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Energy Conversion

Energy Conversion

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Energy Conversion

Magnetism and Electromagnetism
Centuries ago, it was discovered that certain types of mineral
rock possessed unusual properties of attraction to the metal iron. One
particular mineral, called lodestone, or magnetite, is found mentioned
in very old historical records (about 2500 years ago in Europe, and
much earlier in the Far East) as a subject of curiosity. Later, it was
employed in the aid of navigation, as it was found that a piece of this
unusual rock would tend to orient itself in a north-south direction if
left free to rotate (suspended on a string or on a float in water). A
scientific study undertaken in 1269 by Peter Peregrinus revealed that
steel could be similarly "charged" with this unusual property after
being rubbed against one of the "poles" of a piece of lodestone.
Unlike electric charges (such as those observed when amber is
rubbed against cloth), magnetic objects possessed two poles of
opposite effect, denoted "north" and "south" after their self-
orientation to the earth.

Magnetomotive Force or MMF
Magnetomotive force is a force that sets up or tends to
set up magnetic flux in a circuit by passing an electric current
through a number of turns of a wire.
=
Where:
F – mmf(ampere-turn)
N – number of turns
I – current carried(ampere)

In cgs unit,
= 0.4π gilbert

Example
• A solenoid has 250 turns. What is the
magnetomotive force when the current is 0.12
A?
• The coil in a magnetic contactor requires a 0.5
A to provide a magnetizing force of 500AT.
How many turns are necessary?

Magnetic Flux(Φ)
Magnetic flux is the number of magnetic
lines of forces in a magnetic field.






maxwell – unit of magnetic flux equal to one
line of force.
weber – SI unit of magnetic flux equal to 10
8

lines or maxwell
1 = 1.2566
1 = 1 10
8

Flux Density (β)
It is given by the flux passing per unit area
through a plane at right angles to the flux. It is
usually designated by β and is measured in
/
2
.
β =
Φ

Tesla – SI unit of magnetic flux density equal
to webers per square meter.
Gauss – cgs unit of magnetic flux density
equal to maxwells per square centimeter.
Example
How many magnetic lines of force will pass
a 5 sq. cm perpendicular area on a magnetic
field having a flux density of 2000 gauss?
The phenomena of magnetism and
electromagnetism are dependent upon a certain property
of the medium called its permeability. Every medium is
supposed to possess two permeabilities: (i)absolute
permeability (μ) and (ii) relative permeability (μr). For
measuring relative permeability, vacuum or free space is
chosen as the reference medium. It is allotted an absolute
permeability of μ0 = 4π × 10−7 henry/metre. Obviously,
relative permeability of vacuum with reference to itself is
unity. Hence, for free space, absolute permeability μ0 =
4π × 10−7 H/m relative permeability μr = 1.
Permeability
the ability of a material to conduct
magnetic flux through it.
μ =
β

μ = μ

μ

Magnetic Field Strength (H)
Magnetic field strength at any point within a magnetic field is
numerically equally to the force experienced by a N-pole of one weber
placed at that point. Hence, unit of H is N/Wb.
=
( −)
()

In cgs,
Oersted – gilbert per centimeter

Infinitely long Straight Wire
=




Example
If a current 5A flows through a long wire of
radius 0.004 meter, what is the magnetic field
intensity produced 0.02 meter away from the
surface?
Reluctance
- is the property of a material that opposes
flux flow. It is equal to the ratio of the
magnetomotive force in a magnetic circuit to
the magnetic flux through any cross section of
the magnetic circuit.
=

μ

μ

Magnetic Circuit
- a closed path in which magnetic inductin
of flux flows
Φ() =
( )



Reluctance in Series




=
1
+
2
+
3

Φ

= Φ
1
= Φ
2
= Φ
3

Reluctance in Series





=
1

1
+
1

2
+
1

Φ

= Φ
1

2

Electromagentism
(page 279 theraja)
DC Generators
Introduction
• Electrical Generator
A machine that converts mechanical energy into
electrical energy. The energy conversion is based on the
principle of the of Faraday’s first law of Electromagnetic
Introduction, which states that whenever a conductor cuts
magnetic lines of flux, an emf is developed in the conductor
Operating Principle
• Generating an AC Voltage

• The difference between AC and DC generators:
– AC generators use slip rings
– DC generators use commutators
– Otherwise, the machine constructions are essentially the
same.
Essential Parts
• Magnetic frame or Yoke
• Pole-cores and Pole-shoes
• Pole coils or Field coils
• Armature core
• Armature windings or Conductors
• Commutator
• Brushes and Bearings

• Yoke
The outer frame or yoke serves double purpose:
— It provides mechanical support for the poles and acts
as a protecting cover for the whole machine
— It carries the magnetic flux produced by the poles

• Pole cores and Pole shoes
The pole shoes serve two purposes:
— they spread out the flux in the air gap and reduces the
reluctance of the magnetic path
— support the exciting coils

• Pole coils
The field coils or pole coils are former wound for the
correct dimension. Then the former is removed and wound
coil is put into place over the core.
When current is passed through these coils, they
electromagnetise the poles which produce the necessary flux
that is cut by revolving armature conductors.
• Armature Core
It houses the armature conductors or coils and causes
them to rotate and hence cut the magnetic flux of the field
magnets. Its most important function is to provide a path of
very low reluctance to the flux through the armature from a
N-pole to a S-pole.
• Armature Windings
The armature windings are usually former wound. These
are first wound in the form of flat rectangular coils and are
then pulled into their proper shape in a coil puller. The
conductors are placed in the armature slots whish are lined
with tough insulating material.
• Commutator
The function of the commutator is to facilitate collection
of current from the armature conductors.

• Brushes and Bearings
The brushes whose function is to collect current from
commutator, are usually made of carbon or graphite and are
in the shape of a rectangular block.
The Armature Winding
• Lap winding
Forms a loop as it expands around the armature core.

winding ive retrogress
winding e progressiv
on so and duplex for 2 simplex, for factor(1 ty multiplici m
pitch front Y
pitch back Y
where
2
f
b
= ÷
= +
=
=
=
± = m Y Y
f b
• Wave winding
Forms a wave as it expands around the armature core.

winding ive retrogress
winding e progressiv
on so and duplex for 2 simplex, for factor(1 ty multiplici m
pitch front Y
pitch back Y
poles of number P
elements winding of number total Z
pitch average Y
where

2

2

f
b
= ÷
= +
=
=
=
=
=
=
+
=
±
=
f b
Y Y
Y
P
m Z
Y
• Total number of elements or conductors


• Number of armature current paths(a)


• Coil pitch
pole per slots
slots in span coil
Y
m a mP a
slots of number total slot elements Z
s
wave lap


2
) )( / (
=
= =
=
• Example
In a lap winding the front pitch is 17 and the back is 19.
What is the average pitch?

Solution

18
2
17 19
2
=
+
=
+
=
ave
ave
f b
ave
Y
Y
Y Y
Y
Generated EMF of a DC Generator
constant ality proportion k
paths current armature of number a
) pole(weber per flux
conductors of number total Z
pm) rotation(r core armature of speed N
poles of number P
emf(volt) generated E

60
=
=
= u
=
=
=
=
u =
u
=
where
kN E
a
PNZ
E
• Example
A 4 pole dc generator with simplex wave winding has 72
slots. The fluxper pole is 2.88 x 10
6
. What is the speed of the
prime mover when the open circuit voltage of the generator is
120 volts?

Solution
rpm N
N
) s per slot conductor (assume
a
PNZ
E
868
10
) 1 )( 2 ( 60
) 10 88 . 2 )( 72 2 )( ( 4
120
2
10
60
8
6
8
=
×
× ×
=
×
u
=
÷
÷
Types of DC Generator According to
Excitation
• Separately Excited
The field windings of the generator is excited from a
separate source usually a battery
a g
a a L
L a
L
L
L
EI P
R I V E
I I
V
P
I
=
+ =
=
=
• Example
A DC generator has no-load output voltage of 120 volts.
Its armature resistance is 0.95 ohm and its field coils are
separately energized. If the load is rated 2000 W at 115 V.
Neglecting the effect of armature reaction, what power could
be delivered to the load?
Solution

W P
P
R I P
A I
I
R R
E
I
R
R
P
V
R
L
L
L L L
L
L
L a
L
L
L
L
L
L
29 . 1667
) 6 . 6 ( 894 . 15
894 . 15
6 . 6 95 . 0
120
6 . 6
2000
115
2
2
2
2
=
=
=
=
+
=
+
=
O =
=
=
• Self – Excited
The field windings of the generator is supplied or excited
from its own generated emf.
– Shunt Generator
– Series Generator
– Compound Generator
• Long Shunt
• Short Shunt
• Shunt generator

a a L
a g
sh L a
L
L
L
sh
L
sh
R I V E
EI P
I I I
V
P
I
R
V
I
+ =
=
+ =
=
=
• Example
A shunt generator delivers 450A at 230V and the
resistance of the shunt field and armature are 50Ω and 0.03Ω
respectively. Calculate the generated emf.


Solution

A I
I
I I I
A I
A I
I
R
V
I
a
a
sh L a
L
sh
sh
sh
L
sh
6 . 454
6 . 4 450
450
6 . 4
50
230
=
+ =
+ =
=
=
=
=
V E
E
R I V E
g
g
a a g
64 . 243
) 03 . 0 )( 6 . 454 ( 230
=
+ =
+ =
• Series Generator
a g
se a a L
L a
L
L
L
EI P
R R I V E
I I
V
P
I
=
+ + =
=
=
) (
• Example
A DC series generator is supplying a current of 10A to a
load through a feeder of total resistance, 1.5Ω. The generated
voltage is 550 volts. The armature and series field resistances
are respectively. Determine the voltage:
a. at the terminals of the generator
b. at the feeder
Solution

V V
V
R I V V
V V
V
R R I E V
L
L
feeder a T L
T
T
se a a T
524
) 5 . 1 ( 10 539
539
) 6 . 0 5 . 0 ( 10 550
) (
=
÷ =
÷ =
=
+ ÷ =
+ ÷ =
• Long Shunt Generator

) (
se a a L
a g
sh L a
L
L
L
sh
L
sh
R R I V E
EI P
I I I
V
P
I
R
V
I
+ + =
=
+ =
=
=
• Example
A long shunt comound generator delivers a load current
of 50A at 500V and has armature, series field and shunt field
resistances of 0.05Ω, 0.03Ω and 250Ω respectively. Calculate
the generated voltage and the armature current. Allow 1V per
brush for contact drop.

Solution

A I
I
I I I
A I
A I
I
R
V
I
a
a
sh L a
L
sh
sh
sh
L
sh
52
2 50
50
2
250
500
=
+ =
+ =
=
=
=
=
V E
E
drop brush R R I V E
g
g
se a a g
16 . 506
2 ) 05 . 0 03 . 0 )( 52 ( 500
) (
=
+ + + =
+ + + =
• Short Shunt Generator
se L L sh
se L a a L
a g
sh L a
L
L
L
sh
L
sh
R I V V
R I R I V E
EI P
I I I
V
P
I
R
V
I
+ =
+ + =
=
+ =
=
=
• Example
A short shunt compound generator delivers a load
current of 30A at 220V, and has armature, series-field and
shunt-field resistances of 0.05Ω, 0.30Ω and 200Ω respectively.
Calculate the induced emf and the armature current. Allow
1.0V per brush for contact drop.

Solution
A I
I
I I I
A I
I
R
V
I
V V
V
R I V V
a
a
sh L a
sh
sh
sh
sh
sh
sh
sh
se L L sh
145 . 31
145 . 1 30
145 . 1
200
229
229
) 3 . 0 ( 30 220
=
+ =
+ =
=
=
=
=
+ =
+ =
V E
E
drop brush R I R I V E
g
g
se L a a g
56 . 232
2 ) 3 . 0 )( 30 ( ) 05 . 0 )( 145 . 31 ( 220

=
+ + + =
+ + + =
• Losses and Efficiency
– Armature I
2
R loss
I
2
R loss in the armature windings


– Shunt field I
2
R loss
I
2
R loss in the shunt field windings



sh sh sh
a a a
R I P
R I P
2
2
=
=
– Series field I
2
R loss
I
2
R loss in the series field windings


– Friction and Windage loss
The mechanical power required to drive the unexcited
machine at normal speed

– Core loss or Iron loss
Loss due to the magnetic field at no-load rated voltage
corrected for effect of IR drop
a. Eddy current loss
b. Hysteresis loss
se se se
R I P
2
=
Power Stages




• Mechanical efficiency
motor driving of output
I E
a g
m

= q
• Electrical efficiency



• Overall or Commercial Efficiency
a g
e
I E
VI
generated watts total
circuit load in available watts
= =


q
supplied power mechanical
circuit load in available watts
c


= q
• Example
The field circuit of a 200kW, 230V shunt generator is 8A
when running full load at rated terminal voltage. If the
combined brush and armature resistance is 0.03ohm, solve
for the electrical efficiency of the generator.
Solution

kW P
P
R I P
I
I
I I I
A I
I
V
P
I
a
a
a a a
a
a
sh L a
L
L
L
L
L
1 . 23
) 03 . 0 ( 56 . 877
56 . 877
8 56 . 869
56 . 869
230
200000
2
2
=
=
=
=
+ =
+ =
=
=
=
% 91 . 88
% 100
84 . 1 1 . 23 200
200
% 100
84 . 1
) 230 ( 8
=
×
+ +
=
×
+ +
=
=
=
=
q
q
q
sh a L
L
sh
sh
sh sh sh
P P P
P
kW P
P
V I P
• Voltage Regulation
Percent voltage regulation is the percentage rise in the
terminal voltage of a generator when its load is removed.
voltage terminal load full V
voltage terminal load no V
V
V V
VR
FL
NL
FL
FL NL


where
% 100 %
=
=
×
÷
=
Parallel Operation of DC Generators
In order to increase the capacity of a system serving
different loads, a number of generators are connected in
parallel

Basic requirements
1. The same external characteristics
2. Terminal polarity must be the same
3. Terminal voltage must be equal in magnitude
• Example
Two identical 600kW, 230V dc generators are operating in
parallel and take equal shares of an 800kW, 250V busload. The
voltage regulation of each machine is 5%. If one of the
generators is accidentally tripped off from the line, what is the
voltage of the remaining busload?
Solution
A I I
I I
A I
I
V
P
I
A I I
I I
V
P
I I
L L
L L
LOAD
LOAD
L
LOAD
LOAD
FL FL
FL FL
FL
FL
FL FL
1600
2
3200
3200
250
800000
69 . 2608
230
600000
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
= =
= =
=
=
=
= =
= =
= =
machine. tripped its by off given load the to due is therefore
busload in the change The line. the from tripped has 2 gen Assume : NOTE
1
1
1
1
84 . 226
) 230 ( 05 . 0
) 69 . 2608 (
) ( %
) (
) ( %
V I
V
I
V VR
I V
I
I
V VR
I
V
FL
FL
FL
L
= A
A
= A
A
= A
=
A
A
V V
V
V V V
V V
V
I I
LNEW
LNEW
LOLD LNEW
BUS
95 . 242
05 . 7 250
05 . 7
1600 84 . 226
1
=
÷ =
A ÷ =
= A
= A
A = A
DC Motors
Introduction
• Electric motor
A machine that converts electrical energy into
mechanical energy

Direct current motors are seldom used in ordinary
industrial applications because all electric utilities supply AC.
However, for special applications such as in steel mills, mines,
and electric trains, it is sometimes advantageous to transform
the AC into DC in order to use DC motors. The reason is that
the torque-speed characteristics of DC motors can be varied
over a wide range while retaining high efficiency.
Speed Characteristics of a DC Motor
) (

Z

a
) (
60

volt emf counter or emf back E
pole per flux
conductors of number
poles of number P
paths current armature of number
rpm speed N
where
PZ
E a
N
b
b
=
= u
=
=
=
=
u
× ×
=
Motor Torque
By the term torque is meant the turning or
twisting moment of a force about an axis. It is
measured by the product of the force and the radius
at which this force acts.

T=F x r
• Torque in the Armature
) (



) (
) (
) (
283 . 6

weber pole per flux
conductors of number Z
poles of number P
paths armature of number a
rpm rotation armatre of speed N
ampere current armature I
r newtonmete developed torque T
where
a
I PZ
T
a
a
= u
=
=
=
=
=
=
u
=
• Shaft torque
The torque which is available for doing useful
work is known as shaft torque T
sh
. It is so called
because it is available at the shaft.

N-m
N
output .
= T
sh
55 9
• Example
A DC motor takes an armature current of 110A at 480V.
The armature circuit resistance is 0.2Ω. The machine has 6
poles and the armature is lap-connected with 864 conductors.
The flux per pole is 0.05Wb. Calculate (i)the speed and (ii)the
gross torque developed by the armature.

Solution
rpm N
N
PZ
E a
N
V E
E
R I V E
b
b
b
a a s b
636
) 05 . 0 )( 864 )( 6 (
) 458 )( 6 ( 60
) ( 60
458
) 2 . 0 ( 110 480
=
=
u
=
=
÷ =
÷ =
m N T
T
a
I PZ
T
a
a
a
a
÷ =
=
u
=
3 . 756
6
) 110 )( 05 . 0 )( 864 )( 6 (
159 . 0
159 . 0
Speed of a Motor
• For series motor



• For shunt motor

2
1
1
2
1
2
Φ
Φ
E
E
N
N
b
b
× =
1
2
1
2
b
b
E
E
N
N
=
Types of DC Motor
• Shunt Motor
The armature and the field coils are connected in parallel
sh
s
sh
sh a m
a a s b
R
V
I
I I I
R I V E
=
+ =
÷ =
• Example
A shunt motor is taking 72A at 120V while developing an
output of 10bhp. Armature resistance is 0.05ohm. Shunt field
resistance is 60 ohms. Determine the counter emf.
Solution
A I
I
I I I
A I
I
R
V
I
a
a
sh m a
sh
sh
sh
s
sh
70
2 72
2
60
120
=
÷ =
÷ =
=
=
=
V E
E
R I V E
b
b
a a s b
5 . 116
) 05 . 0 ( 70 120
=
÷ =
÷ =
• Series Motor
) (
se a a s b
a m
R R I V E
I I
+ ÷ =
=
• Long Shunt Compound Motor
) (
se a a s b
sh
s
sh
sh a m
R R I V E
R
V
I
I I I
+ ÷ =
=
+ =
• Example
A long shunt compound motor draws a line current of
42A from a 230V dc source. The armature resistance is 0.1
ohm while the series and shunt field resistances are 0.2 ohm
and 50 ohm respectively. If the iron and friction losses amount
to 500W, determine the overall efficiency of the machine.
Solution
W P
P
R I P
A I
I
I I I
A I
I
R
V
I
a
a
a a a
a
a
sh m a
sh
sh
sh
s
sh
876 . 139
1 . 0 ) 4 . 37 (
4 . 37
6 . 4 42
6 . 4
50
230
2
2
=
=
=
=
÷ =
÷ =
=
=
=
W P
P
P P P P P
W P
P
V I P
W P
P
R I P
losses
losses
friction iron sh se a losses
sh
sh
sh sh sh
se
se
se a se
628 . 1977
500 1058 752 . 279 876 . 139
1058
230 ) 6 . 4 (
752 . 279
2 . 0 ) 4 . 37 (
&
2
2
=
+ + + =
+ + + =
=
=
=
=
=
=
% 53 . 79
9660
628 . 1977 9660
9660
) 42 ( 230
=
÷
=
÷
=
=
=
=
=
q
q
q
q
input
losses input
input
output
input
input
m s input
P
P P
P
P
W P
P
I V P
• Short Shunt Compound Motor
)
se m a a s b
sh
se m s
sh
sh a m
R I R I V E
R
R I V
I
I I I
÷ ÷ =
÷
=
+ =
Example
A 220V short shunt compound motor has an armature
resistance of 0.4Ω, a shunt field resistance of 110Ω and a
series field resistance of 0.6Ω. If this motor draws an armature
current of 50A at rated load, determine horsepower
developed in the armature.
Solution

V E
E
R I R I V E
A I
I I
I I I
I I
I
I
R
R I V
I
b
b
a a se m s b
m
m m
sh a m
m sh
m
sh
sh
se m s
sh
97 . 168
) 4 . 0 50 ( ) 6 . 0 718 . 51 ( 220
718 . 51
) 005454 . 0 2 ( 50
005454 . 0 2
110
) 6 . 0 ( 220
=
× ÷ × ÷ =
÷ ÷ =
=
÷ + =
+ =
÷ =
÷
=
÷
=
hp P
P
I E
P
d
d
a b
d
325 . 11
746
) 50 )( 97 . 168 (
746
=
=
=
Speed Regulation
Speed regulation is the percentage rise in speed when
the mechanical load of the motor is removed.
voltage terminal load full N
voltage terminal load no N
N
N N
NR
FL
NL
FL
FL NL


where
% 100 %
=
=
×
÷
=
Power Developed in the Armature
) (
) (
) (

volt emf counter or emf back E
ampere current armature I
watt armature the in developed power P
where
I E P
b
a
d
a b d
=
=
=
=
Losses and Efficiency
• Armature loss


• Shunt field loss


• Series field loss

a a a
R =I P
2
sh sh sh
R =I P
2
se se se
R =I P
2
• Efficiency
input
losses input
input
ouput
P
P P
P
P ÷
= = q
Power Stages

Example
A 100 volt shunt motor is developing 6 hp while
operating at an overall efficiency of 86%. The armature and
shunt field resistances are 0.06 and 50Ω respectively.
Determine stray power losses.
Solution
A I
I
V
P
I
W P
P
P
P
W P
hp
W
hp P
m
m
s
i n
m
i n
i n
out
i n
out
out
04 . 52
100
65 . 5204
65 . 5204
86 . 0
4476
4476
)
1
746
( 6
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
q
W P
R I P
A I
I
I I I
A I
I
R
V
I
a
a a a
a
a
sh m a
sh
sh
sh
sh
sh
24 . 150
) 06 . 0 ( 04 . 50
04 . 50
2 04 . 52
2
50
100
2
2
=
= =
=
÷ =
÷ =
=
=
=
W P
P
P P P P P
W P
I V P
stray
stray
stray sh a out in
sh
sh s sh
41 . 378
200 24 . 150 4476 65 . 5204
200
) 2 )( 100 (
=
+ + + =
+ + + =
=
= =
Speed Control of Shunt Motors
• Variation of Flux or Flux Control Method
By decreasing the flux, the speed can be increased and
vice versa. The flux of a d.c motor can be changed by
changing I
sh
with help of a shunt field rheostat.

• Armature or Rheostatic Control Method
This method is used when speeds below the no load
speed are required. As the supply voltage is normally
constant, the voltage across the armature is varied by
inserting a variable rheostat or resistance in series with the
armature circuit.

• Voltage Control Method
– Multiple Voltage Control
In this method, the shunt field of the motor is
connected permanently to a fixed exciting voltage but the
armature is supplied with different voltages by connecting
it across one of the several different voltages by means of
suitable switchgear. The armature speed will be
approximately proportional to these different voltages.
The intermediate speeds can be obtained by adjusting the
shunt field regulator.

– Ward-Leonard System
This system is used where an unusually wide and very
sensitive speed control is required as for colliery winders,
electric excavators, elevators and the main drives in steel
mills and blooming and paper mills.

Speed control of Series motors
• Flux control method
Variation in the flux of series motor can be brought about
in any one of the following ways.
– Field Divertors
The series winding are shunted by a variable resistance
known as field divertors.
– Armature Divertor
A divertor across the armature can be used for giving
speeds lower than the normal speed.

– Trapped Field Control Field
This method is often used in electric traction. The
number of series field turns in the circuit can be changed
at will. With full field, the motor runs at its minimum
speed which can be raised in steps by cutting out some of
the series turns.

– Paralleling Field Coils
In this method several speeds can be obtained by
regrouping the field coils

• Variable Resistance in Series with Motor
By increasing the resistance in series with the armature
the voltage applied across the armature terminals can be
decreased.

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