The Origin of Matter

The Theory of Everything
jwr47

An electronic design scrapbook had been started around 1966 to record some basic physical principles and recordings of basic design concepts. Recently it has been completed with some modern elements such as Super- and Ultra- capacitors. The following excerpt describes some relevant extracts with reference to the origin of matter. The LC-concept for The Origin of Matter describes the electron and proton as primitive LCstructures, in which the proton's volume is smaller than the electron's volume or size, although the mass is considerably larger (1836x). In LC-structures the L- and C-values for the proton and electron are proportional to the size R (m) and not to the volume R3 (m3). The proton is somewhat smaller than the electron, but its energy content is much (1836x) larger. The LC-oscillators' energy is proportional to its mass. Therefore the proton's energy is 1836 x larger than the electron's energy. The proton's voltage and current values are to be squared resulting in the 1002-fold increased proton's energy (½LI2 + ½CV2), but the proton's smaller capacity and inductivity reduce the energetic factor 10,000 by 3, resulting in (approximately) a total factor of 1836 higher energy. This is a strong indication that the proton's size must be interpreted as an oscillating electromagnetic field, which has not been recognized in Structure and radius of electron. The LC-model requires that an electromagnetic energy propagation has to be stopped at a critical frequency which depends on the charge or energy densities. Only a few observations in a wide range of frequencies seem to deliver enough information for these conditions: the ionospheric reflections (e.g. at the 10- to 100-meter band, 28 MHz, 1927), the Schumann resonances (at 7.83 Hz, 1952) and the dimensions of the proton and electron structures. In a proton and electron particle an Nmax ~ 1045 is the maximum electron density which stops and reflects the energy propagation within these particles. In shortwave communication the electron densities vary in time and layer. the F 2 layer provides about 106 e/cm3 (free electrons per cubic centimeter). The F1 layer has approximately 5 × 105 e/cm3 at noontime and minimum sunspot activity, and increases to roughly 2 × 106 e/cm3 during maximum sunspot activity. The density falls off to below 104 e/cm3 at night1. These numbers merely deliver some examples for numbers. The Schumann resonances are global electromagnetic resonances, excited by lightning discharges in the cavity formed by the Earth's surface and the ionosphere, because the space between the surface of the Earth and the conductive ionosphere acts as a closed waveguide. The cavity is naturally excited by electric currents in lightning. The resonance frequencies range from 3 Hz to 60 Hz. These wide-range observations suggest to consider matter (in the form of electrons and protons) as electromagnetic energy, which in itself is being halted and reflected at specific maximum charge densities. The ionospheric reflections and “Schumann's waveguide” merely support the interpretation of the matter's model as a halted energy propagation.

1 F region - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Energy Storage in passive elements
Basically the smallest particles are carrying the vastest amount of energy and masses. This may also be observed in chokes and capacitors. The large 150H choke will only store a minimum amount of energy, which is caused by the quadratic function of the (relatively low) amperage.

Energy Storage in Chokes2
Chokes have been optimized for winding numbers and wiring diameters, but essentially inductivity more or less is a linear function of length. The longer the wire length the more difficult it will be to store energy in inductive elements. Inductivity 1mH 1H 10H 150H 0.12H3 DC current 10A 300 mA 100mA 8mA 11.5kA Resistance 0.038 Ω 40 Ω 195 Ω 3700 Ω Weight 0.5-1.5 lbs weight 0.5-1.5 lbs weight 0.5-1.5 lbs weight 0.5-1.5 lbs weight 26 tonnes Table 1: Energy Storage in Chokes Energy (½LI2) 0.05 Joules 0.045 Joules 0.05 Joules 0.0096 Joules

E = 7.8 x 106 Joules4

Energy Storage in Capacitors
Capacitors have been optimized for sheet dimensions and sheet windings, but essentially capacitors may be reduced to spherical equivalents, which are a linear function of a radius. Capacity 10mF (Imax = 1A) 1F5 Supercapacitor 10F7 Supercapacitor 3000F Ultracapacitor8 10nF9 DC-voltage 40V 2.5V 2.5V 2.7V 15kV Table 2: Energy Storage in Capacitors The ESR is ~0.1 ohm ESR Energy (½CV2) 16 Joules ~4 joules energy6 ~40 joules energy ~1200 joules energy 1 Joule

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

DC Filter Chokes (Hammond manufacturing) superconducting magnet Lecture 2: Quenching Super Capacitor - Low ESR - 1F/2.5V “The stored energy of a supercapacitor decreases from 100 to 50 percent in 30 to 40 days Super Capacitor - 10F/2.5V BCAP3000-P270-K04 Epoxy PCB-type

Printed Circuit Boards
From PCBs we may learn that each trace may be considered as an inductive element of 1 nH/mm.

Double-sided PCB as a high voltage 100 kVolt Capacitor 10
A double-sided Epoxy PCB may be used as a high voltage 100 kVolt Capacitor in a range of 475 pF-10 nF. The relative epsilon is 4.8. In free air the breakthrough voltage may be 2kV/mm and for this reason the distance between the copper layers must be dimensioned according to the required voltages. Up to 15kV a 10 mm border may be etched as an isolation area. Higher voltages will be needing broader isolation areas. The 10nF-version of this 15 kV-capacitor may be used to store approximately 1 Joule (1 Watt-second) of energy. Epoxy PCB (in mm) 100 x 160 200 x 300 400 x 600 Electrodes (mm) 80 x 40 140 x 280 280 x 380 A/d (d=1 mm) 11,20 50,00 220 C(pF) 475 pF 2125 pF 9380 pF

Table 3: Double-sided PCB as a high voltage Capacitor for 15kV and d=1mm

PCB conductors as a inductive element11
In a PCB each copper track may be considered as an inductive element of 1 nH/mm length or 1 μH/m. In Fig. 1 the total length of the copper trace may be calculated as 36 mm, resulting in a 36 nH coil. For more than 3 windings the factor must be increased to 2nH/mm, which allow us to design coils for values up to 400nH. Multilayer designs allow the usage of higher density of coils. Isolation distances may be chosen in the .2 - .3 mm range. In the sketch isolation pads may be 1.2 mm. In a double layer PCB the inductive element of 10 mm x 10 mm may be dimensioned for values up to 900nH-1μH in a design with 6 windings.

Fig. 1: 36 nH Coil

10 Originally designed by H. Morelli, Spektrum 1980, quoted in RB Elektronica (1990) Goedkope hoogspanningscondensator (met behulp van een printplaat, 475 pF-10 nF, 100 kVolt) 11 Printspoelen (1-6 windingen, 18-900 nHenry), RB Elektronica (1993)

The resonance frequencies
A system's resonance frequency is one of the frequencies, which automatically arises when in equilibrium a system is hit and then left free to start vibrating. The study started by investigating all sources from the tiniest elements (proton, or even quarks) up to the largest structures (the stars, or the milky way) for resonance frequencies.

The basic elements L and C
The investigations concentrate on two symmetric basic L- end C-elements, which may be considered as “wire”, respectively spherical capacitor. These elements may be identified in most structures at all dimensions. The physical description may be:

• C = 4πε0R12 (Farad) • L = 4πμ0R (Henry)
The elementary self-induction may be a “wire” or a PCB-trace as a stretched piece of wire with a length L or a singular loop with diameter 2πR. The formula L = R x 10 -6 (Henry) refers to the wire model at 10-6 Henry/meter. In fact μ0 already includes a 4π -factor in the formula μ 0 = 4π x 10-7 (Henry of Vs/Am), but the definition may be attractive for symmetry between C = 4πε0R and L = 4πμ0R. The following investigations will concentrate on insight in relations instead of accurate numbers. Therefore for simplicity some formulas will be abbreviated and rounded, such as 4πε = 10-9/9 ~ 1010 (Farad / meter). Each physical structure will be associated with a resonance frequency f = 1 / (2π√(LC)). In this model the 150H-coil would be equivalent to a stretched wire of 150 x 106 = 1.5 x 108(m). A capacitor of 10mF would be equivalent to a spherical capacitor of 0.01 x 1010 = 108 (meter). Of course the model is rather crude, but it will be sufficient for the rules of thumb. In the protons and electrons the charge seems to be spread over the whole body of the element. In the 1st hydrogen's orbit the charges will have to be considered as concentrated in the shell's volume as calculated from the orbit's surface and one singular electron's diameter as a width. In calculating the Schumann frequencies we may consider the earth and the ionosphere as the walls of a resonating waveguide, in which the lightnings trigger the resonances.

12 Capacitance

Example quarks proton13 electron14

Size (m) 1.11 x 10-15 R ~ 3 x10-15 10-14 10-13

Capacity (F) Cp ~ 10-25

Inductivity (H) Resonance Freq. (Hz) Cp ~ 10-21 0.15x10+23 ~ 1/ 2π√10-46 0.05x10+23 ~ 1/2π√(LC) or 1/2π√(9 x 10-46) 0.15x10+22 ~ 1/ 2π√10-44 0.15x10+21 ~ 1/ 2π√10-42 0.15x10+20 ~ 1/ 2π√10-40 0.15x10+19 ~ 1/ 2π√10-38 0.15x10+18 ~ 1/ 2π√10-36 0.15x10+17 ~ 1/ 2π√10-34 0.15x10+16 ~ 1/ 2π√10-32 0.15x10+15 ~ 1/ 2π√10-30 0.15x10+14 ~ 1/ 2π√10-28 0.15x10+13 ~ 1/ 2π√10-26 0.15x10+12 ~ 1/ 2π√10-24 0.15x10+11 ~ 1/ 2π√10-22 0.15x10+10 ~ 1/ 2π√10-20 0.15x10+9 ~ 1/ 2π√10-18 0.15x10+8 ~ 1/ 2π√10-16 0.15x10+7 ~ 1/ 2π√10-14 0.15x10+6~ 1/ 2π√10-12 0.15x10+5 ~ 1/ 2π√10-10 0.15x10+4 ~ 1/ 2π√10-8 150 Hz ~ 1/ 2π√10-6 15 Hz ~ 1/ 2π√10-4 1.5 Hz ~ 1/ 2π√10-2 0.15 Hz ~ 1/ 2π/√1 0.015 Hz ~ 1/ 2π/√102

Ce ~ 3 x 10-25 Le ~ 3 x 10-21 10-24 10-23 10-22 10-21 10-20 10-19 10-18 10-17 10-16 10-15 10-14 10-13 10-12 10-11 10-10 10-9 10-8 10-7 10-6 10-5 10-4 10-2 (10 mF) 10-20 10-19 10-18 10-17 10-16 10-15 10-14 10-13 10-12 10-11 10-10 10-9 10-8 10-7 10-6 10-5 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 1 10+1 (10H) 10+2 (100H)

hydrogen 1st hydrogen-shell 2e – 7e U-shell The Casimir effect

10-12 10-11 10-10 10-9 10-8 10-7 10-6 10-5 10-4 10-3 10-2

ball lightnings

10-1 1

Ionospheric reflections 10+1 10+2 10+3 10+4 10+5 10+6 Earth15 Sun16 The Milky Way 10+8 10+9

10+7 (6400 km) 10-3 (1mF)

10-1 (100 mF) 10+3 (1000H)

Table 4: The world's model in L and C and f-dimensions

13 Structure and radius of electron 14 ‘classical electron radius’ - Structure and radius of electron 15 Highest-intensity mode of Schumann resonance at 7.83 Hz, corresponding to a capacitor of 1 mF and a inductivity of 10H. The mean earth's diameter is 6,371.0 km (→ Earth). Resonance frequencies range from 3Hz – 60 Hz. 16 The mean diameter of the sun is 1.392684×109 m (→ Sun)

The Schumann resonance17
The Schumann resonances are global electromagnetic resonances, excited by lightning discharges in the cavity formed by the Earth's surface and the ionosphere, because the space between the surface of the Earth and the conductive ionosphere acts as a closed waveguide. The cavity is naturally excited by electric currents in lightning. The resonance frequencies range from 3 Hz to 60 Hz. The lowest-frequency (and highest-intensity) mode of the Schumann resonance occurs at a frequency of approximately 7.83 Hz, which is found in the region of the Earth's dimensions. The earth's size corresponds to a size of R = 10+7 (m), a capacitor of 1 mF and a inductivity of 10H, resulting in a resonance frequency of approximately 1.5 Hertz. The Schumann resonance frequencies range from 3Hz – 60 Hz. The earth's radius is around R = 10+7 (m), which refers to a capacitor value of 1 mF and selfinductance of 10H. In fact the earth's radius is 6400km. The spherical capacitance is C = 0,64 x 10-3 (0,64 mF) and L = 0,64 10+1 (6,4 Henry). The associated resonance frequency may be calculated at 2,3 Hz, which is found at the low limit of the specified frequency range 3Hz – 60 Hz . The ionosphere however is located at a higher altitude of 2000-4000km and equipped with a higher radius of 10.000-15.000 km.

17 Schumann resonances - Wikipedia

Ionospheric Reflections18
In shortwave communication the electron densities vary in time and layer. The sunlight activates free electrons in the ionosphere, which up to the plasma frequency may form a reflective shield for electromagnetic waves. The plasma frequency in the ionosphere is about 1MHz. For this reason the LF and MF-radio waves are reflected at the ionosphere layers and can be detected over the horizon. Higher frequencies will be allowed to pass the shield without being reflected. The free electrons in the ionosphere will only be generated by the ultraviolet components of the sunlight. At night the sunlight dims, reducing the free electrons and the lowering the plasma frequency.

Fig. 3: epsilon

Fig. 2: plasmafrequency

The formula also implies the particle's mass and may be applied (supplied with adapted parameters) for other particle classes as well. At the plasma-frequency the epsilon-value for the electromagnetic wave returns to zero, which results in zero velocity and a reflection of the wave. In shortwave communication the electrons' densities are depending on the sun's activity and radiation intensity, which has an impact on communication channels for the wavelengths 10-100m: • • The F2 layer at an altitude of 3000-4000 km provides about 10 6 e/cm3 (free electrons per cubic centimeter). The F1 layer at an altitude of 3000km has approximately 5 × 10 5 e/cm3 at noontime and minimum sunspot activity, and increases to roughly 2 × 10 6 e/cm3 during maximum sunspot activity. The density falls off to below 104 e/cm3 at night19.

18 These numbers merely deliver some examples for number 19 F region - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Rutherford's atomic model
In its simplest form of Rutherford's atomic model hydrogen consists of an atomic nucleus and an electron, which is in an orbit at a distance of 0,5 x 10-10 m. More complex atoms are being encircled by electrons at orbits for a radius formula R = 0,5n 2 x 10-10 m. Rutherford's theory seems to include the paradox conclusion that the moving electron must loose its energy and spiral down to the atom's nucleus. This paradox has been solved by two hypotheses by Bohr: • • a stationary orbit, from which the electron cannot emit energy a stable atom, which was “not allowed” to radiate in this orbit

In fact the mechanism for these theses have not been explained. We might invest some effort to check the existing laws to explain Bohr's hypotheses in retrospect. One of the relevant observations is the ionospheric reflection of short waves.

Reflection condition
The critical limit for a conducting layer in short wave radio communication is20 fc = 9 x √N …...............(Hertz), in which N represents the electron density per m3 and fc the critical frequency in Hz. All electromagnetic radiation with lower frequencies (and longer wavelengths) will be reflected at that layer. Higher frequencies however will not be reflected and may pass the layer.

The radius of the first orbit
In its simplest form of Rutherford's atomic model hydrogen consists of an atomic nucleus and an electron, which is in an orbit at a distance of 0,5 x 10-10 m. The electrons' density at the ball may be N=1 electron at 10 -30 cubic meter21, resulting in a concentration of N = 10+30 and a critical frequency of fc = 9 x √N = 9 x 10+15 Hz22. The associated wavelength for this frequency would be 0,33 x 10-7 m, respectively 330 x 10-10 m. A higher value for the electrons' density is found in the orbit shell which is calculated from a shell width of 1 electron's diameter and a surface area of 4πR 2 (at the radius R = 0,5 x 10-10 m). The enclosed shell volume is now 3 x 10 -15 x 6 x 0,25 x 10-20 ~ 5 x 10-35 respectively 0,5 x 10-34, resulting in a concentration of N = 1034 and a critical frequency 9 x √N = 9 x 1017 ~ 1018 Hz. This value may correspond to the calculated resonance frequency of 0.15x10+18 Hz. This condition suggests that the first orbit's shell does not pass frequencies up to 10 18 Hz and may include waves with resonating frequencies of e.g. 0.15x10 +18 Hz in the LC-circuit. A wave at 0.15x10+18 Hz may be included forever inside this LC-structure.

20 critical frequency 21 In this model the atomic volume may be calculated from a cube sized 10-10 meter length, width and height, resulting in a structural volume of 10-30 cubic meter 22 critical frequency

Uranium
Uranium uses 92 electrons in a 7-layer configuration “2, 8, 18, 32, 21, 9, 2” in a ball with a 156 pm radius, equivalent to 156 x 10-12 m respectively 1.6 x 10-10 m. In fact the ball's size is considerably larger with a radius R = 25 x 10-10 m. The electrons have been distributed over 7 shells, in which the width is determined by the size of an electron (with a radius 3 x10-15) and a surface area of 4π.R2 (at an orbit radius Rn = 0,5 x n2 x 10-10 m). The formula for each orbital volume depends on the shell's number n: 12 x 3 x 10-15 x 0,25 x n4 x 10-20 ~ n4 x 10-34. … m3 In detail I calculated23 the numbers, but in this paper I will only publish results. Up to the fourth orbit the electrons' densities (N ~ 1034) and the critical frequencies (1018 Hz) identical. A decrease is found for the outer orbits. Inside the shells and between shells electromagnetic radiation may exist if the reflectors' geometry supports the propagation of these waves. The reflectors must be provided by the electrons' shells which are reflection frequencies up to the resonance frequency. Orbit Radius R (m) Critical frequency 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0,5 x 10-10 m 2 x 10-10 m 4,5 x 10-10 m 8 x 10-10 m 18 x 10-10 m 25 x 10-10 m 1018 Hz 1018 Hz 1018 Hz 1018 Hz 1017 Hz 3 x 1016 Hz Volume of the shell 0,5 x 10-34,…. (m3) 16 x 10-34…. (m3) 27 x 10-34…. (m3) 256 x 10-34…. (m3) 625 x 10-34…. (m3) 2500 x 10-34 …. (m3) Electrons' Resonance Concentration N frequency N ~ 1034 N ~ 1034 N ~ 1034 N ~ 1034 N ~ 1033 N ~ 1031 0.15x10+18 Hz 0.15x10+18 Hz 0.15x10+17 0.15x10+17 0.15x10+17 0.15x10+17 1.5x10+16

12,5 x 10-10 m 3 x 1017 Hz

1300 x 10-34…. (m3) N ~ 1032

Table 5: Critical frequencies for 7 uranium orbits In analogy to the reflections of short waves atoms may also been understood as reflecting electromagnetic energy at their shells. This may be the mechanism to keep the electrons in stabilized orbits. Uranium's core cannot be expanded excessively, because the charge numbers for the shells do not meet the required conditions for reflecting radiation. Radius (m) Hydrogen Hydrogen nucleus Uranium atom (7 orbits) Uranium atom nucleus 0,37 x 10-10 m24 1.11 x 10-15 m 0,5 x 10-10 m – 25 x 10-10 m 15 x 10-15 m 1018 Hz – 3 x 1016 Hz 0.15x10+18 Hz – 1.5x10+16 Critical frequency (Hz) 9 x 10+15 Hz Resonating frequency 0.15x10+18 Hz

Table 6: Critical frequency for the hydrogen – uranium interval
23 De Eigenfrequenties Van de Materie (de Wereldformule) 24 Waterstof (element)

Uranium's nucleus
The radius of uranium's nucleus has been specified at 15 fm (femtometer), respectively 15 x 10 -15 m or 1.5 x 10-14 m, which is about ten times larger than the radius for hydrogen's nucleus 1.75 fm25.

Iron26
Iron's electrons have been arranged in a “2, 8, 14, 2”-configuration which in the first three orbits may be compared to uranium's “2, 8, 18, 32, 21, 9, 2”-structure. Iron will not be disturbed by instability in the remote orbits. That's why it may be one of the most stable orbit structures.

25 Atomic nucleus 26 Iron

The proton's dimensions
The proton's must be smaller than the electron because its energy is 1836 times larger. This ratio, 1836, would set the electron’s radius at 3 - 13x10 -15 m at approximately 3 - 12 times larger (and not smaller as it has been defined in Structure and radius of electron) than a proton (1.11x10-15 m). The following model (as an oscillating electromagnetic wave in an LC-circuit) suggests the proton MUST be smaller than the electron, because the proton represents so much more energy (the proton's mass is1836x the electron's mass). Example proton electron Radius (m) R ~ 1.11 x 10-15 R ~ 3 x10-15 Capacity (in F) Cp ~ 10-25 Ce ~ 3 x 10-25 Self-induction (H) Resonance Freq. (Hz) Cp ~ 10-21 Le ~ 3 x 10-21 0.15x10+23 ~ 1/ 2π√10-46 0.05x10+23 ~ 1/2π√(LC) of 1/2π√(9 x 10-46)

The LC-pendulum
Mechanical pendulums
From its discovery around 1602 by Galileo Galilei the regular motion of pendulums was used for timekeeping, and was the world's most accurate timekeeping technology until the 1930s. If the amplitude is limited to small swings, the period T of a simple pendulum, the time taken for a complete cycle, is: T = 2π√(L/g) in which L is the length of the pendulum and g is the local acceleration of gravity27. For small swings the period is independent of the mass of the bob and independent of amplitude. Successive swings of the pendulum, even if changing in amplitude, take the same amount of time. • The gravitational energy is given by mgh, in which h represents the maximal height difference in a period. g is the local acceleration of gravity, which may be replaced by another formula28 depending on the gravitational constant (G = 6.6 x 10-11), the Earth's mass (m1 in kilograms) and the Earth's radius (r in meters)29: g = G x m1 / r2. = 9.822 m/s2 In a pendulum the kinetic energy is represented by ½mv2 , in which m represents the mass of the bob and v the maximal velocity of the bob.

The LC-pendulum
The LC circuit that controls the frequency of oscillation is often called the "TANK CIRCUIT" because it contains circulating currents much greater than the current supplying it (e.g. pulses of collector current supplied by the amplifier)30. LC oscillators, which use tank circuits, are commonly used for the higher radio frequencies. They are not suitable for use as extremely low-frequency oscillators because the inductors and capacitors would be large in size, heavy, and costly to manufacture31. Still we may observe capacitive and inductive elements ranging from very small values to 100 – 1000 Henry and 10mF-100mF in our planetary environment. The LC-pendulum is equivalent to the classic mechanical pendulum, in which gravity's energy (mgh) or gravitational forces are used to represent the non-kinetic energy and motion energy (½mv2) represents kinetic energy. The formula for the cycle's period T = 2π√(L/g) is quite similar to the oscillation's period T = (2π√(LC)) for the LC-circuit. In an LC-circuit the oscillation's frequency is f = 1 / (2π√(LC)). The LC-circuit with a large L = 150 Henry and C = 10 mF (respectively 10,000 μF) oscillates at 0.13 Hz32. This seemed to be the lowest frequencies we may produce from standard LCcomponents.

27 28 29 30 31 32

Pendulum - Wikipedia Gravity of Earth law of universal gravitation The Hartley Oscillator - Learn About Electronics OSCILLATORS - Navy MARS Hartley Oscillator Calculator – Ekswai - Calculate the frequency of the Hartleyoscillator.

Quality
The quality of the LC-pendulum depends on the oscillating energy and the resistive ( Ri2)-losses. √(L/C) is an impedance value, which may be related to an internal resistor R. The pendulums may need time to be charged. The required charging/discharging time is related to the quality of the circuit and may be eternal if the losses are approaching to zero.

The Electron
The electron might be considered as an LC-pendulum, in which electrostatic and magnetic energy had been initiated to oscillate. In a loss-less equilibrium the LC-pedulum repeatedly exchanges the ½LI2 and ½CV2 – energies. Basically both L and C are related to the radius R. Theoretically a pendulum's period should be independent of the amount of stored energy.

Electron as a small spherical capacitor
A small spherical capacitor is specified with a capacity of C = 4πεR33, which for an electron might be calculated with a radius34 R = 3 x 10-15 (m) and 4πε = 10-9/9, resulting in Ce = 0.33 x 10-24 (Farad).

Electron as a small inductive conductor
At a rate of 1 nH/mm (or 10-6 H/m) the inductive parameter for a small conductor with size of the electron's radius R = 3 x 10-15 (m) would be calculated as Le = 3 x 10-21 or 0.3 x 10-20 (Henry).

Sub-nuclear oscillator
Calculating the oscillation frequency for the LC-circuit f = 1 / (2π√(LC)) and inserting the intermediate value LC = 0.33 x 0.3 x 10-44 or ~ 10 x 10-46 the cycle's period is calculated to be T ~ 20 x 10-23 or 2 x 10-22 (seconds) and the frequency f at 0.5 x 1022 (Hz).

The electron's impedance
The electron's impedance √(L/C) = √(0.3 x 10-20 / 0.33 x 10-24) ~ √10.000 = 100 Ohm. This impedance may be valid for all simple geometries of the basic LC-circuits.

The electron's energy
According to Einstein's mc2 inserting the electron's mass m = 9.11 x 10 -31 (kg) and the velocity of light c = 3 x 108 (m/s) the electron's energy must be found in the range of mc2 = 8.1 x 10-16 (Joule). The system's total energy should be alternating between the L and the C storage cells. Therefore the magnetic energy E ~ ½LI2 and electrostatic energy E ~ ½CV2 each should be in the range of E = 8.1 x 10-16 (Joules). From these calculations we may derive the voltage and amperage for the electron's LC-circuit: V = √(2E/C) ~ √(16 x 10 -16 / 0.33 x 10-24) = 7 x 104 (Volts) I = √(2E/L) ~ √(16 x 10 -16 / 0.3 x 10--20) = 7 x 102 (Amperes) The electron's impedance is approximately V/I = 100 ohms.

33 Capacitance 34 Classical electron radius

The Proton
In analogy to the electron the proton might also be considered as an LC-pendulum

Proton as a small spherical capacitor
A small spherical capacitor is specified with a capacity of C = 4πεR35, which for an electron might be calculated with a radius36 R = 1.11 x 10-15 (m) and 4πε = 10-9/9, resulting in Ce = 0.1 x 10-24 = 1025 (Farad).

Electron as a small inductive conductor
At a rate of 1 nH/mm (or 10-6 H/m) the inductive parameter for a small conductor with size of the electron's radius R = 1.11 x 10-15 (m) would be calculated as Le = 1.11 x 10-21 or 0.11 x 10-20 (Henry).

Sub-nuclear oscillator
Calculating the oscillation frequency for the LC-circuit f = 1 / (2π√(LC)) and inserting the intermediate value LC ~ 10-46 the cycle's period is calculated to be T ~ 10-23 (seconds) and the frequency f at 1023 (Hz).

The proton's impedance
The proton's impedance √(L/C) = √(10-21 / 10-25) ~ √10.000 = 100 Ohm. This impedance may be valid for all simple geometries of the basic LC-circuits.

The proton's energy
According to Einstein's mc2 the proton's energy must be 1836 x larger than the previously derived electron's energy. The system's total energy should be alternating between the L and the C storage cells. Therefore the magnetic energy E ~ ½LI2 and electrostatic energy E ~ ½CV2 each should be in the range of E = 8.1 x 1836 x 10-16 (Joules) ~ 15 x 10-13 (Joules) for the proton. From these calculations we may derive the voltage and amperage for the electron's LC-circuit: V = √(2E/C) ~ √(30 x 10 -13 / 10-25) = 5.5 x 106 (Volts) I = √(2E/L) ~ √(30 x 10 -13 / 10--21) = 5.5 x 104 (Amperes) The proton's voltage and the current are ca. 100 x larger than the electron's operating parameters, whereas the proton's capacity and inductivity are to be considered as 3 times smaller. The proton's voltage and current are to be squared resulting in the 1002-fold increased proton's energy, whereas the proton's reduced capacity and inductivity are reducing the energetic factor 10,000 by 3, resulting in (approximately) a total factor of 1836 higher energy. This is a strong indication that the proton's size must be interpreted as an oscillating electromagnetic field. The proton's impedance is approximately V/I = 100 ohms.

35 Capacitance 36 Classical electron radius

The speed of light
The speed of light C = 3 x 108 (m/s) explains the numerical values of ε0 and μ0 c2 = 1/(ε0μ0) = 9 x 1016

Vacuum permeability
In electromagnetism, permeability is the measure of the ability of a material to support the formation of a magnetic field within itself. The μ0-parameter has been specified as: 4π×10−7 H⋅m−1 This already defines the previously found Henry/meter-unit 37 as 4π×10−7 at the value of approximately 10−6 H/m ~ 10−9 H/mm or 1nH/mm.

Vacuum permittivity38
The unit ε0 = 8.854 187 817... x 10−12 farads per meter (F·m−1) already indicates the 4πε0multiplicand ~ 10-10 (F/m) in the formula for the spherical capacitor's capacitance.

Impedance of free space
The characteristic impedance of free space has been defined as: Z0= √ (μ0 / ε0) = 120 π ~ 377 ohm.

37 Permeability 38 vacuum permittivity.

The reflectors' mechanism
There are several mechanisms to halt an electromagnetic wave or current. One of the common mechanisms is: • a sudden transit region of permeability or permittivity by a step in the electrons' density.

The critical frequency
In the ionosphere the critical frequency is the limiting frequency fc at or below which a radio wave is reflected by an ionospheric layer at vertical incidence. The existence of the critical frequency is the result of electron limitation, i.e., the inadequacy of the existing number of free electrons to support reflection at higher frequencies. A few fortunate amateurs who obtained special permission for experimental communications below 150 meters completed hundreds of long distance two way contacts on 100 meters (3 MHz) in 1923 including the first transatlantic two way contacts. Shortwave bands include wavelenghts of 80 meters (3.75 MHz), 40 meters (7 MHz), 20 meters (14 MHz) and the 10-meter band (28 MHz). The basic reflection's condition for the critical frequency is: fc = 9 x √N, where N = the electron density per m3 and fc is in Hz. Now let's suppose the critical density for the electron is 1 electron per R3 in which R ~ 10-15 (m), that is N ~ 1045. In this case fc = 9 x √N ~ 1023. This requirement simultaneously meets the proton's frequency 0.15x10+23 and the electron's frequency 0.05x10+23. Only these (or similar?) conditions allow the electromagnetic energy to be reflected at 100% rates. Lower frequencies will be reflected within the particle, whereas higher frequencies will be allowed to pass the barrier. They will simply be allowed to proceed their way. Therefore the model must behave like a high-pass section.

High Pass Filter
A sudden excessive concentration of energy might result in a delay of wave propagation. A loss-less high pass filter without any terminal connections must reflect any current through C from the left Lsection to the right L-section and vice versâ. The reflections at the L-sections will occur at the resonance frequency f = 1 / (2π√(LC)).

Fig. 4: High-pass filter

The LC-circuitry will be working at any energy level with the proper frequency, but the component size seems to depend on the proper energy level. Probably a minimal energy or charge density ( 1 electron per R3) must be located at the C-section for a 100% reflection. At lower densities the electromagnetic energy will be allowed to pass the filter.

Lightnings and ball lightnings
Lightnings
Lightnings start by initiating a discharge at 1/6 of the speed of light, at which a spark bridges a distance of 50 meters and waits for 50 microseconds. These discharges are repeating until the sparks hit the earth's surface. The discharge column now is filled with negative charged particles, ionizing the air at high collision-speeds. The (maximum 10.000 Amperes) current flows from earth to the clouds, generating an intense white light. Explosions are generating the thunder. A few milliseconds later a second of a whole series of up to 42 successive lightnings may be generated39. This, I remember, must have been the basic idea to model the ball lightning. There were several stages in the initial phase, which might explain different behaviors of electromagnetic waves. I tried to understand the mechanism of the discharge's propagation, especially in respect to the ball lightning. This paper does not document the state of the art in physics, but contains some personal notes to lightning analysis.

Stages of lightnings
Feynman described the three stages of lightnings as an initial phase phase at low speed with a series of 50m discharges, each to be followed by 50μs-pauses. The initial phase is followed by the main discharge through the previously prepared ionized channel, which in a third stages may be used for a number of multiple discharges. Typically a lightning 40seems to be characterized as follows: • • primary types: intra-cloud (IC), cloud to another cloud (CC) and cloud-ground (CG) Phases: stepped-leader41 phase (with singular 1μs discharges42 and 50μs pauses43, the return stroke (10,000 amperes peak current and 20 Coulombs discharge) and the dark leader in rapid succession. length: 1km-2km, up to 5-10km An average bolt of negative lightning carries an electric current of 30,000 amperes (30 kA), and transfers 15 coulombs of electric charge and 500 megajoules of energy. Large bolts of lightning can carry up to 120 kA and 350 coulombs. The rise time of a lightning's current may reach 7000 A/microsecond44. A field of 200.000 V/m45.

• •

• •

I decided to concentrate on the model for the step leader, which may be understood as a number of singular steps.

39 The Feynman Lectures on Physics (1964) 40 Although lightning is always accompanied by the sound of thunder, distant lightning may be seen but be too far away for the thunder to be heard. This is untrue. There are lightnings without thunder. These occur in swamp areas, where lots of methane are to be burned in the sky. → Catatumbo lightning in Venezuela 41 Visualized in Lightning_formation.gif 42 At 1/6 of the speed of light. 43 The Feynman Lectures on Physics (1964), chapter 9-6 44 Blitz 45 Blitz

Modeling the stepped-leader46 phase
The electric field strength within the thundercloud is not typically large enough to initiate this process by itself. Therefore the initiation process is needed, which provides enough singular 50msteps to open the gate to the main flash. Typically 20 x 50-m-steps are needed to prepare a 1km lightning channel. The following model suggests to use a series of 20 diacs (of which only 6 are shown). Of course each of the (“imaginary”) diacs in this model would have been designed to trigger at extremely high voltages such as 1-10 Megavolts. Even a great number of 50m-steps might not be sufficient to ignite the channel. The triggering concept must be redesigned to trigger each diac in a step by step architecture. Additionally we need extra LC-circuits to describe the 50μs delays. Otherwise the discharge had to be understood as a “big blow”, which does not meet the branches model. The initializing process in which the channels of partially ionized gas are being prepared requires a source of densely-charged region of negative or positive charge. The model therefore required a main reservoir for charges, which might be emptied to stop the discharge. An RC-section has been chosen with a large RC-constant.

Fig.5: Basic Model for the Step-Leader Phase An ultra-slow-motion video of stepped leader propagation 47 illustrates the generation of the multiple 50m-steps, in which the leaders will often split, forming branches in a tree-like pattern. I decided to follow only one path, which ultimately ends up to be the main ionized channel. However the model should supply enough charges for the branches which end up as dead end paths into nowhere. From the slow-motion video it may be seen that real activity had been concentrating on the leading part of the leader. The reduced length of the heated area seemed to be concentrated in a very small segment, probably no longer than a few centimeters. This reduced size may indicate a rather high frequency range of propagation.

46 Visualized in Lightning_formation.gif 47 Ultra-slow-motion video of stepped leader propagation: see ztresearch.com

Modeling a single section in the stepped-leader 48 phase
Of all lightning elements only one seems to be characterized in a well-definable way: the 50m-path of stepped-leader ignition. The quick movement suggests to consider this path as an inductive element. At the rate of 1 μH/m (or 1 nH/mm) the length obviously may be described as a 50 μH section. At 1 kilometer from the original source we may calculate a total of 20 sections, resulting in an concatenated series of 20 inductive 50 μH-sections, which in total amount to 1 mH inductivity. The total capacitance of all ionized branches may sum up to a spherical capacitor with a capacitance of 4πε0R, resulting in a capacitor of approximately 100nF (calculated 63nF for 630 m radius). Using the LC Resonance Calculator the delays 1μs and 50μs might be modeled by: L R ~ 50m R ~ 1000m R ~ 2000m R ~ 10.000m 50 μH (50m length) 1 mH (20 sections) 2 mH (40 sections) C 500 pF (5m radius) 63 nf (630 m radius) 126 nf (1260 m radius) Fc 1 MHz 20 kHz 10 kHz τ ~1μs 50μs 0,1 ms 0,5 ms

10 mH (200 sections) 630 nF (~ 6300 m radius ) 2 kHz

Fig. 6: Igniting a single LC-section in the stepped-leader phase The already ignited series of sections will serve as the source for the next LC-section to be ignited now. First of all the last ignition will have to be processed by charging C 2 from the L1-inductivity. This will take 50μs, which is to be considered as a pause. Then the diac D1 reaches the threshold level and triggers the next discharge into a new 50m-section with 50 μH inductivity and 500 pF capacitance. A 5000 pF capacitor would be a better match to the inductor's size (R = 50m in C = 4πε0R), but it would widen the ignition process. After ionizing the channel all ignited diacs remain in a conducing state. The extra 50 μH inductivity adds up to the basic 1mH value in L1 and in the end may increase the total inductivity (L1) to 2mH for a 2km lightning or even L1=10mH for a 10km lightning path.

48 Visualized in Lightning_formation.gif

The total capacitance in C2 grows with the distance of the lightning's origin and may reach a total value of 630 nF – 1μF for a spherical capacitor with a 10km radius. In the design the buffer capacitor C1 (30 μF) may be oversized to allow the system to supply multiple discharges without loosing the capacitance.

The final discharge
At the last discharge the system does not have any limitation in the terminal's impedance. At igniting D1 (for a 2 km lightning) the capacitor C1 may be totally discharged. If we assume a moderate voltage of 1 MV in C1 = 20 μF the discharge releases 20 Coulombs49 and a total energy of ½QV = 0,5 x 20 x 106 (J) = 10 Megajoules into the system. The current of the final discharge is 10 Coulombs compressed within 0,1 ms resulting in 100 kA.

Fig. 7: Final discharge of a 2 km long lightning The last discharge however may be a repetitive event in which several pulses are to be generated. This however does not belong to our model. The main modeling parameters for the lightning seem to be: • • • • • the voltage V1 at approximately 1 Megavolt (corresponding to ~1 or 2MV/km). The field however normally might be at a much lower level of 200.000 V/m. the size of the resistor R150, which may limit the supply current for capacitor C1, the capacitor C1 ~ 20μF, which contains the standard charge for the lightning, the median value for the self-inductivity (1nH/mm) for the ionized channel the local capacitor value C3 ~ 500 pF, which defines the 1μs ignition period

49 Q = CV = 20 x 10-6 x 106 Volts at C1 = 20 μF and V = 1 Megavolt 50 May be at the free space impedance Wave impedance (377 Ohms)

Modeling a series of sections in the stepped-leader51 phase
The process of igniting the successive LC-sections results in a total design according to the following structure for a lightning, of which only 4 of normally 20 circa sections have been implemented. This model however does not include the contribution of the branches, which are responsible for the 50μs delay pause between ignitions.

Fig. 8: Lightning model with 4 sections Although a diac model52 has been published I did not really try to perform a transient analysis. Instead I tried to understand how the parameters may explain the parameters for the ball lightnings.

51 Visualized in Lightning_formation.gif 52 Modeling the DIAC - Spring 2002 - Spectrum Software

Ball lightning
Especially the Ball lightning might be explained as a frozen stage in one of the initial stages of lightnings. As a kid a friend of mine had observed a ball lightning and his description had been quite convincing. Pyotr Kapitsa53 (1894–1984) proposed that ball lightning is a glow discharge driven by microwave radiation that is guided to the ball along lines of ionized air from lightning clouds where it is produced. The ball serves as a resonant microwave cavity, automatically adjusting its radius to the wavelength of the microwave radiation so that resonance is maintained.[56]54 In Youtube some videos demonstrate Ball lightnings without any further explanation 55. Many modern experiments involve using a microwave oven to produce small rising glowing balls, often referred to as "plasma balls". Generally, the experiments are conducted by placing a lit or recently extinguished match or other small object in a microwave oven. The burnt portion of the object flares up into a large ball of fire, while "plasma balls" can be seen floating near the ceiling of the oven chamber. Nikola Tesla was reportedly able to artificially produce 1.5" (3.8 cm) balls. Some of the characteristic properties of ball lightnings are56: • • • • • • • Origin: often a cloud-to-ground lightning discharge Time of visible existence: from 1 second to over a minute Form: spherical or pear-shaped Size: 1–100 cm, most commonly 10–20 cm Brightness: similar to a 100W lamp Movement: in all directions, but mostly horizontally Motion: often a rotational motion is reported

The size of the ball lightning seems to exceed an upper size of 1 meter. Some reports (e.g. by pilots) describe ball diameters up to 30m57. A spherical capacitor with 15 m radius may be calculated as a capacitor of up to ~ 1.5 nF. These ranges 1 cm – 30m suggest to consider the ball lightning as a remain of an incomplete stepper-leader phase, in which the generation of the main discharge has been interrupted. These interruptions may isolate all derivative branches from that node to the main channel for the final discharge. The ultimate discharge path retracts all charges from incomplete branches, which may be identified at the video58. Some of the incomplete branches almost reached the earth's surface before their path could be completed. In such cases some may end up with a last trigger phase of an incomplete transfer in the C2=C3=C4=C5... = 500pF-capacitor. This capacitor (calculated at R = 5m radius in C = 4πε0R) may vary in size between 1cm and 30m, but the principal size is 10-20 cm. An incomplete transfer of charges may also be caused by a sudden cooling of the ionized channel which interconnects the branches of the lightning's ionization tree.

53 Pyotr Kapitsa invented high power microwave generators (1950–1955) and discovered a new kind of continuous high pressure plasma discharge with electron temperatures over 1,000,000K. 54 Reference: On the nature of ball lightning (1955) 55 A video of a microwave plasma ball experiment 56 Ball lightning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 57 Quotation: “Er zijn, onder andere door piloten, bolbliksems gesignaleerd van dertig meter diameter”. (bolbliksem) 58 Ultra-slow-motion video of stepped leader propagation: see ztresearch.com

According to Pyotr Kapitsa the ball serves as a resonant microwave cavity, automatically adjusting its radius to the wavelength of the microwave radiation so that resonance is maintained. The basic LC-circuitry may also fit inside a 100mm radius sized spherical capacitor, for which the L-value is 100 nH and the capacitance is C = 4πε0R = 10pF. The natural resonance frequency for this tuned circuit is 160 MHz59. At a 1 m radius the L-value would be 1 μH and the C-value 100pF results in a resonance frequency of 16MHz.

Concentrations of electrons
The reflections of electromagnetic energy may be controlled by concentrations of electrons, which had been generated by the stepped-leader phase. The electron density defines the range of the frequency components, which may be included inside a volume. In the frequency range 3 MHz – 30 MHz (wavelengths of ~10m → 100m) the ionosferic reflections require densities of 2 × 106 e/cm3 (F1-layer) up to 106 e/cm3 (F2-layer). The required density to halt and reflect an electromagnetic wave is: fc = 9 x √N …...............(Hertz), in which N represents the electrons' density / m3 and fc is the plasma frequency in Hz. At a frequency of 16 MHz a similar density has to be available as compared to the short wave 20m60 band. At a lightning the air around the ionized channel is full of stepped-leader generated charges, which may influence the plasma frequency and the epsilon-value.

Fig. 10: epsilon

Fig. 9: plasmafrequency

As soon as epsilon changes the area may become visible as if it were a floating body. The areas may be considered as filled with charged particles. The charge may have been spread from branches, which had not completed their stepped-leader phase and remained unaffected by the retraction phase. Retraction of charges may only be completed if the total branch of the charging mechanism is still intact. As soon as a recombination process has interrupted a segment in the branches the remaining tree maybe isolated and leave the charged particles as a “cloud” - waiting to be recombined.

59 LC Resonance Calculator 60 The best amateur band for DX work is the 20-m band. During the high portion of the sunspot activity cycle, it is open to some part of the world practically throughout the 24 hours of the day.

Stimulated emission of radiation
The production of X-rays by a bolt of lightning was theoretically predicted as early as 1925 but no evidence was found until 2001/2002. A number of observations by space-based telescopes have revealed even higher energy gamma ray emissions. During a positive lightning strike, huge quantities of extremely low frequency (ELF) and very low frequency (VLF) radio waves are generated61. The emitted radiation may hit the atmosphere's atoms and lift electrons to another orbit, from which they may return after some time and emit a relatively constant radiation. The brightness of a ball lightning is said to be “similar to a 100W incandescent lamp”, illuminating the scene for up to one minute. Therefore light may be caused by stimulated emission of light, which had been generated at a previously triggered flash.

A ball lightning as a small Schumann resonator
The Schumann resonances are well-known examples of waves, which have been generated by lightnings. Their resonances allow them to pick up energy and emit the resonating wave at a much longer emission period. It sounds like hitting a large bell with a small hammer to produce a minutelong acoustic sound. In such resonators the quality of the resonator is an essential parameter for long duration. In a ball lightning the resonating chamber is determined by the charges and the epsilon characteristics. An induced energy supply may be resonating inside the ball structure for seconds and emit the resonating induced & stimulated wave.

61 Lightning

The Casimir effect
The Casimir effect is a small attractive force that acts between two close parallel uncharged conducting plates. It is due to quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field62. Example: according to the standard Casimir formula Fc / A = π h c / (480 * d4) the pressure (Fc / A) between two plates (with area A): • • at a distance of d = 190 nm causes a pressure of 1Pa (1 N/m2), and at a distance of d = 11 nm causes a pressure of 100kPa (~1 bar or 105 N/m2).

In the study of harmonic oscillators63 I investigated the characteristics of the Casimir effect and the idea of solving the experiments' results as a standard explanation for the Maxwell-oriented waveguide theory. No suddenly arising quantum of energy between plates and an external sea of quantum energy is needed to explain the mechanism.

Concept of the alternative model setup for the Casimir experiment
In a warm-up phase I compared the Casimir setup of two plates at the typical distance of a few nanometers (11 nm) with a similar plate capacitor (ca. 1mF). A plate capacitor generally may be characterized by a main capacitor and a parasitic capacitor, in which the main capacitor behaves as a selective microwave cavity, which only allows special energy components to be entered. All other energy components entering from the parasitic capacitor section C2 will be reflected back to their sources. The reflected energy generates a repellant force from outside the plates, which behaves like an attractive force. Probably such experiments may also be performed at a microwave setup without quantum theory. I noted some of my calculations as references for further study.

External pressure
In the web there is a fine analog of the Casimir effect64 which explains the attraction of two plates in a sea of kinetic energy65, supplied by a bath of vibrating alcohol. The zone between the plates explains the attractive force (by the absence of internal energy) as the pressure of the external kinetic energy from outside the plates' structure. This analog model describes the force in the Casimir setup as an external force. The following model presents an equivalent analog with a microwave cavity.

62 63 64 65

The Casimir Effect The Origin of Matter Casimir Effects: Peter Milonni's lecture at the Institute for Quantum Computing Water Wave Analog of the Casimir Effect

Coulomb Forces between Charged Plates
The two plates at a distance of 11 nm also represent a capacitor with a capacitance of : C = εA/d = 800 μF for A=1 m2 The Electric Coulomb Forces between the charged plates are calculated 66 (for 1 N/m2 and 105 N/m2) by applying: Fatt = εAV2 / 2d2 If used as a capacitor a value of 1mF at a voltage of 1.1V would develop the same force F = 10 5 N/m2 at the plates as the uncharged plates in a Casimir setup. Force F = 1 N/m2 F = 105 N/m2 Casimir force d = 190 nm d = 11 nm Capacitance 50 μF 1mF voltage 0.06V 1.1V 1.1*10-3 J Energy ½CV2

Table 7: Comparing the forces for a Casimir and an equivalent Coulomb setup Normally a small correction factor is needed to account for the finite size of the circular plates: Fatt = (1 + 2d/D) * εAV2 / 2d2

The part 2d/D describes the field lines which are found outside the plates and depend on the d/Drelation which must be very small for the Casimir setup.

Fig. 11: Electric field of simple capacitor.
GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 67 The capacitor consists of two parallel rectangular plates perpendicular the the image plane and expanding to infinity.

66 Electric Forces between Charged Plates 67 VFPt_capacitor.svg published by Geek3

In fact the formula describes a parallel circuit of two capacitors C1 and C2, which may be interpreted as the ideal or main capacitor C1 = εA/d and a parasitic capacitor C2 = (2d/D) * C1. In a DC-model the parasitic capacitor C2 is directly connected to main capacitor C1. If d = 11 nm and the D-value is 1 m 2 the relation 2d/D will be approximately 10-9, which is a relatively high attenuation between parasitic and main component sections. C1 = 1 mF and C2 is ca. 1 pF.

Fig. 12: Alternative Casimir Circuit Setup The alternative Casimir Circuit Setup uses an antenna which is interpreted as a receiver to gather microwave radiation components from free space. Basically these might be “white noise” signals. Physically the antenna is to be implemented as the outside plates of the Casimir circuits, representing the parasite capacitor C2 (1pF) in the circuit setup. The values for the components C1 and C2 have been calculated from the plate area A = 1 m2 and the distance d = 1 nm. The filter X1 is a frequency band-filter, which selects the energy components to be admitted to the waveguide cavity which has been designed to only allows access to these frequencies.

Waveguides and cavities68
Boundary conditions: Near the surface of a conductor an electric field must be perpendicular to the conductor. For a varying magnetic field to exist, it must form closed loops in parallel with the conductors and be perpendicular to the electric field. The widest69 dimension of a waveguide determines the range of operating frequencies, and the narrowest70 dimension the waveguide's maximal power capability (limited by the breakdown potential of the dielectric, usually air). In theory the waveguide could function at an infinite number of frequencies higher than the designed frequency, but practically an upper frequency limit is caused by modes of operation. The cutoff frequency of an electromagnetic waveguide is the lowest frequency for which a mode will propagate in it. It is the frequency at which two quarter-wavelengths are longer than the wide dimension of a waveguide and energy will no longer pass through the waveguide. At frequencies below the cutoff frequency, the waves may be reflected back and forth across the guide (setting up standing waves) and no energy will be conducted down the waveguide. In the end the wave may be dissipated in the ohmic losses or partly be reflected to the input port.
68 waveguide theory and application - Altronics 69 often called the "a" dimension of a waveguide 70 often called the "b" dimension of a waveguide

Forming alternative resonators
A pair of wires may be transformed to a waveguide:

Fig. 13: Opening the metallic core at the top and the Fig. 14: Opening the wire by bottom... bending the metal...

Fig. 15: bringing the electric field between the upper and lower electrode

Fig. 18: The problem of enclosing the H-lines

Fig. 17: Optimal waveguide structure

Fig. 16: Magnetically conducting walls for a waveguide

In microwaves we may convert short circuits to open circuits by expanding the wall elements one quarter of a wavelength71.

71 Maxwell's Legacy - Another View of Maxwell's Equations

Horn antenna72
The energy from free space may also be applied to the split at the side of the plates. Slots or apertures are sometimes used when very loose (inefficient) coupling is desired, as shown. In this method energy enters through a small slot in the waveguide and the E field expands into the waveguide. The E lines expand first across the slot and then across the interior of the waveguide. Minimum reflections occur when energy is injected or removed if the size of the slot is properly proportioned to the frequency of the energy. A better attenuation match and optimized coupling to the waveguide may be achieved by tapering the slit to a horn-shaped aperture, which allows the electromagnetic waves to smoothly enter the microwave cavity. Electromagnetic energy is often passed through a waveguide to transfer the energy from free space to a waveguide. The impedance of a waveguide does not match the impedance of space, and without proper impedance matching, standing waves cause a large decrease in the efficiency of the waveguide. Any abrupt change in impedance causes standing waves, but when the change in impedance at the end of a waveguide is gradual, almost no standing waves are formed. Gradual changes in impedance can be obtained by terminating the waveguide with a funnel-shaped horn. The type of horn used depends upon the frequency and the desired radiation pattern.

Fig. 19: family of microwave horn antennas manufactured by Tactron Electronik GmBH, Germany
A family of microwave horn antennas manufactured by Tactron Electronik GmBH, Germany. These are pyramidal horn antennas with flanges to bolt onto standard waveguide73.

72 waveguide theory and application - Altronics 73 Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Considerations the Casimir effect
In a DC-model any incoming charge respectively quantum is to be spread over the parallel circuit C1 and C2. For RF-frequencies however the metallic plates guide the frequency to waveguide C1. Although the plates are being used as a capacitor system the DC-voltage is zero. Only some minor RF-frequencies are allowed to enter the C1-section. For the Casimir effect a signal or a quantum may be restricted to enter the system from the free space outside. This energy may only enter the capacitor system by entering the C2-section, which serves as an antenna for remote contacts. In fact the C1-section may hermetically be shielded to the outside by metallic walls. Let us suppose C1 is a waveguide or a microwave cavity, which except for the signals inside the bandwidth does not allow electromagnetic modes to enter the capacitor C1. In fact C1 must be seen as an LC-circuit which behaves as a bandpass filter (X1). The filter will only allow frequencies, which “fit” to the waveguide's profile. Other frequencies will be rejected and sent back to C2. This system behaves just like the Casimir setup. Inside C1 only a minority of the incoming signals will be accepted. Outside C1 the antenna section C2 receives a great variety of signals, but the selectivity of the waveguide will eliminate most of the components just like an FM-radio may be tuned to one special channel for communication by excluding all others. The pressure of the excluded signals now may cause a force on the waveguide's conductors. The calculation of the forces and the balance of energy is quite similar to Casimir setup. The only difference is that no quantum elements are needed to be generated inside the capacitor C1 and in the free space. In fact in the RF-model the shielding of C1 should inhibit any energy generation inside the C1-section, whereas the Casimir setup would also generate some quantum energy inside a hermetically encapsulated and shielded plate-section.

Some additional notes Soup of photons
“One reason [a vacuum is not empty] is that the walls of a vacuum chamber emit light in the form of black-body radiation... If this soup of photons is in thermodynamic equilibrium with the walls, it can be said to have a particular temperature, as well as a pressure”74. Has it really been proven that the virtual photons75 in the Casimir setup have not been generated by the metallic plates and did arise from the vacuum between the plates?

Zero-point energy
The Zero-point energy76 is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical physical system may have; it is the energy of its ground state. The variation in zero-point energy as the boundaries of a region of vacuum move leads to the Casimir effect, which is observable in nanoscale devices77. The proof of a zero-point energy as a source between the plates is to be discussed.

Energy density78
The zero-point energy has been associated with an enormous energy density of 10 24- 1058 Joules/m3.79

The dynamical Casimir effect
The dynamical Casimir effect may be applied to convert the virtual photons into real photons. An acoustic analogue of the dynamical Casimir effect (DCE) has been demonstrated for the first time in France80.

Lamb shift
According to Dirac, the 2S1/2 and 2P1/2 orbitals should have the same energies. However, the interaction between the electron and the vacuum causes a tiny energy shift on 2S1/2. Lamb and Robert Retherford measured this shift in 1947, and this measurement provided the stimulus for renormalization theory to handle the divergences. In 1947 Willis Lamb carried out an experiment using microwaves to stimulate RF transitions between orbital levels of hydrogen. There was an anomaly and the energy difference found was a rise of about 1 GHz for one orbital compared to the other. This energy is supplied (or detracted) by the quantum vacuum, but there is normally no net gain or loss.

74 –Luciano Boi, Creating the physical world ex nihilo? p. 55 (quoted in QED_vacuum) 75 The Casimir Effect 76 The term zero-point energy originates from the German Nullpunktsenergie. The German name is also spelled Nullpunktenergie (without the "s") 77 Zero-point energy 78 Zero Point Energy 2 from "Tom Valone, PhD, Speaks on Zero-point Energy Extraction from the Quantum Vacuum" 79 Zero Point Energy - Panacea-BOCAF 80 Virtual phonons get real - physicsworld.com

This particular difference is a looping effect of QED – quantum electrodynamics, and can be interpreted as the influence of virtual photons from the ZPE which have been emitted and reabsorbed by the atom81.

Vibrating ε0 and μ0 in a QED-vacuum
As a result of quantization, the quantum electrodynamic vacuum can be considered as a material medium. In particular, the force law between charged particles is affected. The electrical permittivity of quantum electrodynamic vacuum can be calculated, and it differs slightly from the simple ε0 of the classical vacuum. Likewise, its permeability can be calculated and differs slightly from μ0. This medium is a dielectric with relative dielectric constant > 1, and is diamagnetic, with relative magnetic permeability < 182. These differences will turn ε0 μ0, the free space impedance and the velocity of light into non constant variables.

Schwinger limit
In quantum electrodynamics (QED), the Schwinger limit (1.3 x 1018 V/m) is a scale above which the electromagnetic field is expected to become nonlinear83. The Schwinger limit would limit the near component of the electrostatic field of an electron, which according to E = q / (4πεοR2) ~ 1021 (V/m) is beyond the Schwinger limit (?).

81 The casimir effect | The Froarty Blog 82 QED_vacuum 83 Schwinger limit

Content
Energy Storage in passive elements.....................................................................................................2 Energy Storage in Chokes................................................................................................................2 Energy Storage in Capacitors...........................................................................................................2 Printed Circuit Boards..........................................................................................................................3 Double-sided PCB as a high voltage 100 kVolt Capacitor .............................................................3 PCB conductors as a inductive element...........................................................................................3 The resonance frequencies...................................................................................................................4 The basic elements L and C..................................................................................................................4 The Schumann resonance.....................................................................................................................6 Ionospheric Reflections........................................................................................................................7 Rutherford's atomic model ..................................................................................................................8 Reflection condition.........................................................................................................................8 The radius of the first orbit..............................................................................................................8 Uranium................................................................................................................................................9 Uranium's nucleus..........................................................................................................................10 Iron.................................................................................................................................................10 The proton's dimensions.....................................................................................................................11 The LC-pendulum..............................................................................................................................12 Mechanical pendulums..................................................................................................................12 The LC-pendulum..........................................................................................................................12 Quality.......................................................................................................................................13 The Electron.......................................................................................................................................14 Electron as a small spherical capacitor..........................................................................................14 Electron as a small inductive conductor........................................................................................14 Sub-nuclear oscillator....................................................................................................................14 The electron's impedance...............................................................................................................14 The electron's energy.....................................................................................................................14 The Proton..........................................................................................................................................15 Proton as a small spherical capacitor.............................................................................................15 Electron as a small inductive conductor........................................................................................15 Sub-nuclear oscillator....................................................................................................................15 The proton's impedance.................................................................................................................15 The proton's energy........................................................................................................................15 The speed of light...............................................................................................................................16 Vacuum permeability.....................................................................................................................16 Vacuum permittivity......................................................................................................................16 Impedance of free space................................................................................................................16 The reflectors' mechanism..................................................................................................................17 The critical frequency ...................................................................................................................17 High Pass Filter..............................................................................................................................17 Lightnings and ball lightnings............................................................................................................19 Lightnings......................................................................................................................................19 Stages of lightnings........................................................................................................................19 Modeling the stepped-leader phase................................................................................................20 Modeling a single section in the stepped-leader phase..................................................................21 The final discharge.........................................................................................................................22 Modeling a series of sections in the stepped-leader phase............................................................23 Ball lightning ................................................................................................................................24 Concentrations of electrons...........................................................................................................25 Stimulated emission of radiation...................................................................................................26 A ball lightning as a small Schumann resonator.......................................................................26

The Casimir effect..............................................................................................................................27 Concept of the alternative model setup for the Casimir experiment.........................................27 External pressure.......................................................................................................................27 Coulomb Forces between Charged Plates.................................................................................28 Waveguides and cavities...........................................................................................................29 Forming alternative resonators..................................................................................................30 Horn antenna.............................................................................................................................31 Considerations the Casimir effect.............................................................................................32 Some additional notes....................................................................................................................33 Soup of photons........................................................................................................................33 Zero-point energy......................................................................................................................33 Energy density...........................................................................................................................33 The dynamical Casimir effect...................................................................................................33 Lamb shift.................................................................................................................................33 Vibrating ε0 and μ0 in a QED-vacuum.....................................................................................34 Schwinger limit ........................................................................................................................34

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