172/21: Limassol Museum 683/21; 0: 22.5 em; ware: 5YR 8/4 pink, soft, red inclusions to
3 mm; thin washy slip interior: 7.5R 4/4 red, burnished(?); exterior wetsmoothed; (Pl. XIX); see also
Amathus Tombs 102/55 and 172/68-2, which are nearly identical.
537. Kition Area II, Bothros 1111, floor 3: repaired; 0: 17.6 em; ware: 5YR 7.5/4 pink, soft; (Pl. XX).
538. Kition Area II, Bothros 9, no. 2903: repaired; 0:20.8 em; ware: 5YR 6/6reddish yellow, surface bloom; (Pl.
XX).
539. Kition Area II, Bothros 21122, floor 3: fragmentary; 0: 17.6 em; ware: 5YR 7/4pink, patchy, surface bloom;
(Pl. XX).
540. Kitlon Area II, Courtyard B/30, floor 3: repaired; 0: 20.4 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow; red inclusions
to 4 mm; self slip interior, wet smoothed; (Pl. XX).
541. ?Salamis Tomb l/237a: Cyprus Museum 1957/V-13/1; 0: 21.2 em; ware: 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, soft,
patchy surface; (Pl. XX).
542. *Salamis no. 4141; Calvet, Actes: fig. 10; (Pl. XX).
543. Kition Area II, Bothros 9, floor 3, no. 2683B: repaired; incised circle on base; 0: 20.7 em; burnished; Bikai
1981:25, no. 41, pl. XXV.l7; (Pl. XX).
544. Kition Area II, Courtyard B/5, floor 3: fragmentary; 0: 23.4 em; 5YR 7/4 pink, red inclusions pulled by bur-
nishing; self slipped and burnished; (Pl. XX).
545. Kition Area II, rim: Bothros 4/1, base: Bothros 417, floor 3: fragments, rim and base do not join; 0:21 em;
ware: 5YR 6.5/6, reddish yellow, soft and flaking; slip: 7 .R 5/5 red, burnished interior and exterior; (Pl. XX).
546. Kition Area II, Bothros 9, between floors 3 and 2A, no. 2706: repaired; 0: 21 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink; sur-
face: 7.5YR 8/2 pinkish white, patchy; (Pl. XX).
547. Ohali-EJiouthkia tou Kouzourtou, Tomb 1113: Cyprus Museum 1963/X-1111; 0: 16.4 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/4
light reddish brown, soft and flaking; self slipped and burnished; Karageorghis 1964: 44, fig. 12.13; (Pl. XX).
548. Kition Area II, Bothros 16/16, floor 3: fragmentary; 0: 18.9 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/4light reddish brown; sur-
face: 5YR 8/3 pink, patchy; (Pl. XX).
549. Kition Area II, Courtyard C/36, floor 3: fragmentary; 0: 17.8 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/4light reddish brown; sur-
face: 5YR 8/3 pink, patchy; (Pl. XX).
549. Kition Area II, Courtyard C/36, floor 3: fragmentary; 0: 17.8 em; ware: 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, surface
CATALOGUE
43
patchy; slip interior: 5YR 8/3 pink; traces of red wash upper interior; (Pl. XX).
550. Kition Area II, Bothros 16/6, floor 3: fragmentary; 0: 20.1 em; ware: 5YR 7/3 pink, red inclusions, surface
bloom; (Pl. XX).
551. Amathus 172/68-1: 683/68-1: repaired; 0: 18.6 em; ware: 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow,
extenor wet smoothed; thm shp mtenor: lOR 4/6 red, burnished; slip flaking; (Pl. XX).
552. II, Bothros 10/19, floor 3: fragmentary; 0:23 em; ware: 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow; lOR 4/6 red
shp mtenor and upper exterior, burnished; (Pl. XX).
553. lrini-Pal.eokastro, Tomb 4/9: Cyprus Museum; similar to no. 555, base lacking; 0: 19.2 em; ware: 5YR
6/4 light reddish brown, red inclusions; slip: lOR 5/6 red, burnished.
554. Ayia 5/4: .Cyprus Museum; 0: 23 em; ware: 7 .5YR 6/5 light brown/reddish yellow,
soft and flakmg, red mcluswns; slip: lOR 4/6 red, burnished; reserve slip bands on exterior lower body and
on base; two drilled holes in rim; Rochetti 1978: 23; (Pl. XX).
555. Ayia Tomb 14/2: Cyprus Museum; 0: 19 em; ware: 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow; slip: lOR 4/6
red, burnished; no slip on base; Rochetti 1978: 37; (Pl. XX).
556. lrini-PaJeokastro, looted tomb #1: Cyprus Museum 19611XII-5/l: restored; 0: 20.2 em; ware: 2.5YR
6/8 light red, soft, red inclusions; slip: 7 .5R 5/6 red, reserved slip on lower exterior and on base wheel bur-
nished; Karageorghis, BCH 1962: 368, figs. 57a, b; (Pl. XX). '
. The common-ware lamp of the Iron Age in Phoenicia is based on the open plate and has
a pmched mouth; such are common in Cyprus and many are probably of Cypriote man-
ufacture; a few forms which appear to be of mainland manufacture are listed below:
557.
558.
559.
Amathus Tomb 130/87-4; Limassol Museum 502/87-4; single spout; red-slipped and burnished.
Amathus Tomb 352/1: Limassol Museum; lamp with one spout but which has on the center base the stub of
a stand; 1_7.3 long; 14.1 em wide; preserved height: 2.8 em; ware: 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, uneven core,
soft, red mcluswns; see also Tomb 367/2, a lamp with a conical socket in the base to fit on to a stand.
Tourabi Tomb 38: Cyprus Survey 1642; lamp with two spouts; Karageorghis, BCH 1968: 283, fig.
560. !omb 107A: Cyprus lamp with two spouts; Karageorghis 1970: 159, pl. CCVIII.
561. *Salamis mv. no. 2243: lamp With two spouts; Oziol and Pouilloux 1969: 31, no. 24, pis. I, XIV.
562. Cyprus Museum 1935/02339; lamp with two spouts; Oziol 1977: 25, no. 36, pis. 3, 53.
563. *Cyprus Museum 1935/02328; lamp with two spouts; Oziol 1977: 25, no. 37, pis. 3, 53.
564. *Cesnola Collection: lamp with two spouts; Cesnola, Atlas II: pl. CXXXVIII, 108; Myers 1914: 365, no.
2517; SCEIV: 2, fig. 37.19.
. Nos. 565-84 are storage jars, some of which are painted; 565 and 566 are "palm-tree" jars
With slopmg shoulders; the rest are of the "bag-shaped" jar type which has a narrow shoulder
and either a rounded base or a depressed base; the "bag-shaped" jar is known in Cyprus only
from Larnaca:
565.
566.
567.
KOUKLIA (Palaepaphos)- Skales:
Tomb 49/80: repaired; jar with high rim, rounded shoulder, bulbous base; H: 39.5 em; ware: lOR 6/6light
red; surface: lOYR 8/3 very pale brown; paint: lOR 5/4 weak red; Karageorghis 1983: 66-67, pl. LI, fig.
LXXXVI; Bikai 1983: 396-400; (Pis. XXI and XXVII).
LARNACA (Kition) - Kathari:
Kition Area II, Bothros 13/14, floor 3: shoulder fragment only; ware: 2.5YR 6/4light reddish brown, core
uneven; surface: IOYR 8/2 white; 2.5Y 7/0 light gray paint with lOR 5/4 pale red over it; (Pl. XXI).
LARNACA - Ayios Georgios Kontos:
Tomb 39/1: Cyprus Survey 252511; Larnaca Museum; intact; high rim with narrow shoulder, ovoid body,
round base, two double-rope handles with projections imitating metal rivets at join of handle to shoulder; H:
35.3 em; 0: 22.8 ware: 5YR 7/4 pink; horizontal bands on rim and lower body; palm motif on either side
of upper body; pamt: black and 7.5R 5/4 weak red; Karageorghis, BCH 1980: 790 and fig. 84; (Pl. XXI).
44
THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
568. *See also from the 63 tombs excavated in 1979 (Karageorghis, BCH 1980: 788-89): Cyprus Survey 2488/2,
3, 4 all with base; 2492/1 with a base; 2494/13 with a base; 2519/9 with a base; all unpainted.
LARNACA - Ayios Joannis:
569. *Tuzla Turkish School Tomb 13/2: now lost; unpainted bag-shaped jar with inscription; Excavation Records,
Larnaca Town I, with drawings (kept in the Cyprus Museum); Nicolaou 1976: 172, (Necropolis no. 18).
570. *Tuzla Turkish School Tomb 37/6: Larnaca Museum 229: everted rim, ovoid body, depressed base,
unpainted; H: 26.5 em; Nicolaou 1976: 172, (Necropolis no. 18), 256, no. 3, pl. XXX.3.
571. *Tuzla Turkish School Tomb 40/13: Larnaca Museum 228; plain vertical rim, bag-shaped body, rounded
base, unpainted; H: 34.5 em; Nicolaou 1976: 173, (Necropolis no. 18), 256, no. 6, pl. XXX.6.
572. *Tuzla Turkish School Tomb 40/18: Larnaca Museum 249; plain vertical rim, ovoid body, depressed base,
unpainted; H: 29 em; Nicolaou 1976: 173, (Necropolis no. 18), 256, no. 2, pl. XXX.2.
573. *Perivolia Tomb 4/9: Larnaca Museum 231: high vertical rim, ovoid body, with base, unpainted; H: 24.5 em;
Nicolaou 1976: 173, (Necropolis no. 20), 256, no. 4, pl. XXX.4.
LARNACA (Kition) - Kathari:
574. Kition Area II, Bothros 23 + 13, floor 3, no. 4674A: high, nearly vertical rim, ovoid body, base lacking but
edge indicates that it was ofthe depressed type; H: 27 em; D: 21.2 em: ware: 2.5YR 6/6light red, uneven core;
black and 7.5R 5/6 red horizontal bands; Bikai 1981: 29, no. 102, pis. XXIII.23 and XXVI.13; (Pl. XXI).
575. Kition Area II, <1>2, between floors 3 and 2A, no. 353: fragments only; ware: 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, core
uneven, red inclusions; red slip on rim and lower part of body with horizontal black lines; panel below shoul-
der has an overall slip (5YR 8/3 pink) with 7.5R 6/4 pale red, 7.5YR 7/0 light gray, and blue (faded gray?)
decoration of vertical lines and latticed lozenges; Bikai 1981: 29, no. 103, pl. XXVI.15; (Pl. XXI).
576. Kition Area II, Bothros 16/6, floor 3: rim fragment only; ware: 5YR 7/3 pink; surface: 10YR 8/3 very pale
brown; faded red and black paint; (Pl. XXI).
577. KitionAreall, Bothros 9A/4, floor3: rim fragment only: ware: 5YR 7/4pink; thin washy red slip; (Pl. XXI).
578. Kition Area II, Temple 1/6, between floors 3 and 2A: rim and shoulder fragment only; thin red slip; black hori-
zontal bands; (Pl. XXI).
LARNACA - Turabi:
579. *1894 Excavations, Tomb 56: See Myers 1897: fig. 12, nos. 14 and 15; Myers says (158) that in this tomb
there were four of these jars with "concave sided rings" for bases (fig. 12), and that they had "painted bands
of red or yellow, edged with black and with black zigzag, together with one plain one." He adds (160) that
"one of the painted amphorae (with yellow band and black lines and zig-zags)," was given to the Cyprus
Museum. This is listed in Myers 1899, no. 2007a, but cannot now be located.
*See also Myers 1897: 154, chart, fig. 13.2 and the description of the tombs 156-61; there were apparently
a number of painted and unpainted bag-shaped jars in these tombs.
*See also Myers 1899, nos. 2007 through 2010 (on no. 2007a, see no. 579, supra) some of which are appa-
rently bag-shaped jars; they cannot now be located.
580. *Tomb 30/39 (1963): now lost; short, vertical rim, ovoid body, depressed base, unpainted; H: 25.8 em; Exca-
vation Records, Larnaca Town I (kept in the Cyprus Museum), pp. 35-40 (with drawings); on the tomb see
Nicolaou 1976: 191, (Necropolis no. 44).
581. *Tomb 34, Cyprus Survey 1546, see Karageorghis, BCH 1967: 293 and fig. 42: undecorated jar with around
base.
582. *Tomb 35, Cyprus Survey 1548, see Karageorghis, BCH 1967:291: fig. 39; flaring rim, ovoid body;depre-
ssed base.
583. *Tomb 38, Cyprus Survey 1642, see Karageorghis, BCH 1968: 283 and fig. 47: undecorated, irregular ovoid
body, depressed base.
584. Tomb 41, Cyprus Survey 1641/3: Larnaca Museum 293; low, slightly everted rim, bag-shaped body, slightly
pointed base; H: 34 em; D: 25.5 em; ware: 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, wet smoothed; black and 1 OR 5/4 weak
red horizontal bands; Karageorghis, BCH 1968: 283, fig. 44; Nicolaou 1976: 192, (Necropolis 46.3), 256,
no. 1 , pl. XXX .1 ; (Pis. XXI and XXVII).
CATALOGUE 45
Sagona ( 1982) has catalogued and classified many of the "Canaanite" storage jars of Cy-
prus. Most of the examples in his catalogue are of the later Iron Age. The following are some
examples which are not in Sagona's catalogue because they appeared after it was compiled, or
which are of particular interest:
AMATHUS:
See Tomb 113/45; Tomb 19116, 7, 8; Tomb 195/45; Tomb 198/4; Tomb 289/9; Tomb 299/35, 36; Tomb
309/10, 11; Tomb 310115; Tomb 365/18; all of these are similar to Sagona 1982: fig. 2, nos. 1-8, except
Tomb 310/15 which is similar to no. 594 ofthis catalogue.
585. Tomb 130/85, Limassol Museum 502/85: pulled out rim, pointed base; (Pl. XXIII).
LARNACA (Kition) - Bamboula:
586. *KEF 294: Larnaca Museum; similar to no. 600; Calvet, Actes: fig. 2.
587. *KEF 115: storage jar similar to no. 603, but the shoulder is more rounded and the base is pointed; Calvet,
Actes: fig. 3.
LARNACA (Kition) - Kathari:
There are hundreds of fragments as well as a number of intact jars from V. Karageorghis' excavations at
Kition; these will be published in Excavations at Kition VI; the largest group is from Bothros 9; see Kition
Area II, catalogue numbers 1888, 1889, 2741, 3018,3019,3020,3021, 3024, 3025, 3026, 3035, 3037, 3050,
3071, 3072, 3073, 3074, 3075, 3076, 3077, 3078, 3080, 3081, and others, of which only the following are
illustrated here:
588. Kition Area II, Bothros 9, floor 3, no. 3025: fragmentary, base lacking, storage jar of the "crisp ware," tor-
pedo type, with high collared rim; H: 72 em preserved; ware: lOR 6/3 pale red; surface: lOYR 8/4 'very pale
brown; even core; (Pl. XXIII).
589. Kition Area II, Bothros 9, floor 2A, no. 3037: jar with rim lying flat on shoulder; restored, base lacking; H:
50.8 em; D: 23.6 em; ware: 5YR 7/2 pinkish gray; surface: 5Y 8/2 white; inscribed; Amadasi and Karageor-
ghis 1977: 166, pl. XXI; (Pl. XXIII).
590. Kition Area II, Bothros 9, floor3, no. 3071: repaired; jar with vertical rim, pear-shaped body, pointed base;
H: 50 em; ware: 10YR 7/4 very pale brown; (Pl. XXIII).
KOUKLIA (Palaepaphos)- Skales:
591. Tomb 44/134: repaired, one handle lacking; vertical rim; bulbous base; H: 46 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink;
Karageorghis 1983: 35, pl. XXVI, fig. LII; Bikai 1983: 396; (Pl. XXII).
592. Tomb 441135: repaired; form similar to no. 591; H: 43.5 em; Karageorghis 1983: 35, pl. XXVI, fig. LII; Bikai
1983: 396.
593. Tomb49177: repaired; H: 43.5 em; Karageorghis 1983:66, pl. LIII, fig. LXXXVI; Bikai 1983:396.
594. Tomb 49178: repaired; signs on both handles; H: 44.5 em; Karageorghis 1983: 66, pl. LIII, fig. LXXXVI;
Bikai 1983: 396; (Pl. XXII).
595. Tomb 49179: repaired; high vertical rim, bulbous base; H: 51 em; Karageorghis 1983: 66, pl. LIII, fig.
LXXXVI; Bikai 1983: 396; (Pl. XXII).
596. Tomb 58/2: repaired; low rim, unusually large handles (one lacking); H: 41 em; Karageorghis 1983: 113, pl.
LXXXIII, fig. CXIV; Bikai 1983: 396; (Pl. XXII).
597. Tomb 58/9: repaired; high vertical rim, rounded base; found with a ball of unfired clay as a stopper; H: 49.5
em; Karageorghis 1983: 113, pl. LXXXIII, fig. CXIV; Bikai 1983: 396; (Pl. XXII).
598. Tomb 74/20: repaired, rim chipped; vertical rim with thickening to the exterior; H: 49 em; ware: 5YR 6/4light
reddish brown, uneven core, patchy surface; Karageorghis 1983: 196, pl. CXXIII, fig. CXXXVII; Bikai
1983: 396; (Pl. XXIX).
599. Tomb 8011: repaired; everted squared-off rim; H: 52 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, core uneven, many red inclu-
sions; Karageorghis 1983:251, pl. CLVI, fig. CLIV; Bikai 1983: 396; (Pl. XXII).
600. Tomb 80/16: vertical rim, somewhat bulbous base; H: 48 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/4light reddish brown, uneven
core, very patchy surface; Karageorghis 1983: 252, pl. CLVI, fig. CLIV; Bikai 1983: 396; (Pl. XXII).
601. Tomb 80/46: repaired; heavy-walled jar with nearly horizontal shoulder; H: 54.5 em; ware: 5YR 7/4 pink,
46
THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
core uneven, soft and flaking; thick self slip; Karageorghis 1983: 253, fig. CLIV; Bikai 1983: 396; (Pl. XXII).
602. Tomb 83/40: repaired; heavy-walled storage jar with horizontal shoulder; H: 53 em; Karageorghis 1983: 282,
pl. CLXXII, fig. CLXVI; Bikai 1983: 396; (Pis. XXII and XXIX).
KTIMA (Paphos) - Iskender:
603. Tomb G3/P5: Paphos Museum; repaired; vertical rim, somewhat bulbous base: finger impression on one han-
dle; hole drilled in lower body wall; H: 48 em; ware: 5YR 7/3 pink, uneven core; Deshayes 1963: 145, pl.
LXVII.8; (Pl. XXIII).
POLIS- Ayios Demetrios:
604. Tomb 116/22: Paphos Museum 1306/22; slightly everted rim, pointed base; H: 49.3 em; ware: 5YR 6/6 red-
dish yellow, uneven core; (Pl. XXIII).
POLIS - Potamos toy Myrmikof:
605. *Marion Tomb 10/36: Medelhavsmuseet, Stockholm; base lacking; H: 57:5 preserved; similar to no. 612, but
the rim is higher; SCE II: 214, pl. XL, fig. 1.
SALAMIS:
606. *Tomb 1/76: lower half only, bulbous base; described as "pate chamois a coeur gris; surface chamois rose."
Yon 1971: 30, no. 60; pl. 20; note also Yon 1971: nos. 58 and 59, which are Cypriote White Painted I copies
of the Canaanite jar.
607. *Salamis 6191: similar to no. 600, but narrower and with a more pronounced bulbous base, cross on handle;
Cal vet 1980: 117, fig. 1.
608. *Salamis 3122: rim lacking; similar to no. 598; Calvet 1980: 118, fig. 4a.
609. *Salamis 3121; base lacking; high vertical rim, wide body tapering outwards toward the bottom, base lacking;
Calvet 1980: 118, fig. 4b.
610. *Salamis V1185: similar to no. 604; Calvet 1980: 118, fig. 4c.
611. Tomb 11135: Cyprus Museum 1957/V -13/1; repaired; rim pulled out, rounded shoulder, pronounced carina-
tion, slightly bulbous base; H: 58.5 em; ware: 2.5YR 5/8 red, core uneven; surface: 5Y 8/2 white; Dikaios
1963: 191, fig. 35; (Pl. XXIII).
612. Tomb 1/136: Cyprus Museum 1957/V-13/1; repaired; vertical rim, rounded base; H: 65 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/8
light red, core uneven; Dikaios 1963: 191; (Pl. XXIII).
613. Tomb 1/215: Cyprus Museum 1957/V-13/1; fragmentary, base lacking; ware: 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow; simi-
lar to no. 612; Dikaios 1963: 197.
614. Tomb 1/216; Cyprus Museum 1957/V-1311; repaired; similar to no. 612; H: 42 em; ware: 2.5YR 6/6light
red, patchy surface; Dikaios 1963: 198.
See also Tomb 1/217, 218, very fragmentary jars; Dikaios 1963: 198; and see nos. 616 and 617, infra.
AYIAIRINI:
615. Period 5/201: H: 54.2 em; described as "cylindrical body; pointed base; angular shoulder; annular rim." SCE
II: 681, pl. CLXXXVII, fig. 4; Gjerstad 1960: fig. 6.1.
The following are storage jar rim sherds from Salamis and Kition which illustrate some
of the variety of types which were imported into Cyprus:
616. Salamis Tomb l/235a: Cyprus Museum 1957/V-13/1; ware: 7.5R 7/6 reddish yellow, soft, uneven core; (Pl.
XXIII).
617. SaJamis Tomb l/235b: Cyprus Museum 1957/V-13/1; ware: 2.5YR 6/Slightred, uneven core; (Pl. XXIII).
618. Kition Area II, Bothros 23 + 13/2, floor 3: ware: 5YR 8/4 pink, 5 mm red inclusion, soft ware, uneven core;
(Pl. XXIII).
619. Kition Area II, Bothros 1311, floor 3: ware: 2.5YR 6/4light reddish brown;surface:7.5YR 8/2pinkish white;
(Pl. XXIII).
620. Kition Area II, Courtyard A/16, floor 3: ware: 5YR 7/4 pink; (Pl. XXIII).
CATALOGUE 47
621. Kition Area II, Temple 1/39, floor 3: ware: 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow, uneven core; surface: 7.5YR 8/4 pink,
crisp ware; (Pl. XXIII).
622. Kition Area II, Bothros 9/6, floor 3: ware: 2.5YR 6/4light reddish brown, red inclusions, surface patchy; (Pl.
XXIII).
623. Kition Area II, Bothros 2119: ware: 2.5YR 6/8light red, uneven core, surface patchy, crisp ware; (Pl. XXIII).
624. Kition Area II, Bothros 21/39, floor 3: ware: 2.5YR 6/4light reddish brown, uneven core; surface: 5YR 8/3
pink, crisp ware; (Pl. XXIII).
625. KitionAreall, Rooms 37 + 37A/18, floor3: ware: lOR 6/6lightred, uneven core, crisp ware; (Pl. XXIII).
626. Kition Area II, Bothros 9/26, floor 3: ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, soft, many red inclusions; surface: 2.5YR 8/4 pale
yellow; (Pl. XXIII).
627. Kition Area II, Bothros 9/8, floor 3: ware: 2.5YR 6/8light red, crude; (Pl. XXIII).
628. Kition Area II, Bothros 9/26, floor 3: ware: 5YR 7/4 pink, surface patchy, red inclusions; (Pl. XXIII).
629. Kition Area II, Bothros 9/23, floor 3: ware: 5YR 8/4 pink, orange inclusions, soft ware; (Pl. XXIII).
Nos. 630 to 636 are inscribed storage jars; see also no. 589:
630. *Larnaca-Tourabi: Cyprus Survey 1546; similar in form to no. 585 but the lower body is even wider; Amadasi
and Karageorghis 1977: 141, D14, pl. XXIV.1, 2; Karageorghis, BCH 1967: 293, fig. 43a, b; Masson and
Sznycer 1972:21, pl. XV.2-3.
631. *Metropolitan Museum of Art 74.51.2300: crisp ware storage jar similar to no. 588 but the body is wider; the
rim is similar to no. 622; Cesnola, Atlas II, pl. CXLI, no. 1049; Atlas III, pl. CXXIII.25; Amadasi and
Karageorghis 1977: 131, D3, pl. XX.1; Myers 1914, no. 1827; Masson and Sznycer 1972: 119, n. 6, pl.
XIII.3.
632. *Metropolitan Museum of Art 74.51.2298; the rim is not visible in any of the illustrations but the body form
is similar to no. 604; Cesnola 1873:441, no. 7; Atlas III, pl. CXXIII.26; Myers 1914: no. 1826; Amadasi and
Karageorghis 1977: 132, D4, pl. XX.2; Masson and Sznycer 1972: p. 119, n. 6, pl. XIII.4.
633. *Metropolitan Museum of Art 74.51.2299: nearly identical to no. 588; Cesnola, Atlas III, pl. CXXIII.27;
Myers 1914: no. 1828; Amadasi and Karageorghis 1977: 135, D7, pl. XX.4.
634. *Louvre N 3339, from Idalion: the rim is similar to no. 627; Masson and Sznycer 1972: 117, pl. XIII. 2.
635. *A. Cesnola 1884: 224, fig. 258, from Kition: similar to no. 604; Masson and Sznycer 1972: 116, fig. 5;
Amadasi and Karageorghis 1977: 187, F5, fig. 28.
636. *Collection ofPaschalides, from Athienou(?): similar to no. 627; Masson and Sznycer 1972: 113, pl. XIV. 3.
III. COMMENTARY
INTRODUCTION
The Phoenicians may have been master craftsmen in a number of areas, but it cannot be
claimed that ceramics was one of them. With a few notable exceptions, their pottery was quite
pedestrian and often even crude. The forms were limited, the decoration was even more
limited, and the tradition was generally conservative. Ironically, that is precisely what makes
it useful as a chronological indicator; one is not faced with an bewildering variety of forms and
decorative motifs, so the morphological development is easy to trace. The broad outlines of
the development of Phoenician pottery are known. In the earlier period,
1
bichrome and poly-
chrome decoration, particularly concentric circles, was common (e.g., Tyre Strata XIII-X,
Bikai 1978b: pis. XXIII-XXXVII). Red-slip decoration, while not unknown, was less
favored. Gradually red-slip decoration, sometimes in reserve slip, sometimes with lines
incised into it, became more prevalent; bichrome decoration continued, but as horizontal
bands rather than concentric circles (e.g., Tyre Strata VII-I, Bikai 1978b: pis. I-XVIII).
Between these two ceramic periods, there was, as would be expected, a transitional phase, dur-
ing which both types of decoration were known (e.g., Tyre Strata VIII-IX; Bikai 1978b: pis.
XIX-XXII). The broad outlines of the development of some of the forms are also known: the
clearest indicator of the early period is the round-based jug which usually has a neck-ridge
(e.g., Pl. IV here). This seems to have developed from the pilgrim flask of the Late Bronze
Age and the earliest of the large round-based jugs with concentric circle decoration have two
handles (e.g., no. 3, Pl. II). The best-known form of the later period is the mushroom-lipped
jug, the "Phoenician calling card."
Although the mushroom-lipped jug and the round-based, neck-ridge jug are quite dissimi-
lar, the one is descended from the other. The intermediate form is the "square-rimmed" jug
(e.g. no. 175, Pl. IX and no. 190, Pl. XI). Over time, the round-based jug acquired a base
(e.g., no. 66, Pl. V); then the rim, plain and slightly flaring on the round-based jug (no. 62,
Pl. IV), widened out and was squared off (no. 175, Pl. IX); bichrome horizontal bands
appeared on the neck and rim (no. 169, Pl. IX), and finally the vertical concentric circles on
the body disappeared (e.g. , no. 197, Pl. XI). By the time of the development of the square-
l. Throughout this text, an effort has been made to avoid conventional chronological designations. As Anderson (1979: 608,
n. I) correctly pointed out, "There is no reason to assume that Phoenician pottery must follow the accepted chronology for other
areas of the East Mediterranean world." Neither does it need to follow the accepted (and often confusing) chronological designa-
tions of related areas. The terms "Iron Age," "Geometric," and "Archaic" are therefore avoided here as no attempt to relate
Phoenician ceramic chronology to Palestinian, Cypriote, or Greek chronologies is called for at this time. Not enough is known,
and to introduce such designations as "Iron II" or "Geometric lA" into discussions of Phoenician ceramics will only create confu-
sion in the future. However, it is necessary to make some general chronological statements in any discussion of ceramics; so for
the present purposes, it must be said that a this study was limited to pottery found in Cypro-Geometric through Cypro-Archaic I
contexts. Therefore the period under discussion is on the conventional dating ca. 1050 through 600 B.C. "Earlier" and "later" as
used here is relative to those four and one-half centuries.
COMMENTARY 49
rimmed jug, red slip decoration has become important and some of these jugs have that as a
surface treatment. During this "intermediate" stage, however, the form of the two types, bi-
chrome and red slipped, is identical (compare no. 178, Pl. X with no. 192, Pl. XI). By the
time the square rim has become the mushroom lip, the red-slipped jugs have a carinated shoul-
der, often with incisions at the shoulder (e.g. no. 312, Pl. XIII). While the red-slipped mush-
room jug sometimes appears without the carination (e.g. nos. 295 and 310, Pl. XIII), it is very
rare; bichrome mushroom jugs with carinated shoulders are unknown. It is possible that the
red-slipped jugs were imitating metal prototypes and that the carination represents a seam
unnecessary on the bichrome jugs which are not imitating metal. Some of the later develop-
ment of the Phoenician jug is becoming clearer; the bichrome mushroom jug first appears with
a globular body which gradually becomes elongated (Tyre Stratum I, Bikai 1978b: pl. I);
simultaneously the mushroom lip itself becomes wider (e.g., no. 271, Pl. XII). On the small
juglets (e.g., no. 232, Pl. XII) the depressed base disappears to be replaced by a flat base.
Parallel with the development of the standard Phoenician jugs is the development of what
is here called the heavy juglet. Smallish thick-walled versions of the round-based jug (e.g. no.
24, Pl. V) may be the predecessors of the small-bodied, long-neckedjuglets (e.g. no. 153, Pl.
IX) which occur with both plain flaring rims (no. 136, Pl. IX) and with square rims (no. 159,
Pl. IX). Like the larger jugs, this occurs in a red-slipped version (e.g. no. 160, Pl. X) which,
in turn, seems to be the predecessor of the very thick-walled juglets with mushroom lip found
at Kition (e.g., nos. 302-3, Pl. XIII). The small heavy two- handledjuglets (no. 338, Pl. X;
no. 337, Pl. XIII) may be even later developments of the heavy juglet, but this is not yet cer-
tain. As is clear from the foregoing, more is known about the development of the Phoenician
jug, particularly the class sometimes called "neck-ridge" than any other form. The Phoenician
storage jar does not show the same clear morphological development in the earlier period.
Most of the early storage jars have plain vertical rims rising from a sloping shoulder; the body
is generally triangular in form and it sometimes has a slightly bulbous base; but identical jars
rarely appear (see Pl. XXII) making anything but the most generalized classification very dif-
ficult. By contrast, in the later period the so-called "crisp ware" or "torpedo" jar with sharply
carinated shoulders and a long, relatively straight body appears; it seems to have been mass
produced and standardized and its development can be traced on the basis of the evolution of
the rim. The earlier rims are high and collared; this becomes shorter and more square in profile
and eventually the rim lies almost flat on the shoulder (see nos. 619-26, Pl. XXIII, which illus-
trate that development). Simultaneously, the body of the "crisp ware" jar changes from the
relatively straight form associated with the higher rim (no. 588, Pl. XXIII) to the "waisted"
form associated with the low rim (no. 589, Pl. XXIII).
The pilgrim flask, a common import to Cyprus, occurs in almost unchanged form from
the earliest to the latest periods and is therefore a poor chronological indicator. Another very
common Phoenician import is the red-slipped trefoil-rimmed jug. This occurs in at least three
forms, the relationship of which has not previously been clear: these are (1) the long-necked
jug; this often has an inverted pear-shaped body and a footed base (e.g., no. 355, Pl. XIV); (2)
a pitcher with a globular body, depressed base and inverted conical neck which often has
incised lines around the shoulder (e.g., no. 370, Pl. XIV); and (3) a pitcher with a form in
which the body and the neck are less distinct; that is, the body is less globular, the base is rela-
50 THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
tively wider, and the base of the inverted conical neck is so wide that the pitcher is truly bicon-
ical (e.g. no. 373, Pl. XVI).
RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY: WITHIN CYPRUS
Excluding the material from Kition, and excluding that without provenience, nearly all of
the vessels in the catalogue are from tomb groups. In a number of these tombs, more than one
Phoenician vessel occurred, and the methodology of the following presentation is to group the
tombs according to their ceramic horizon and then to investigate the chronological implica-
tions of the various horzons. An important horizon, first noted at Tyre (Strata IX through at
least part ofiV) emerges clearly on Cyprus, in particular in the important tomb, Salamis 1. The
following discussion therefore begins with that horizon, continues with the later material, and
concludes with the sparser early material.
Salamis Tomb 1 was excavated in 1956-57 by Porphyrios Dikaios and published by him
in 1965. The presence of "Canaanite" storage jars in this tomb has been noted but discussions
of the tomb have focused on the presence of Greek Middle Geometric and Subprotogeometric
pottery in it. A reexamination of both the catalogued pottery and the sherds
2
in 1985 disclosed
that there were a number of previously unrecognized Phoenician vessels in the tomb. Salamis
Tomb 1 contained a cremation burial of the Cypro-Geometric IIIB and an inhumation burial
of the Cypro-Archaic I, believed by Gjerstad (1980) to be of a husband and wife buried a gen-
eration apart. As with the Cypriote pottery, the condition of the tomb makes it difficult to
associate the Phoenician pottery with one or the other of the two burials, but since the Phoeni-
cian pottery seems to form a homogeneous group and since the two burials are probably no
more than a generation apart, the Phoenician vessels are important for chronology. Among
these there were three small, heavy (thick-walled) juglets (nos. 155-57; references throughout
this text are to numbers in this catalogue unless otherwise indicated); one of these was undeco-
rated, one red slipped and one has bichrome vertical circle decoration; in addition there were
fragments of a very large jug with bichrome decoration on the body, neck and rim (no. 17 4).
The single largest group were the jugs with everted, squared-off rim, horizontal bichrome
decoration on the rim and neck and depressed base (nos. 199-208); in addition to the ten jugs
in the catalogue there are fragments of more among the sherds. One similar jug (no. 173) has,
in addition to the decoration on the neck, vertical circle decoration on the body. One complete
red-slipped pitcher was catalogued (no. 379) and there was one sherd (no. 380) from the shoul-
der of a pitcher which, while it probably was similar to no. 379, had incised decoration on the
shoulder, the only incidence of incised decoration in the tomb. Four storage jars were
catalogued (nos. 611-14), and there were a quantity of sherds from similar jars (including nos.
616-17). Five thin-walled bowls with red slip decoration on the interior and over the exterior
rim, as well as a red-slipped cup have also been added to the catalogue (nos. 504-9). Among
the sherds there were a number of common-ware plate rims, which may be not be Phoenician,
but one was included in this catalogue (no. 541) just to illustrate what type was in the tomb.
Taking Salamis T. 1 as a focus for a relative chronology, it is possible to associate with
it a number of other ceramic groups, particularly tombs. On the basis of the similarity of the
2. The vessels reconstructed from sherds have now been added to the Salamis T. 1 catalogue as Cyprus Museum 1957 /V -13/
1, Salamis T. 1, nos. 227 through 239.
COMMENTARY
51
red-slipped bowls (nos. 501-2), Maroni T. 2 is of the same period as Salamis T. 1. Fragments
of such bowls appeared at Kition (see no. 461), as did a rim (no. 491) which may have come
from a cup similar to no. 505 from Salamis T. 1 or to the unique intact cup, no. 503, from
Maroni T. 2. No. 460 from Kition is a tiny fragment of a thin-ware bowl of a type which
occurred at Tyre prior to the appearance of the thin-ware bowls of the type found in Salamis
T. 1 (compare Bikai 1978b: pl. XIX.1-6, 8, Strata VIII-IXwithpls. XV.1, 4, 10, and 11 of
the later Stratum IV). The fragment from Kition may belong to the early part of this horizon.
Amathus T. 151 contained a red- slipped pitcher (no. 370) which, when it was compared with
no. 379 from Salamis T. 1, appeared to be from the same maker. Amathus T. 151 also con-
tained a square-rimmed jug (no. 191) identical with the Salamis examples, and a black-slipped
pitcher fragment (no. 352) from a long-necked pitcher identical with one found in Amathus T.
321 (no. 353). Amathus T. 321, judging by the Phoenician pottery, contains a series of burials
over a number of years, but the earliest material in it can be compared with Salamis T. 1 . This
includes three heavy-walled juglets (nos. 141-43) similar to no. 157 from Salamis and, in
addition to the black trefoil-rimmed pitcher noted above, a nearly identical red-slipped pitcher
(no. 354) as well as a pitcher with a shorter neck (no. 361). Amathus T. 384 contained a red-
slipped trefoil-rimmed jug (no. 355) identical with no. 354 from Amathus T. 321. Amathus
Tombs 113, 223, 225 and 334 contained heavy-walled juglets (nos. 133-40, 144) similar to
one from Salamis T. 1. Amathus T. 371 had two small heavy-walledjuglets (nos. 145-46),
a pilgrim flask (no. 85), and also a heavy round-based jug (no. 35) which may be an earlier ele-
ment in the tomb OR may indicate that the tomb belongs to a slightly earlier period. A nearly
identical heavy round-based jug occurs in Amathus T. 313 (no. 33) in conjunction with a red-
slipped square-rimmed jug (no. 167). Heavy-walled juglets have been found in the excava-
tions at Larnaca (Kition)-Bamboula (nos. 147-49), and see also nos. 171-72 from Larnaca
(Kition)-Kathari. Rizokarpaso--Anavrysi T. 1 contained a red-slipped heavy-walled juglet
(no. 158) similar to no. 155 from Salamis, as did Kouklia (Palaepaphos)-Skales T. 62 (no.
150) which also contained a square-rimmed jug (no. 197); see also the jar from T. 81 (no. 198)
which is similar but lacks a rim. In addition, Tomb 81 had a unique round-based example of
a heavy-walledjuglet (no. 154), as well as a fragmentary jug with concentric circle decoration
which may have had a square rim (no. 172b). Kouklia (Palaepaphos)-Skales T. 75 produced
heavy-walledjuglets (nos. 151-53).
Heavy bichrome-decoratedjugs similar to no. 174 from Salamis occur in Amathus Tombs
7 and 9, in Episkopi-Village, and Pentakomo-Shamma T. 1 (nos. 163, 165, 168, 169; and see
the pilgrim flask from Pentakomo-Shamma T. 1 , no. 87). Amathus T. 7 also contained a long-
necked pitcher (no. 349) as well as a red-slipped jug (no. 164) with the rim lacking, but which
is of a form which can have a squared-off rim. InT. 7 there was a red-slipped, round-based
jug (no. 16) which might be earlier than this group, or may be a late example of the type. A
red-slipped pitcher with a flat base (no. 358) also occurred in T. 7, similar to one in Amathus
T. 138 (no. 359) which was found in conjunction with a pitcher with footed base (no. 369);
see also the flat-based pitcher in T. 366 (no. 362). A combination similar to that ofT. 7, that
is a red-slipped long-necked pitcher (no. 350) and red-slipped square-rimmed jug (no. 166) is
found in T. 13. Note the red-slipped pitcher with inverted conical neck (no. 368) in T. 13
which, but for the footed base, would seem to belong to a later horizon. Amathus T. 136 con-
tained the neck of a long-necked pitcher (no. 351). On the basis of the similarity of no. 360
52 THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
to no. 361 from Amathus T. 321, Amathus T. 266 may also contain elements of this period;
it produced a jug without rim which could have been of the square-rimmed type (no. 222) as
well as a trefoil-rimmed pitcher which has a footed base (no. 372); see also the similar pitcher
from T. 341 (no. 375). The British excavations of the last century at Amathus produced a red-
slipped pitcher (no. 357 from T. 4) similar to no. 360 from Amathus T. 266, as well as a black-
slipped miniature pitcher (no. 410); see also the similar miniature from Kition (no. 411). On
the basis of the similarity of the red-slipped kraters, nos. 431 from Amathus T. 13 and 430
from Amathus T. 2, T. 2 is probably also of this period. While it is not at all certain, a hi-
chrome krater found in SCE T. 24 (no. 129), the fragment from Kition-Bamboula (no. 132)
and two kraters, identical to each other, both with handle-like bases from Tombs 111 and 315
(nos. 130-31) may be of this period, since suchkraters occur in Stratum III at Tell Abu Hawam
(Hamilton 1935: pl. XII, no. 81) which, as we will see, is associated with this horizon.
Pilgrim flask no. 88 was found in Episkopi-Kaloriziki T. 4 with no. 339, an unusually
crude pitcher with bichrome decoration, including "eyes" on the rim. A somewhat similar
pitcher was found inTyre Stratum VI (Bikai 1978b: pl. XVIII.l8); that one was taken at the
time to be a Cypriote import and may well be.,However, a review of Chapman (1972: figs lO-
ll, particularly her no. 15 with eye decoration) suggests that there may be Phoenician imita-
tions of the Cypriote form which is what no. 339 here seems to be; on the basis of the parallel
in Tyre VI, it may belong to this horizon.
Some of the group here dubbed "brown burnished" (nos. 180-89) occurred with vessels
of this horizon (nos. 180-81, 184, and 186 from Amathus Tombs 7 ,9, 321 and Maroni T. 2),
so they may all belong to this period. Only no. 183 from Amathus T. 244 was found in associ-
ation with later materials.
Amathus T. 11 contained a square-rimmed jug (no. 190) identical with those found at
Salamis; the jar in Mesa Yitonia T. 1 (no. 192) is similar, as are the rim fragments, nos. 193-
94, from Kition-Kathari. Larnaca-Phaneromeni T. 1 also produced such jugs (nos. 195-96),
but this tomb contained a red-slipped fine-ware plate (no. 493) which has incised decoration
on the base, a form later than the plates found in Salamis T. 1, so this tomb is probably slightly
later in date.
The comparisons made above indicate that the major groups which represent this horizon
are: Salamis T. 1; Amathus Tombs 7, 13, 151, 223, 371 and partof321; Maroni T. 2; Kouklia
(Palaepaphos)-Skales Tombs 62, 81, and part of 75. Other groups which seem, on the basis
of one or two vessels, to be related are: Amathus Tombs 4 and 232 (British excavations), 2,
9, 11, 24 (SCE), 111, 113, 136, 138, 225, 266, 313, 315, 334, 341, 366, and 384; Mesa
Yitonia T. 1; Episkopi-Village; Pentakomo-Shamma T. 1; Salamis T. 31; Rizokarpaso-
Anavrysi T. 1, and perhaps Episkopi-Kaloriziki T. 4. Elements of this horizon are found at
both Larnaca (Kition)-Bamboula and Kathari, while Larnaca-Phaneromeni T. 1 may belong
to the end of this period.
On the basis of their similarity to those above, the following unprovenienced vessels
probably originated in similar contexts: nos. 159-62, 175-79, 356,363-67,412-13 and 515.
The inscribed juglet, no. 322, has a square rim.
The major elements of this ceramic horizon are, first, the square-rimmed jugs in a number
of variations. Since vertical bichrome circle decoration on the body of jugs is a phenomenon
COMMENTARY
53
of the earlier period while in the later period such decoration has disappeared, this horizon
would seem to form a transition between the two. The variations which appear here are the
smaller, long-necked juglets with vertical concentric circles (nos. 133-36, 138-49, 153-54,
157, 159; nos. 137, 151 and 156 are plain), and those with red-slipped decoration (nos. 150,
155, 158, 160-62; the decoration of no. 152 is unique). There are also the larger jugs with ver-
tical concentric circle decoration (nos. 163, 165, 168-69, 171, 172b, 173-76), and those with
red-slip decoration (nos. 164, 166-67, 172, 177-78). The second large group of jugs are those
which also have squared-off rims but are decorated only on the neck (nos. 190-208, and pos-
sibly no. 222). The only storage jars which can be attributed to this horizon are the examples
from Salamis T. 1 (nos. 611-14, 616-17) which seem to be larger than the earlier examples
found at Kouklia (Palaepaphos)-Skales, but still have the rather plain vertical rim. The evi-
dence is not sufficent to indicate whether or not the crisp-ware "torpedo jar" has already
appeared during this period, but no example of such a jar was found in association with
ceramics of this horizon; no. 611 from Salamis T. 1 with its sharply carinated shoulder may
be a predecessor of the type.
The evidence indicates that the long-necked trefoil-rimmed pitcher belongs to this hori-
zon (nos. 349-56). The strainer mouth fragment from Kition-Bamboula (no. 378) may come
from such a pitcher. A somewhat similar pitcher which has a shorter neck seems to belong to
this period (nos. 357, 360-61, 363). These pitchers always have footed bases, which tends to
the conclusion that the the wide-necked pitchers with footed bases (nos. 369, 372, and 375)
are part of this horizon; see also the nearly biconical pitcher, no. 368, from Amathus T. 13,
with footed base. The large globular-bodied pitchers (nos. 370, 379-80 and perhaps no. 383
from Salamis T. 31) do belong here as do the flat-based pitchers (nos. 358-59, 362, 364); see
also the miniatures, nos. 410-13, and the bichrome pitcher with "eye" decoration (no. 339). On
the evidence of Salamis T. 1 and Maroni T. 2 the common red-slipped plate of at least part of
this period was slipped on the interior and over the exterior rim only (nos. 461, 501-2, 504,
506-9, 51?). Fragment no. 460 is probably from the predecessor of that type of bowl and may
belong to an earlier part of this horizon. Nos. 491, 503 and 505, from cups of thin red-slipped
ware, show that the technique of producing this very thin ware was already well developed in
this period. Interestingly, reserve slip decoration is non-existant here and incised decoration
occurs only on a pitcher fragment from Salamis T. 1 (no. 380) and on a pitcher from Amathus
T. 151 (no. 370). This form of decoration becomes very common in the next period, but must
have just begun during the era of Salamis T. 1. The evidence from Tyre indicates that the com-
mon ware plates associated with this horizon are forms such as nos. 516-21 here, with plain
or squared-off rims, straight or slightly curved body walls and string-cut bases; these are some-
times decorated with bichrome concentric circles on the interior (Bikai 1978b, see pis. XVI,
XVIII and XIX. The pilgrim flasks, nos. 85 and 87-88, occurred with materials of this period.
This horizon represents the transition from the predominance of bichrome (or poly-
chrome) vertical concentric circle decoration to the simpler decoration of horizontal bichrome
bands on the necks of jugs and juglets and from hi chrome decoration in general to red-slip as
a surface treatment. The plain flaring rim of the earlier period has become squared-off and is
well on the way to becoming a true mushroom lip.
The next horizon is best represented on Cyprus at Larnaca (Kition)-Kathari; a survey of
the tombs of the period show that no single tomb displays the same range of pottery for this
54 THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
horizon as Salamis T. 1 does for the earlier period. However, the cemetery at Ayia Irini-
Paleokastro appears to be relatively homogeneous-nearly all of this period. The cemetery
yielded a number of true mushroom-lipped jugs, but no square-rimmed jugs. The thin-ware
plate with red slip on the interior and just over the exterior rim is lacking as is the long-necked
trefoil-rimmed jug. On the other hand, the elongated mushroom-lipped jug with an over-wide
rim is also lacking at Ayia Irini; on the evidence of Salamis Tombs 23 and 79 (see nos. 260-61)
these are a later development. Ayia Irini yielded red-slipped plates with reserve and incised
decoration, and red-slipped trefoil-rimmed jugs of the type with globular body and inverted
conical neck; only one (no. 388) is of the later biconical type. As noted above, Larnaca-
Phaneromeni T. 1 seems to be midway between the two horizons-based on the occurrence of
a red-slipped bowl with incised decoration (no. 493) in that tomb. A similar bowl (no. 514)
is among the material recovered from the looted tombs at Ayia Irini. Yet another one was
found in Ayia Irini T. 14 (no. 510), along with a red-slipped carinated bowl with pendant rim
(no. 555). Similar bowls occur in T. 4 (no. 553) and in T. 5 (no. 554); another was recovered
from the looted tombs (no. 556). Bowl no. 511 from T. 13 is deep and relatively small in
diameter and, while it has reserve slip decoration on the base, it lacks the incised decoration,
indicating that it may be of a slightly later period than the one from T. 14 (no. 510). Tomb 3
contained three vessels typical of this horizon: no. 329 with stilted rim, no. 310 which is a rela-
tively rare globular-bodied, combination red-slip/neck decorated mushroom-lipped jug, and
no. 311, a heavy juglet with the rim lacking but which probably was similar to the juglets like
nos. 302-3 from Larnaca (Kition)-Kathari (see also Ayia Irini T. 3/5, Pecorella 1977: 17, 18,
and 48, without a rim). Tomb 46 contained three vessels: a stilted-rimmed jug (no. 331), a
mushroom-lipped jug (no. 269), and a trefoil-rimmed pitcher (no. 391). Tomb 47 contained
a fragmentary mushroom-lipped jug (no. 270, rim lacking) with bichrome horizontal bands on
the upper neck and a red-slipped example (no. 312, rim lacking) with incised decoration, as
well as a very fragmentary red-slipped trefoil-rimmed pitcher (no. 392). A jug similar to no.
312 but without a rim (no. 324) was found in T. 33, along with a red-slipped pitcher (no. 388);
this pitcher is the only one found at Ayia Irini which is biconical and is taken here to represent
the last phase of Phoenician imports at Ayia Irini. In Tombs 5 and 7, there were mushroom-
lipped jugs (nos. 267-68). Tomb 8 contained two oil bottles (nos. 344-45). Tombs 11, 28
and 39 contained red-slipped trefoil-rimmed jugs (nos. 386-87, 389-90), and three more were
recovered from the looted tombs (nos. 397-99). Tomb 15 yielded another jug with stilted rim
(no. 330), and a unique jug with a slightly everted rim (no. 335) was found in T. 28.
So at Ayia Irini, this horizon contains: the true mushroom-lipped jug, with both bichrome
(nos. 267-70) and red-slipped decoration (no. 312), as well as the related forms represented
by nos. 310-11 and 324; the reserve-slipped plate with and without incised decoration (nos.
510-11, 514); the carinated bowl (nos. 553-56); the oil bottle (nos. 344-45); the stilted-
rimmed jug and related forms (nos. 329-31, 335); and the globular-bodied trefoil-rimmed
pitcher (nos. 386-87, 389-92, and 397-99). No. 388 appears to be later. Before leaving Ayia
Irini, note the storage jar with 'annular rim' (no. 615) from the SCE excavations.
Other tombs which contain pottery of this horizon include: Philia T. 6 with a trefoil-
rimmed pitcher and stilted-rimmed jug (nos. 332 and 393), Nicosia-Old Municipality T. 3,
with a stilted-rimmed jug and two mushroom-lipped jugs (nos. 265--66 and 333), and Episkopi-
Kaloriziki T. 31 (nos. 297, 376), with a mushroom jug and a pitcher. Amathus has yielded
COMMENTARY
55
material of this horizon-often, however, in tombs that have also yielded material of other
periods, so some caution is necessary. Tomb 367 had a beautifully-made red-slipped mush-
room juglet (no. 295) which is unusual in that the body is rounded, lacking the carination at
the shoulder which is typical of the type. An equally well-made stand (no. 435) with combina-
tion black and red slip decoration was found in the tomb; as we have seen the earlier horizon
at Amathus yielded black-slipped trefoil-rimmed jugs (nos. 352-53); the two vessels from T.
367 may represent the transition between the two phases. Amathus T. 8 included two mush-
room-lipped jugs of the bichrome neck-decorated variety and one red-slipped example (nos.
209-10 and 274). Tomb 130 contained a bichrome mushroom-lipped jug (no. 211) as well as
a red-slipped lamp (no. 557) and a storage jar with twisted handles (no. 585); this last is cer-
tainly of a period later than this horizon. Tomb 321 contained a bichrome mushroom-lipped
jug and a red-slipped example (nos. 236, 290).
Single vessels of this period were found in a number of the Amathus tombs: a globular-
bodied red-slipped mushroom jug in T. 213 (no. 279); bichrome examples were found in
Tombs 145, 168, and 223, (nos. 214--15, 217); nos. 238 and 245 from Tombs 324 and 376
have no rims and could be of the square or mushroom type. The only Phoenician reserve-slip-
ped bowl with plain flaring rim located at Amathus is from T. 162 (no. 456). Red-slipped
plates were found in T. 172 (nos. 536 and 551), and a fragmentary trefoil-rimmed jug with
globular body came from T. 242 (no. 371).
Bichrome mushroom-lipped jugs were found in Limassol T. 74, Kolossi-KafkalJa T. 1,
and Kolossi-Panayia Vounarkotissa T. 5 (nos. 246-48); additionally, a red-slipped mushroom
jug with black paint, a rare type, was found in Larnaca-Ploutonos St. T. 35 (no. 298). What
is apparently a fragmentary juglet similar to those from Kition (see nos. 302-3 here) was found
in Ktima T. V (no. 306). Skarinou T. 1 (no. 259) containedonemushroomjug with a globular
body and one with an elongated body, indicating that the tomb may be transitional between two
phases. Two important groups of the later or transitional phase at the end of this horizon were
found at Lamaca. The first of these, Larnaca-Tourabi T. 30, contained a reserve-slip bowl
with no incisions (no. 494) and a number of mushroom-lipped jugs (nos. 258, 305); it is dif-
ficult to be certain on the basis of the sketches in the records of this tomb, but they appear to
be of the later wide-rimmed type with elongated bodies. Tourabi T. 38 had reserve-slip plates
with no incisions (nos. 495-96), as well as plates of a type which seems to be a deterioration
of the reserve-slip plate (nos. 497-99); there was also a common ware plate with concave rim
(no. 533), a double-spouted lamp (no. 559) and a high-rimmed storage jar with depressed base
(no. 583).
Much of the material from Kition is from this horizon, including the mushroom-lipped
jugs, nos. 249-55, the red-slipped mushroom-lipped jugs, nos. 299-303, the stilted rim frag-
ments, no. 328, the miscellaneous form, no. 334, apitcher, no. 341, atleastsomeofthetre-
foil-rim fragments noted under no. 377, the bowls, nos. 414--26, the covers, nos. 427-29, the
double bowls, nos. 437-39, and the lotus bowls nos. 440-45. The black slip forms, including
the lotus bowls nos. 441-45 and the various forms, nos. 450-54 may belong to this period, but
in view of the presence of black slip in the earlier horizon, these may belong to that period or at
least to an early part of this period. Note also the black-slipped stand fragment from Amathus
T. 228 which could belong to this horizon or to the earlier one. The thin ware bowls are vey
common at Kition: the forms which belong to this horizon include nos. 462--69 with incised
56
THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
decoration, no. 470 with reserve slip decoration only, and nos. 471-73 of a late deteriorated
ware; nos. 474-90 and 492 are related miscellaneous forms (see also no. 500 from Kiti T. 1).
Some of these could belong to the earlier horizon; without exact parallels from closed groups
of that horizon it is difficult to place them there. The common ware plates associated with this
horizon at Kition include nos. 522-32, 534-35, 543-45, and 552. The storage jars, nos. 566,
574-78, 588, perhaps 590, and probably nos. 621-25 belong to this period. From Kition-
Bamboula note the plates, nos. 457-59, which are similar to examples from Kition-Kathari.
The painted storage jars from Lamaca, nos. 567, 579, 584 would seem to belong to this
horizon; the related plain forms, nos. 568-73, 581-82, may belong here but until the complete
tomb groups are published, it is difficult to say. The jars from Lamaca-Tourabi T. 30
580) and T. 38 (no. 583), with depressed bases, indicate that that form appeared before the dis-
appearance of the reserve-slipped plate which does occur in those tombs.
In summary, -the most important tomb groups of this horizon are: Ayia Irini Tombs 3, 46--
47; Philia-Aeras Vassilikou T. 6; Nicosia-Old Municipality T. 3; Episkopi-Kaloriziki T. 31;
Amathus Tombs 8, part of 321, and 367; and Lamaca-Tourabi Tombs 30, 38, Additional
materials are found in Ayia Irini Tombs 4, 5, 7, 8, 11, 13, 14, 15, 28, 33, 39 and SCE Period
5; Amathus Tombs 130, 145, 162, 168, 172, 213, 223, 242; Lamaca-Tourabi Tombs 34, 35,
41, Lamaca-Tourabi T. 56 (British Museum), Lamaca-Ploutonos St. T. 35, Lamaca-Ayios
Georgios, Lamaca-Ayios Joannis, Lamaca-Pervolia, Kiti T. 1, Kolossi-Kafalla T. 1, Limas-
sol T. 74, Kolossi-Panayia Vounarkotissa T. 5, Skarinou-Kokkalos T. 1, and Ktima T.V.
Unprovenienced vessels which probably belong to this horizon include nos. 272, 320--21,
326,342,394-96,400-409,436,446-49,455,512-13,631,and633.
So on the evidence presented above, the most characteristic vessels of this horizon are:
the mushroom-lipped jug, both bichrome and red slipped, the stilted-rim jug, the crisp ware
storage jar, and the globular-bodied, trefoil-rimmed jug with inverted conical
this period, the red-slipped fine ware plate developed from a well-made vessel with mcised
decoration through a form with reserve slip but no incised decoration, to a deteriorated, rather
heavy form with a thin washy slip. Also during this period, probably in the earliest part of it,
the makers of these fine ware plates produced an amazing variety of forms, including
extremely thin, technically superb bowls such as nos. 483-85. This was also a period of mass-
produced common ware plates in a sequence of forms which evolved from the plain flaring rim
of the earlier period (e.g., no. 519); the most typical plate of this horizon has a ledged rim
(e.g., no. 527); gradually during this period, the ledged rim became wider and more concave
(e.g., no. 531) until it evolved into the true "fish plate," (e.g., nos. 537-38) in the pha.se.
The beginning of this horizon is therefore defined by the presence of the mushroom-hppedJug
with globular body, and of quantiites of incised red slip; the end of this horizon is defined by
the appearance of the wide-rimmed mushroom jug, and perhaps by the fish plate, that is by the
mutation of the concave-rimmed plate of Lamaca-Tourabi Tomb 38 (no. 533) into plates of a
type which appears in quantity on Kition Floor 2A (e.g. no. 537).
There are, at Amathus and elsewhere, a group of tombs which have produced materials
seemingly later than those above. These vessels include the wide-rimmed variety of the mush-
room-lipped jug and a flat-based heavy juglet with mushroom lip and an. elongated body.
Other mushroom juglets have depressed bases but somewhat elongated bodies and these may
COMMENTARY 57
be the transition form between the globular-bodied type of the earlier period and the very long,
flat-based variety. These tombs include Amathus T. 302 which has in it two wide-rimmed
jugs (nos. 231 and 233), a flat-based juglet (no. 232), and a red-slipped mushroom-lipped jug
(no. 289); there is also in this tomb a trefoil-rimmed jug (no. 373) similar to no. 374 from
Amathus T. 321 (and to no. 388 from Ayia Irini). In addition to the pitcher, Tomb 321 con-
tained three flat-based, elongated juglets (nos. 234-35 and 237). Tomb 276 had a red-slipped
wide mouth jug (no. 285) and four elongated juglets (nos. 223-26). Tomb 294 yielded two
elongated juglets (nos. 229-30), the body of a red-slippedjuglet (no. 287), and ajuglet which
might be even later-no. 337, with two handles. This seems to be a very late deteriorated ver-
sion of the mushroom-lipped jug. A similar juglet appeared in T. 189 (no. 336), and another
at Salamis (no. 338). See also the single handled juglet from Kition (no. 304) which appears
equally late. Tomb 357 contained an oil bottle (no. 343) identical with those from Ayia Irini
T. 8 (nos. 344-45), indicating that this tomb may belong to an early part of this phase, that the
oil bottle had a rather long life, or that T. 8 at Ayia Irini is rather late; there were also two red-
slipped mushroom-lipped juglets (nos. 278 and 293), and two bichrome examples (nos. 243-
44). No. 243 is unique and it is difficult to say whether or not it belongs to this horizon, but
it does seems to be a deteriorated form. Tomb 137 contained a fragmentary red-slipped mush-
room-lipped jug, and a wide-rimmed bichrome example (nos. 213 and 277); in addition this
tomb contained a local imitation of the red-slipped thin-ware plate (T. 137 /49; see also Limas-
sol Museum 372174 and 75 from Limnisa which are identical), so perhaps this tomb, like T.
357, is transitional. Tomb 279 yielded a bichrome mushroom-lipped jug (no. 227), as well as
a small red-slipped juglet with elongated body (no. 286). InT. 354 there was one mushroom-
lipped jug of the standard, nearly globular type (no. 242), two fragmentary red-slipped juglets
(nos. 291-92), and an elongated juglet (no. 241). Elongated juglets with depressed bases
occur in T. 244 (no. 220), T. 192 (no. 216), and T. 347 (no. 240). Elongatedflat-basedjuglets
appeared in T. 135 (no. 212), T. 227 (nos. 218-19), T. 250 (no. 221), T. 292 (no. 228), and
T. 338 (no. 239). Red-slipped mushroom-lipped juglets appeared in T. 16 (no. 275), T. 25
(no. 276), T. 222 (no. 280), T. 226 (no. 281), T. 229 (no. 282), T. 232 (no. 283), T. 233 (no.
284), T. 301 (no. 288), and T. 365 (no. 294), and see Limnati-Mia Kremmos (no. 296). The
mushroom jugs in Lamaca-Tourabi T. 2 (nos. 256--57) are elongated, and a wide-rimmed jug
appeared in Dhali T. 1 (no. 264) along with a carinated plate (no. 547).
Salamis T. 79 yielded a number of wide-based, small-mouthed, trefoil-rimmed pitchers
(see nos. 384-85 and discussion in the catalogue of others), as well as a number of wide-
rimmed jugs (nos. 261-63). Tomb 23 contained a similar wide-rimmed jug (no. 260) as well
as red-slipped mushroom-lipped jugs (see no. 307) which have ring bases and a thin, washy
slip, and may be Cypriote imitations. The large trefoil-rimmed pitchers from Salamis T. 2
(nos. 381-82), with ring bases appear, on the basis of the quality of the slip as well as the con-
text, to be equally late. Interestingly their form recalls the form of nos. 370, 379, and 383,
which are from earlier contexts. See also the red-slipped mushroom jugs from Tombs 47 and
50 (nos. 308-9).
The most important groups of this horizon are: Amathus Tombs 137, 276, 294, 302, part
of 321, 354 and 357; and Salamis Tombs 23 and 79. Other materials are found in: Amathus
Tombs 16, 25,130,135,189,192,222,226,227,229,232,233,244,250,279,292,301,
338, 347, 365; Limnati-MiaKremmos;Lamaca-TourabiT. 2; Salamis Tombs 2, 47, 50; Polis-
58
THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
Ayios Demetrios T. 116; and Dhali T. 1.
Unprovenienced materials which seem to be equally late are: the bichrome wide-rimmed
jugs (nos. 271 and 273), and the red-slipped versions (nos. 316--17), identical with no. 285
from Amathus T. 276; see also nos. 313-15 and 318-19.
This latest horizon is not yet as clear as the earlier ones; further material needs to be exca-
vated, but what is emerging is that there is a horizon with a wide-rimmed mushroom-lipped
jug, a trefoil-rimmed pitcher with a wide base and biconical body which has developed from
the more globular ones of the earlier period, and a small, sometimes heavy, elongated juglet
based on the mushroom-lipped jug form. During this period the depressed base on these jug-
lets is replaced by a flat base. Other elements of this horizon may include a red-slipped mush-
room juglet which has not changed very much from the earlier period and the later forms of the
Canaanite storage jar so common at Kition and at Salamis- storage jars such as nos. 585,
589, 604, 610, 626--30, 632, and 634-36. The plates common on Kition floor 2A, e.g., nos.
537-40 and 548-50 may belong to this period. To judge by their absence from the later tombs
at Salamis, the reserve-slipped plates had disappeared by the time of this horizon, although it
is possible that the late deteriorated form of the reserve-slipped plate (e.g., nos. 497-98)
belongs to this era. The evidence indicates that red slip as a decoration continued into this
period and, to judge by the quality of the slip on jugs such as nos. 285 and 316, it could still
be rather good.
Turning now to the tombs which produced pottery of the earlier period, we find that there
is relatively less pottery and relatively less variety in the known repertoire. Six major classes
emerged: 1) storage jars; 2) pilgrim flasks; 3) round-based neck ridge jugs, usually with verti-
cal concentric circle decoration; 4) a similar jug with a ring base; 5) one-handled, footed- or
ring-based pitchers, and 6) what has been provisionally dubbed "red ware" (Bikai 1983: 400-
401; nos. 1-21 here). In addition there are a few miscellaneous forms including a painted stor-
age jar and same spouted jugs.
The largest group of tombs of this period were excavated at Kouklia (Palaepaphos)-Skales,
but the majority of the pottery identified as Phoenician there (Bikai 1983) occurs as a single
.vessel in a tomb; only a few tombs produced groups displaying a variety of types. These
include the important Tomb 49 which, in addition to a number of ordinary storage jars (nos.
593-95), produced a palm-tree storage jar (no. 565), the only intact example found on Cyprus;
both this jar and one of the ordinary storage jars (no. 595) had a bulbous base, one of the few
features on these jars which may be of chronological significance; the evidence from Tyre
seemed to indicate that storage jars with bulbous bases may be earlier than those with plain
bases (Bikai 1978b: 46). Tomb 49 produced five pilgrim flasks which were probably imported
(Bikai 1983: 400), as well as a number of round-based, neck-ridge jugs. The student who
wishes to understand the problem of distinguishing between Cypriote and imported versions
of this form need look no further than this tomb (see Karageorghis 1983: pls. LIV -LVI). The
criteria established by this writer at the time of the Skales publication (Bikai 1983: 402-3)
appear to be still valid: the ware of the imported vessels is heavy, soft, and flaking and the
decoration is much simpler. The mainland vessels tend to be burnished but burnishing is not
unknown on Cypriote examples (e.g. Kouklia-Skales T. 77/21 which otherwise appears Cyp-
riote). Only nos. 43 and 45 are counted here as certainly Phoenician, while nos. 44 and 46 are
COMMENTARY 59
borderline because no. 44 has a triple-rope handle and the body of no. 46 is somewhat flattened
or barrel-like. What is clear is that this is a form that was shared between Cyprus and the main-
land in a way that makes distinguishing them very difficult. As to the other pottery in the
tomb, no. 121 is a single-handled pitcher with footed base, and no. 12 is the only example of
"red ware" in the group. This class of pottery was first recognized by V. Karageorghis ( 1967 a)
and is still not well documented on the mainland but there is little question that it is an early
import. Tomb 49 contained a number of burials thought to cover the whole of the Cypro-
Geometric I period (Karageorghis 1983: 76), so it is difficult to say whether or not the "red
ware" dipper juglet (no. 12) is of the same period as the round-based jugs. A similar problem
is encountered with Tomb 67 which produced a pilgrim flask (Bikai 1983: 400), an undeco-
rated round-based jug (no. 48) and a large two-handled flask in "red ware" (no. 4). This tomb
contained two burials, one of the early CG I and one of the CG IB orCG II (Karageorghis 1983:
176). The evidence from Tomb 58 is perhaps clearer, as it is dated to the "first half ofthe CG
I period" (Karageorghis 1983: 125). This tomb produced a "red ware" flask (no. 3), identical
with the one from Tomb 67 in addition to a "red ware" jug with a single handle (no. 19), closer
to the form of the round-based jug in that it has only one handle but here the handle goes to the
rim. This vessel is quite similar to one from Salamis Tomb I (note the Roman numeral, French
excavation, as distinguished from the Salamis Tomb 1 excavated by P. Dikaios). The Salamis
Tomb is, at the latest, early CG I (Yon 1971).
Skales T. 58 contained five pilgrim flasks (Bikai 1983: 400, including no. 97 here) and
two storage jars (nos. 596--97) but the most interesting vessel is a cup-mouthed round-based
jug with concentric circle decoration below and opposite the handle (no. 47). This has the
appearance of being an experimental form midway between the pilgrim flask and the fully-
developed round-based jug on which the two sets of concentric circles are placed on either side
of the handle. Another form which may come from a period of experimentation comes from
Tomb 43: a vessel with two handles like a pilgrim flask but which is very large and has a base
(no. 127). It also has a cup-shaped mouth and was found in association with a "red ware" ves-
sel (no. 11 and see Bikai 1983:400 for a pilgrim flask and 403 on T. 43/30 which maybe main-
land) in a tomb dated to the CG I (Karageorghis 1983: 25). Tomb 50 is similarly dated
(Karageorghis 1983: 86) and produced a "red ware" juglet (no. 13), a pilgrim flask (Bikai
1983: 400), a single-handled pitcher with ring base (no. 122) and a very unusual flask (no. 96)
with a wide splayed mouth identical with those found in the "red ware" fabric (e.g., no. 3).
Tomb 78 had a "red ware" juglet (no. 14) and two single-handled pitchers (nos. 124-25); the
tomb is dated to CG lA (Karageorghis 1983: 241), one of the few in the cemetery limited to
that early period. This indicates that "red ware" was produced in that era; this is confirmed by
the "red ware" two-handled flask in T. 85 (no. 6), also of the CG lA (Karageorghis 1983: 302)
It is unclear what should be made of the "red ware" dipper (no. 15) found in Tomb 93, dated
to the CG III (Karageorghis 1983: 346). The only spouted jug found in association with other
Phoenician pottery was found in T. 80 (no. 118), dated to the CG II (Karageorghis 1983:
256). The other two spouted jugs from Kouklia (nos. 116--17) were found in Tombs 53 and
64, dated to the early CG II and the late CG II respectively (Karageorghis 1983: 99 and 155).
In addition to the spouted jug in T. 80, there were two round-based jugs in this tomb (nos. 54-
55), and three storage jars (nos. 599-601) including one (no. 601) with a flattened top, similar
to one in T. 83 (no. 602), a tomb which also produced three pilgrim flasks (Bikai 1983: 400
60
THE PHOENICIAN PO'ITERY OF CYPRUS
including no. 100 here), and a "red ware" flask (no. 5). Tomb 83 contains burials from the CG
IB, CG II and CG III (Karageorghis 1983: 290), but this material must belong to the earliest
burial.
Tomb 76 produced a number of pilgrim flasks (Bikai 1983: 400, including nos. 98-99
here) and three round-based jugs (nos. 50-52); the tomb is CG I (Karageorghis 1983: 230).
The heavy walled-juglets, nos. 151-53, in T. 75 were discussed above. This tomb also con-
tained a round-based jug with bichrome decoration (no. 49) and one with red slip decoration
(no. 20) with black and possibly white concentric circles. Both the ware and the decoration
of this are similar to that group called "red ware"; the form, however, is the fully-developed
round-based jug with neck ridge. There were, as usual, a number of burials in the tomb, but
nothing in the tomb was dated to earlier than "late CG II or early CG III" (Karageorghis 1983:
214), or later than CA I, so this tomb seems to form a transition between the period of the
round-based jugs which do not occur in Salamis T. 1, and that of the heavy juglets which do
appear there.
Other material scattered through the tombs includes storage jars in Tombs 44 and 74 (nos.
591-92, 598), one handled pitchers in Tombs 69 and 82 (nos. 123 and 126), round-based jugs
in Tombs 77, 86, and 89 (nos. 53 and 56-57), a flask in T. 87 (no. 101), and the unique flask
in T. 84 (no. 128); see also the very fragmentary jug with base from Kouklia-Teratsoudia (no.
70). Three other "red ware" flasks were found at Kouklia (nos. 7-9), all in Xlth century con-
texts. Two "red ware" flasks (nos. 1-2) come from Kourion-Kaloriziki, dated to Late Cyp-
riote IIIB (Benson 1973). The Kaloriziki cemetery also produced one round-based jug (no.
40), as did the Ktima cemetery in Paphos (no. 58, and see no. 102, a pilgrim flask from the
same tomb); Tomb G3 at Ktima yielded a storage jar (no. 603). Salamis T. I produced two
"red ware" vessels: one, if our reconstruction is correct, similar to the two-handled flasks from
Kouklia (e.g., no. 10) and one (no. 21) with what appears to be a transitional rim: mid-way
between the concave type of no. 19 with handle to the rim and the fully-developed neck-ridge
type. Salamis T. I also produced two pilgrim flasks of an early type (nos. 104-5) and a frag-
mentary storage jar with bulbous base (no. 606). Equally early pilgrim flasks came from
Lapithos (nos. 106-8). One round-based jug was found in Lapithos T. 417 (no. 59). The
flask from Alaas (no. 103) is interesting in that its form is indistinguishable from many in much
later contexts.
At this writing stratigraphic information on the Amathus tombs excavated recently is not
available; even if it were, it does not appear that the Phoenician material in the Amathus tombs
would contribute substantially to our knowledge of this period as it is scattered over a number
of tombs; that is, only a very few tombs produced more than one Phonician vessel of the early
period. The largest group is in the SCE Tomb 15 but this consists of two rather small and
heavy-walled round-based jugs (nos. 23-24) and a number of pilgrim flasks (nos. 73-79).
Tomb 310 yielded three rather large round-based jugs (nos. 27-29). Tomb 312 had, in addi-
tion to two round-based jugs (nos. 31-32), a red-slipped jug with black and red decoration (no.
17) which is similar to no. 20 from Kouklia-Skales T. 7 5, no earlier than the late CG II
(Karageorghis 1983: 214). No. 16 from SCE T. 7 may be yet a third red-slipped example of
the fully developed round-based jug. Note that the (apparently) earlier types of"red ware" are
notably absent at Amathus; that is, nothing resembling the large two handled flasks (nos. 1-10)
from Kouklia and Kaloriziki or the dipper juglets (nos. 11-15) from Kouklia was found at
COMMENTARY 61
Amathus. No. 18 from T. 379 is a pilgrim flask of the ordinary form which did appear to be
of the same ware and decoration as "red ware." So it seems that what does appear at Amathus
is a trace of a later, developed stage of "red ware."
The very heavy jugs, nos. 33 and 35, from Tombs 313 and 371 were discussed above as
they occur in contexts with square-rimmed jugs. Other round-based jugs appeared in Tombs
10, 23 and 311 (nos. 22, 25-26, 30); examples of the related flat- or ring-based jugs occurred
in Tombs 21, 329, 332 and 333 (nos. 63-66). Amathus T. 370 was the only tomb in which
both a round-based jug and a similar one with a base occurred (nos. 34 and 67); the tomb also
contained a pilgrim flask (no. 84). Spouted jugs were found in Tombs 19 and 331 (nos. 114-
15). A vessel with horizontal decoration similar to the spouted jugs but without a spout occur-
red in T. 382 (no. 120), a tomb which also yielded a large round-based jug (no. 37). Pilgrim
flasks occurred in Tombs 18, 227 and 329 (nos. 80--83), as well as in T. 376 (no. 86), the tomb
in which no. 36, a unique round-based jug in a ware which is otherwise unknown to this writer,
was found. Two round-based jugs were found in Ayios Tykhonas-Mandres T. 2 (nos. 38-39)
and a ring-based example in T. 6 (no. 68). Another ring-based jug was found in the Amathus
area (no. 69) in conjunction with Greek Protogeometric pottery (Desborough 1957); the con-
text was apparently a "tomb-robber's cache", but Des borough ( 1957: 212) felt that it was "suf-
ficiently homogeneous to constitute a true burial group." This conjunction may prove useful
in the future. FromEpiskopi-BambouJa, note the heavy round-based jug (no. 42) from T. 30,
and the similar one from Episkopi-Kaloriziki T. 36-W (no. 41). See also the pilgrim flasks,
nos. 89-93, from Kaloriziki; no. 93 has a cup-shaped mouth and is dated to the CG lA (Benson
1972: 122). Note also the similar flasks from Amathus-Kaikalla (Karageorghis, BCH 1971:
figs. 46-4 7).
A few fragments which might belong to jugs with vertical circle decoration were noted
in the sherd trays of Kition. The storage jars from Kition-Bamboula (nos. 586-87) and from
Salamis (nos. 607-8) may belong to this early horizon. See also no. 170 from Kition-Bam-
boula which may be this early.
It is likely that what is here called one horizon is actually two or more as there are obvious
changes during this period. The "red ware" flasks with two handles and the vessels with cup-
shaped mouths belong to the earliest phase. It is not yet clear exactly how early the round-
based neck -ridge jug appeared, but it is likely that the form with a base is later. When further
materials are uncovered it is possible that a separate horizon containing that form (the bic-
hrome jug with a base), and perhaps the spouted jug, as well as other forms, will emerge. For
the moment there simply isn't enough evidence to justify dividing this horizon into two (or
more) phases.
The major groups of this horizon are: Kouklia (Palaepaphos)-Skales Tombs 43, 49, 50,
58, 67, 76, 80, and 83, with 75 at the end of the period; Salamis T. I; and Amathus Tombs 15,
310, 312, 370, and 382. Additional materials are found in: Kouklia (Palaepaphos)-Skales
Tombs 44, 53, 64, 69, 74, 77, 78, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 89, and 93; Amathus Tombs 7, 10, 18,
19, 21, 23, 227, 311, 329, 331, 332, 333, 376, and 379; Kouklia-Teratsoudia T. 76; Kouklia
T. I; Kouklia-Xerolimni T. 9; Ktima VII, G3; Episkopi-Bamboula T. 30; Episkopi-Kaloriziki
Tombs 7, 25, 41, and 36-W; Ayios Tychonas-Mandrez Tombs 3 and 6; Amathus-Ahmed
Rachim's Coffee Shop; Lapithos-Ayios Anastasia Tombs 2 and P74; Lapithos (SCE) T. 417;
62
THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
and Alaas T. 19. Unprovenienced materials of this early period include the round-based jugs,
nos. 60-62, the similar jugs with base, nos. 71-72, and the pilgrim flasks, nos. 109-13.
So at least four horizons of Phoenician pottery can be recognized on Cyprus. For ease of
discussion these are here named in chronological order the Kouklia, Salamis, Kition and
Amathus horizons.3 As a guide to the discussion above, Table 1 displays the more important
pottery types as they occur in the larger tomb groups and the following lists summarize the
horizons to which the vessels in the catalogue have been assigned in this commentary. It must
be made very clear that these are sometimes provisional assignments and should be taken
within the context of the discussion above. Horizon is taken here to mean a shift in the pottery
repertoire such that it seems clear that certain forms have disappeared and been replaced by
others, such that taken together these forms present a recognizably different complex from the
earlier or later horizons. It is, of course, unlikely that each class of pottery evolved lock-step
with the others; for example, it would seem that the bichrome mushroom jug changed more
quickly over time than the red-slipped variety did. Further, the relationship of the evolutio_n
of the red-slip plates to the evolution of the jugs is not exactly clear. Did, for example, the
appearance of quantities of incised red-slip coincide with the appearance of the mushroom-
lipped jug? Or, did the disappearance of the reserve-slip thin-ware plate coincide with the
appearance of wide-rimmed mushroom jug? Was the round-based bichrome jug replaced by
the type with a base, or did the two types coexist over a long period of time? These and many
questions like them await further excavation, but for the moment, at least these four horizons
can be recognized as somewhat separate:
KoukliaHorizon: nos. 1-15, 16?, 17-32, 33?, 34, 35?, 36-84,86,89-93,96-108, 114-
18, 120-28, 565, 586-87, 591-603, and 606-8.
Salamis Horizon: 85,87-88, 129-69, 170?, 171-208,222,322,339,349-70,372,375,
378-80, 383,410-13,430-31,434?,460-61,491, 501-9,515-21,541-42,611-14,616-
17, 618-20?.
KitionHorizon: 209-11,214-15,217,236,246-55, 259?, 265-70,272,274,279,290,
295,297-303,306,310-12,320-21,324,326,328-35,341-42,344-45,371,376-77,386-
87,389-409,414-29,434?,435-59,462-90,492-99,500,510-14,522-36,543-45,551-
57,559,566-84,588,590,615,621-25,631,and633.
Amathus Horizon: 212-13,216,218-21,223-35,237,239-44,256-57, 258?, 260-64,
271,273,275-78,280-89,291-94,296,304,305?,307-9,313-19,336-38,343,373-74,
381-82,384-85,388,537-40,546-50,585,589,604,610,626-30,632,634-36.
Numbers 94-95, 109-13, 119, 238, 245, 323, 325, 327, 340, 346-48, 432-33, 558,
560-64, 605, and 609 are, for various reasons, not assigned to a specific horizon.
3. It must be noted that each of those sites have produced materials of more than one horizon, e.g., materials of the Salamis
horizon occur at Kition and materials of the Kition horizon occur at Amathus. The names are chosen according to which site pro-
duced the largest quantity of representative vessels, and to indicate that they are horizons as viewed from Cyprus.
4. On Table I, "Heavy Juglet" includes both red-slipped and bichrome examples. "Decorated Square-Rimmed" means the
examples of that type with bichrome concentric circle deoration and with red slip. "Square-Rimmed" here means the square-rim-
med juglets with decoration on the upper neck and rim only. "Early Fine Ware" means the plates with red slip on the interior and
just over the exterior rim. "Mushroom-lipped" jug means bichrome decorated examples with the narrower rim. "Wide-rimmed
Mushroom" includes both bichrome and red-slipped examples.
COMMENTARY
N ,..... ,.....
...... ('!
"0
<!) <!)
rl g lil
r ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - r - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ ~ ~
::l
~
~
,..... ,..... N
N ,..... <'"\ Vl ......
64
THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY: BEYOND CYPRUS
Elements of the Salamis horizon can be found inTyre Strata IV through IX (Bikai 1978b:
pl. XXII. 8, a heavy juglet and see pl. XXI. 8-1 0; pl. XX.l, a long .necked pitcher;
XVIII.lO, pl. XIV.2-5, square-rimmed jugs; and pl. XV.l, 4, 10, 11, fme wtth
red-slipped interiors). Incised fine ware occurred inTyre Stratum IV (e.g., Btkat1978b: pl.
XV. 7, 13, 15), indicating that Stratum IV represents the transition between the Salamis phase
and the later Kition phase.
The number of (published!) mainland tombs which have yielded Phoenician pottery is
quite small by comparison with Cyprus. The largest group of tombs is from Khalde
1966) where T. 1 included a red slip mushroom-lipped juglet (no. 2), T. 3 a mushroom-hpped
juglet (no. 11), a red-slipped pitcher (no. 9), a red-slipped bowl with incised decoration (no.
10) and a plate with a ledged rim (no. 8). These two tombs can therefore be related to the
Kition horizon. In Khalde Stratum IV, T. 166produc'ed a spouted jug (no. 49) as nos. 116 and
118 here, two pilgrim flasks (nos. 50-51) and a round-based bichrome jug (no. 52). InT. 167
there were two round-based jugs (nos. 55-56) and a spouted jug (nos. 57) with inverted
triangle decor similar to nos. 117-18 here. T. 4, although it was associated with the later
Stratum III, must be earlier as it contained a round-based jug (no. 13). So these three tombs
can be related to the Kouklia phase on Cyprus, perhaps because of the spouted jugs, to a later
phase of that period, although this is not certain. Tomb 121 straight-sided
including two with painted interiors (nos. 26, 29, 30), and a fme ware plate (no. 28) wtch
appears to be of the same type as those found in Salamis T .. 1 a?d Maroni ! . 2. In
there were two jugs with stilted rims (nos. 23-24); these may mdtcate that th1s tomb, hke Lar-
naca-Pbaneromeni T. 1 is transitional between what are here called the Salamis and Kition
phases. A nearly identical group was published from Tambourit (Saidah 1977).
were two painted plates (nos. 1, 3), a plain straight-sided plate (no. 2) and three stilted JUgs
(nos. 7-9), as well as a painted storage jar with a base (no. 6). This tomb, like most of the
mainland Phoenician tombs contained amphorae, some with vertical handles, some with hori-
zontal handles. These are very similar to the Cypriote forms and, indeed, many of the main-
land tomb examples may be Cypriote); this may explain why not a single one of these was iden-
tified as being of mainland manufacture in this study. One of the Tambourit amphorae had an
inscription on it (no. 10). No. 11 from Tambourit is a Greek pyxis attributed to the end of the
Early Geometric or the beginning of the Middle Geometric I (Courbin 1977: 157).
Another large group of Phoenician pottery was published by Chapman in 1972. Unfortu-
nately, the majority of these have no clear provenience, but Chapman believed that the group
of five vessels from Qasmieh were from a single tomb (1972: 57 and fig. 32) and there is no
reason to doubt it. The group includes a pilgrim flask (Chapman 1972: no. 313), a straight-
sided plate (no. 314), a globular-bodied pitcher with red-slip but no incised decoration (no.
316) and a square-rimmed jug with vertical concentric circle decoration (no. 312). This last
makes it likely that Qasmieh is earlier than Kahlde T. 121 or Tambourit. An equally early
group of vases has been found in Crete at Knossos; these include a bichrome decorated jug
without a rim but it is quite similar to nos. 168--69 here, two red-slipped heavy juglets and a
footed pitcher (Coldstream 1984: pl. XXIII.l-4); this group now stands as the earliest Phoeni-
cian pottery published from anywhere west of Cyprus. The three red-slipped and incised
sherds from Huelva (Fernandez Jurado 1984: fig. 16) are of the type found in the early part of
COMMENTARY
65
the Kition horizon and are the earliest Phoenician ceramics published from west of Crete; note
that they are from beyond Gibraltar!
The largest tomb of what is here called the Salamis horizon ever published is Rachidieh
T. IV (Doumet 1979-80). This tomb contained red-slipped spouted vases (nos. 8 and 28)
which may have developed from the bichrome types of the earlier phase, a long-necked pitcher
(no. 34, as no. 355 here), and a footed pitcher (no. 59, similar to no. 357 here). The three
globular-bodied pitchers with incised decoration (nos. 40, 50, 54 B) are of the type found in
Salamis T. 1 and Amathus T. 151 (nos. 370 and 379 here). Three varieties of the square-
rimmed jug were present: red slipped (no. 64), with vertical concentric circles (nos. 11, 25,
30, 33, 42, 95), and neck-decorated (nos. 55 and probably 58). What is probably an early
variety of the stilted rim pitcher (no. 46) was also found. The mushroom-lipped jug (no. 70)
must belong to the very last use of the tomb (indeed it may be intrusive). There were a number
of amphorae in the tomb, including two with inscriptions (nos. 22 and 48), as well as red-
slipped plates and painted plates. There was also a Greek plate (no. 9) identical with those
found in Salamis T. 1. These open plates with pendant semi-circles have also been found at
Tyre (Bikai 1978b: pls. XXII.5, 6, XXIV.5; Courbin 1982: figs. 5-10) and atRas el Bassitin
association with a fragmentary bichrome jug (Courbin 1982: figs. 2-4).
Rachidieh T. V, which Doumet dated to the end of the 5th century ( 1979-80: 111), con-
tains a fragmentary storage jar with twisted handles similar to no. 585 here; there are such jars
in jars in Tell Keisan Level 3 (e.g., Briend and Humbert 1980: pl. 18.1) of similar date.
Rachidieh T. V can also be compared with part of Stratum II at Tell Abu Hawam (see Hamilton
1935: figs. 3-7 and Doumet 1979-80: pl. XXIV).
Before leaving Rachidieh, it should be noted that the only other pottery published from
there is from the 1903 excavations (Macridy 1904). Unfortunately the materials from the three
tombs (A, B, C) were all published as a group and it is difficult now to sort them out: they
included a red-slip pitcher (Macridy 1904: pl. VI. 2), and a square-rimmed jug (no. 12) similar
to those in Doumet's T. IV; a spouted pitcher and a ring-based bichrome jug (nos. 11, 17) may
be earlier, while the mushroom-lipped jug and the torpedo jar (nos. 6 and 19) are probably
later.
Tell Abu Hawam is presently being restudied (Balensi 1980, 1985; Herrera 1983;
Balensi, Herrera and Bunimovitz 1985) so a detailed anaylsis of that material would be point-
less here; however, a few notes would not be out of order. There still seem to be no true mush-
room-lipped jugs from Tell Abu Hawam; Hamilton's rimless jug, no. 78 (1935: pl. XIII, and
p. 22: " ... found at Tall Abu Haw am before the excavations."), which for many years was used
to date the earliest appearance of the mushroom-lipped jug more likely had a squared-off rim,
as the latest material in Tell Abu Hawam Stratum III appears to coincide with the very begin-
ning of what is here called the Kition horizon. There are red-slipped trefoil-rimmed jugs and
red-slipped plates, both of the type similar to those in Salamis T. 1 and of the incised type
(Balensi, Herrera, and Bunimovitz 1985: fig. 9). On the other hand, Stratum II contained
plates with "dished" rims (Hamilton 1935: nos. 7-8) as nos. 531-33 here, a type of plate which
occurs with materials of the latest part of the Kition horizon and the earliest of the Amathus
horizon (e.g., Larnaca-Tourabi T. 38). So looking at Tell Abu Hawam from the perspective
of Cyprus, what is missing is the middle section of the Kition horizon; that is, other than a few
incised fine-ware plates, nothing equivalent to what was found in the Ayia Irini tombs occurs
66
THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
at Tell Abu Hawam: no mushroom-lipped jugs, no stilted-rimmed jugs, no plates with ledged
rims. The torpedo storage jar is also absent. Looking at the earlier period, it is clear that Tell
Abu Hawam Stratum IV covers the whole of what is here called the Kouklia horizon, since it
includes splayed-mouth pilgrim flasks, round-based jugs and the related ring-based jugs and
the related ring-based form (Balensi 1980: pls. 73-74).
Nothing in this catalogue appears to be as early as Tell Keisan Level 9c except the "red
ware" flasks (nos. 1-10) which are very similar to the Keisan examples from that level (Briend
and Humbert 1980: pls. 74-76); the type continues, however, into level9a-b (pl. 62.1, 9). The
painted storage jar (no. 565) is similar to one in Level9a-b (pl. 57) and there are a number of
bichrome round-based jugs in that level (pl. 62.4-6). The materials recovered from Levels 6--
8 are rather sparse, but one notes the strainer jug in Level 7 (pl. 51.1), and the absence of any
fine red-slipped wares. Balensi (1985: 73, n. 26) has suggested that Tell Abu Hawam and Tell
Keisan "may have undergone similar evolution." While this appears to be generally true, it
may be that Tell Abu Hawam III went on for some time after the end of Keisan 7, since some
ceramic forms appear at Tell Abu Hawam before the abandonment of the site which do not
occur at Keisan until AFTER its reoccupation at Level 5. Except for a few painted plates
found in the later Level 5 (pl. 41.13, 15), what is here called the Salamis horizon is difficult
to see at Keisan. In Level 5 at Keisan one finds a quantity of plates with depressed rims
(Briend and Humbert 1980: pl. 38, similar to nos. 531-33 here), as well as with ledged rims
(pl. 43.13 and fig. 45 as no. 527 here); there are also plates with everted rims above a carina-
tion point (pl. 40.1-5 as nos. 552 and 555 here) and reserve-slipped fine ware, with and with-
out incised decoration (pl. 40 .12). The only mushroom-lipped jug published from Level5 (pl.
44.3) is somewhat elongated and the crisp ware storage jars have lower rims (fig. 42 and pl.
47.1-2, as nos. 625-26 here), all of which tends toward the conclusion that the occupation of
Level 5 begins during the later part of the Kition horizon and perhaps continues into the
Amathus horizon. The storage jars of Level 4 are also of the low-rimmed type (pls. 25.8;
27.15 as nos. 625-26 here) and of the type with a pulled-back rim (e.g., pl. 26, as nos. 585
and 627 here) making Level4 similar to the Amathus horizon. We have noted above the simi-
larity ofRachidieh T. V to Keisan Level3 and some elements of Tell Abu Hawam Stratum II.
These materials, e.g., storage jars with twisted handles, are generally recognized as being of
the Persian period, and may mark the end of what is here called the Amathus horizon.
The only other large group equivalent to the Kouklia horizon is Tyre Strata XIII through
X. Fragments of large splayed-mouth pilgrim flasks occurred at Tyre in Stratum XIV (Bikai
1978b: pl. XXXIX.4, 5) indicating that at Tyre, as at Tell Keisan, these vessels occur quite
early on the mainland and are the probable source of the large red-slipped jugs found on Cyprus
(nos. 1-10 here), but no exact parallels to those jugs were recognized at Tyre. Practically all
of the other vessels in theKoukliahorizon occur atTyre (Bikai 1978b: pls. XXIII.10, XXV.7,
10--15, XXIX.3, XXX1.15, XXXIII.19, 22, 25, XXIV.10, XXV.ll-13, XXXVII.2, 13,
among others; see Bikai 1983 for more detailed comparisons). Note in particular the large
round-based jar (pl. XXV .13) in Stratum X-2 similar to those on Pl. VI here. Specific corre-
lations with Sarepta are difficult, but on the basis of at least the storage jars, it is likely that the
Kouklia horizon can be seen in Sounding X, Stratum D and perhaps part of E (Anderson 1979:
pls. 31-34) and in Sounding Y, Period VII and perhaps part of VI (Khalifeh 1981: Table 9B,
types SJ11-14). In Sounding Y, the straight -sided plates here associated with the Salamis
COMMENTARY
67
horizon are important in Strata D1 and C2 (Anderson 1979: Table 3B, type X-11. This hori-
zon is difficult to recognize as a separate entity in Sounding X.
So in summary, materials equivalent to the Kouklia horizon can be found in Tell Abu
Hawam IV, Khalde Tombs 4, 166, 167, Keisan 9a-b, 8 and 7, Sarepta D and VII, and Tyre
XIII-X. Materials equivalent to the Salamis horizon are found in Rachidieh Tomb IV, Tell
Abu Hawam III, Sarepta D1 to C2, Tyre Strata X through part ofiV, Qasmieh, and Knossos.
This horizon cannot be recognized Tell Keisan (except perhaps in Level6) or at Sarepta Sound-
ing X. Khalde T. 121 and Tambourit probably belong to the last part of this period and con-
tinue into the next.
The Kition horizon is well represented at Tyre in part of Stratum IV as well as Strata III-
II. Strata III-II contain mushroom-lipped jugs, stilted-rimmed jugs, crisp-ware storage jars,
painted storage jars, oil bottles, ledge-rimmed plates, carinated plates, red-slipped covers, and
reserve-slipped plates (Bikai 1978b: pls. II-XII). Tyre Stratum IV contained incised fine
wares (pl. XV. 7, 9, 13, 15), the early form of the ledge-rimmed plate (pl. XVI.13-17) and
some examples of the "crisp-ware" storage jar (Bikai 1978b: Table lOA, SJ4-7), and thus rep-
resents the beginning of the Kition horizon. At Al Min a "more than a dozen" mushoom-lipped
jugs "were found complete or made up in Level VIII" (Taylor 1959: 69; fig. 2.10, 11; pl.
XXb). In addition there were a number of fine ware plates with reserve slip decoration (fig.
6.1-3), some of which had incised decoration (Taylor 1959: 79). One complete red-slipped
pitcher was found in Level VII-VI (fig. 7.7). None of the material Miss Taylor published
seems to be equivalent to the Salamis horizon, so Al Mina VIII is probably equivalent to the
Kition horizon. On the other hand, plates with dished rims occurred from Levels VIII to V
(Taylor 1959: 82; fig. 6.25, 28, 30, 39; all of these were called fish plates by Miss Taylor, but
only her fig. 6. 30 would come under that name here), and there were difficulties separating the
strata (Taylor 1959: 91-92), so there is no point in attempting to identify what at Al Mina is
equivalent to the shift between what are here called the Kition and Amathus horizons, but V-
IV must be that late; how Level VI relates to the Cypriote horizons it is now impossible to say.
In the Khalde cemetery we have already noted that Tombs 1 and 3 belong to this horizon.
At Atlit, T. IVa yielded a red-slipped pitcher, a red-slipped plate and a straight-sided plate
(Johns 1983: fig. 6.1, 2, 5), T. V a peculiarly long-necked mushroom jug (fig. 7.1), T. X a
reserve-slip plate (fig. 10.2), and T. XIIIb another such plate (fig. 13.3). Akhziv T. 29 con-
tains many of the elements of the Kition horizon, including red-slipped pitchers, fine ware
plates, bichrome and red-slipped mushroom-lipped jugs, stilted jugs, a high-rimmed storage
jar and a dipper juglet (Culican 1975-76: fig. a), while Akhziv T. 3 with its wide-rimmed mus-
hroom jugs and low-rimmed storage jar (Culican 1975-76: fig. B) resembles the assemblage
here called the Amathus horizon. Akhziv T. XXIV contained a stepped plate similar to no.
544 here, an oil bottle and an elongated bichrome jug with a wide mushroom lip. The combi-
nation suggests correlation with the early part of the Amathus horizon. Little can be said about
the graves at Teller Reqeish: the jug from Grave 16 (Culican 1973: fig. 3.R16a is similar to
no. 210 here). Grave 22 yielded a torpedo jar (figs. 4.R22, 12.497), Grave 23 a red-slipped
mushroom jug (figs. 4.23a, 13.513).
The material from Sarepta (Anderson 1979; Khalifeh 1981) would seem to correspond to
the groups here as follows: Stratum C1 with its torpedo jars, ledge-rimmed plates and red slip
68
THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
wares (Anderson 1979: pls. 36-38) can be associated with the Kition horizon. The wide-
rimmed plates (as no. 532 here) are prominent in Strata C1 and B (Anderson 1979: Table 3b,
type X-9). Rims of torpedo jars are found in Stratum C (Anderson 1979: Table 9B, types SJ-
15, 16 and 17); the later low-rimmed type (SJ-18) is important in Stratum B. In Sounding X,
type X-9 was important in Periods VII and VIII (Khalifeh 1981: Table 4B). Rims of the tor-
pedo jar occurred in Periods VI-VII (Khalifeh 1981: Table 9B, types SJ15-17) while the later
low pulled-back rim (as no. 627 here) is important in Period VIII (Table 9B, type SJ18), indi-
cating that Period VII must have continued from the early period into the Kition horizon while
VIII is equivalent to the Amathus horizon.
So the Kition horizon can be recognized in Khalde Tombs 1 and 3, at Tyre in part of IV
as well as III-II, at least part of Tell Keisan Level 5, Huelva, Atlit IVa, V, X, Akhziv 29,
Er-Requeish 16, 22, 23, Sarepta Stratum C1 and Period VII. Materials equivalent to the
Amathus horizon are found at Tyre I, Tell Keisan Level4 and perhaps the last part of LevelS,
Sarafand B and VIII, Akhziv Tombs 3 and XXIV, and the later levels of Al Mina. Rachidieh
T. V, Keisan Level4, and what is probably the last part of Tell Abu Haw am Stratum II would
seem to be later than the materials here called the Amathus horizon. Table 2 outlines the cor-
relations proposed here.
CYPRIOTE ABU SAREPTA AL
HORIZON TYRE HAW AM KEISAN X y MINA KHALDE RACHIDIEH AKHZIV ATLIT OTHER
XIII IV 9a-b D2 VII T.4
KOUKLIA : 8 : T.l66
X 7 Dl : T.167
:
:
IX 6? ? KNOSSOS
SALAMIS : III C2 T.121 T.IV QASMIEH
v : TAMBOURIT
IV :
:
GAP T.IVA HUELVA
K I T I O ~ III GAP Cl VII? VIII T.l T.29 T.V ER-
II 5 : T.3 T.X REQEISH
: T.XIIIB 16,22,23
:
:
AMATHUS I II 4 B VIII V-IV T.3
T.XXIV
TABLE2
ABSOLUTE CHRONOLOGY
On the conventional chronology these four horizons cover the whole of the Cypro-
Geometric and Archaic I periods, i.e. , 1050 B.C. into the sixth century, but it must be made
clear at the outset of this discussion that we still do not have a single fixed date for any of this
material. Most discussions of chronology for this period are at best based on circular reason-
ing. The dating, for example, of Salamis T. 1 relies on the Greek pottery (Dikaios 1963: 170),
which in tum relies in great part on mainland Syro-Palestinian connections, traditionally on
COMMENTARY
69
Tell Abu Haw am and and Hama in particular. Tell Abu Haw am is now being revised (Balensi
1985) and the importance of Hama has recently been questioned (Francis and Vickers 1985),
so we cannot look to the Greek pottery for fixed dates. The writer elsewhere proposed (1978a)
that the horizon of Tyre Strata 111-11 which is equal to the Kition horizon here can be roughly
dated on the basis of the occurrence of materials from that horizon both before and after the
destructions which took place in the second half of the eighth century (e.g. , Razor V or VA to
IV, Megiddo III to II, Samaria, Far'ah II, etc.; see Bikai 1978a: 54). There is nothing in evi-
dence at the moment to dispute that conclusion; that is, there is no reason not to believe that
the true mushroom-lipped jug, the ledged plates, the stilted-rimmed jug, the "crisp ware" stor-
age jar, and the reserve slip plates belong to a period covering, at minimum, 750-700 B.C.
The Salamis horizon must preceed the Kition horizon which perhaps has a chronological
anchor in the second half of the eighth century. Therefore the Salamis horizon may have
ended in the middle of the eighth century. When the Salamis horizon began is much more of
a problem. There is nothing that will give a fixed date for this. The occurrence of materials
of this horizon in Kouklia (Palaepaphos)-Skales T. 75, along with earlier materials may give
a clue; there was nothing earlier than Cypro-Geometric III in that tomb (Karageorghis 1983:
214); materials of the Salamis horizon also occurred in Skales Tomb 62 with Cypriote pottery
of the end of the Cypro-Geometric III period (Karageorghis 1983: 147) and in Tomb 81 which
also contained Cypro-Geometric III pottery (Karageorghis 1983: 269). Whether the begin-
ning of the Salamis horizon correlates with the beginning of the Cypro-Geometric III is not at
all clear; if it does then the beginning could be pushed back well into the ninth century, yielding
a tentative date of 850?-750 B.C.
The transition between the Kition and Amathus horizons is equally problematic. Vessels
typical of the Amathus horizon occurred in Salamis T. 79, currently dated to ca. 700 B.C. If,
however, this horizon began that early, then one must take account of the fact that the time
allowed for the Kition horizon which includes almost all of the Ayia Irini cemetery, becomes
quite short, i.e., after750 to before 700 B.C. Anderson (1979: 608, n. 1, citing Culican 1970)
has suggested that some elements of Tyre Strata 111-11 can perhaps be dated in the seventh
rather than the eighth centuries; this would put Tyre Stratum I, here associated with the
Amathus horizon, well into the seventh century. For the moment, however, the best dating
that can be offered for the Amathus horizon is "after 700 B.C." with no closing date presently
available, except that it is likely that this era ended during the Cypro-Archaic, and that it is also
likely that it ended before the Persian period.
For the earliest materials the conventional dating must be accepted, 1050 B.C. to the
beginning of the Salamis horizon. If this begins ca. 850 B.C., then the Kouklia horizon spans
two centuries which would further reinforce this writer's feeling that the Kouklia horizon prob-
ably contains more than one phase.
Subject to the qualifications above, the following dates are proposed:
Kouklia horizon:
Salamis horizon:
Kition horizon:
Amathus horizon:
ca. 1050 to 850?
850? to 750?
750? to after 700
After 700 to after 600
70 THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF PHOENICIAN POTTERY
The earliest Phoenician pottery identified in this study (the early part of the Kouklia hori-
zon) comes from Kouklia, from Episkopi-Kaloriziki and from Salamis (Tomb I). Nothing as
early as those groups has been found at Amathus, nor, curiously, anywhere in the Larnaca
area. The later part of the Kouklia horizon, signaled by the presence of the round-based jug,
can be seen not only at Kouklia and Episkopi but also at Amathus. It can possibly be seen in
some of the fragments from Larnaca (Kition)-Kathari and Bamboula. The only evidence for
any contact between Phoenicia and the north coast of Cyprus in the early period is the jar from
Lapithos (no. 59 here). Materials of the Salamis horizon can be seen across the south coast
from Kouklia to Larnaca, and at Salamis on the east coast. To the north, but for the one vessel
from Rizokarpaso-Anavrysi, there is nothing. Materials of the Kition horizon are absent from
Kouklia, but are otherwise very common on the south coast. For the first time, evidence for
contact between Phoenicia and the north coast is substantial. Indeed, the quantities of Phoeni-
cian pottery found at Ayia Irini may be an indication that there is a trading station nearby .. It
should be noted that the Phoenician pottery of Ayia Irini (as well as that found at Philia and
Nicosia) appeared to this writer to be more akin to that of Sarepta, within the Sidonian spere
of influence, than to that of Kition-Kathari which appears to be specifically Tyrian. There
may be a very, very faint hint here of some division of the trading spheres of the northern and
southern Cypriote coasts between Tyre and (perhaps) Sidon. This is, however, highly
speculative; what is certain is that Phoenician pottery was imported to Larnaca in quantity in
this period and it is common at Amathus. Materials of the Amathus horizon occur in the
Limassol, Larnaca and Salamis areas but again not in the north, and, interestingly, not to any
great extent in the west.
The concentration of earlier materials at Kouklia and in the Limas sol area can perhaps be
put down to chance of excavation, or it may be a hint of an early period of Phoenician trade
which used western Cyprus as a stopping point. The earliest material which has ever been
found west of Cyprus are the vessels from Knossos which belong to the Salamis horizon. West
of Crete, the sherds from Huelva are now the earliest materials published and these belong to
the Kition horizon. Materials of the Amathus horizon are common at all of the Phoenician col-
onies.
At the time of the Sarepta excavation it was thought that close parallels between the
Phoenician repertoire and the materials excavated at Samaria-Sebaste (Crowfoot, Crowfoot,
and Kenyon 1957) might be found. With a relatively clear Phoenician sequence in hand, the
Samaria repertoire looks quite distinct from the Phoenician repertoire; indeed one can now
almost draw a line showing the geographical extent of this ceramic repertoire down the coast
to Tell Abu Hawam but not much further south and certainly not as far inland as Razor. The
northern limits of this repertoire cannot yet be set although it is likely that it will extend up
almost the full length of the Syrian coast, but again not very far inland.
71
APPENDIX A
INDEX BY DISTRICT AND SITE
In the following index, the objects catalogued are listed by district and then by site and tomb number where
appropriate. Foreign excavations are noted; otherwise excavation by the Department of Antiquities of Cyprus can
be presumed. Objects with uncertain or unknown provienience are listed at the end.
LIMAS SOL DISTRICT
Amathus
4 (British Museum) 357
232 (British Museum) 410
2 (SCE) 430
7 (SCE) 16,163,164,180,323,349,358
8 (SCE) 209,210,274
9 (SCE) 165, 181
10 (SCE) 22
11 (SCE) 190
13 (SCE) 166,350,368,431
15 (SCE)
23,24,73,74,75,76,77,78,79
16 (SCE) 275
18 (SCE) 80
19 (SCE) 114
21 (SCE) 63
23 (SCE) 25,26
24 (SCE) 129
25 (SCE) 276
Ill 130
113 133
130 211,557,585
135 212
136 351
137 213,277
138 359,369
145 214
151
191,352,370
160 182
162 456
168 215
172 536,551
179
See no. 278
189
336
192 216
213 279
222
280, see no. 278
223
134,135,136,137,138,217
225
139, 140
226
281
227 81,218,219
72
229
232
233
237
242
244
250
266
276
279
288
292
294
301
302
310
311
312
313
315
321
329
331
332
333
334
338
341
347
352
354
357
365
366
367
370
371
376
379
382
384
THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
282
283
284
See no. 278
371
183,220
221
222,360,372
223,224,225,226,285
227,286
434
228
229,230,287,337,andseeno.278
288
231,232,233,289,373
27,28,29
30
17,31,32
33,167
131
141,142,143,184,234,235,236,237,238,290,353,354,361,374
64,82,83
115
65
66
144
239
375
240
558
241,242,291,292
243,244,278,293,343
294
362
295,435
34,67,84
35, 85, 145, 146
36,86,245
18
37, 120
355
346 II (French Excavations)
Amathus-Ahmed Rashim' s Coffee Shop 69
Ayios Tykhonas-Mandres
3
6
Episkopi-Village
Episkopi-Bamboula
2B (Pennsylvania)
30 (Pennsylvania)
Episkopi-Kaloriziki
38,39
68
168
93
42
4
6B
7
12
25 (Pennsylvania)
31 (Pennsylvania)
35 (Pennsylvania)
36-W (Pennsylvania)
41 (Pennsylvania)
Kolossi-Katkalla
1
Kolossi-Panayia Vounarkotissa
5
Limassol
74
Limnati-Mia Kremmos
Mesa Yitonia
1
Pentakomo-Shamma
1
LARNACA DISTRICT
Larnaca-Ayios Joannis
Tuzla Schooll3
37
40
Perivolia 4
Lamaca-Ayios Georgios
Larnaca-BambouJa
Larnaca-Kathari
Area II
Larnaca-Phaneromeni
1
Larnaca-PJoutonos Street
35
Larnaca-Sotira
8
Larnaca-Tourabi
56 (British Museum)
2
30
34
35
88,339
89
40
90,91
1
297,376
92
4
2
247
248
246
296
192
87,169
569
570
571
573
APPENDIX A
567,568
132,147,148,149,170,340,378,457,458,459,586,587
73
94,95, 171,172,193,194,249,250,251,252,253,254,255,299,300,
301,302,303,304,328,334,341,377,411,414,415,416,417,418,
419,420,421,422,423,424,425,426,427,428,429,437,438,439,
440,441,442,443,444,445,450,451,452,453,454,460,461,462,
463,464,465,466,467,468,469,470,471,472,473,474,475,476,
477,478,479,480,481,482,483,484,485,486,487,488,489,490,
491,492,516,517,518,519,520,521,522,523,524,525,526,527,
528,529,530,531,532,534,535,537,538,539,540,543,544,545,
546,548,549,550,552,566,574,575,576,577,578,588,589,590,
618,619,620,621,622,623,624,625,626,627,628,629
195, 196,493
298
185
579
256,257
258,305,494,580
581
582
74
38
41
Kiti
1
Maroni
2
Ormidia
I
Skarinou-Kokkalos
I
FAMAGUSTA DISTRICT
Salamis
1
2
23
31
47
50
79
107A
I (French Excavations)
Salamis (French Excavations)
Alaas
19
Rizokarpaso-Ana vrysi
1
PAPHOS DISTRICT
Kouklia (Palaepaphos )-Skales
43
44
49
50
53
58
62
64
67
69
74
75
76
77
78
80
81
82
83
84
THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
495,496,497,498,499,533,559,583
584
See no. 630
500
186,501,502,503
187
259
155, 156, 157, 173, 174, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207,
208,379,380,504,505,506,507,508,509,541,611,612,613,614,
616,617
381,382
260,307
383
308
309
261,262,263,384,385
560
10,104,105,21,606
338,542,561,607,608,609,610
103
158
11, 127
591,592
12,43,44,45,46,121,565,593,594,595
13, 96, 122
116
3, 19,47,97,596,597
150, 197
117
4,48
123
598
20,49, 151,152,153
50,51,52,98,99
53
14, 124, 125
54,55,118,599,600,601
154, 172B, 198
126,347
5,100,602
128
85
86
87
89
93
I (British Excavations)
Kouklia (Palaepaphos )-Xerolimni
9
Kouk1ia- Teratsoudia
76
Ktima (French Excavations)
III
v
VII
F
G3
Marion
10 (SCE)
Polis-Ayios Demetrios
116
NICOSIA DISTRICT
Dhali-Eliouthka tou Kouzourtou
I
6
56
101
57
15
7,8
9
70
348
306
58,102
325
603
604
605
264,547
APPENDIX A
Nicosia-Old Municipality
3 265,266,333
Phi1ia-Aeras Vassilikou
6
KYRENIA DISTRICT
332,393
Ayia Irini-PaJeokastro (Italian Excavations)
3 310,311,329
4 553
5 267,554
7 268
8 344,345
11 386
13 511
14 510,555
15 330
28 335,387
33 324,388
39 389,390
46 269,331,391
47 270,312,392
See also numbers 397,398, 399,514,556
Ayialrini
Period 5 (SCE)
Lapithos
417 (SCE)
Lapithos-Ayia Anastasia
2
P74
615
59
106
107, 108
75
76
WITHOUT PROVENIENCE
Cyprus Museum
1935/B96
1935/B612
1935/B616
1935/B617
1935/B874
1935/B881
1935/B884
1935/B885
1935/B1144
1935/B1230
1935/Bl234
1935/B1304
1935/B1856
1935/B1858
1935/B1866
1935/B1873
1935/B1885
1935/D547
1935/D2328
1935/D2339
1942/VIII-25/1 (325)
1943/III-9/ 1
1950/V-2/ld
1954/III-4/3
1958/1-1716
1960/VI-25/3
1960/VI-25/3a
1962/XII-19/ 1
1963/XI-22/4
1963/VII-18/9
1966/XII-10/ 10
1966/XII-1 0/ 11
1966/XII-16/ 12
1968/V -30/236
1969/VIII-30/1
197 6/III-417
1981/XII-14/3
1984/XI-14/3
1984/XII-20/2
Larnaca Museum
10
Paphos Museum
1802121
THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
60
109
110
111
175
71
176
159
61
446
447
412
363
177
356
394
395
178
563
562
396
119
160
271
455
512
513
161
313
188
314
315
62
189
272
162
316
400
413
436
112
Museum of the Pierides Foundation, Larnaca
401,402
California Palace ofthe Legion of Honor
1925.346 318
University of California, Berkeley, Lowie Museum of Anthropology
8/3288 407
British Museum
Cat. C.1018
Cat. C.1016
Cat. C.1017
Cat. C.1015
Ashmolean Museum
1959.364
Musee du Louvre
N3339
Cesnola Collection
Private Collections:
V. Assandourian, Nicosia
G. Assiotis, Nicosia
Hadjiprodromou, Famagusta
D. Morris, Oxford
M. Panaouri, Nicosia
Pancyprian Gymnasium, Nicosia
Paschalides
Pedagogical Academy, Nicosia
A. Pitsillides, Nicosia
G. Taramides, Nicosia
C. Zembylas, Nicosia
179
365
366
408
327
APPENDIX A
77
634
320,321,322,367,409,432,433,448,449,564,631,632,633,635
(All except no. 635 are in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)
326
72,403
319,342
317
404
364
636
405
515
113
273,406
78
APPENDIXB
INDEX BY MUSEUM OR COLLECTION
Cyprus Museum, Nicosia: 23-24, 60-62,71,73-80, 87, 103, 106-11, 119, 155-62, 169, 173-78, 188-90, 199-
210,260-72,274,307-316,324,329-33,335,344-45,356-57,363,379-400,410,412-13,446-47,
455,504-514,525,541,547,553-56,560,562-63,611-14,616-17
Curium House Museum, Episkopi: 2, 40, 88-91, 168, 248, 297, 339, 376
Kouklia Royal Manor House Museum: 3-9, 11-15, 19-20, 43-57, 70, 96-101, 116-18, 121-28, 150-54,
172B, 197-98,347,565,591-602*
LarnacaMuseum:94-95, 132,147-49,170-72,185,187,193-96,249-55,298-304,328,334,340-41,377,
411,414-29,436-45,450-54,458-93,496,500,516-24,526-32,534-35,537-40,543-46,548-50,
552,566-67,570-78,586-90,618-29
Larnaca Fort Museum: 378, 457
Limassol Museum: 17-18, 27-39, 64-69, 81-86, 115, 120, 130-31, 133-46, 167, 182-84, 192, 211-47, 277-
95,336-37,343,346,351,353-55,359-62,369,371-75,434-35,456,536,551,557-58,585
PaphosMuseum: 58, 102, 112,348,603-4
CyprusSurvey: 186,191,259,296,352,370,495,497-99,501-3,533,559,568,581-84,630
Medelhavsmuseet, Stockholm: 16, 22, 25-26, 59, 63, 114, 129, 163-66, 180-81, 275-76, 323, 349-50, 358,
368,430-31,605,615
University Museum, Philadelphia: 1, 41-42, 92-93
British Museum: 179, 365-66, 408
Ashmolean Museum: 327
Musee du Louvre: 306, 325,634
Metropolitan Museum of Art: 320-22, 367, 409, 432-33, 448-49, 564, 631-33
California Palace of the Legion of Honor, San Francisco: 318
Robert H. Lowie Museum of Anthropology, Berkeley: 407
Private Collections: 72, 113,273,317, 326, 364,401-6, 515,636
Inaccessible: 10, 21, 104-5, 338, 542, 561, 606-610 (Salamis)
Lost:256-58,305,319,342,494,569,579,580,635
*All of these except nos. 7-9 and 70 are temporarily in the Cyprus Museum, Nicosia.
79
APPENDIXC
INDEX BY TYPE
FLASKS
Large two-handled flasks ......................................................................... 1-10, 96, 127
Pilgrim flasks .. .. .... .. ...... .. .... .. .. .... .. .... .... .... ...... .. .. .... . 18, 73-95, 97-113, and see no. 128
JUGS AND JUGLETS
Round-based jugs with vertical concentric circles .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 16-17, 19-62, 170?
Neck-ridge jugs with ring bases and vertical concentric circles .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 63-72
Juglets with small heavy-walled globular bodies and long necks:
Painted .................................................. 133-36, 138-39, 141-49, 152-54, 157, 159
Red-Slipped ................................................................ 140, 150, 155, 158, 160-62
Plain .......................................................................................... 137, 151, 156
Jugs with squared-off rims:
Vertical circles ....................................................... 163, 165, 168-69, 170?, 171-76
Red-Slipped ........................................................................ 164, 166-67, 177-79
"Brown-burnished" ................................................................................. 180-89
Horizontal bands on upper neck ................................................................ 190-208
Mushroom-lipped jugs:
Plain or neck-decorated ...................................................................... 209-73, 342
Red-slipped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274-322
Forms related to the mushroom-lipped jug but lacking the actual mushroom lip ................. 323-27
"Stilted"-rimmedjugs and related forms ............................................................... 328-35
Small, heavy juglets with two handles ................................................................. 336-38
Oil bottles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343-45
Dipper juglets ................................................................................... 11-15, 346-348
PITCHERS
Spouted pitchers ........................................................................................... 114-19
Pitchers with flaring rims, ring base .................................................................... 120-26
Trefoil-rimmed pitchers with long necks and footed base:
Red-slipped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349-51, 354-56
Black-slipped ........................................................................................ 352-53
Other trefoil-rimmed pitchers:
Red-slipped .................................................. 357-68, 370-93, 395-99, 401-5, 407-9
Black-slipped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Black-slipped miniatures .......................................................................... 410-13
Self-slipped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394, 406
Bichrome ............................................................................................. 339-41
Plain ...................................................................................................... 400
PLATES, BOWLS, and KRATERS
Bowls .................................................................................... 414-26, 436, 456-515
Double bowls .............................................................................................. 437-39
Lotus bowls ................................................................................................ 440-49
Other small black-slipped bowls ........................................................................ 450-55
Common-ware plates ..................................................................................... 516-56
Kraters ........................................................................................... 129-32, 430-33
80
THE PHOENICIAN POTTERY OF CYPRUS
....................................................... 565-67,574-79,584
. . ................ ... . . . . . . . .. . .......... 568-73, 580--83, 585-636
Plain ...................................................................... .
MISCELLANY 427-29
Covers ............... ........... 434-35

Stands ............... 557-64
Lamps ...................................................................................................... .
l
I
81
APPENDIXD
A NOTE ON THE INSCRIBED POTTERY
The following vessels in this catalogue have inscriptions on them: nos. 320--22, 409, 525, 589, and 630--36.
The vessels relate to the horizons outlined in Chapter III here as follows: nos. 320--22 all belong to the heavy juglet
class but no. 322 appears to be earlier than the other two as the rim on that juglet is of the squared-off type. The
neck is not as long as the earlier heavy juglets (e.g., no. 160 on Pl. X) associated with the Salamis horizon, but the
rim is not the mushroom type of the later Kition horizon, so this juglet may represent a transitional phase between
the two horizons. Nos. 320 and 321 must belong to the Kition horizon. No. 409 is a red-slipped pitcher with a
globular body and incisions around the shoulder-the type commonly encountered in what was here called the
Kition horizon. No. 525, the Kition bowl, has a relatively good red-slipped and burnished surface and a !edged rim
typical of the Kition horizon; the quality of the finish, however, may indicate that it belongs to the early part of that
horizon.
Among the storage jars, nos. 630,634, 635, and 636 all appear to have the low, pulled-out rims of the type
here associated with the Amathus horizon. The rim is not visible on any of the illustrations of no. 632. Nos. 589,
631, and 633 all belong to the "crisp ware" family and are similar in form to no. 588 in this catalogue which can
be placed in the earlier part of the period of evolution of that type, but not the earliest, as the rims are not as high
as the earliest examples of this type (e.g., nos. 620--21 here). The type belongs to the Kition horizon. No. 589
belongs to the last part of the evolution of the crisp-ware jar-the rim is actually flat on the shoulder. At Tyre this
type was found in Stratum I (Bikai 1978b: pl. 1.17) which has here been associated with the Amathus horizon.
Thus on the basis of the pottery forms, these can be placed in the following chronological sequence: Kition
horizon: 320, 321, 322, 409, 525, 631, 633, with perhaps 322 and 525 belonging to the earlier part of that period,
and 320--21 to the later part; Amathus horizon: 589, 630, 634, 635, and 636.
82
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QDAP Quarterly of the Department of Antiquities in Palestine
RDAC Report of the Department of Antiquities of Cyprus
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