What is Starch Starch is a natural carbohydrate polymer. The molecular formulae of starch is (C6H10O5)n. Mainly starch is used in paper mill to improve dry strength and surface. Its molecular weight is very high. Native starch has a very high viscosity. On the other hand modified starch has lower viscosity. The main sources of starches are regular corn, tapioca, waxy maize, wheat and potato. After cellulose fiber and mineral filler, starch is the third most widespread raw material in paper mill industries. Molecular weight of starch is a factor for application of starch in paper mill industries. The maximum molecular weight (non-degraded) of starch is suitable for wet-end application. Because the non-degraded starches have huge dimensions, so the binding power is increased. On the other hand, reduced molecular weight (degraded) starches is suitable for surface application. This is the reason that degraded starches have lower viscosity. Generally the starch is used in paper mill in three different stages for different function. The stages are wet end section for internal sizing, size press for surface sizing, and size press or offmachine application for coating. The most common wet-end starches are cationic starches or amphoteric starches or native starches while the surface starches are oxidized or hydroxyethylated. Types of starches Mainly starch is classified into two types. Native starch and modified starch. Native starch: The most common native starches are corn starch, tapioca starch, waxy maize starch, potato starch, wheat starch and rice starch. Modified starch: Cationic starch, amphoteric starch, oxidized starch etc. Function of starches:
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Starch enhances the stiffness and bonding of paper sheet. Improve formation improve internal bond, Improve surface strength and wax-pick Increase tensile strength Improve fiber fines, filler and chemical retention. Improve drainage. increase dry strength properties better writing and printing surface reduce linting and dusting Reduce cost, because it is allowed to use more filler and more recycled fibers. Increase runnability and productivity. As breaks are lower. Energy consumption lower due to high binding power.

Maize starch Maize starch is also known as corn starch. form firm surface (which is suitable for better writing and printing) and also prepare the paper sheet for subsequent coating. Adhesivity: good 11. In paper mill industries maize starch or corn starch used as wet end additives. Since the pH value of maize starch paste is sustained in neutral range or below the neutral range so it is unnecessary to add any antifoaming agent into the maize starch systems because foaming is normally related with high pH.5 5. Moisture content % w/w (at 105°C-110°C): 14max 4. tub sizing or surface sizing agent. It contains low ash and low protein. Cold water solubility: Nil 9.10 min 6. restrains ink penetration. Maize starch is most popular among the native starch. 0.50% max. Appearance: white or light yellow shadow 2. Shelf Life: 1-2years 12. Protein: 0. pH value: 4. Specification of Maize starch 1.5-6. SO2: max 30mg/kg .3 max. coating agent and binder. 7. Fineness (100 mesh): 99. As a Coating agent maize starch enhances printability and gives a glossy and a fine surface of the paper. Ash content % w/w (at 550°C): 0. increase paper stiffness and rattle of the paper. Moreover maize starch does not rupture during cooking whereas tapioca starches split up.5% min 3. Function of maize starch In paper mill industries the primary function of corn starch or maize starch is increase dry strength and surface improvement of paper. 8. Whiteness: 90. Maize Starch is changed into a smooth paste during cooking within a short time. Fat: max. As a surface sizing agent it is improve appearance and erasibility.20% 10. As a wet end additives maize starch increase paper strength.

linting and size addition. Hence the applications of tertiary amino type of cationic starch are limited. but cationic starches are more preferable. Quaternary ammonium type starch is cationic in all pH range. greater control of paper making process hence less paper web breaks and improve paper machine runnability as well as productivity. The cationic starches mainly used as wet-end starch. whereas tertiary amino type starch is cationic only in the acidic range. 7. reduced dusting. 2. improve paper quality. Cationic starch also allowed using more filler and more recycled fibers so reduce furnishes cost. cationic starch improves stiffness. retention. As a result fiber-to-fiber and fiber-to-filler bond are increased. 5-8 Viscosity 5% at 50℃: high (greater than 2200 cps) Whiteness: 88% min. It is the main problem of the application of tertiary amino type of cationic starch. opacity. Since the –OH group of this position is more active. 4. Benefit of Cationic Starch in Paper mill Industry: Cationic starch enhances paper strength. The quaternary ammonium containing group attached at the C6 position of the starch. water drainage. they are easily attracted by the negatively charged cellulose fiber and fillers.3% . As a surface size agent. As the cationic starches are positively charged. Commercially Available cationic starches are two types. Physical state: odorless powder Moisture Content % w/w (at 105°C-110°C): 14 max pH value: 10% solution. Although native starch can be used as wet-end starch.Cationic starch Cationic starch is a modified starch. 6. quaternary ammonium type cationic starch and tertiary amino type cationic starch. Specification Of cationic starch 1. 3. printing quality and brightness. Fineness (100 mesh): 99% min Nitrogen content: up to 0. 5. Hence improved the retention of fines and filler and also increased paper sheet strength.

4. West Africa and Thailand are called tapioca starches. 5. Appearance: white Moisture content at 105°C-110°C %w/w: 14max. and yam. 3. 6. 7. taro. Moreover it is also used as a tub size. 9. The most common tapioca starch is Cassava starch. Specifications of cassava starch 1. beater size and surface coating in the paper mill industries. Nigeria.3% Min Solubility: rapidly and completely after batch or continuous cooking Toxicity: No health hazard during normal handling Shelf Life: more than 12 months (under normal storage and undamaged state). The properties of Cassava starch are highly desirable for paper-making. 8. 2. sago. sweet potato. surface size. . The starches which are produce in Tropical countries-such as Brazil. Indonesia. Other tapioca starches are arrowroot. 5-8 Viscosity 5% at 50℃: high (greater than 2200cps) Nitrogen Content: 0.Tapioca starch Tapioca starch is a native starch. The benefits of cassava starch are following:      Low price Low dirt Whiteness is high Processes better water holding properties High viscosity Form clear paste and strong film Application of cassava starch: Cassava starch is widely used at wet end additives. Adhesivity: Good pH value: 10% solution.

and become runny when cooled. which have been genetically modified to produce novel carbohydrates which might not naturally occur in the plant species being harvested. Similarly. Genetically modified starch is of interest in the manufacture of biodegradable polymers and non-cellulose feedstock in the paper industry as well as the creation of new food additives. Commercial pizza toppings containing pre-gel starch will thicken when heated in the over. allowing the food to thicken with the addition of cold water or milk. Which refers to starch from genetically engineered plants. keeping them on top of the pizza. The modification in this sense refers to the genetic engineering of the plant DNA. Cationic Starch (Sukhcat) Cationic starch is produced by treating the slurry of partially swollen granules of starch with a reactive compound. The reagent usually attaches to the starch at the C6 position. Emulsification of sizing efficiency at lower alum level. Cationic Starch finds extensive use in the paper industry and its key functions are as a Dry strength additive. the typical level of derivatization is one to two charged groups per hundred glucose units. Apart from food pregel starch find use in Textile & Laundry Applications due to its properties of cold water solubility &good water absorption capabilities. and not the later processing or treatment of the starch or starch granules. it is expected that the distribution of charged groups will be highly non. . Because the reaction is usually carried out in slurry. the most accessible of the –OH groups. Pre-Gel Starch Pre. This reagent contains quaternary nitrogen. which ultimately helps to reduce linting problem of paper.gelatinized starch is used to thicken instant desserts. cheese sauce granules (such as in Macaroni and Cheese or lasagne) or gravy granules or sauces may be thickened with boiling water without the product going lumpy. Sukhjit has a diverse portfolio of Modified starches suitable for various applications:these products have been highlighted below.uniform. Spray Starch (Sukhspray) Sukhspray is a speciality starch for spray application which can be used to improve the dry strength properties of Kraft paper.Genetically Modified Starch Modified starch should not be confused with genetically modified starch. yielding a positive charge that is independent of PH.

paper Adhesive Building materials. canned soups and transparent confectionery products. White dextrin has good glutinosity and resolution. Pastes Pyrotechnics.bodied gels of high clarity. such as Adhesives. the hydrogen bonding reduces the tendency to retro-gradation. Gums. Thin boiling starches are manufactured by acid addition to native starch slurry. Its solution is a half – transparent plaster. oxidized starch is also widely used in surface sizing for paper industry and for warp sizing in textile industry. making them suitable for clear. Yellow dextrin helps in increasing dry strength at the same time being completely soluble in water. paper conating. Unlike gum and glues which require soaking. This improves adhesion in batters and breading. In addition. In some applications. Oxidised Starch (sukhsize) Native starch is treated with a variety of oxidizing agents and oxidized starch as are obtained. Producing soft. which does not change much with temperature unlike native starches which show wide variation in viscosity.s a light colour ed paste that set to soft but a definite gel. thin without any specific technical function. using the dry roasting method in the presence of a catalyst: The dextrinisation chemically reduces the starch molecules into smaller components. for example in instant soups. It is also used as an additive in the certain applications for the manufacture of Textile. White dextrin is white in colour but with reduced viscosities. Thin boiling starch non congealing characteristic.Yellow Dextrin Yellow dextrin is manufactured by partially hydrolyzing Starch. The higher solubility white dextrin Can be used at much higher concentration to yield very soft gels. It improves whiteness and reduces microbiological content. thin boiling starch is readily . This product also finds its application as a binder for mould and core washes. using of a catalyst. Yellow dextrin has low viscosity and is very sticky and hygroscopic in nature. Low viscosity enables its use in high concentrations without the viscosity getting too high. It as an indispensable excepiant for medicine food and health care industry. it’s cold water solubility’s rang from 25% to 65% White dextrin produce. The dextrinisation chemically reduces the starch molecules into smaller components. Adhesive and Dye’s. oxidized starches are the best thickener for applications requiring gels of low rigidity. Used in the foundry as a binder for cores. transparency of past and lower viscosity ensure easy working compared to other modified starches. Lamination. Thin Boiling Starch Thin boiling starch has low and uniform viscosity. White Dextrin White dextrin is manufactured by partially hydrolyzing starch. Diluted solutions of highly oxidized starches remain clear on prolonged storage. Its binding abilities’ make it an essential ingredient in various other applications. oxidized starches have shorter chain lengths than native starches.

modified starch also find use in paper manufacturing.dispersed in water and can be boiled into a smooth paste without any pretreatment. Amodified starch may be an instant starch which thickens and gels without heat. causing the starch to be partially degraded. Apart from food products.modifierent starch Bleached Starch Oxidized starch Enzyme-Treated starch oxidized starch. . Starches are modified to increase their stability against excessive heart. or a cookup starch. such as alkaline. While Acid-treated starch is prepared by treating starch or starch granules with inorganic acids. Modified Starch Modified starch is an additive prepared by treating starch or starch granules. and freezing to change their texture or to lengthen or shorten gelatinization time. Its application in yarn weaving is particularly advantageous as it does not develop abrasive points on over drying and its flexible film gives the yarn the desired elasticity. acid. Modified starch is used as a thickening agent. Pharmaceuticals and various other industrial applications. Treated starch Acetylated starch and Acetylated Oxidized starch. stabilizer. or an emulsifier. Other treatments may produce modified starch with different enzymes. Enzyme.

the sheet is almost completely dry. At the end of the wire section. the third most prevalent raw material component in paper. Starch is. Large amount of water is drawn away as the fiber suspension moves along with the wire conveyor belt. However. The paper is then passed through a vertical series of hot polished iron rollers (called calenders) to smooth and polish the surface. cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.5-1%) and chemicals are pumped to the head box which feeds the fiber suspension evenly onto the moving wire conveyor belt. the coating may be performed on an off-machine coater (not integral to the paper machine). In the paper making process. Papermaking process The general components of paper machine are illustrated in Figure 1. only surpassed by cellulose fiber and mineral filler. Way down in the drying section is the size press where a starch paste can be applied on the paper sheet to improve surface properties. Depending on the type of paper produced. textile. mouth-feel and consistency of many food products. starch has found uses in various nonfood applications such as paper. surface sizing and coating. The paper sheet is finally wound onto reels for further processing if desired. It is then passes through a series of pressing cylinders where more moisture is removed. texture. in fact. At this point. in fact. The remaining water in the paper sheet is further removed in the drying section where the sheet is passed over a large number of steam-heated drying cylinders.Article (Research & Development) Starch : An Important Component of the Paper Making Process Date: July 2009 Introduction To most people. a moist sheet of paper is formed. starch is viewed as a major nutritional material to provide energy for human or as a major functional ingredient in food recipes to provide characteristic viscosity. Starch used in paper manufacture is generally found in three application areas which are wet end internal sizing. the pigment coating may be applied at this point. Paper industry is one of the largest users of starch. Following the size press. If coated papers are produced. the sheet is dried again. starch content in the final products may be as high as 10% by paper weight. a dilute suspension of fiber (0. In some cases. .

the tertiary amino starches are only cationic in the acid range. 2000). Beside their benefits of reduced retrogradation. While the quaternary ammonium starches carry a cationic load in all pH ranges. the use of tertiary amino starches is diminishing (Hellwig et al. to give a better writing and printing surface and to minimize linting. brightness. Wet end refers to the portion of the process which contains cellulosic pulp fiber and other small particle components (such as cellulosic fine. hydroxyethylated starch and cationic starch are gaining popularity in surface sizing operation. The main purpose of surface sizing is to improve surface properties. they are attracted to the negatively charged cellulose fiber and the negatively charged fillers. This increases fiber-to-fiber and fiber-to-filler bonding. 2. This can be done at the paper mill by either enzyme or thermochemical conversion. Oxidized starch is one of the most common modified starches for use in surface sizing because of its good film forming characteristic and reduced tendency to retrogradation. these starches do not cause filler dispersion if the paper is repulped in the recycled process system. a layer of pigment. The concentration of starch in a sizing solution can range from 2 to about 15% depending on the type of size press machine and product requirements (Maurer. etc. Starches . These rolls press the sizing into the paper and remove the excess from the surface of the paper. Surface sizing is an operation in which paper runs through a sizing solution and then through sizing rolls. when the paper is recycled. Alternatively. Cooked unmodified starch is too high in viscosity for most sizing operation. Starch is commonly added in the wet end of the paper machine to serve as a retention and dewatering aid. However.Starch application in papermaking process Starch can be employed during papermaking process in three main areas: 1. adhesive and other supplementary materials is applied to the surface of paper. thus the viscosity of the starch paste is usually reduced. Surface sizing In the paper industry. thus. calcium carbonate. Although native starch can be used. The cationic starches that are commercially available are the tertiary amino or the quaternary ammonium derivatives. Paper coating In paper coating. gloss and opacity to the paper as well as a smoother and more uniform surface. In paper coating operation. these depolymerized starches have tendency to retrograde or reassociate resulting in a less sizing performance.) dispersed in a large volume of water. cationic starches have been preferred wet-end starch additives. Substituted starches such as acetylated starch. As a result of the progressive conversion from an acid to an alkaline operation in the manufacture of paper and the increased use of calcium carbonate in the wet end system. 3. promoting a high degree of filler retention as well as strength increases at low application levels compared with native starch (Lawton. fillers. 2001).. titanium dioxide and talc. preconverted or modified starches may be obtained from the starch manufacturers. the largest volume of starch is used for surface sizing. 1992). However. By being positively charged. Therefore their possibilities of application are limited. Coating provides whiteness. oxidized starch which contains negative charge can act as a dispersant and contribute to the loss of filler and the starch itself to the waste water causing pollution problem. starch is used as an adhesive or binder to bind the pigment particles to each other and to the paper. The most commonly used pigments are clay. Pigment is the primary material for coating paper.

. the negative charge of oxidized starch could contribute to the loss of pigment filler if the finished paper is repulped. With an increasing demand for higher paper properties and rapid advancements in papermaking technology. Starchgraft-copolymer has been developed to produce new materials with properties that combine the advantages of natural and synthetic polymers (Maurer and Kearney. This is because there is a need for the presence of high amount of starch in coating formula to provide strong binding for the pigment and at the same time the coating should still be leveled and applied as a film on the paper surface. coating starches need to have lower viscosities than starched used in other segments in the paper industry. the development of new materials from starch with specialty characteristics seems to be unlimited. Hydroxyethylated starch is considered one of the best materials for use as coating binders due to its excellent film forming properties and strong resistance to retrogradation. It is a natural polymer with high molecular weight that can be chemically or physically modified to adjust its rheological characteristics and to provide a specific performance. the potential of starch as an important raw material in the paper industry remains promising both at present and in the future. For example. As a result. This environmental trend is opening up new product opportunities for starch in the paper industry. As previously mentioned in surface sizing section. . higher cost usually limits its use in the conventional coatings. However. 1998). these synthetic substitutes are often preferred especially for the production of high grade paper due to their higher performance. The future of starch in the paper industry Although the consumption of starch by the paper industry is presently high. Furthermore there is a current global trend on consumer consciousness to protect world environment which discourages the use of synthetic materials in many applications and promotes their replacement by natural organic compounds. Currently this challenge can be met by many advantages that starch has to offer. With a continuing progress in modification technology. thus. starch-based pigments have recently been developed from starch acetate nanoparticles (Figure 2) to replace the mineral pigment filler (Karvinen et al.used for surface sizing as described above can be used as coating binder as well. Starch is an inexpensive raw material obtained from a renewable resource. However. the popularity of oxidized starch as a coating binder has been declined. 2007). many synthetic materials are available that can substitute for starch.