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Title : Catalysis of the reaction between sodium thiosulfate solution and iron (III) nitrate solution.

Aim : To investigate the effect of catalysis of the reaction between sodium thiosulfate solution and iron (III) nitrate solution on the rate of reaction. Apparatus : (50 cm and 100 cm) measuring cylinder, stop clock, dropper, beaker. Materials : Sodium thiosulfate solution, iron (III) nitrate solution, cobalt (II) chloride solution, copper (II) sulfate solution, iron (II) sulfate solution and nickel (II) sulfate solution. Introduction : The reaction rate or rate of reaction for a reactant or product in any given reaction can be defined as the speed with which a reaction occurs. For example, the oxidation of iron (rusting) is a slow reaction which can take many years, but explosive combustion, such as the ignition of fuel, can take as little as fractions of a second to complete. Catalysts is one of the factors which determine and affect reaction rate . Catalysts helps to speed up the reaction by providing an alternate and easier reaction pathway with a lower activation energy . Since the activation energy is lower, more product will be formed in the same amount of time. Chemists used to assume that a catalyst somehow speed up a reaction without being consumed in the reaction. Catalyst involved in some of Industrial processes such as production of petroleum ( use platinum and rhodium), production of nitric acid from ammonia using catalytic oxidation (oxygen used as a catalyst), and use in food processing such as hydrogenation of fats (using nickel as a catalyst) to produce margarine. In this experiment the effect of catalysts in the reaction between sodium thiosulfate solution and iron (III) nitrate solution will be investigate.

Procedure :

1. A cross was draw on a piece of scrap paper and then was putted underneath the 100 cm3 measuring cylinder so it can be seen when looking down the cylinder from the top. 2. The 100 cm measuring cylinder was used to measure 50 cm of sodium thiosulfate solution. Then, the cylinder was placed back on top of the cross. 3. A 50 cm measuring cylinder was used to measure 50 cm of iron (III) nitrate solution. 4. The iron (III) nitrate solution was poured into the sodium thiosulfate solution, and the timer was started immediately. 5. The reaction mixture was looked through from above until the cross can first be seen. The timer was stopped and the time was recorded. 6. This experiment was repeated, but with one drop of catalyst was added to the iron(III) nitrate solution before mixing. The various catalysts was test in the same way. 7. The times was recorded for no catalyst and all the catalysts tested.

Results : Subtance No catalyst Cobalt (II) chloride solution 100 Copper (II) sulfate solution 14 Iron (II) sulfate solution 92 Nickel (II) sulfate solution 62

Time for solution to go colourless (s) Discussion : Conclusion : Question : 1. Which is the best catalyst?

Based on my experiment, copper (II) sulfate solution is the best catalyst. 2. Why were only very dilute solutions of the catalysts used? It is because if higher concentrations are used the experiment proceeds too quickly. In addition, it is because catalyst is a skin irritant and if it comes into contact with the skin it should be washed with soap and water. 3. Could you slow the reaction down? If so, how? This would depend on what kind of reaction we are referring to. If the reaction is endothermic (heat-absorbing) reactions would slow down at lower temperatures. While, if it is exothermic (heatreleasing) reactions would gain speed at lower temperatures. References : 1. Answers.com, 2013. Slow down the reaction , [online] Available at : < http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_could_you_slow_a_reaction_down> [Accessed on 11 April 2013] 2. Geoffrey Neuss, 2007. IB Chemistry Course Companion, Oxford Press. 3. A .Caroline, M. Chris, O. Steve, 2011. Cambridge, Chemistry For The IB Diploma. Cambridge University Press, UK. 4. 5.