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Otto Theodore S. Drawn in Native Artists BY Alexander AND F. by With Illustrations. Holbrook • H PHILADELPHIA Drexel Biddle PUBLISHER .mythological japan * a" OR I | The Symbolisms in Relation to Mythology Japanese Art of Japan.

V & § 3 I 1 e a a «*R » \ .

in BY Alexander AND F. Otto Theodore S. Holbrook PHILADELPHIA Drexel Biddle PUBLISHER . by Native Artists With Illustrations.mythological japan OR The Symbolisms in Relation to Drawn Mythology Japanese Art of Japan.

COPYRIGHT. . 1902.

" am convinced that those who have not the leisure or convenience to visit the of the charming country Mikados. Having sought throughout the East. I for types of Oriental religious art. and especially Japan. always enjoy seeing in my mind's eye those mythological monuments which so often charmed me when of it was my privilege to dwell among them.FOREWORD. beautiful book. Mythological Japan. artistic work they may see The faithful and manner in which many of the pictures are rendered is an important feature in this . are to be con- gratulated that in this exquisite that fairyland as in a mirror. •' The authors having now shown me their deeply I advanced sheets interesting work. MAXWELL SOMMERVILLE. . Professor of Glyptology. University of Pennsylvania.

From private collection.Bronze Lotus Leaf. The lotus symbolizes purity. . Supported by two dragons. the dragon. power.

the ornamental wares with which our eyes have already become familiar. Vantine Co. Mr. where myths have ever held a sacred first. a quality particularly worthy in connection with the interesting lore of the East. in their the mysterious and the composition that most charms and captivates. Professor & . bronzes. Grant B. through whose I. A.. this glance at Mytho- Japan will surely The authors' personal investigations have been ably supple- mented by much interesting data furnished by the various works on Japanese arts and beliefs.MOTIF. place. The instinctive desire to know the innermost meaning of things in has always been an important quality the mind of man. events both mythical and Nature's foliage and flora. and which have already been enjoyed and valued to logical for their beauty of form and coloring not have been in vain. A. the thoughts and beliefs. by its aid. eourtesy many interesting specimens have been loaned for reproduction in the following pages. Schley. Baronne d' Alexandry d' Orengiani. It is. Mr. acknowledgment is also due Mrs. with the interpretation of mythology's symbolin isms employed the beautifying of the ceramics. Messrs. — if these begin have a renewed and deeper significance. Maxwell Sommerville. From the the decoration of the ornamental wares of Dai all Nippon have represented lightfully the symbols sacred to Orientals. The Authors. is to their beloved mythology — is apparent in all their While mythical collectors the world over revel in the magnificent colorit ings and forms of Japan's art objects. carved and lacquered woods of Japan that the present volume has to do. therefore. poetic De- representations of real. captives in the hands of become the clever artisans of Japan. James Raymond. If. and others. inspired labor The underlying motive in this — to do homage works. Rufus E. and a willing great deal more that absorbs the Japanese mind. the purer porcelains often bearing the seal names of royalty. Moore.

or Benten (Goddess of Grace and Beauty). . Futen (God of Winds). . . Amaterasu-o-mi-Kami. . Makudsu Kozan (A Foremost Potter). .. 46 52 .. ni-Tsuru). of Mercy). 45 17 Chrysanthemum (Kiku). 26 (Yanagi-ni-Tsubakuro). Torii (Shinto Gateway). . . Maple Tree and Stag (Momijini-Shika). 24 23 Carnation (Sekichiku). 44 20 27 Carnation (Sekichiku).. Amaterasu-o-mi-Kami Goddess). . ... 37 58 60 Kwannon (Goddess Lotus (Hasu). Fukurokujiu (God of Good Fortune and Wisdom). 48 34 62 Hotei (Children's Saint).. Plum Tree and Nightingah (Oumai-ni-UguiSu). Motif. 54 43 53 28 22 19 50 47 Suzume (Goddess of Mirth).% The Index. of Glory). 18 Buddha (Specimen). (Take-ni(Take-ni42 Bamboo and Tiger Tora). . (Tsuki-ni 16 9 Bamboo and Crane Tsuru).. Carp (Koi) Cherry Tree (Sakura).. .. Foreword.. . . Page. . .... 32 39 Jurojin (God of Longevity). . . Fudo (God of Punishment). 40-41 56 7 .. . Ebisu (God of Plenty). . Pine Tree and Crane (Matsu . 59 Fusiyama. . (Sun 32-33 39 Moon and Cuckoo Hototogis). Bamboo and Crane (Take-ni Tsuru). Daikoku (God of Wealth). 35 Orange (Tachibana). 13-14 ILLUSTRATIONS. Bamboo and Tiger Tora) (Take-ni 42 Kirin (Kilin). . . 58 60 20 27 Peach Tree and Oxen (Momo) Phoenix (Feng-hwang). Bishamon (God of Glory) . Swallow .. ... . 49 31 Bishamon (God (Specimen). Bronze Vase (Specimen) 33 Mandarin Ducks (Oshidori).. Benzaiten. Ship of Good Fortune (Takara Bune) 3° 51 57 Daruma (a Buddhist Priest) Dog Foo (Kara-Shishi). . . . Carp (Koi). Dragon (Tatsu). TEXT. Hara Kiri (Seppuku). . 15 . Bronze Lotus Leaf and Dragons . ... .. Raiden (God of Thunder). . 44 Kiyohime (Personification of Disappointed Love). Murasaki Shikibu (A Distin guished Authoress).. or Benten (Goddess of Grace and Beauty)... Willow Tree and Wistaria (Fuji). Urashima (The Japanese Rip Van Winkle). Benzaiten. . 21 . Patron 61 Sun Goddess (Specimen). The .

36 15 Ju-i Kozan Vase (Specimen). Yang and Yin Zeni 30 26 24 .. . 12 Moon and Cuckoo Hototogis) Mitsu-domoe Sangoju Sangoju Tsuchi. Kara-Shishi 24 53 49 31 Kiku-no-mon Kotoji 38 38 3 Stork and Tortoise (Specimen) . the Maternal (Speci. Tsuki-ni-Usagi 35 Orange (Tachibana) Peach Tree and Oxen (Momo). 4 Swallow .. Pine Tree and Crane (Matsuni-Tsuru) . Willow Tree and Wistaria (Fuji). . 5 Longevity Manji. Fukurokujiu (God of Good Fortune and Wisdom). 47 41 Dragon (Tatsu).. 43 20 Kagi 63 62 61 men). . . . an Incarnation of Buddha (Specimen) Suzume (Goddess of Mirth).. the Goddess Mercy (Specimen) Lotus (Hasu).Cherry Tree (Sakura). . Hotei (Children's Patron Hotei (Specimen). 44 Kiyohime (Personification of Disappointed Love). Dog Foo (Kara-Shishi). Kwannon. 22 27 (Tsuki-ni16 60 59 56 Murasaki Shikibu (a Distinguished Authoress). Maple Tree and Stag (Momijini-Shika) 18 50 16 21 Monju. 22 19 48 62 18 . Ship of Good Fortune (Takara Bune) .. .. . 30 37 Jiu. Temple Guardians (Speci. . . 53 29 59 26 Urashima (the Japanese Rip Fudo (God Fusiyama.. SYMBOLS. Futen (God of Winds).. ... Daikoku (God of Wealth). an Incarnation of Buddha (Specimen). 51 Phoenix (Feng-hwang). Kwannon. Mandarin Ducks (Oshidori). 30 33 55 50 . . Kanebukuro. Lotus. 46 52 Uchiwa. . of Kakuremino. Mitsu-aoi. . . (God of Longevity). . ... Kagi. . . Shepherd's .. Jurojin 24 61 Ikari.. . (a Priest). 23 49 57 Plum Tree and Nightingale (Oumaini-Uguisu). Ebisu (God of Plenty). 17 Chrysanthemum (Kiku). 45 Daruma Buddhist (Specimen)... . . (Yanagi-ni-Tsubakuro). Ivory Tusks (Specimen). Wand (Specimen). Raiden (God of Thunder). Saint). Kirin (Kilin). .. 43 38 mens) Torii (Shinto Gateway).. 56 63 Fugen. 25 Crystal Ball on Bronze Storks (Specimen). of Punishment) Van Winkle).

12 . Seated on grotesque Hon. an Incarnation of Buddha. lacquered in gold. From Prof. the Buddhist University of Pennsylvania. two hundred years old. Emblematic of ecstatic in wisdom. From a specimen and fifty carved wood. Temple of Maxwell Sommerville.Monju.

success in life and triumph over obstacles. — though the mountain goddess had but just dropped her robe that the sun might look upon her beauty then invisible hands seemed to be raising the airy garment higher and higher. blest with the sun land. But their halcyon one night all days were destined to end Nature rose suddenly in revolt. Hugh Fraser's "Letters from Japan" gives Fuji one of the most exquisite settings ever bestowed on a gem of Nature a setting from which we have gleaned. She is supposed to have quarreled with all the other gods. Fuji San. at times. impressive. From his Bridge of Heaven. who sorrowed long and deep at a rebuff from her lord. thus keeping female pilgrims away. The land was a glorious one. there lay a luteof the Goddess Amaterasu. Artists and poets have drawn on noble Fuji for inspiration more than on any other object in the Island Empire." one telling us in a fascinating way of Biwa. as A 13 ." to dream of which is an omen of good fortune symbolizes to the Japanese. the discovery of which was simultaneous with the creation of Fusiyama. and to now dwell in solitude on Fuji. and the people who came from the gods to dwell therein were indeed a happy people. while its water courses came from the tears shed by Izanagi. and an awful quaking of the earth brought terror to the fair When morning came. . the sentimentality of the Japanese in making their Fuji the predominant note in literature. only a small number have been women. snow-peaked " Queen of Mountains. owing to her deep hatred of the sex.: I — FUSIYAMA. her mountain throne. and they only of late years. As "the mists surround its snowy crest. towering with a majestic glory over the Land of the Dragon Fly as well as o'er the history of the people with whom it dwells that mysterious. in treating the present theme. the Goddess of the Mountain. 'til the veil swept over the proud white crest and the vision was gone. that stupendous triumph of Nature. with the single exception of Buddha myththe ology honors it with the recognition due its sublimity and magnificence Can one questraveler never wearies in describing its kaleidoscopic wonders. lo . : ! this peerless mount as " marble pyramid against a sapphire sky." It seems that of the thousands on thousands of pilgrims ascending Fusiyama. the God Izanami created the " Islands of the Dragon Fly. so do a thousand and one quaint legends hover over Fuji. Fusiyama. the consort of Izanami. The author speaks of V — . whatever they may be. the Lake of the Lute. song and verse ? Mrs." enriching them with verdure and foliage. " Mists were gathered everywhere about its feet. tion then. was a destroyer of women.

it was called " Biwa. the Lake of the Lute." or "Queen of Mountains. in one of her angry moods. that the seemingly peaceful Fuji began to give evidence of internal unrest. sudden advent and sparkling purity. the inhabitants dwelling in the "same fancied security as did the Pompeiians at the foot of Vesuvius. shaped lake in the Because of the resemblance of its outline to the musical instrument of the Japanese. for a place known as Hakone. Fusiyama. inhabitants." and ere long. But. breathed fiery visitation over the city and its . and. it became a place musical with the notes of many thousand festal wondrous for its midst of Omi." "Great Fusiyama. before Nature. While Omi received its Biwa." S4 . a monument to the goodness of the gods.FUSIYAMA. the people became accustomed cosy hamlets and bustling villages soon nestled to their new neighbor round it. all seem to have been blotted out by the more potent power of its present glory. a gift of liquid beauty. shared Omi's fright and an equal surprise when daylight came. notwithstanding the many painful memories of Fusiyama's disquiet and destructiveness. as the years passed by. followed by an awful visitation that destroyed scores on scores of villages and thousands of their people. If the people of Omi suffered terrors during that awful night. garbed in all its grandeur. Hakone awoke to find its Fuji.— Continued. all the more ] times. a symbol The mountain received its name of enduring strength and power. many miles distant. for in all Japanese literature nothing but terms of endearment and adoration are to be found. they were not alone. D." It was during the Hoyei reign. 1704-1710 A. such as the "Beautiful Mountain.

" . 15 _ J . he did with other famous potters of not sign his pieces. is a native of Makudsu-ga-hara. This " potter of a thousand themes. while his monochrome. collectors have become expert enough to discern the collections contained — — slightest variations. which probably accounts for the commercial name he assumed at the outset of his career. readily recognizing a this Kozan product on examination. A Kozan Vase In porcelain. and so faithfully did he accomplish his self-imposed mission." as one of Japan. amateurs still experiencing trouble in detecting points of differentiation so beautiful and characteristic handiwork. when he founded kilns at Oto. the bamboo symbolizing rectitude and long life. sometimes tea bowls and koros duly classified as "Old Satsuma. he won great distinction by reason of his wondrous and original "shadow treatments " of Japan's flora. which bamboo in cobalt blue so increased the difficulty of distinguishing on ground of white. near Yokohama. between copied. flambe. is one Kozan Miyagawa. "\ Foremost among the more talented potters and esteemed above all others for his wondrous creations that prove so instructive from a mythological standpoint. storks and dragons. appreciative writer terms him. his handiwork and that which he that many of the his world's choicest A modern piece from private collection. though ability is confined to the expert. A Foremost Potter of Japan. But Kozan's creations have long been prized for their own sake later on in his career. crackle and other glazes instantly placed him on an enviable footing with the workers in porcelain and faience of the world conspicuous evidence of is of old Satsuma this potter's . showing design of In common the day. that even connoisseurs found it a task to distinguish between the genuine crackle faience and decoration and the Makudsu productions." But within the past twenty years. — royal appreciation being his official appointment as " Potter to the Emperor.MAKUDSU KOZAN. specimens sometimes tea jars. Makudsu's attention was primarily devoted to the imitation of Satsuma faience for export. He first came into prominence in the early sixties.

" is heard by the way- he instantly thinks of his ones. significance — that with of temporal advancement and honor. [The Moon and the Cuckoo.] Some of Japan's finest decorative treatments show the Cuckoo flying across the face of the Moon. when its cry " fujioki farer. or asarum. 16 .TSUKI-NI- HOTOTOGIS. owing to its identity the legend of the archer Yorimasa. " return. interpreting home and dear the bird's of for call. representing three leaves of the kamo-aoi. Tsuki-ni-Hototogis has another interesting MlTSU-AOI." as a note is in warning that danger store his him should he pursue journey. and dragon. The crest of the renowned Tokugawa family. it In both China and Japan is is supposed that the Cuckoo's note like the human ! voice . who was richly rewarded and hon- ored by his emperor for destroying a fearful creature tiger — part monkey.

[The Cherry Tree.]

The Japanese have long regarded their beloved Cherry as the symbol Happy, indeed, a of patriotism.
people with so delightful an incentive to loyalty as the


and rose-like blosTheir som of the Cherry tree artists delight to show it with the pheasant, whose brilliant plumage
fragrant, pink

harmonizes so faultlessly with the

Cherry bloom.


Japan doing homage to this,
In fact, all of



Flowers," wherever

the magnificent groves of
trees are to be




for they are




features alone.

The most famous

Cherry grove

Yoshina, with


thousand or more

then comes

garden of Ugeno, for three

centuries the pleasure

ground of people of Tokio, where the
blossom-glow of


and pink recalls one of Nature's
loveliest sunsets.



won renown

as the " City of


Blossoms"; row after row of trees have been planted with mathematical precision, and their laden boughs form an inspiring sight.


the breezes play wild havoc

with the blossoms, and

the air

with fragrant petals,

seems as though glad Spring had
its mission and that Winhad bestowed, with prodigal hand, a storm of snow-flakes on the





Hotki, the

God of Good Things.


fan, the


A specimen

in pottery

and porcelain,

from collection of
Mr. Theodore


[The Mandarin Ducks, or Beautiful Ducks.]
The quaint legend

of the

mating of these inseparable

turtle doves of

us that the drake could not find a suitable mate in his
to a far-away land


flock, so


where he encountered one of a

totally different species,

always show

the male and female "beautiful

from which he chose his affinity. Thus artists ducks" together, the symbol

of intermarriage

and conjugal

Most Oriental study however,
noted for
the head

beautiful plumage, the neck and breast

bestowed on the duck Oshi Kamo, being red, while
Aside from

crowned with a magnificent topping.
the matter of coloring, the position of the


viduality in

and wings gives

an unusually striking appearance.












there for be slight cause would wonderment that this most impressive of Oriental flowers is emblematic of youth and Spring-time. the purple som being venerated more than ous in the white. though both are conspicu- The Japanese decorative work. the character of the blossoms' development being portentous of accepted as a beautiful good life: or evil in their future married and romantic custom. thoroughly typical of the quaint and fascinating 19 . flower is highly prized by all classes. purplish clusters of Wistaria. thoughts of life's morning with its buoyant love and happiness come most to glad mind. folk-lore of Japan. [The Wistaria ] If one could be transported to the renowned Wistaria arbors of Kameido Temples. ple Wistaria is often accompanied blos- by the pheasant.FUJI. or in praise of Spring. When artists fondly couple the cuckoo with the Wistaria. as full bloom is reached in May the pur. The verses are attached to the budding clusters. and April and May in- variably find the people in the gar- dens indulging drinking rice in gay festivities. and the there view masses of delicate. forsurrounded on every side by so gorgeous a display of Nature's flora. it means the approach of Summer. wine and writing prettily phrased verses in the Wistaria's honor.

grows wild on grassy moors and in fertile valleys." and. horse and deer Oriental decorations. morn- ing glory. It has the distinction to num- ber of among " The Seven Plants like the Autumn. the godown or warehouse being the repository of valuable / possessions. seven which by the way.Kagi. SEKICHIKU.] The Carnation Darling" is " The Little among wherever the flora of its Japan . you see beauty portrayed. The Garden-of a-hundred-flowers. [The Carnation. you may know 'tis expressive of the most endearing sentiments. in verse or in art. 20 . The emblem of wealth. the Keys of the Godown. delightful is one of the memories of the Island of its Empire by reason autumnal plants. are often associated with the wild in boar. or the Hiyak-kwa-yen.

its decora- and artists often represent the falling leaf and running water. their perfect symmetry of form and faultless division of color im- unbounded if you will. [The Maple Tree and the Stag. To tive appreciate the Japanese moin bestowing a on the sentimental significance Maple.MOMIJI-NI-SHIKA. and you have a dim conception of the unnumbered beauties of Japan's flower-hued emblem of sentiment. quers are enriched by tions. Nature's pigments gradually As all tinge the Maple's myriad leaves.] The Maple of typifies sentiment. more than three hundred distinct species of a single tree. one should gain some notion of the gorgeousness of its foliage. adhering with inimitable to fidelity every detail of coloring and form. stag and the Maple The white in association signify longevity. Few pens can adequately it's portray beauty and amazing variety. porcelains and lacpress the beholder with admiration. Carvings. 21 . and the presentation of a branch Autumn leaves Maple that implies that like one's affections have changed Fall's the relentless winds have blighted. Imagine. while the spotted stag symbolizes gentleness.

The is triple form of the source of also the fire. attributes well earned the Willow's gentle and yielding nature. Nature's three great principles. YANAGI-NI- TSUBAKURO. It protects the household from fire. obedient to every breath of wind. its A swallow perched on typifies swaying branches docility. and will be found many times in Japanese decorative work. grace and 22 . [The Willow Tree and the Swallow. this figure it is representation of air and water. the evils of flood and theft. as well as on the mallet of Oaikoku.MlTSO-DOMOE. life but one of the symbolisms given .] Another tree enjoyed and appreciated by the Japanese ple is the sup. and graceful Willow its that is they understand qualities evinced give it by the symbolism they — considerateness and paby tience.

" (It never fades even throughout a thousand Autumns. It seems that long is is life and hap- piness tree implied when this faithful coupled with the bamboo. which only comes where mutual sympathy reigns. 23 . it As as the crane appears has never been represented as inanimate. crane or tortoise particularly so. a bird highly prized and venerated by the Japanese because of its supposed longevity. the it Japanese have thought saying all its worthy a own : " Fu ro sen nen no aki. in verse and song and works of it art. when in company with the crane. ies." the Pine pictured as emblematic of conjugal contentment and absolute happiness.) In a ballad. "The Spirit of the is Pine Tree. however. . frequently in art. knowing full well that typifies stability of character and eternity. such a treatment being incongruous where longevity is implied. [The Pine Tree and the Crane.MATSU-NI-TSURU. Living for centur- ever green and ever stable.] i *V We wonder not that the appre- ciative Oriental lingers so lovingly over the faithful and stately Pine he pictures in it .

Golden Pheasant and the Heavenly Phoenix.] 'Tis no minor office that this most royal bird occupies in the sphere of art and tradition. fidelity. at other times it resembles beautiful scroll work. . it is the generally accepted symbol of rectitude. The most perfect examples of the Phoenix in decorative art appear on antique specimens that were made for royalty. Dragon ornamentation. A. FENG-HWANG. justice. in all probability during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. . its five colors being symbols of the virtues obedience. or Ho-Wo Bird. the male bird (Ho) and female (Wo) often appearing in art and in verse. It is supposed to abide in the higher regions. the beak of a swallow. It has the head of a pheasant.Zeni. although for the past two hundred years it has frequently been employed in the ornamentation of notable porcelains and ceramics. its tail is seldom portrayed the same sometimes it is feathered. its body . While the numerous representations of its head. An iron or copper coin of little value. only appearing on earth at the birth of an emperor. The specimen conceded existence. to be in foreground is one of the largest pieces of carved ivory in Collection of A. its song contains the five colors as it walks it looks the five notes around as it flies. body and wings are usually alike. Vantine & Co. or as a portend of the birth of some great philosopher or lawgiver. [The Phoenix. 24 . the features its plumage of a dragon and fish is magnificent with the gorgeousness of both peacock and pheasant. uprightness of mind. Known A purse of money. Kanebukuro as refined as as the sacred it is exalted. To quote a Chinese definition. . benevolence." . symbolic of wealth. Hand Carved. but one emblematic of moderate wealth. " The Phoenix is of the essence of it was born in the Verwater million cave it perches not but on it the most beautiful of all trees eats not but of the seed of the . hosts of birds follow it. bamboo . — — . is adorned with Ivory Tusks.

— ?I .v f — -to-.

Yang and The Yin. white. •lo FUDO. feminine — the black. 26 . [The God of Punishment. of life Symbolizing the origin on the earth. masculine.] The sword and the coil of rope which the gigantic God of Punish- ment is bearing. is used to smite . the flames suggesting the total destruction of the dross of mankind's guilt. and bind the guilty halo of fire the brilliant that surrounds his figure forms an appropriate setting.

vainly thus inciting the life child to an ambitious that will be " full of conquests as noble as at tell that of the fabled Dragon Gate. one Carp the for each son . and transform- ed into a dragon. living thereafter in the regions of happiness above. The Carp. an omen of luck. the in commemoration of Boys' Festival. rarity. is O Sekku. of Thus means the fable the Carp and the teaches the Japanese lad that by of perseverance. The precious coral. £Vgg red. the dis- larger the As the wind it ^\*v tends the paper nobori. [The Carp. with glistening scales of silver. pluck activity he may surmount all difficulties of life. to you should chance in any one of the enchanting of Japan on a certain Spring day." all Carp Legends to the us that fish try reach this sacred gate by leaping the foaming cataract that intervenes. by reason fall. or Tango. you would note everywhere overhead the bright colors of gigantic paper Carp. 27 . gray or blue.KOI. son. alone succeeds in scaling the water- and is caught up by a white cloud from heaven. the younger fish. emblematic of The Carp ological If is essentially the for mytharrive cities figure perseverance. of his superior strength. The Koi symbol of the and on the festal day parents raise on a bamboo pole a large paper Carp of the male child.] Sangoju. tries to free itself.

to my father's castle beyond the Then sea. But the memory of his boyhood's home came back to him o'er and o'er. and on. as he believed None of the passers-by knew of his father or mother. for this day you spared my life. Urashima Taro by name. where they lived for centuries in joy and peace." The Princess was greatly saddened at the words of Urashima.] You have but to hear the dreamy legend of Urashima Taro to know the reason for its inspiring power over the artists of Fair Japan. ere he knew The day was nearly spent in fruitless toil when. but he knew not how to reach the Palace of the Dragon Princess and his former life King. howhis father's home was no more. "Come home with me. far out to sea. a-dreaming. radiant in the sunset glow with a glory that belongs only to the it had been the dragon's daughter in disguise inspired by deepest gratitude. providing it was not opened. [The Japanese Rip Van Winkle. first giving him a casket that would protect him from all harm. I will come again to thee and my Palace Beyond the Sea. if but for a moment's time one fond look on the dear ones. but naught did he At last. . he drifted. just four hundred years before Then he knew he had been in a fairyland. he felt that some great change had come about the people whom he met were strange in features and in dress. left his Intent on luring with native shores of Suminoye in his primitive fisher's boat. he fell find. destined to live a thousand years if its life be spared. with happiSo he yearned long and deep to return to the ness and peace his daily portion. but three short years before. lo he caught a it. and he yielded to her winsomeness right willingly. he thought of the box. for in the haste of departure he had failed to learn the means. an humble fisher-lad. the precious talisman the Princess had given him. indeed. As it escaped. and. to those of the palace of the great sea-god. tortoise. loosed the silken cord that bound it. Try as he would. all in vain despair. You must needs know. . soon reaching his journey's end. until at length he met an old. . as did Urashima. when soft spring breezes listlessly floated over land and sea. He sought the at last. happened that the wise lad returned the tortoise to its watery home. he could not cast it from his mind. and if you wish I'll be your flower-wife. since the day he had left it. in sheer coast and waited for the tortoise that had brought him. the very elixir of life and everlasting youth. . Then came the parting. she had thus approached Urashima. living a charmed existence. to whom she said. It seemed that the tortoise Urashima so thoughtfully released — ! ! . and ere long he was on his way with a gladdened spirit and lightened heart. forgetting her caution. enfeebled man thus he fell lifeless to the earth— more than four hundred years of age. old man who said that when a boy he had heard his father tell how Urashima's parents had died of grief on learning that their loved and only son had been swallowed by the sea while fishing. as Urashima kept at his labor. which carried them to the Dragon's Palace in the Evergreen Land of perpetual sunshine and brightness. " I would go to my father and mother. So she called a great tortoise." Urashima's heart was glad. but she granted his wish. for never had he seen so lovely a being. And then it was the fair Daughter of the Dragon appeared to him in the form of a beautiful maiden. 28 . The boat glided on. that a tortoise is a sacred creature ! thus Dragon God of the Sea. so one fair day he said to the dragon's after daughter. lulled by the rippling water and fanned by the softest zephyrs.URASHTMA. . On one of the Dragon Isle's balmiest days. Urashima was transformed into a withered. slowly mounting to the sky. ever. when out came a monstrous cloud of the fleeciest white. even the fields once roved by his childish feet were gone transformations great. temptingly baited line some prize from the laughing waters. In vain he asked for news of them. Once in his native village.

/ Y .

used ancient chieftains as an of authority." 1 Iraki. emblem it. Japanese have "The God of Thunder. OR TOUCHIWA. A fan-like object. or Anchor. hence the appellation the given him. JL by UCHIWA. present one of the most formidable figures in mythology. and the semi-circular arrangement of the eight drums that surround him. his two goat-like horns. [The God of Thunder.RAIDEN. Said to insure the safety of those who bear 30 .] The fierce expression given Raiden. Raiden is endowed with by the power to produce thunder strik- ing the drums with more or less vigor. The symbol of security and safety.



Growing out of the mud. so timid with its exquisite fragrance. 31 .HASU. gave it — birth. so sensitive to Nature's breath. the Lotus is untainted by the place that. The glorified Buddha is almost always represented seated on an eight petalled Lotus. ''The Peak of the White Lotus. \/ [The Lotus. and is associated with the Spirit the Buddhistic Faith. rising far by worldly sor- above the didness of life." peculiar to their race offer picturesque similes too ob- vious to need comment." and the " Lotus Peak. Though rising from a lowly bed of gruesome mud. But hast Wisdom. Then art thou like the Lotus flower. so immaculate in its purity such is the beauteous Lotus of Japan. Although originally an importation from India. the Lotus is thoroughly Japanese. two of the names bestowed upon their Fusiyama. Land by One of the Buddhist writings thus speaks of its sacred emblem : " If thou be born in a poor man's hovel." The people of of Flowery Japan the look upon the Lotus as emblematic purity. and those of his disciples to who gain admission heaven receive the gracious re- ward of perfect repose on a pedestal of Lotus Flowers. the people having embodied it in their art and traditions with that fascinating touch of poetic imaginativeness . symbolizing heart that remains unspotted influences.] The flower that blooms to live but a single day.

and without the sun there could be no day. the greater his fierce rice envy proved. Alexander F. there could be no sun. Otto. had spent months to accomplish. [The Sun Goddess. Collection of Mr. leaving the earth t- a. ancestress by tradition of the Imperial Family of Japan. the esteem of the people. without total darkness. the vindictive one memorable ocSusa-no-o dashed into the presence of Amaterasu and her maidens as they were weaving. on casion. he would descend to earth with one of his terrific fields storms. constantly concerned herself with the welfare of mankind. the God of Storms the more the good will and the higher . the Sun Goddess. as a last rebut without avail sort they appealed to the gods for in . with her warming rays. From a water color. she unceasflourish. destroying in moments what Amaterasu. ingly encountered the animosity and jealous anger of her brother Susa no-o. for Amaterasu.] The Heaven-Shining Amaterasu. so frightening and angering her that she retired to a cave. When the were in the zenith of their glory. aid.AMATERASUO-MI-KAMI. The people wept and prayed. 32 . Finally. beseeching her to return. sending sunshine to light the fields day and make the rice Yet with all her goodness and power. Amaterasu.

the fields. 33 . One of the gods in made reply that they rejoiced honor of a goddess more beautiful than she. to the cavern of Amaterasu. asked why she thus danced and sang. and gave the people their glad Sun once more. a huge disk of burnished metal. causing great hilarity among the gods. responded with his inventive genius. Symbol of Authority. From collection of I. and on seeing Suzume. on pedestal of teakwood. the Goddess of Mirth. and wondering who her rival was. Carved in Chinese Jade. James Raymond. Vantine & Co. she peered out. in company with Suzume. Not knowing it to be a reflection of herself. This was taken by the gods. Mr. Lured by feminine curiosity as to the cause of such commotion at her sacred door. the Hercules of Japan. Bronze Vase. and invited Amaterasu to come out and behold her. rolled an immense boulder before the entrance. she was confronted by the wondrous mirror and beheld therein a face of great beauty. On advancing toward the mouth of the cave. the Blacksmith God. Shepherd's Wand. Collection of A.. Touched by the supplications. Vulcan. rivalling the sun itself in brightness. fashioning what tradition is pleased to call the first mirror. A. where Suzume gave her famous Kagura dance. when suddenly the God of Strong Hands. Amaterasu left her cavern refuge. which brought joy to the land and life to of the Dragon in Japanese art notable for excellent workmanship and tooling. Illustrating one of This of course pre- many adaptations vented her return.

while others employed it some family disgrace. and as the address draws to a close he moves aside the Kamishimo. 34 . [Seppuku. While somewhat suggestive of duelling. artists undoubtedly receiving their inspiration from countless occurrences recorded in Japanese history where this " honorable and dignified " privilege was enjoyed. through the medium of a missive enclosed in lotus leaves. making a large incision at the same moment his next of kin takes the sword from the platform. it being a common circumstance for the followers of a fallen leader to "despatch" themselves that they might die with their master. The priest then takes the lotus from the master's sword and tears it to pieces. the Honorable Death.— HARA KIRI. and the decorations on the potteries and porcelains of Japan often picture famous Japanese generals and their followers in the act of committing Hara Kiri. thus preventing evil spirits from entering and carrying away the soul of the departed. he committed Hara Kiri. when insulted by one of equal rank. James L. . followed by his eldest son. followed by one hundred and fifty of his retainers such patriotism and devotion to his emperor won for him the title of the " Mirror of Stainless Loyalty. feeling powerless to further aid his much loved master. it now becomes the duty of the deceased's closest relative to inform the aggressor of the completion of the ceremony." Kiri was in general practice even now it is followed by those who adhere to the customs of old Japan. For more than six centuries the feudal classes resorted to this Hara . arranging its folds for the final act. and with one deft movement tears open his abdomen from right to left. Seppuku differs from it in many essential ways the Japanese. is opened by a priest who bears in which he places on the sword. Yet these are only fluttering leaves from volumes of annals where Hara Kiri has played its part. and with one blow severs the master's head from the body. with which the fatal act is performed. — receiving the insult. the master's sword and a spotlessly white cloth being placed on a mat-like platform. In one instance more than six thousand of the Hojo army committed Hara Kiri after defeat by the adherents of the Mikado during the wars of the fourteenth century. his aggressor subsequently doing likewise. At this. or as the surest way of winning posthumous fame. a beautiful one in his hand a lotus flower. — In another instance Masashige Kusunoki. committed Hara Kiri. according to Mr. the story of the insult. the master carefully narrates with all the poetry of his nature. Unflinchingly he grasps in his left hand the wakazashi. On many ways. advising . upon whom he bestows a blessing. or ceremonial garment. mode of self-despatch as an ideal to survive when unwilling way of avenging an insult. by whom it is regarded as an act as beautiful in execution as it is in theory.] One writer has very appropriately characterized this chivalrous and peculiarly Japanese observance as "A crimson thread running thro' the history of Japan. rather than bear a stigma on his name. Go-Daigo's faithful vassal. scattering the petals over the kneeling man. A suitable apartment is then secured. The master then ascends the platform. The paintings. Pursuant to custom. on receipt of which the one addressed likewise performs Hara Kiri which terminates the family feud. Bowes' "Japanese Pottery. The ceremony. and. was finally defeated after a valorous career. who carries with due reverence the small sword known as wakazashi." Until a generation ago. the injured person holds a conference with the members them of the affair Arrangements for the important ceremony are then made the unmarried women of the family weave the fibres of the lotus plant into a rope of sufficient length to surround the house. of his family." .

nearly a thousand years ago her light was that of the full moon. [Japan's fS Most Distinguished Authoress." is regarded as the greatest classic of its age. the lovely Biwa. very likely you would be shown the writing box and ink-stone of Japan's famous poetess. her resting place a balcony in mid-air.] If you were viewing the ancient temple of Ishiyama. her inspiration. . verse and song. She is said to have composed her remarkable work in a single night. As if to repay her in some slight way for so rich an endowment to their literature. whose masterpiece "The Genji Monogatari.I MURASAKI SHIKIBU. the Lake of the Lute. the Japanese have immortalized Murasaki Shikibu in picture. Murasaki Shikibu. 35 .


a young Buddhist priest of the Temple Dojoji. the Personification of Disappointed Love. demons. and reducing both the hapless lover and herself to a heap of cinders. one of her dearest possessions. 37 . often costing fabulous sums. Calling daily in quest of his tea. warriors. [The Personification of Disappointed Love. she . and feet terminating in claws. or female devil. he became interested in Kiyohime. — remained undaunted thrice wrapping herself around the bell. and fear- ing the evil spirit that dominated her entire being. Europe may boast of her passion but Japan glories in the national Drama of No. horns from her head. Legend holds that this creature was once a beautiful maiden who served as a waitress at the inn Chojaya of Shirotaka. a monstrosity with distorted features and dishevelled hair. The characters impersonated gods. At sight of her. but the dragon-like Kiyohime Different Representations of the Character Jiu Longevity. The carvings. all thought of marhe took refuge in flight loving the church more than the maid. national heroes are drawn from legend and history. priests. and finally won her deepest affections. while the costumes are more or less magnificent. fled to the mountains. where the violence of her passion robbed her of all beauty and transformed her into a hanniya.— KIYOHIME. lacquers. Anchin secreted himself beneath the great temple bell. tusks projecting from her mouth. Kiyohime. in the agony of her disappointment. goddesses.] plays. but as his — — ^lilfe vows prevented riage. where she attracted the attentions of Anchin. struck it fiercely with a hammer which she bore. porcelains and ceramics of Japan are rich with decorative treatments suggestive of this drama. but probably none holds a deeper interest for the devotee of mythology than those of Kiyohime. instantly changing it to molten metal. Her love turned to hatred and an intense longing for vengeance led her to relentlessly pursue the luckless Anchin to the temple Dojoji of Kumano.

upon which the instrument's strings are stretched. Both figures have a menacing attitude. 38 .Guardians of The Temple. The From specimens in carved lacquered wood. to remind those who approach that the premises are sacred. or Japanese harp. Emblematic of harmony. figure at the left stands on an Oni. or demon. University of Pennsylvania. The Imperial of the crest chrysanthemum. From the Buddhist Temple of Prof. Kiku-no-mon. Kotoji. Maxwell Sommerville. They form the bridges of the Koto.

precious to them from a poetic as well as point. There a phrase often used in association with the " Setsu ri Bamboo: " its ko setsu o miru (When the snow falls.— TAKE-NI-TSURU. times in We them portraying the Bamboo innumerable rectitude. worthy this faithful tree of rectitude and constancy. it from land which fied. and boxes of every kind. hundreds of years as the length of its days. the very the tradition warp and weft of of the people.) implying that men of exalted char- acter rise above the vices of the age ful in which they exist — a beauti- symbol. With the its flying sparrows is among branches. symbolizing long life.] Could one conceive such an anomaly as the Land of the Dragon Fly without its Bamboo ? The with national tree of these fair isles. in its employment of the ubiquitous Bamboo. virtue stands aloft. a But art is not alone multitude of offices to perform flag staffs. while the earliest vessels shoots are used food. which has. lattices and even deadly spears are made from it. as an article of Long life to Bamboo Tree ! the theme of the 39 . fidelity stancy. scaffolding. [The Bamboo and Crane. in very truth. in from a utilitarian stand- cannot be sundered the even with thought. company and con- with the Crane. friendship is implied. water pipes. has so long been identi- Japan's decorators and illustrators find have few dearer themes.

it and any feeling the disgrace that cost. — . had fallen on the ambassadors. All these various types are known by distinctive colors. the foremost creature of Japanese its Mythology. with which the Oriental associates influences favorable or inimical to men. and these appear innumerable times in the ornamentation of the porcelains. led to the conclusion that the jewel had been charmed from them by the Daughter of the Dragon. and valued their future happiness. Tatsu is often represented holding a jewel in the right fore claw. it reduces itself to the size of a silkworm or enlarges to such proportions that all heaven and earth is filled with its fitting representation of A nipotent in influence on the lives of men. but alas. The Celestial Dragon guards and supports the mansions of the gods the Spiritual Dragon causes the rain to fall and winds to blow for humanity's welfare the Earth Dragon defines the courses of rivers and streams the Dragon of Hidden Treasures watches over the hoards of wealth hidden from mankind.TATSU. she ama. to restrain her ardent desire to possess loss of the precious crystal it. suggestive of one of the many legends that enrich Japanese Mythology. however. well worth recounting. runs as follows : During the reign of the Empress Jingo. Much consultation. Its name Riyo or Riu is from the Chinese. After a stormy voyage. The chief minister of mourning the more deeply than the others. ambassadors from an Emperor of China were sent to the Empress with three of China's much-prized treasures a bell of metal and one of wood. the most noteworthy of all the women of Japan. and soon met one of the fisherof that locality. crystal ball as clear as a who was unable the Empress. shortly thereafter disclosing the burden of his heart. and the spittle of the violet dragon turns to crystal balls but those best known seem to be the white. the crystal Their grief was dreadful ball. yellow. It was not long before he won her love and married her. and explaining the Nor single — . . would no longer be the poor and He promised unknown begging her aid if she she recovered the crystal. pictures. red and black. as well as by the chagrin the situation was sure to cause. their most precious gift. potteries. resolved to recover at women In an effective disguise he strolled along the shore. being intensified by the mystery of the jewel's disappearance. meaning all powerful and such it surely is as one of the divinely constituted creatures. they reached the Japanese coast. . mysterious and omis Tatsu. it has the faculty of making itself visible or invisible of its own volition.] power. dragon's association with the crystal ball. furniture and wood carvings of Japan and its temples. symbolical of sovereignty. The white dragon's breath is believed to become gold. . are the artistic and poetic conceptions of the Japanese narrowed down to a dragon there are many of them. and a beautiful — drop of heaven-sent dew. . or fisherwoman. green. violet. was not to be found! indeed. but a princess with that if 40 . This legend. [The Dragon. presence.



who lost no time in calling to his aid all the monsters of the sea in a vain attempt to capture her. 41 .a castle for a residence. On the completion of all arrangements. soon reaching Dragon's Palace where she found the wondrous ball. the Princess of the Recovered Jewel. The picture proved so winning a one that her support was gained at once. Starting to return. the Despite a desperate resistance. she saw that it was but a question of moments when she would be overcome. when he beheld. and she could swim with the ease of a fish. and grasping a sword. dived into the sea. the lifeless faithful body of the bearing the coveted jewel in her bosom. and preparations were begun for the important quest. and signalled to her husband with quickly drew to his con- the cord provided for such use in case of danger. sternation. and suddenly remembering that the Dragon and his fellows dared not touch a lifeless creature. she thrust the sword into her bosom. she saw that she had been discovered by the Dragon himself. she bade her husband a fond farewell. placed the crystal in the opening. and live under water as well as on land. and in token of her appreciation of so noble a sacri- gives fice. ama Thus the crystal ball was re- covered and borne to the Empress who heard the tale as the legend it to us. nobility for her companions. and the gracious favor of the Empress for her reward. Her life had been spent by the sea. honored the memory of the once humble ama with the name of Tamatorihime. it He in. so she agreed to dive to the Dragon Palace and seek the lost crystal.

[The Bamboo and the Tiger. est interest.] The crouching boo thicket is tiger in the bam- by no means uncom- mon One in the figurative art of Japan. knowing full well elephant cannot follow Naturally. When the tiger hunted by the elephant. 42 . he seeks refuge in the bamboo that the there. it is a subject of great- and the specimens on which it appears are held in high esteem. jungle. and the symbolic significance conveyed safety from is the fiercest is dangers. of India's ancient myths is the source of the inspiration.TAKE-NI-TORA.

and thoroughly sensuous expression.] This good natured being with her long black hair.SUZUME. dimpled cheeks. buttons) and literature. Ju-I (Shepherd's Wand). who deprived the world of had her welcome presence. is not uncommon in the art its of Japan. 43 Symbol of the power of faith. Suzume's fabled dance has been retained to this day as a Shinto Temple ceremonial. appearing often on potteries and porcelains. (girdle its carved in netsuke. [The Goddess of Mirth and the Spirit of Folly. illustrated is Japanese She the fabled goddess whose dancdoor of ing before " the "cave heaven osity helped arouse the curisecure the and return of the Sun Goddess Amaterasu. for which Nikko and Nara are famous. .

like the it Ho. {From Kilin . and. 44 . Ki Lin the female.Wo is conspicuous in Japanese art literature. air. the male. being next importance to Tatsu. water. the Dragon.} If the fabled Pheasant is a promthe in inent mythological is subject. flame-like legs of a a deer. surely Private collection. or injuring the Its appearance on earth re- garded as an omen of the birth of those who in will become great and of good the government the bird. and the a creature that mythol- ogy clothes with one of the most beautiful of Oriental figures of absolute goodness. fire and ether of which bronze. Buddha. wings and horse It is tail. all things are made ! : a From an antique generous endowment. symbolic alike of benevolence and of mercy. having the head and breast of a dragon. people. is worm. It is — that further regarded as the highest type of animal creation. and Orientals have even gone so far as to make this fabled creature the incarnation of the five elements — earth. Kirin no less so.— THE KIRIN. said to live a thousand years. because of in its supposed tenderness and care not treading on the most abject tiniest plant. a horn upon the body of its forehead.

[The Plum Tree and the Nightingale. where it was originally valued for its fruit alone." . evergreen pine and bamboo. A combination of the plum blossom. has a peculiarly fresh and delicate fragrance which becomes confined overpoweringly heavy if The to an apartment. shrouding all In one soft cloud of misty white. means the first touch of Spring to the natureloving Japanese. Amaterasu. T'were vain almost to hope to trace The plum trees in their lovely bloom. an emblem frequently in evidence at wedding and anniversary fetes. as flaky as snow drops and quite as pure. 1 OUMAI-NIUGUISU.J 45 . snow-blossom is not the only one that gladdens the Japanese heart there are lovely double white ones. and it has come to possess an almost sacred significance. signifies enduring happiness and long life. True. the early plum blooms linger but a brief while. but the purity and beauty of its flower ultimately won for it an honored Unplace in tradition and art. We are told that the Plum Tree was borrowed by the Japanese from China. goddess. " O'er wooded landscape. numbered allusions are made to the Plum Tree by the saints and moralists in Japanese legends. often called "the elder brother of the hundred flowers.. and those of pink and crimson hue. The blossom itself. known as Sho-chiku-bai. all finding a place in the art and verse of fair Nippon. we wonder not that the Plum Tree and Nightingale form a favorite theme for artist and poet as the harbinger of Spring and anticipated happiness. falling long before the tree begins to show a leaf but that one glimpse serves as a foretaste of balmier days and the many blessings of Japan's loved When we remember ceptionally ." being the year's earliest bloom. almost all beautiful.] that the exearly advent of the plum blossom.

than the distinctive odor of some one of Nature's flora. company with that symbolizes which has gone before. with its joys or sor- rowings. the fragrance of Orange blossoms mingled with the Cuckoo's notes being subtle re- minders of former days.TACHIBANA. To the poetic in Japanese. [The Orange. 46 . the the Orange Cuckoo. J Few call things more effectually re- the past.

or Shishi Dog in the literature and art of Japan. it is generally known as the Kara-Shishi. its At all events. the significance of the Kara-Shishi seems to be unknown to the Japanese of to- — Dog Foo as the Japanese conception of mane and claws suggesting the king of beasts. the Chinese lion. or Chinese Lion. [The Dog Foo. though some writers allude to it as the Many authorities regard the head.| KARA-SHISHI.] ————————————— day. Although one of the most ancient of mythological creatures. Watch-dog of the Empire. 47 .

according to his caprice. [The God of the Winds.FUTEN. 48 . His stern and grim visage makes him a formidable such he is. but the gentle of zephyrs of Spring are said to come from Futen's capacious bag.] Not only the awful storms winter. being —and whether portrayed in daintiest embroidery or on massive bronze.

From most famous being that is Baronne d'Alexandry d'Orengiani. the of may be found in Japan A Japanese carving collection of in ivory. is the emblem of purity. the Kwannon and Child. is the personification. 49 . has the two-fold significance life of long and purity. all . which is absolutely flawless. while her sweet and gentle features betray great affection for is mankind. Of course she thousands of Kwannon. no doubt. beloved by her shrines alone. or the Beginning. The crystal ball. Collections the world over are enriched with interesting specimens of this deity. its owing. From the collection of Mr. which daily besieged by throngs of her adherents. though more often as a female. Asakusa Temple. being an exceptionally rare conception. When accompanied it by the storks. as the being variously known Downlooking SoverFaced Kwannon. to historic and legendary associations. The shrine at Kiomidzu Temple figures next in prominence.] The deity known as Kwannon. Crystal Ball on Bronze Storks. Raymond. James I. sometimes represented as a male. eign. of Mother Nature. the Eleven and the Thousand Handed Goddess — of in the latter conception her many hands act are extended in the granting bounties to all supplicants. . [The Goddess of Mercy.KWANNON. repro- duced on page 63 of the present volume. both in China and Japan.

the Buddhist priest said to have sailed from Korea on a rush leaf. large red cloak. is almost invariably a sitting posture. Used as a charm it UL good luck and exemption Traced to the 13th Century. Daruma supposed to have been seated in prayer and devout meditation for nine successive years.] Daruma. evil. Schley. given him in decorative work. [A Buddhist Priest. Chinese and Indian ornamentation and symbolism. Grant B. English heraldry. which Daruma. assures from 50 . represented in wrapped in a Owing to his is extreme piousness. From a famous Collection of Mrs. representations of The Daruma are not by any means confined to works of art. his long period of devotion he found that he could no longer stand. B. during which time his limbs withered away on completing . and in evidence in the art of Greece. but often appear in the form of toys and novelties. Manji (Svastika). ancient Europe. The Buddhist Symbolizing life. accounts for the characteristic pose pottery. much to the delight of the youngsters of Japan.DARUMA. cross of India. C. and eternity. the four elements.


and in evidence in the art of Greece. English heraldry. _ tury. . Grant B. From a famous pottery. Schley. 50 . Ma irom evil. B. ancient Europe. Collection of Mrs. C.Daruma. Chinese and Indian ornamentation and symbolism.



there is a hill far away in Kai. and one of its customs is that of placing Chrysanthemum petals in the cups during the wine drinking. showing some two hundred and sixtynine shades of color yet that is — what Japanese — floriculture has ac- complished with the regal Chrys- anthemum. The emperor's birthday is celebrated among Aoyama's regal blooms. 51 . [The Chrysanthemum. containing countless groups of mythological figures. Beautiful as are the Chrysanthemums of Dangozaka. it is naturally held in high esteem by all classes. known farand wide for its Chrys- anthemum woven scenes.KIKU. and associated with longevity because of the extraordinary life of its bloom. insuring long life and happiness. then the noble Chrysanthemum is indeed satiated with honor for is it not the emperor's flower. at one time the emperor's residencej excel them in variety and pretentiousness. gardens. is Dango-zaka. where every shade of rose. a fitting place for royalty. receive the boon of long life hence the theme of many an artistic scheme showing Chrysanthemums floating in running . particularly as the sixteen petalled variety forms the imperial crest of Japan. We of the West can hardly conceive of what it means to assiduously cultivate over eight hundred varieties of a single flower. water. known as the Chrysanthemum Mount. which overhangs # river of crystal clarity. According to one of the mythical tales of the Japanese Chrysanthemum. realistic representations of made tapestries. quite near Tokio. crimson. Those who drink from the waters of this stream after the Chrysanthemum petals have fallen in it. those of Aoyama Palace. happiness. virtue and repose. This joyous gala time is known as the Festival of Kiku. yellow. preferred above all others? Symbolizing a gentle disposition. vie with one another in honoring their ruler.] If it be an honor to merit the favor of royalty. and historic entirely from living Chrysanthemums. pale lilac and purple.

MOMO. where the Emperor Bu. familiar is A artist conception of the that of trees. to own frequently alludes as a the Peach symbol of marriage. in its . [The Peach Tree and Oxen. came from it we are told that sym- both longevity and mar- A certain philosopher is known as Seiobo. disbanded his armies at the advice of his minister Taikobo. 52 . originally. and bolizes riage.] The Peach China. allowing his horses to wander at will over the mountains. Oxen in an orchard of its Peach an idea having for origin a familiar occurrence in Chinese history. on while Japanese delightful way. while sent into his oxen were of the Peach orchard Torim. with a desire to inculcate a love of peace instead of war. credited with life having been blest with long eating the fruit verse.

the signification of true gateway it is to a life of grace in art.] The whispering tion we treasure them — tell us that the Torii. times and comes down to earth in the form of the great and wondrous Ho- Wo Bird. voices of tradi- [Shinto Gateway. the stately. 53 . . in used innumerable times the decoration of Japan's fairest orna- ments. The traveller may still see the Torii at the entrance to the Shinto temple grounds. using perch one of the many and Torii Gates. The Chinese lion sporting with the sacred crystal ball frequently employed in Oriental art. which the good people of Japan have built placed throughout the land for that most exalted purpose. well poised gateway of Shinto faith. has an office that lifts it far above at the commonplace. Kara-Shishi. for or Heavenly its Phoenix. where as it appears the . divers The Sun places.THE — how TORII.

in which these gods of the household are held. for a victorious campaign zaiten is besought of women who would be faithful and the student turns to Jurojin and Fukurokujiu for fruitful wisdom and many years the famished and needy supplicate Daikoku for rice. while the more affluent show reproductions in gold. . the adored of love-lorn saint of the little ones youths and maidens. I The Ship of Good Fortune. they are not worshipped by the people. lacquer. inasmuch as wisdom and happiness — are there. the warrior calls on Bishafor playthings most desired Benmon. long life and good fortune. be. much the same as we look upon our the former. and Ebisu for fish. are individually described on the following pages. their Kris Kringle.] This vessel. or woven in rich-hued threads on the quaint squares of It is a precious emblem satin known as " fukusa " in Japan. . 54 . . or Shichi Fukujin. where things of this The poorer classes have these gods in nature are placed. you will rarely find Household Gods.TAKARA BUNE. happiness. with its sacred cargo of the Seven Gods of Fortune. The attributes of these seven beings. the God of Glory. In Japan the children look to Hotei. pottery and wood. and fine bronzes inlaid with gold and Notwithstanding the high esteem set with precious stones. but are regarded with feelings of reverence and honor. to portray the Takara Bune means to symto the Oriental bolize wisdom. It matters not how humble it or pretentious the home may without one or more of the Seven in the tokonoma. lodged — . may be seen floating gracefully on the surface of many a beautiful vase. wealth very properly coming last. the patron Santa Claus and Saint Valentine the latter. .


besought by are in lived all who hunger and is need. 56 . [The God of Plenty.] Although Ebisu was disgraced and banished to a desolate and is uninhabited island. the red skinned TSUKI-NI-USAGI. The Rabbit is supposed to dwell in the moon. engaged in compounding the Elixir of Life. He said to have at a under water for days time. he the most popular of all the household gods. and Daily Food. and artists picture him bearlarge ing a fishing filled rod and a basket with Japan's favorite tai. sea food.EBISU.

while others believe that wealth and happiness come only to those dili- who wield it with care and gence. illustrating generosity of the god in his distribution of wealth and bounty. rice is With the Japanese. that the Many suppose hammer is in Daikoku's uplifted hand filled with treasures for his supplicants. [The God of Wealth. nib- always representative of and the rat that is often shown bling at the rice bags of Daikoku is very appropriately introduced as wealth's destroyer.DAIKOKU. Daikoku is pictured here as shak- ing coins from his magic hammer.] This stalwart either being may be bales of identified rice or his by his capacious treasure bag. almost wealth. 57 . is while the child at his feet to trying the catch them.

there is hardly an atom of its enchanted surface or mysterious depths that is not sacred to Japan's beloved Benten Sama. to whom Enoshima was consecrated long years ago. Artists portray this honored god- dess with a dragon or a serpent as her steed she is either playing a biwa. Most are to of the shrines of Benten be found on islands. in her 58 . but 'tis labor well spent.] Benzaiten or Benten. or [The Goddess of Grace and Beauty. the pilgrim may enter Benten's cavern only after hazardous climbing along a precipitous ledge of rocks . is perhaps more familiarly known as the Tutelary Genius of Enoshi- ma. During the stormy season. However that may be. Benten's most important shrine on the island was installed in a deep cavern with an opening to the sea. one of the Seven Deities of Fortune.— BENZAITEN BENTEN. (the Island of the Torhaving the principal one. and the accepted type of ideal womanhood. for wondrous indeed are the beauties of Nature which the Goddess of Grace so jealously guards cavernous home by the sea. this awe-inspiring place is closed by Nature's seething waters. the lute-like musical instru. this beautiful island of shells. when the tide is low. tea houses and shaded walks was given birth in a single toise) Enoshima night. which hide the entrance even in calmer weather. Legends hold that like snow-capped Fuji. or carrying a key one hand and a priceless jewel in the other. ment in of Japan.

and longevity. The wise reply is. meanroku. [The God of Good Fortune and Wisdom. wealth and prosperity. the FUKUROKUJIU. jiu. God of Wealth. Art presents Fukuroa kujiu as man of staff . his abnormally long head is supposed to be the result of patient. " No one both are so long !" 59 . has an in- teresting significance — fuku. supported by a and accomis panied by a crane his fan the symbol of power. many years. A Japanese riddle refers to this peculiarity in asking " Which is the longer — the head of Fukurokujiu.] The name of this being. the most ancient form of book. untiring study. pro- nounced Fu-ku-ro ku-jiu. The hammer of Daikoku. is the accepted type of wis- dom . while his maki- mona. ing luck and happiness. or a Spring day?" can tell.Tsuchi.

] The stern Bishamon. [The God of Glory. with a spear in his right left hand and a pagoda in his — the pagoda symbolizing power. the Precious Coral. inspiration 60 . he is The impersonation usually portrayed as a warrior clad in armor. of the Seven one Gods of Fortune. Benten is beloved of women. of war. Hotei of the children.Sangoju. BISHAMON. and Bishamon is none the less dear to the soldier of Japan — a never failing source of and hope. The emblem of rarity. with his unis mistakable military bearing.

hence its signification of protection. is supposed to be The wearer made of this invisible to surrounding dangers. serene and venerable Juro- with his snow-white staff. all three the emblems of longevity. [The God of Longevity. for he many times on their ob- jects of art as the signification of long in life He is occasionally the shown and company with stag. symbolizing comfort and coat protection.JUROJIN. Kakuremino A rain-coat.] The jin. 6J . beard. mitred cap and sturdy ingly holds a seem- much favored place among appears the artists of Japan. sometimes with the tortoise or the crane.

HOTEL [The Children's Patron Saint. " a dreamy. One of the Keys of the Godown.] Hotei personifies the contented spirit in the midst of adverse cir- cumstances. 62 . rotund proportions. obese vagabond of the Diogenes pattern. Credited with leading a roving." Hotei even vies with Buddha in his popularity with the artists of fair Japan. in fact. every form of ornamentato the Japanese tion known shows representations of this favorite god of the youth of Nippon. symbolizing wealth. of goodly. and children clamoring round and about him. of Some are carved on netsuke wood and ivory. a bag of toys for children to whom cal Kris Kringle. others in the dec- orations of porcelains and bronzes-. During the past five tjp years the present writers have ob- by actual count. he is pictured as bearing with char- acteristic good grace. yawning. over seven thousand different conceptions of served. he is a typiAnother favorite study represents him with his bag over his shoulder. minus his shorn philosophy. Jovial in the extreme. Bohemian life. Hotei.Kagi.

63 . Temple of Maxwell Sommerville. the Buddhist University of Pennsylvania. Fugkn. THE MATERNAL. holding a rarely child- met with a in Japan. The Eighth Form. Rufus Moore. an Incarnation of Buddha. Emblematic of Meditation. From wood carving collection of Mr. From Prof.KwANNON. Seated on the sacred white elephant. in the E.

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