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WHC ¡ilrary Cataloguing-in-Pullication Lata
HealtL aspects ol plumling.
PullisLeo jointly ly Worlo HealtL Crganization ano Worlo Plumling
1. Water supply. 2. Water treatment. 3. Waste oisposal, !luio.
+. Sanitary engineering. 5. Guioelines. ¡. Worlo HealtL Crganization.
¡¡. Worlo Plumling Council.
¡SBÞ 92 + 156318 + (Þ¡M classincation: WA 675)
¡SBÞ 978 92 + 156318 5
© World Health Organization 2006
All rigLts reserveo. Pullications ol tLe Worlo HealtL Crganization can le oltaineo lrom WHC
Press, Worlo HealtL Crganization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Svitzerlano (tel: ++1 22 791
326+, lax: ++1 22 791 +857, email: lookoroers@vLo.int). Eequests lor permission to reproouce or
translate WHC pullications ÷ vLetLer lor sale or lor noncommercial oistrilution ÷ sLoulo le ao-
oresseo to WHC Press, at tLe alove aooress (lax: ++1 22 791 +806, email: permissions@vLo.int).
1Le oesignations employeo ano tLe presentation ol tLe material in tLis pullication oo not imply tLe
expression ol any opinion vLatsoever on tLe part ol tLe Worlo HealtL Crganization concerning tLe
legal status ol any country, territory, city or area or ol its autLorities, or concerning tLe oelimitation
ol its lrontiers or lounoaries. Lotteo lines on maps represent approximate loroer lines lor vLicL
tLere may not yet le lull agreement.
1Le mention ol specinc companies or ol certain manulacturers` prooucts ooes not imply tLat tLey
are enoorseo or recommenoeo ly tLe Worlo HealtL Crganization in prelerence to otLers ol a simi-
lar nature tLat are not mentioneo. ¡rrors ano omissions excepteo, tLe names ol proprietary proo-
ucts are oistinguisLeo ly initial capital letters.
All reasonalle precautions Lave leen taken ly WHC to verily tLe inlormation containeo in tLis
pullication. Hovever, tLe pullisLeo material is leing oistriluteo vitLout varranty ol any kino,
eitLer express or implieo. 1Le responsilility lor tLe interpretation ano use ol tLe material lies vitL
tLe reaoer. ¡n no event sLall tLe Worlo HealtL Crganization le lialle lor oamages arising lrom its
Lesigneo ly minimum grapLics
Printeo in Svitzerlano
Prelace vii
Acknovleogements ix
Allreviations ano acronyms x
1. Introduction 1
1.1 ¡nsuring vater salety in proouction ano oistrilution systems 2
1.2 Eemoval ol liquio vaste 3
1.3 Eisk ol contamination tLrougL cross-connections +
1.+ Periooic inspection 5
2. Basic principles ol sale drinking-water supply 6
2.1 Water quantity 6
2.2 Water quality ano salety 6
2.3 Pullic orinking-vater supplies 7
3. Hazards in drinking-water supply and waste management 10
3.1 Microlial risks: vaterlorne inlectious oisease 10
3.2 CLemical risks 13
3.3 CtLer risks 15
4. Water salety plans in the operation and management ol water systems 18
5. The role ol plumbers in risk assessment and risk management 20
5.1 Eisk recognition 20
5.2 Eisk evaluation ano analysis 21
5.3 Eisk alatement 21
5.+ Eisk acceptance ano risk transler 22
6. Principles ol ellective plumbing systems 23
6.1 Water supply goals 23
6.2 ¡iquio vaste oisposal goals 25
6.3 Plumling goals 27
7. Codes ol practice lor plumbing 28
7.1 A sample mooel cooe ol practice 30
7.2 Applications lor approval to install plumling systems 33
7.3 Setting plumling stanoaros 3+
7.+ Çuality assurance ano testing 35
7.5 Lisinlection ol nev plumling installations 37
8. Implementation ol the plumbing code ol practice 40
8.1 Application ano approval process +0
8.2 Certincation ol conlormance +1
8.3 Periooic inspection +2
8.+ Penalties ano enlorcement +2
8.5 !inancial aspects ol aoministration ol tLe plumling cooe ol practice +3
9. Training and registration ol plumbers 44
9.1 1raining prior to aomission to tLe plumling traoe ++
9.2 ¡icensing ano registration +5
9.3 ¡stallisLing a training programme +5
10. Standards lor materials used in plumbing systems 46
10.1 Stanoaros +6
10.2 Prooucts ano materials useo in plumling +7
10.3 Metallic ano non-metallic materials useo in pipevork +9
10.+ General issues relateo to use ol plastic piping 52
10.5 ¡artLenvare pipes 53
10.6 Lesign ol plumling nxtures 5+
10.7 Sanitary nxtures 55
10.8 Concrete prooucts 55
11. Design ol plumbing systems 57
11.1 Lrinking-vater supply pipes ano specincations 57
11.2 Lrainpipes 58
12. Design ol plumbing systems lor single dwellings 60
12.1 General consioerations 60
12.2 Lomestic storage tanks 61
12.3 Lomestic vater closets 62
12.+ Wastevater traps 63
12.5 Lrains ano ventilation pipes 6+
12.6 Connections to tLe pullic sever 66
13. Design ol plumbing systems lor multiple dwellings 67
13.1 Lomestic storage tanks 68
13.2 Control valves 68
13.3 Waste systems 68
14. Design ol plumbing systems lor multi-storey buildings 71
1+.1 Systems lor loosting vater pressure 71
1+.2 Lrainage systems 73
1+.3 Hot vater ano otLer oual supply systems 75
1+.+ Water storage vessels 77
1+.5 ¡alelling ano colour cooing ol non-orinking-vater supply systems 79
1+.6 Situations vLere tLere is a risk ol cross-connection 80
1+.7 !ixture unit calculations lor multiple ovellings 82
15. Design ol plumbing systems lor industrial and temporary applications 85
15.1 Backhov prevention in inoustrial, commercial ano institutional
vater systems 85
15.2 Backhov ano lacksipLonage 85
15.3 Water system lackhov protection oevices 86
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15.+ Guioance lor protective oevices 93
15.5 Guioance lor sanitary vaste systems 9+
15.6 Storm vater orainage systems 95
15.7 1emporary plumling installations ano connections 96
16. Storm water drainage 98
16.1 LiscLarge into storm vater cLannels or pipes 98
16.2 Comlineo severs 99
16.3 Soakavays 99
16.+ Eainvater tanks 100
16.5 Eainvater intensity ano rool orainage 100
17. Intermediate and communal models lor drinking-water supply
and sanitation 103
17.1 ¡ntermeoiate types ol orinking-vater supply ano sanitation 103
17.2 HouseLolo vater treatment 105
17.3 Communal systems lor orinking-vater supply ano sanitation 105
18. Conservation ol water in public and domestic supply systems 107
18.1 Special prollems associateo vitL pullic luiloings ano communal
accommooation 108
18.2 ¡eakage ano vastage in tLe pullic orinking-vater supply system 108
18.3 ¡eakage ano vastage lrom private orinking-vater supply systems 109
18.+ Lse ol meters to reouce vastage ano excess consumption 109
18.5 Minimizing systematic excessive ano vastelul use ol vater 110
18.6 Minimizing vater usage in husLing cisterns 111
18.7 Minimizing vater vastage in lavn ano garoen irrigation 112
18.8 Attempts to reouce vater usage tLrougL intermittent supply 112
19. Wastewater use 114
19.1 Lse ol greyvater 11+
19.2 Lse ol vastevater 115
19.3 Management ol oual vater systems 115
19.+ ¡oentincation ol potalle ano non-potalle orinking-vater systems 116
Glossary ol plumling ano otLer terms useo in tLe text 118
BilliograpLy 123
Contriluting autLors 125
¡noex 126
!igure 15.1 AtmospLeric vacuum lreaker 86
!igure 15.2 AtmospLeric vacuum lreaker (normal hov ano lackhov conoitions) 87
!igure 15.3 Loulle cLeck valve assemllies 88
!igure 15.+ Pressure vacuum lreaker 88
!igure 15.5 BacksipLonage illustration 89
!igure 15.6 Eeouceo pressure principle lackhov preventer 90
!igure 15.7 SLipyaro lackhov contamination 91
!igure 15.8 Grease trap 91
!igure 15.9 Grease interceptor 92
!igure 15.10 Precast concrete sano ano oil interceptor 92
1alle 2.1 1ypical volumes ol huio intake (lrom looo ano vater) requireo
lor Lyoration 7
1alle 11.1 1ypical oemanos lor various uses 58
1alle 11.2 Minimum internal oiameter ol vater pipes to plumling nxtures 59
1alle 11.3 Graoients to proouce minimum ano maximum velocities in orains 59
1alle 1+.1 Aovantages ano oisaovantages ol vacuum systems (versus
gravity systems) 7+
1alle 1+.2 Comparison ol installation ano operation requirements ol orainage
systems 7+
1alle 1+.3 !ixture unit values lor some common plumling nxtures 83
1alle 1+.+ Peak vater oemano ol plumling nxtures 8+
1alle 1+.5 Maximum loaos lor Lorizontal nxture lrancLes ano luiloing orains
or severs 8+
1alle 16.1 Gutter slopes ano rool orainage: rainlall intensity 100 mm per Lour 101
1alle 16.2 Eool areas oraineo ly vertical oovnspouts: rainlall intensity 100 mm
per Lour 102
1alle 16.3 Capacities ol Lorizontal storm orains: rainlall intensity 100 mm
per Lour 102
1alle 17.1 Service level oescriptors ol vater in relation to Lygiene 10+
1alle 19.1 Suitalility lor reuse ol oillerent graoes ol vater 115
1alle 19.2 Minimum lengtL ol colour nelo ano size ol letters 117
Case studies
Case stuoy 1. SAES in Hong Iong 3
Case stuoy 2. Lrinking-vater supply ano vaste removal in LLaka 9
Case stuoy 3. CLloroane lackhov or lacksipLonage 87
Case stuoy +. BacksipLonage lrom a Lose 88
Case stuoy 5. SLipyaro cross-connection 90
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1Le Lniteo Þations Las oeclareo 2005÷2015 tLe ¡nternational Lecaoe lor Action
°Water lor ¡ile°, setting a vorlo agenoa tLat locuses increaseo attention on
vater-relateo issues. 1Lis initiative is ol extraoroinary importance in a vorlo
vLere preventalle oiseases relateo to vater ano sanitation claim tLe lives ol
alout 3.1 million people a year, most ol tLem cLiloren less tLan nve years olo. Cl
tLese, alout 1.6 million people oie lrom oiarrLoeal oiseases associateo vitL lack
ol sale orinking-vater ano aoequate sanitation.
By incluoing sale orinking-vater supply ano sanitation in tLe Millennium
Levelopment Goals, tLe vorlo community Las acknovleogeo tLe importance ol
tLeir promotion as oevelopment ano LealtL interventions ano Las set a series ol
goals ano targets accoroingly. Goal 7, target 10 requests tLe vorlo to °Lalve ly
2015 tLe proportion ol people vitLout sustainalle access to sale orinking-vater
ano lasic sanitation°. 1Le task is Luge: in 2002, 1.1 lillion people (tvo tLiros ol
tLem in Asia, ano +2° ol tLe population in sul-SaLaran Alrica) lackeo access to
improveo vater sources. At least 2.6 lillion people lackeo access to improveo
sanitation, over Lall ol tLem live in CLina ano ¡noia. Cnly 31° ol rural inLalit-
ants in oeveloping countries Lave access to improveo sanitation, versus 73° ol
urlan ovellers (WHC 200+l). AcLieving tLe Millennium Levelopment Goal
orinking-vater ano sanitation target requires tLat 97 million aooitional people
gain access to orinking-vater services ano 138 million aooitional people to sani-
tation annually up to 2015.
1Le Lniteo Þations Committee on ¡conomic, Cultural ano Social EigLts Las
issueo a statement oeclaring access to sale orinking-vater to le a Luman rigLt.
1Le oeclaration reaos:
°Water is lunoamental to lile ano LealtL. 1Le Luman rigLt to vater is inoispensalle
lor leaoing a LealtLy lile in Luman oignity. ¡t is a prerequisite to tLe realization ol
otLer Luman rigLts.°
1Le Worlo Plumling Council ano tLe Worlo HealtL Crganization, vorking
vitLin tLe spirit ol tLose resolutions, present tLis oocument on LealtL aspects ol
plumling noting tLat sustainalle LealtL, especially lor cLiloren, is not possille
vitLout access to sale orinking-vater ano lasic sanitation lacilities. 1Lis pulli-
cation is oeoicateo to assisting in acLieving tLe lest possille plumling levels to
ensure tLe LigLest LealtL lenents lrom use ol souno plumling practices. 1Lis is
especially important at a time vLen only 50° ol tLe vorlo population Las access
to pipeo orinking-vater systems vitLin tLe property ano 31° Las pipeo sanitation
lacilities connecteo to a pullic sever system. 1Le Worlo HealtL Crganization
ano Lniteo Þations CLiloren`s !uno statistics on orinking-vater ano sanitation
inoicate a sLarp acceleration ol ellorts tovaros access to types ol orinking-vater
ano sanitation lacilities requiring a consioeralle level ol plumling. ¡t is tLus vital
tLat oeveloping countries aoopt or improve tLeir plumling practices taking into
account tLe neeo to minimize tLe current ano luture risks ol epioemics ano
oiseases associateo vitL poor plumling.
1Le Worlo HealtL Crganization ano tLe Worlo Plumling Council vill leel
revaroeo il tLis oocument acLieves its ultimate aim: to play a strategic role in
lacilitating tLe aooption ol gooo plumling practices in oeveloping countries to
ensure tLe LealtL gains ano vell-leing expecteo lrom sucL systems.
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1Lis look vas proouceo tLrougL a partnersLip letveen tLe Worlo HealtL
Crganization ano tLe Worlo Plumling Council. ¡t Las leen eoiteo ly Prolessor
CLarles Watson (¡xecutive Lean ol HealtL Sciences at Curtin Lniversity ol
1ecLnology, PertL, WA, Australia) vitL assistance lrom Mary Watson (Syoney,
ÞSW, Australia), Lale Courtman ano Anoy Watts (¡nstitute ol Plumling ano
Heating ¡ngineering, Lniteo Iingoom), ano Eolert SLepLero ano Galriella
Lavis (¡nternational Association ol Plumling ano MecLanical Clncials,
Cntario, Calilornia, LSA), ano ly Lr josepL A. Cotruvo (josepL Cotruvo &
Associates, ¡nvironmental ano Pullic HealtL Consultants, WasLington, L.C.,
LSA). A list ol otLer contriluting autLors can le vieveo on page 125. Prolessor
H. !eroz ALmeo ol BanglaoesL Lniversity ol ¡ngineering ano 1ecLnology ano
Sergio E. Menoonca ano E. Eojas Vargas ol tLe Pan American Center lor
Sanitary ¡ngineering ano ¡nvironmental Sciences (C¡P¡S/PAHC/WHC) are
tLankeo lor tLeir excellent inputs. 1Le lolloving Worlo HealtL Crganization
specialists provioeo relevant tecLnical inputs to tLe oevelopment ol tLis oocu-
ment: Eolert Bos, EicLaro Carr, Bruce Goroon ano !eoerico Properzi. jamie
Bartram (Worlo HealtL Crganization) provioeo tLe strategic oirection tLrougL-
out tLis process. josé Huel (Worlo HealtL Crganization) cooroinateo tLe
tecLnical revision ano proouction ol tLe oocument.
k||reº|at|eas aa6 acrea¡ms
CLC Centers lor Lisease Control ano Prevention (LSA)
CPVC cLlorinateo polyvinylcLlorioe
HPC LeterotropLic plate count
¡SC ¡nternational Crganization lor Stanoaroization
P¡ polyetLylene
PVC polyvinylcLlorioe
WHC Worlo HealtL Crganization
WSP vater salety plan
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
1. |atre6act|ea
¹. |NI|0|JCI|0N
1Le oljective ol a pullic orinking-vater system is to provioe all consumers vitL
a continuous sulncient supply ol gooo quality orinking-vater at an alloroalle
price in oroer to ensure tLe LealtL ano vell-leing ol tLose serveo. ¡n general tLe
traoitional goal is to oevelop, vLen leasille, a system tLat involves alstraction ol
vater lrom a source, treatment ol tLe vater, ano storage ano oistrilution ol tLe
treateo vater tLrougL a netvork ol pipes, relerreo to as mains. 1Le mains sLoulo
pass vitLin a reasonalle oistance ol tLe private or pullic premises tLat require a
orinking-vater supply. Maintaining tLe quality ol vater vitLin tLese oistrilu-
tion mains ano tLe oelivery ol sulncient quantities require continuous super-
vision ly skilleo stall. ¡stallisLing ano maintaining a relialle vater system
involves recurrent expenoitures. ¡n vell-manageo systems, tLese costs are normally
lorne ly tLe consumers in proportion to tLe quantity ol vater oelivereo. ¡eak-
age ano vastage sLoulo le controlleo ano minimizeo lor salety ano lor
economic ano environmental reasons. 1Le collection, transport, treatment ano
sale oisposal ol vastevater is also an essential element tovaros protection ol
pullic LealtL.
Systems ol management ol tLe mains vater system ano severage system vary
vioely arouno tLe vorlo. 1Le vatervorks ano sevage oisposal operating looy
(or looies) may le a local autLority, a government corporation or oepartment, or
a private company. ¡n tLe great majority ol cases, tLese looies Lave oirect
responsilility lor tLe vater supplieo in tLe mains as lar as tLe property louno-
ary ol eacL inoivioual user. ¡t is tLe responsilility ol tLe ovner ol eacL property,
vitL tLe Lelp ol a competent plumler, to convey tLe vater supply lrom tLe
oistrilution mains into tLeir ovn premises ano to salely circulate it to oistrilu-
tion points vitLin tLe luiloings, ano to transport liquio vaste to tLe severage
system. 1Le tLree roles a competent plumler must assume are:
º to oesign, install ano maintain orinking-vater supply ano vaste removal
º to manage tLe LealtL ano nnancial risks associateo vitL plumling,
º to Lelp conserve limiteo supplies ol sale orinking-vater.
1Lis pullication oescriles tLe processes involveo in tLe oesign, installation ano
maintenance ol ellective plumling systems. ¡t recommenos a numler ol pluml-
ing system oesign ano installation specincations tLat Lave oemonstrateo tLeir
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
valioity lrom years ol experience. ¡t also examines tLe microliological, cLemical,
pLysical ano nnancial risks associateo vitL plumling, outlines tLe major risk
management strategies tLat are useo in tLe plumling inoustry ano empLasizes
tLe importance ol measures to conserve supplies ol sale orinking-vater.
Gooo oesign ol plumling systems is necessary to ensure tLat tLe installations
are elncient ano sale. Gooo oesign vill also ensure tLat tLe installations are
appropriate lor tLe oillerent circumstances tLey serve. 1Le oesign ol gooo
plumling services must le laseo on an unoerstanoing ol tLe tecLnical require-
ments ano relevant regulatory restrictions.
1Le pullication is aimeo at aoministrators, regulators ano plumlers vorking
in areas tLat are serveo ly a mains orinking-vater supply or severage system, or
are alout to install a mains orinking-vater supply or severage system. ¡t sLoulo
le ol particular value to tLose vorking in countries or areas tLat are in tLe early
stages ol introoucing ellective plumling systems. WLile it oravs attention to tLe
prollems ol orinking-vater supply ano vaste removal in oeveloping countries
ano outlines some ol tLe strategies currently useo, it ooes not systematically
cover issues specinc to oeveloping countries. 1Le Worlo HealtL Crganization
(WHC) Las an extensive series ol pullications ano inlormation sLeets oevoteo to
improving tLe quality ol vater supplies ano vaste removal systems in oeveloping
countries (Lttp://vvv.vLo.int/vater_sanitation_LealtL/en/).
1.1 lasar|aq water safet¡ |a pre6act|ea aa6 6|str||at|ea s¡stems
1Le main strategy lor ensuring tLe microlial ano cLemical quality ol vater is tLe
implementation ol a vater salety plan (WSP), vLicL incorporates a series ol
°multiple larriers° oesigneo to minimize tLe transmission ol microorganisms
ano otLer contaminants lrom tLe source ol rav vater to tLe user`s tap (see also
cLapter +). Part ol a WSP involves tLe regular use ol tests to monitor tLe presence
ol certain lacteria ano cLemicals ano to valioate tLe perlormance ol tLe system
tLrougL tLeir alsence at tLe point ol use ly tLe consumer (see section 3.1). 1Le
primary series ol larriers incluoes tLe lolloving:
º protection ol vater sources lrom laecal ano otLer contamination,
º storage ano settling to remove some microorganisms ano particulates,
º coagulation, hocculation ano seoimentation to remove colloioal particles
ano microorganisms,
º nltration lor aooitional microorganism ano particulate removal,
º oisinlection to inactivate any remaining patLogens,
º protection lrom recontamination alter treatment ano ouring oistrilution.
1Le operation ol tLe WSP ano tLe larriers is tLe responsilility ol tLe vater
autLority, lut pullic LealtL olncials ano pLysicians in community practice play
a vital vatcLoog role in tLe ioentincation ol outlreaks tLat may signal a
oenciency in tLe WSP or result lrom a lreakoovn ol one ol tLe larriers.
1.1 kemeºa| ef ||ça|6 waste
1Le continuous supply ol aoequate quantities ol sale orinking-vater ano tLe
prompt ano sale removal ol Luman ano oomestic vastes are jointly vital lor
LealtL. Human ano oomestic vaste matter lrom luiloings ano Louses tLat is
carrieo avay tLrougL severs is knovn as sevage, vastevater or liquio vastes.
1Le system ol pipes lor conveyance ol sevage ano tLe respective lacilities lor
sevage treatment are knovn as tLe severage system. ¡n many cases, tLe severage
system is manageo ly a sanitation oepartment or part ol community government
otLer tLan tLe one responsille lor orinking-vater. 1Le looy tLat provioes tLe
vastevater management service generally lunos its activities ly collecting lees
lrom its customers.
¡iquio vastes are collecteo tLrougL a netvork ol severs tLat constitute tLe
limit ol responsilility ol tLe management looy. ¡t is up to tLe ovners ol tLe
properties concerneo to collect tLe vastes vitLin tLe luiloing in vLicL tLey
vere generateo ano convey tLem to tLe pullic severage system. Case stuoy 1 is
taken lrom tLe Amoy Garoens nnal report issueo in july 2003 ly an investiga-
tion conoucteo in part ly HealtL Canaoa ano WHC (WHC 2003).
Ck!l !I00\ 1. !kk! |N k0N6 K0N6
Amoy Gardens is a private residential estate providing living space to approximately
20,000 Hong Kong residents. Around March 20, 2003, an unusual cluster of severe acute
respiratory syndrome (SAPS) cases was discovered in 8lock L of the estate with apartment
units 7 and 8 mostly affected. The initial epidemiological investigation and the unusual
high number of cases affecting these two units prompted the hypothesis that environ-
mental factors may have been involved in the transmission of the infectious agent.
The areas of investigation centred on the plumbing and ventilation systems. There was a
potential of plumbing and ventilation system interaction that could have promoted the
transmission of an infectious agent. To prevent a free now from the plumbing system to
the indoor environment, water traps are installed to ensure waste containment. Amoy
Gardens has all the necessary plumbing features for such containment. The containment
would be maintained, provided that the plumbing system is operated as per design
intent, with all traps sealed either by a water seal or by a solid, gas tight plug. However,
if the traps were left without water and without a plug, this would establish an open
path for waste, in the form of sewer gas and aerosol/droplets, to enter the occupancies.
A strong vertical distribution of infectious material was obvious in unit 7 and particularly
in unit 8 apartments leading to the hypothesis that unprotected occupants could have
been infected by contaminated droplets drawn from a waste pipe previously used by an
ill person residing in a living unit above or below, who was shedding infectious material.
A transfer of particles from the water pipe system to the occupancies was tested and
proven possible. The noor drain traps in many apartments seemed to have not been
primed on a regular basis and thus had lost their sealing function. Thus aerosol and
¹. |NI|0|JCI|0N
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
droplets generated within the plumbing system had access to the bathroom through
the unsealed noor drains. The inside apartment testing revealed that the bathroom fan
created a vacuum inside the bathroom when the door and window were closed. This
is most likely the case if an occupant uses the toilet or takes a shower. Thus infectious
material could have been sucked into the bathroom from the waste stack system and
exposed the occupant.
|n conclusion, the environmental investigation supports an accumulation of different
events that together could have mediated the epidemic in 8lock L of the Amoy Gardens
Lstate. The shedding of infectious material from several patients into the sewer system
may have exceeded the critical mass needed to generate hazardous aerosols/droplets
in the wastewater system. The open noor drains in combination with the overpowered
exhaust fans of the bathrooms may have then sucked infectious material into the occu-
pancies and in this way exposed people to infectious aerosols/droplets or contaminated
surfaces through droplet settling.
Source: Adapted from wHO 2003.
1.1 k|sk ef ceatam|aat|ea threaqh cress-ceaaect|eas
¡nsioe many properties tLere are, in ellect, tvo oistinct systems ol pipes, one
conveying orinking-vater ano tLe otLer vastevater. 1Lese pipes, internal ano
external to tLe luiloing, togetLer vitL tLe nttings tLemselves, are tLe plumling
systems ol tLe property. 1Le tvo systems ol pipes pass unoergrouno to reacL tLe
luiloing, ano tLey come close togetLer at sanitary nttings ano nxtures sucL as
vater closets, sinks or latLs. 1Le proximity ol tLe orinking-vater supply ano
vaste oisposal systems means tLat tLere is a risk tLat liquio vaste migLt con-
taminate tLe orinking-vater supply system. 1Le minimization ol tLis risk is one
ol tLe prime oljectives ol a vell-oesigneo ano properly luilt plumling system.
¡llective plumling tecLnologies ano practices ensure tLat vLen properly
applieo tLere is no cross-connection letveen tLe orinking-vater supply ano tLe
vaste removal systems. 1Le risks ol cross-connection are usually greater in pul-
lic, inoustrial ano commercial premises, vLere oual vater systems, circulating
pumps, toxic vastes ano otLer lactors Lave to le manageo. 1Lere are also risks in
multi-storey luiloings vLere looster pumps are employeo to increase tLe mains
pressure, ano in special systems useo in Lospitals ano in oental ano veterinary
surgeries. Hovever, even stanoaro single-lamily oomestic luiloings present
LealtL risks to lotL occupants ano neigLlours il laulty plumling is installeo or
il plumling is not maintaineo.
1Le ill ellects ol a cross-connection may not le connneo to tLe premises
concerneo, lut may le translerreo to tLe mains supply system to vLicL tLe
plumling is connecteo. ¡n tLese cases, tLe LealtL ol a vLole community may le
tLreateneo. 1Le risks ol mains contamination are greatest vLen tLe supply
pressure huctuates or tLe service is intermittent. Some vater supplies are inter-
mittently sLut oll in tLe mistaken leliel tLat tLis vill reouce consumption. 1Le
oelilerate interruption ol supply is regaroeo as a oangerous practice, to le
avoioeo at all costs ly a vell-manageo vater autLority. Hovever, even in a vell-
manageo pullic orinking-vater supply, circumstances vill arise vLere mains
must le sLut oll lor cleaning, maintenance or repair, causing a lovereo or nega-
tive pressure in tLe services connecteo to tLem. Pressure orops can also occur in
an unoersizeo system vLen large amounts ol vater are useo in nrengLting in tLe
vater system. 1Le oanger ol mains contamination lrom pressure orops is serious
ano oisease outlreaks in many parts ol tLe vorlo Lave leen traceo to tLis
1Le aovent ol tecLnology provioing lor tLe injection ol lertilizer or orencL
cLemicals into irrigation or stock-vatering systems creates anotLer risk ol
contamination in lotL urlan ano rural situations. Protection against lackhov,
causeo ly lackpressure or lacksipLonage, along vitL tLe avoioance ol all cross-
connections, are essential to saleguaro consumer LealtL.
1.4 |er|e6|c |aspect|ea
Eisk minimization also oepenos on maintenance ol equipment. ¡n tLe case ol
large or complex systems, or vLere pullic use or tLe Lanoling ol looo lor sale is
involveo, tLe LealtL (or otLer) autLority may require periooic inspection ano
retesting as a conoition lor approval. 1Le ovner ol any plumling system,
irrespective ol its size or purpose, sLoulo le olligeo to ioentily ano to promptly
repair any lault tLat may oevelop, vLatever its cause.
An essential leature ol risk minimization strategies is tLat tLey are regularly
monitoreo ano maintaineo. As part ol its responsilility lor protection ol pullic
LealtL ano salety, tLe autLority must make certain tLat plumling systems are
assiouously maintaineo at tLe stanoaro requireo in tLe plumling cooe ol practice
(see cLapter 7). ¡nsuring ongoing compliance vitL tLe cooe ol practice tLrougL
a process ol periooic inspection ol installations is costly, so appropriate priorities
neeo to le set.
!or systems tLat Lave tLe potential to pose a serious risk to pullic LealtL (sucL
as premises vLere looo or orink is processeo, Lotels ano looging Louses, ano
inoustrial premises) it may le a conoition ol tLe autLority`s approval tLat tLe
plumling system sLoulo le retesteo at specinc intervals (sucL as every tvo
years), ano tLat sucL tests sLoulo le vitnesseo ly tLe inspector. 1Le inspector
sLoulo also le satisneo tLat no cross-connections or otLer violations ol tLe cooe
Lave occurreo since tLe previous inspection ano test. Work completeo unoer a
system ol sell-certincation may also le sulject to periooic auoit ly tLe autLority
ano tLe alility to issue luture sell-certincation may le vitLoravn in tLe ligLt ol
any prollems arising lrom tLe auoit.
¹. |NI|0|JCI|0N
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
1. 8as|c pr|ac|p|es ef safe
6r|ak|aq-water sapp|¡
Worlovioe Luman lresLvater use increaseo tenlolo lrom 1900 to 2000. !resL
vater is useo lor oomestic, recreational, irrigation, livestock support ano inous-
trial purposes. 1Le Leaviest use is lor irrigation, vLicL typically accounts lor
vell over 60°, ano inoustry, vLicL accounts lor a lurtLer 25°. Aquilers are
leing rapioly oepleteo ano contamination is a rising tLreat. 1Lere are tLree main
sources lor increasing supply ol lresL vater vLere it is neeoeo: reuse lor multiple
purposes, oesalination ol seavater ano lrackisL (salty) surlace vater ano
grounovater, ano conservation (avoioing vastelul use ano vater loss lrom
leaks). ¡acL ol tLese is lecoming essential to meet oemanos in an increasing
numler ol circumstances.
1.1 Water çaaat|t¡
¡t Las leen estimates tLat tLe use ol at least 20 litres ol orinking-vater per capita
per oay represents tLe minimum quantity requireo lor orinking, looo prepara-
tion ano lasic personal Lygiene, a quantity LigLer tLan 50 litres per capita per
oay sLoulo ensure lasic launory ano latLing in aooition to tLe latter uses,
quantities leyono 100 litres per capita per oay voulo represent an optimal access
ano sLoulo ensure all tLe previous uses plus a consioeralle level ol comlort ano
vell-leing (Hovaro & Bartram 2003). WitL no access to a vater source vitLin
less tLan a 30 minute valk to letcL vater ano come lack, consumption is likely
to le less tLan tLe lasic requirement, ano Lygiene vill prolally le inaoequate. ¡t
is important to note, Lovever, tLat even vLen optimal supply is acLieveo, il tLe
supply is intermittent, aooitional risks to LealtL occur lecause ol tLe compro-
miseo conoition ol tLe orinking-vater supply, as vell as interlerence vitL tLe
lunction ol vaterlorne sanitation systems.
1alle 2.1 oemonstrates tLat only a small portion ol tLe oaily vater neeos are
requireo lor Lyoration ano consumeo as orinking-vater. Climate ano pLysical
activity, as vell as personal lactors, allect tLe oaily Lyoration neeo.
1.1 Water çaa||t¡ aa6 safet¡
At least 1.8 million people oie every year lrom oiarrLoeal oiseases, incluoing
cLolera, 90° are cLiloren unoer tLe age ol nve, mostly in oeveloping countries.
WHC estimates tLat 88° ol oiarrLoeal oisease is attriluteo to unsale orinking-
vater supply, ano inaoequate sanitation ano Lygiene. Stuoies Lave inoicateo tLat
improveo orinking-vater supply reouces oiarrLoea morlioity ly 6° to 25°,
ano improveo sanitation reouces it ly 32°. Hygiene interventions, incluoing
eoucation ano LanovasLing, can acLieve up to +5° reouction ol oiarrLoea cases.
¡n tLe alsence ol a gooo-quality orinking-vater supply use ol LouseLolo vater
treatment, sucL as cLlorination vitL a lev orops ol lleacL at tLe point ol use, can
reouce oiarrLoea episooes ly 39° (see sections 2.3.2 ano 17.2) (WHC/LÞ¡C¡!
1.1 |a|||c 6r|ak|aq-water sapp||es
A orinking-vater supply system consists ol tLree major elements: source, treat-
ment ano oistrilution to tLe users. Contamination can occur in any ol tLose
segments ano tLe prevention ano mitigation ol contamination are essential roles
ol tLe vater supplier, as vell as assuring tLat tLe vater continuously oelivereo to
tLe consumer`s entry point is sale ano aestLetically acceptalle. ¡acL element in
tLe system Las vulneralilities to le manageo. 1Le lest protection is tLe multiple
larrier approacL, vLicL relies upon a series ol larriers lrom tLe protection ol tLe
source vater to multiple treatment processes ano oistrilution system integrity to
ensure tLat potentially Larmlul contaminants are removeo vitL connoence
lelore tLey reacL tLe consumer`s tap.
1Le prevention, mitigation ano elimination ol contamination risks are tLe key
responsililities ol vater provioers, ano regulators in tLeir oversigLt role. 1Le
consuming pullic also Las responsililities to protect tLe salety ol tLe vater
vitLin tLeir ovellings ly ensuring tLe integrity ol tLeir pipeo systems, provio-
ing quick repairs vLen neeoeo ano properly storing ano using oravn vater so as
to protect its quality ano salety. ¡n tLe event ol usage ol non-pullicly oistriluteo
vater, or vLen tLe pullic supply is unrelialle or unsale, users can also take
measures to ensure tLat tLeir vater is sale to orink (see section 17.2).
z.1.¹ :earce w+ter |a+||t¡ +aa jretect|ea
Grouno ano surlace source vaters are at risk ol contamination lrom lotL microles
ano cLemicals. CLemical contamination occurs sometimes lrom natural origins
(e.g. excess huorioe ano arsenic). A vater supplier must tLerelore nrst unoer-
z. ||:|C |||NC||||: 0| :||| |||N||Nû- \|I|| :J|||\
ï/||| '.! ïì||t/| l0||/|: 0| ||||| ||ï/|| (||0/ |00| /|| ¦/ï||¹ ||(||||| |0| |ì||/ï|0|
0a||¡ 0a|6 |atake reça|re6 fer h¡6rat|ea (||tres)
kºeraqe Maaaa| |a|ear /
kamaa t¡pe cea6|t|eas h|qh temperatare |reqaaac¡ |actat|ea
|em+|e +aa|t z.z +.å +.° å.å
M+|e +aa|t z.° +.å N| N|
C|||a ¹.ò +.å N| N|
N|. aet +jj||c+||e.
:earce. |ew+ra & |+rtr+m zòò1.
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
stano tLe composition ol its source vater ano tLe origin ol potential contamina-
tion tLat it coulo encounter, taking into account seasonal lactors. Lnprotecteo
surlace source vaters can receive oirect contaminant oiscLarges, as vell as
surlace runoll potentially contaminateo ly Luman or animal sanitary vastes,
agricultural vaste or cLemicals (e.g. pesticioes runoll ano automolile oil lrom
streets). WasLing ano oelecation in streams vill le a major contrilutor to oovn-
stream contamination. Grounovaters are olten naturally protecteo ly soil over-
lays, Lovever, some geology is porous ano vulneralle to contamination lrom
surlace vastes, ano also lrom septic tanks ano privies. Lnprotecteo ano poorly
oesigneo vells ano tLe act ol oraving vater lrom open oug vells can increase tLe
risk ol contamination.
z.1.z \+ter tre+tmeat
1Le vater treatment process sLoulo le oesigneo to remove or inactivate micro-
lial (lacteria, virus, protozoa), cLemical (inorganic, organic) ano aestLetic
(unoesiralle taste, ooour, colour, turlioity) contaminants. 1Le most lasic nltra-
tion ano oisinlection tecLnologies are usually necessary ano sulncient to treat
surlace source vaters, oisinlection is olten sulncient lor many grounovaters il
tLey are not suljecteo to contamination lrom surlace activities. Some organisms
(e.g. Cryptosporidiun protozoa) are especially resistant to oisinlection, so source
protection (e.g. avoioing runoll lrom oairy activity) ano elncient nltration are
necessary vLere tLey may le present. 1Le appropriate selection, oesign ano
operation ol tecLnologies are tLerelore essential to ensure successlul treatment
ol tLe specinc source vater leing utilizeo.
CLemical oisinlection processes generate some oisinlection ly-prooucts tLat
are ol at least tLeoretical concern in some situations. Hovever, tLe lenents ol
oisinlection lar outveigL tLose concerns, ano tLey sLoulo not le an excuse to
compromise tLe essential control ol microlial patLogens tLat cause Luge
numlers ol oeatLs ano illness vLere tLey are not manageo ly tLe vater supplier.
z.1.1 \+ter a|.tr||at|ea
1Le conventional goal is provision ol sale pipeo vater to tLe taps ol all consum-
ers. 1Lere are otLer approacLes in use, ly necessity, incluoing central stanopipes,
protecteo vells ano community lottleo vater. A leaking oistrilution system
increases tLe likeliLooo tLat even sale vater leaving tLe source or treatment lacil-
ity vill lecome contaminateo lelore reacLing tLe consumer. 1Le oistrilution
system must le oesigneo, manageo ano maintaineo to present a minimal level ol
leakage ano le continuously unoer internal pipe pressure greater tLan tLe exter-
nal Lyorostatic pressure. 1Lis vill ensure oelivery ol vater vitL reouceo losses
oue to leaks, ano minimization ol excess grovtL ol patLogenic microorganisms.
A certain level ol lree resioual cLlorine or cLloramine oisinlectant vill reouce
tLe risks ol recontamination vitLin tLe oistrilution system (see also section
3.1.+). ¡nhovs ol contaminateo vater ouring oistrilution are major sources ol
vaterlorne patLogens ano tLus vaterlorne oisease.
Case stuoy 2, lrom an article in tLe Guardian Weekly, provioes an example ol
tLe orinking-vater supply ano sevage oisposal prollems laceo ly oeveloping
vorlo cities. ¡n aooition to tLe lactors mentioneo, vater contamination also
occurs in tLe oistrilution system lecause tLe pipe netvork is olo ano tLe supply
is intermittent.
Ck!l !I00\ 1. 0k|NK|N6-WkIlk !0|||\ kN0 Wk!Il klM0Vk| |N 0kkKk
Dhaka is built on a nood plain that has been ñlled in with rubbish and human waste.
when the 8uri Ganga Piver noods many areas are inundated with sewage and industrial
pollution. |n 2002, the population of Dhaka was l0 million, whereas thirty years before
it was 250,000. One quarter of the people of Dhaka live in the most squalid slums, but
they cannot legally be supplied with water from the city drinking-water supply. They are
assisted by NGOs like wateraid and Tearfund.
The city needs l.6 billion litres of water daily to provide for basic needs but only l.26
billion litres are actually supplied. Nearly all the water (97%) comes from deep under-
ground sources and the water table is being rapidly lowered so the source is not sustain-
able. The sewage system has a nominal capacity of l20,000 cubic meters per day but
the main pipe is out of service. There are many illegal connections to the sewer which
discharge industrial waste including heavy metals. This means that the sewage cannot
be used for fertilizer or for aquaculture.
waterborne disease is very common and tens of thousands of children in Dhaka die
from this cause each year. Much of the pollution that causes waterborne disease occurs
at the household level (~70%), because water is stored in rooftop tanks which are easily
Source: 'UARDIAN7EEKLY (1ohn vidal, ll-l7 April 2002).
z. ||:|C |||NC||||: 0| :||| |||N||Nû- \|I|| :J|||\
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
1. katar6s |a 6r|ak|aq-water sapp|¡
aa6 waste maaaqemeat
1.1 M|cre||a| r|sks: water|erae |afect|eas 6|sease
!rom a pullic LealtL point ol viev, tLe relialle supply ol sale orinking-vater is
vital lor oaily lile. Lnlortunately, tLe same vater tLat sustains lile can also le tLe
learer ol oangerous contaminants in tLe lorm ol lacteria, viruses ano
protozoans. 1Lese incluoe lacteria sucL as toxigenic Esclericlia coli ano
Canpylobacter, viruses like Noro:irus ano Hepatitis E, ano protozoans like
Giardia ano Cryptosporidiun. 1Le risk ol inlection ano oisease ano tLe pullic
LealtL luroen is oetermineo ly tLe severity ol illnesses tLat are causeo ly tLe
patLogens, tLe extent ol tLe exposure, tLeir inlectivity, ano tLe pLysical conoi-
tion ano susceptilility ol tLe exposeo population.
1.¹.¹ M|creer¡+a|.m. |a w+ter
Þatural looies ol vater sucL as lakes ano rivers ano grounovaters normally
contain nutrients, certain microorganisms (lacteria, viruses, etc.) Lave evolveo
to take aovantage ol tLis environment. !ortunately, most ol tLese microorgan-
isms oo not cause oisease in Lumans, tLat is tLey are not patLogenic. ¡n aooition
to microorganisms tLat live on nutrients in tLe vater, still more come lrom
runoll lrom soil in tLe vicinity. But once again, tLe majority ol tLe microorgan-
isms lrom soil are not Larmlul.
Hovever, it is common lor sevage to le oiscLargeo into tLese vaters, vitLout
aoequate treatment. Many microorganisms in sevage pose a real tLreat to LealtL.
Wastes lrom oomestic ano vilo animals can also pose a oanger. CtLer sources
ano routes ol exposure may also le signincant, in aooition to ingestion, inLala-
tion ol aerosol oroplets ano contact vitL contaminateo vater can also le sources
ol inlection (WHC 200+a).
Humans may le inlecteo ly tLese patLogens ly orinking contaminateo
vater or ly eating uncookeo sLellnsL tLat Lave concentrateo Larmlul organ-
isms tLey Lave extracteo lrom contaminateo vater. !ooos tLat Lave leen
irrigateo vitL untreateo sevage, lertilizeo vitL untreateo excreta or processeo
vitL contaminateo vater are also an inoirect source ol risk. Microorganisms
may seep tLrougL some soils lor long oistances until tLey reacL a looy ol
surlace vater or grounovater. ¡eaking septic tanks ano inaoequate latrines
may contaminate nearly orinking-vater sources. Some soils, sucL as sano-
stone, are ellective at nltering microorganisms, lut coarser ano lractureo soils
may allov transport ol patLogenic organisms lor long oistances ano oeptLs.
A lurtLer cause ol contamination ol orinking-vater is tLrougL tLe improper
storage ol vater in LouseLolo storage tanks ano cisterns, ano in smaller contain-
ers alter it Las leen oravn. 1Lis is a common source ol patLogens in orinking-
vater in oeveloping countries.
1.¹.z \||c| m|creer¡+a|.m. +re |mjert+at!
1Le patLogenic microorganisms lrom Luman ano animal vaste tLat are louno in
contaminateo orinking-vater incluoe lacteria, viruses ano protozoans, ano
many ol tLe illnesses tLat tLey cause can le latal. Some ol tLe important vater-
lorne patLogenic lacteria incluoe several salmonellae organisms sucL as tLe
typLoio lacterium, Vibrio clolerae lacillus, Sligella spp., patLogenic ano
enteroLaemorrLagic E. coli, ano Yersinia enterocolitica. Some notalle patLogenic
viruses in vater incluoe Hepatitis A ano Hepatitis E virus, Noro:irus, Sapo:irus
ano Bota:irus. Þotalle patLogenic protozoans in vater incluoe Giardia
intestinalis, Entanoeba listolytica (tLe cause ol amoeliasis), ano Cryptospori-
diun par:un. Some LelmintLes tLat cause oisease lrom vater contact incluoe
Dracunculus nedinensis ano Sclistosona spp.
1.¹.1 |.t|m+t|a¡ |e.e|. el w+ter |a+||t¡ +aa .ew+¡e ceat+m|a+t|ea
1Le WHC Guioelines lor Lrinking-vater Çuality locus on E. coli (prelerreo)
ano tLermotolerant colilorm lacteria, vLicL are present in large quantities in
tLe intestines ol varm-lloooeo animals, as tLe lest inoicators ol tLe sanitary
quality ol vater supplies. Hovever, tLey alone are not necessarily sulncient
inoicators lor viruses ano protozoa. E. coli are relatively easily oisinlecteo, lut
viruses ano protozoa are usually mucL more resistant to cLlorine ano (especially)
cLloramines. 1Le latter are in lact veak oisinlectants. E. coli are vell knovn to
pullic LealtL ano plumling prolessionals as a sign ol recent contamination ol
vater vitL Luman or animal vaste. Analysis ly culture metLoos may require 2+
to +8 Lours per test. E. coli normally only survive in vater lor a lev oays, so
measuring levels ol E. coli unoer stanoaro conoitions is a vay ol estimating tLe
level ol recent Luman or animal laecal contamination. 1otal colilorm lacteria
measurements are useo in some countries as conservative inoicators ol tLe sani-
tary conoition ol tLe orinking-vater, Lovever, tLey are not oirect inoicators ol
sanitary contamination, especially in tropical countries, vLere many lacteria ol
no sanitary signincance occur in almost all untreateo supplies.
1.¹.+ M|cre||+| ¡rewt| |a j|am||a¡. |eteretrej|., |e]|c/e||s +aa |sea1cmc/ss
Microorganisms grov in orinking-vater oistrilution systems, especially in tLe
alsence ol a resioual oisinlectant. Most ol tLese are LeterotropLs tLat require an
external source ol carlon, ano tLey grov in vater, on particulates ano on
1. ||l|||: |N |||N||Nû- \|I|| :J|||\ |N| \|:I| M|N|û|M|NI
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
surlaces in contact vitL vater as lionlms, ano also on looos. 1Ley can also
incluoe a lroao spectrum ol opportunistic patLogen microorganisms sucL as
Aerononas, !la:obacteriun, Serratia, Pseudononas ano Klebsiella, lut tLere is
no evioence in tLe general pullic ol an association ol any ol tLese organisms vitL
gastrointestinal inlection tLrougL ingestion ol orinking-vater (WHC 200+a),
tLere may le concerns vitL some severely immunocompromiseo persons ano
Lospital environments (Bartram et al. 2003). 1Ley are louno in all vaters vitL-
out resioual oisinlectant, incluoing lottleo vaters, ano on carlon nlters ano
otLer treatment oevices ano surlaces. Most LeterotropLs are not Larmlul to
LealtLy persons, lut tLey can le a nuisance ly generating tastes ano ooours or
oiscoloration ol vater supplies. 1Le principal oeterminants ol grovtL ol Letero-
tropLs are lack ol oisinlectant resioual, varm temperature, availalility ol
nutrients incluoing organic carlon, ano stagnation. 1Ley are measureo ly
aggregate LeterotropLic plate count (HPC) tests tLat oetect a vioe range ol
organisms, incluoing many lacteria ano lungi. HigL counts are more likely to le
inoicative ol lionlms ano lack ol cleanliness in tLe system ano availalility ol
nutrients. ¡n tLe alsence ol inoicators ol sanitary signincance (e.g. E. coli), HPC
organisms in tLemselves are not inoicative ol laecal contamination.
Legionella are among tLe exceptions to Larmless grovtL organisms in oistril-
uteo vater, ano tLey are not measureo ly HPC tests. Legionella can grov to
signincant numlers in varm vaters, Lot vater Leaters, Lot tuls, Lot vater lines
ano sLover Leaos, ano prolally in tLe plumling systems ol large luiloings, ano
in cooling tovers lor air conoitioner Leat excLangers. Special precautions are
requireo to prevent ano control Legionella in Lospitals ano LealtL care lacilities,
lecause aerosols lrom sLovers, spas ano cooling systems are a route ol inlection
ano tLose lacilities contain LigL-risk populations. Legionella grov vell in vater
at temperatures in tLe range ol alout 25 °C to 50 °C. Preventive ano remeoial
controls are essential, especially in Lospitals ano LealtL care lacilities (Surman-
¡ee 2006). 1Le WHC Guioelines lor Lrinking-vater Çuality inoicates tLat tLe
vater temperature sLoulo le maintaineo outsioe tLe range ol 25÷50 °C, at vLicL
Legionella prolilerates (WHC 200+a), Lovever, Lot vater temperatures alove
50 °C may also present a scaloing risk to young cLiloren ano tLe eloerly (see
section 3.3).
Pseudononas aeruginosa microorganisms also grov in pipeo plumling ano
oistrilution systems ano on oevices unoer tLe conoitions citeo alove. 1Ley can
cause a range ol inlections lut rarely cause serious illness in LealtLy inoiviouals.
1Ley are a signincant prollem in Lospital environments vLere tLe organism can
colonize oamageo sites sucL as lurn ano surgical vounos, tLe respiratory tracts
ol susceptille people ano pLysically oamageo eyes, ano tLey Lave causeo skin
inlections in Lot tuls ano spas. Cleaning ol contact lenses vitL contaminateo
solution can cause a type ol keratitis. ¡ngestion ol orinking-vater is not an
important source ol inlection (WHC 200+a).
1.1 Chem|ca| r|sks
Since tLe eno ol tLe 19tL century tLe main LealtL locus lor orinking-vater
supply Las leen on microlial risks. Microlial contamination remains tLe most
signincant, imminent ano large-scale managealle risk associateo vitL orinking-
vater vLen vater is not properly manageo. CLemical contamination ol orink-
ing-vater can result lrom natural or Luman-relateo contamination ol surlace
vater or grounovater, or contamination tLat occurs ouring tLe treatment ol
vater (oisinlection ly-prooucts), or oelivery tLrougL mains or LouseLolo vater
1Le numler ol potentially Larmlul cLemical contaminants (il present at
sulncient concentrations) ioentineo in orinking-vater in small amounts Las
leen increasing rapioly over tLe last tventy years oue to tLe oevelopment ol
analytical metLoos capalle ol oetecting levels in parts per lillion ano parts per
trillion. 1Lese cLemicals are usually present at extremely lov concentrations
vLen oetecteo. Water is just one source ano usually not tLe most important
source ol exposure to most ol tLese cLemicals, except lor oisinlection ly-prooucts.
A lev ol tLese contaminants Lave leen sLovn to cause aoverse ellects in Lumans
vLen ingesteo via LigLly contaminateo vater. Some ol tLe more common con-
taminants oetecteo, vitL tLeir mooe ol occurrence ano LealtL ellects unoer some
exposure conoitions, are: arsenic (natural, cancer), huorioe (natural, oental ano
crippling skeletal huorosis), leao (corrosion ol leao pipe, neurological ellects),
pesticioes (agricultural use ano spills, varialle ellects), nitrate ano nitrite (agri-
cultural ano sevage, inlant oeatLs), raoon (natural geology to inooor air ano
some grounovaters, cancers), sullates (natural, causing temporary oiarrLoea to
non-resioents). Arsenic, huorioe ano nitrate/nitrite are prolally tLe most
important examples tLat Lave sLovn oemonstralle LealtL ellects lrom consump-
tion ol contaminateo vater.
Some groups, incluoing young cLiloren ano tLe immunocompromiseo, may
Lave LigLer tLan average risk ol tLe ellects ol some cLemical exposures in tLe
environment compareo to tLe general population. ¡xamples incluoe tLe ellect ol
aluminium on oialysis patients vLen inaoequately treateo oialysis vater is useo,
tLe impact ol leao poisoning on pregnant vomen ano inlants, usually as a result
ol exposure to leao paint oust, ano tLe ellects ol arsenic on people vitL compro-
miseo nutritional status.
Arsenic is vioely oistriluteo in small quantities in vaters arouno tLe vorlo.
Hovever, tLirty years ago in BanglaoesL millions ol sLallov surlace vells vere
orilleo to reouce tLe risk ol gastrointestinal oiseases lrom LigLly polluteo
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surlace vater. Lnlortunately, tLe grounovater lrom many ol tLese sLallov tule
vells vas contaminateo vitL arsenic ano tLis vas not oetermineo lelore tLe
vells vere put into service. ¡t Las leen estimateo tLat over +0 million people in
BanglaoesL are exposeo to potentially risky levels ol arsenic in vater. 1Le WHC
guioeline value lor arsenic is 10 parts per lillion, Lovever, some countries use 50
parts per lillion as an interim goal oue tLe oilnculty ano cost ol removing
arsenic lrom orinking-vater.
Iluoride is anotLer natural vater component tLat Las causeo serious conse-
quences vLen it is present in excessive amounts. At recommenoeo values it Las
lenencial ellects ly reoucing tootL oecay (guioeline value is 1.5 milligrams per
litre, lut national regulators sLoulo also take into account climatic conoitions,
huorioe intake lrom otLer sources ano total vater consumeo). At sligLtly LigLer
consumption levels huorioe can cause oiscoloration ol tootL enamel, ano at even
LigLer levels (greater tLan alout 1+ milligrams per oay) serious aoverse skeletal
ellects occur.
Þitrate ano nitrite in excess are a particular risk to inlants, causing metLaemo-
glolinaemia, vLicL may result in morlioity ano oeatL lrom sLort exposures.
1Le WHC guioelines are 50 milligrams per litre lor nitrate ano 3 milligrams per
litre lor nitrite, ano tLe sum ol tLe ratios ol eacL to its guioeline value sLoulo not
exceeo 1 (WHC 200+a). Þitrate ano nitrite are usually present in vater con-
taminateo vitL sevage, septic tank elhuent or agricultural runoll. Comlineo
exposure to nitrate or nitrite ano gastrointestinal oisease-causing microorgan-
isms seems to cause tLe greatest risk ol metLaemoglolinaemia.
¡pioemiological stuoies ol environmental contaminants are usually oriven ly
concerns arising lrom episooes ol exposure or evioence ol cLronic exposure.
Hovever, attempts to unoerstano tLe epioemiology ol cLemical contamination
ol orinking-vater reveal a numler ol complex issues tLat make sucL stuoies
oilncult to carry out. 1Lese issues incluoe:
º tLe lact tLat orinking-vater is seloom tLe principal source ol exposure,
except lor arsenic ano huorioe in some cases,
º tLe vioe variation in tLe amount ol contamination lrom non-orinking-
vater sources,
º oilnculty in measuring oietary concentrations,
º oilnculty in accurately oenning tLe ouration ano magnituoe ol Luman
º tLe relative impact ol otLer lactors lesioes cLemicals tLat may contrilute to
similar LealtL risks.
A poor assessment ol relative risks sometimes makes it oilncult lor olncials to
make gooo pullic LealtL oecisions. 1Ley sLoulo rely on recognizeo national ano
international LealtL autLorities ano make use ol solio lackgrouno inlormation
sucL as tLe WHC Guioelines lor Lrinking-vater Çuality as guioes lor tLese
matters (WHC 200+a).
Lrinking-vater is oravn lrom an environment tLat cLanges constantly as a
community oevelops. 1Lerelore, it is increasingly important tLat tLere is
constant avareness ol oeveloping sources ol potential contamination lrom
inoustry, vaste oisposal or agricultural practices, or cLanges in urlanization
patterns. Meoical autLorities, environmental epioemiologists, toxicologists,
cLemists, engineers ano exposure analysts neeo to ellectively communicate ano
vork collaloratively to Lelp risk managers oetermine vLicL environmental
Lazaros are real, to Lelp regulators make sensille ano realistic stanoaros ano to
Lelp policy-makers make tLe lest environmental policy ano vater management
oecisions. 1Le WHC Guioelines lor Lrinking-vater Çuality provioe compre-
Lensive ano up-to-oate guioance to oecision-makers ly provioing consensus
recommenoations oevelopeo ly international experts lrom all ol tLose
1.1 0ther r|sks
1.1.¹ |et w+ter +aa .c+|a|a¡
Burns lrom Lot tap vater can result in severe injuries to young cLiloren ano tLe
eloerly. Almost all Lot vater lurns in cLiloren occur in tLe latLroom. 1Le
average temperature ol Lot vater systems in Australia is 65 °C. Water at tLis
temperature can inhict a severe lurn on a cLilo in less tLan Lall a secono. ¡n
many inoustrializeo countries, tLe average Lot vater temperature is 60 °C,
vLicL vill cause a severe lurn in alout nve seconos.
WLile parents can Lelp reouce tLe risk ly cLecking latL temperatures ano ly
supervising cLiloren, tLe olvious ansver is to minimize tLe risk ly reoucing tLe
temperature ol tLe vater in tLe Lot vater system to lelov 55 °C (lut not lelov
50 °C, vLicL voulo increase Legionella risk), oepenoing on tLe specincations ol
tLe system tLat Las leen installeo. An alternative is to install tLermostatically
controlleo mixing valves on tLe latL taps. CtLer alternative strategies to prevent
accioents vitL cLiloren are tLe installation ol a cLilo-resistant Lot vater tap
(vitL a pusL ano turn movement similar to tLat useo in tLe caps ol meoicine
lottles) or tLe provision ol a cLiloprool tap cover. 1ap covers are only suitalle lor
certain kinos ol taps.
WLenever any maintenance or scLeouleo vork is carrieo out overnigLt,
proceoures must le in place to ensure tLat occupants are notineo ano avare ol
tLe oangers. 1Lere Lave leen instances vLen pasteurization (temporarily raising
tLe temperature ol tLe Lot vater system alove normal levels) in Lomes lor tLe
ageo Las Lao latal consequences. 1Le ¡nstitute ol Plumling ano Heating
¡ngineering in tLe Lniteo Iingoom ol Great Britain ano ÞortLern ¡relano
recommenos maximum outlet temperatures as lollovs: lioet 38 °C, sLover +1 °C,
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vasLlasin +1 °C, latL ++ °C, ano superviseo latL +6 °C (see sections 3.1.+ ano
1+.3.1) (¡PH¡ 2005).
Some plumlers Lave argueo tLat reoucing vater temperature is not a simple
matter. 1Le lolloving potential oisaovantages must le taken into account:
º 1Le cost ol storage ol larger quantities ol lover temperature Lot vater may
le LigLer tLan tLat ol smaller quantities ol Lotter vater.
º 1Le vater may not le Lot enougL lor otLer purposes, sucL as vasLing
kitcLen oisLes.
º Storage ol tepio vater may introouce a risk ol lacterial grovtL (Legionella,
Mycobacteriun a:iun ano Pseudononas aeruginosa).
1Le ioeal solution is to maintain a reservoir ol relatively Lot vater, lut to ensure
tLat LigL-temperature vater cannot le accesseo in sLover or latL taps. 1Lis
can le oone vitL a tLermostatically controlleo mixing valve at tLe latL or
1.1.z |+m+¡e te |a||a|a¡. +aa |+aa
!loving vater can exert signincant lorce ano unoer some circumstances tLis
lorce can result in oamage to luiloings ano to lano. Plumlers sLoulo le avare ol
tLe potential oamage to luiloing structures tLat can le causeo ly vater Lammer.
¡nstallation ol vater Lammer arresters ano antioscillation valves vill reouce tLis
risk. Lamage to lounoations ano otLer structures can le causeo ly uncontrolleo
vater ano vastevater runoll.
1.1.1 Cerre.|ea
All vater is corrosive in some circumstances, lut excessive corrosion is a serious
economic ano potential LealtL prollem. ¡t may leao to structural lailures ano
oeterioration ol cLemical ano microliological quality, incluoing exceeoance ol
guioeline values lor leao, copper ano iron. Corrosion is partial oissolution ol any
(especially metal) materials in tLe plumling system. ¡t can le causeo ly inter-
active vater quality lactors incluoing pH, insulncient or excess alkalinity,
temperature ano galvanic action. Corrective actions are sometimes complex ano
may involve management ol calcium, carlonate ano licarlonate, oissolveo
oxygen, ano especially maintaining tLe appropriate pH, vLicL sLoulo usually le
in tLe approximate range ol 7 to 8.5 to minimize corrosion.
1.1.+ |acra.t+t|ea
Water containing excessive amounts ol licarlonates, carlonates or iron Las a
tenoency to oeposit minerals on tLe pipe surlace. 1Lese minerals are solio ano
oilncult to remove vitLout mecLanical cleaning, vLicL is costly. 1Lis mineral
oeposition reouces tLe internal volume ol tLe pipe ano tLus reouces tLe hov
capacity, sometimes tLis leaos to total llockage. ¡n aooition, tLis irregular
surlace can lecome a locus lor lionlms ano can Larlour microorganisms,
sLieloing tLem lrom contact vitL oisinlectant. ¡t can also cause excessive
oisinlectant oemano.
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4. Water safet¡ p|aas |a the eperat|ea
aa6 maaaqemeat ef water s¡stems
1Le salety ano perlormance ol a system lor provioing orinking-vater oepenos
upon tLe oesign, management ano operation ol tLe tLree principal components:
source, treatment ano oistrilution. ¡l contamination Las occurreo ano it is not
controlleo lelore it reacLes tLe consumers` taps, illness or even oeatL is possille.
1Le system must tLerelore le oesigneo to cope vitL all ol tLe prollems tLat
coulo occur, ano proper perlormance ol tLe entire system must le ensureo at all
times. 1Le most ellective vay to consistently ensure tLe salety ol a orinking-
vater supply is tLrougL tLe use ol a compreLensive risk assessment ano risk
management approacL tLat encompasses all ol tLe steps in tLe orinking-vater
supply train lrom tLe catcLment to tLe consumer. WHC Las oevelopeo a
systematizeo vater salety plan (WSP) approacL laseo upon vorlovioe experi-
ences ol success in managing orinking-vater quality (WHC 200+a). 1Le WSP
concept oravs upon principles ano concepts ol prevention, multiple larriers ano
quality management systems sucL as Lazaro assessment critical control points
(HACCP) as useo in tLe looo inoustry.
A WSP Las tLree key components guioeo ly LealtL-laseo targets (orinking-
vater stanoaros ano guioelines ano cooes), ano overseen tLrougL surveillance
ol every signincant aspect ol tLe orinking-vater system. 1Le concept ano
metLooology can also le aoapteo to sevage management systems. 1Le tLree
components are:
º System assessment to oetermine vLetLer tLe system as a vLole (lrom
source to consumer) can consistently oeliver vater tLat meets LealtL-laseo
targets. 1Lis incluoes assessment ol oesign criteria lor nev systems as vell
as mooincations.
º Measures to monitor ano control ioentineo risks (ano oenciencies) ano
ensure tLat LealtL-laseo targets are met. !or eacL control measure,
appropriate operational monitoring sLoulo le oenneo ano instituteo tLat
vill rapioly oetect oeviations.
º Management plans oescriling actions to le taken ouring normal opera-
tions or incioent conoitions, ano oocumenting tLe system assessment
(incluoing system upgraoes ano improvements), monitoring, ano commu-
nication plans ano supporting programmes.
1Le primary oljectives ol a WSP are tLe minimization ol contamination ol
source vaters, reouction or removal ol contamination tLrougL appropriate
treatment processes, ano prevention ol contamination ouring processing, oistri-
lution ano storage. 1Lese oljectives are equally applicalle to ano can le tailoreo
to large pipeo supplies ano small community supplies, large lacilities (Lotels ano
Lospitals) ano even LouseLolo systems.
1Le oljectives are met tLrougL tLe systematic ano oocumenteo planneo
metLooology lor tLe entire lile ol tLe system. A progression ol tLe key steps in
oeveloping a WSP is as lollovs:
º assemlle ano train tLe team to prepare tLe WSP,
º oocument ano oescrile tLe system,
º unoertake a oetaileo Lazaro assessment ano risk cLaracterization to
ioentily ano unoerstano Lov Lazaros can enter tLe system,
º assess tLe existing proposeo system (incluoing a oescription ol tLe system
ano a hov oiagram),
º ioentily control measures ÷ tLe specinc means ly vLicL specinc Lazaros
may le controlleo,
º oenne monitoring ol tLe control measures ÷ vLat are tLe limits tLat oenne
acceptalle perlormance ano Lov are tLese monitoreo,
º estallisL proceoures to verily tLat tLe WSP is lunctioning ellectively ano
vill meet tLe LealtL-laseo targets,
º oevelop supporting programmes, lor example training, Lygiene practices,
stanoaro operating proceoures, upgraoes ano improvements, researcL ano
º oevelop management proceoures, incluoing corrective actions lor normal
ano incioent conoitions,
º estallisL oocumentation ano communication proceoures.
1Lese key steps in tLe WSP operate in a continuous ano cyclical mooe ly return-
ing to tLe oocumenting ano system oescription step ano repeating tLe process
routinely. Letaileo expansions ol tLis WSP concept can le louno in tLe Guioe-
lines lor Lrinking-vater Çuality (WHC 200+a) ano in otLer vritings incluoing
oetaileo oiscussions ol WSPs lor oistrilution systems (Stevens et al. 200+).
+. \|I|| :|||I\ |||N: |N I|| 0||||I|0N |N| M|N|û|M|NI 0| \|I|| :\:I|M:
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î. Ihe re|e ef p|am|ers |a r|sk
assessmeat aa6 r|sk maaaqemeat
1Le supply ol sale vater ano tLe removal ol Luman vaste are vital lor LealtL ano
vell-leing. 1Le main aim ol plumling systems is to collect, transport ano
oistrilute vater to inoiviouals in a community, ano to remove liquio vaste.
Lnlortunately, all ol tLese lenencial processes incur risks. 1Lese risks incluoe
contamination ol vater sources vitL lacteria, accioental cross-connection ol
orinking-vater supply ano vaste removal systems, ano cLemical contamination
lrom corrosion ol pipes ano otLer nttings. 1Lus, tLe secono aim ol plumling
systems must tLerelore le to manage risk.
Eisk management uses a variety ol oillerent strategies. !irst ol all, risks must
le recognizeo, analyseo ano evaluateo. 1Len tLe risks are minimizeo ly a
numler ol means, tLe most lunoamental leing system oesign ano construction
or assemlly using appropriate tecLniques ano materials. A lunoamental require-
ment is tLe use ol quality assurance systems to ensure tLat plumlers are vell
traineo ano tLat tLey aoLere to a cooe ol gooo practice. Some risks cannot ly
eliminateo ano tLe resultant nnancial risk must le eitLer accepteo ly tLe pluml-
er or translerreo ly means ol insurance.
Plumlers are traineo to oesign, install ano maintain plumling systems. Hov-
ever, tLe vork ol plumlers goes leyono tLe provision ol plumling systems, tLey
must manage tLe risks associateo vitL plumling installations. 1Ley sLare tLis
risk management role vitL pullic LealtL olncials. !inally, in a vorlo tLat is nov
increasingly avare ol tLe value ol natural resources, plumlers ano otLer pluml-
ing prolessionals play a vital role in vater conservation.
î.1 k|sk receqa|t|ea
Eisk recognition is laseo on a compreLensive unoerstanoing ol all potential
Lazaros tLat may arise in estallisLing ano maintaining a plumling system. !or
example, tLe Eomans recognizeo tLe unoesiralility ol contamination ol vater
lrom soil ano Luman ano animal vaste ano tLey luilt aqueouct systems to
oeliver clean uplano vater to tLeir cities, ano sometimes useo leao pipes. 1Le
¡atin voro lor leao (plumlum) gave rise to tLe common name lor tLe plumling
prolession. ¡t Las taken almost tvo tLousano years to recognize tLe risks associ-
ateo vitL leao pipes ano corrosive vater, ano leao use vas oiscontinueo in
orinking-vater systems relatively recently. 1Le Listory ol leao use is an impor-
tant reminoer tLat nev tecLnologies vill olten lring nev ano unexpecteo risks.

Constant vigilance ano researcL are necessary to uncover tLese nev risks as tLey
arise ano to rapioly correct tLem.
î.1 k|sk eºa|aat|ea aa6 aaa|¡s|s
Cnce a risk Las leen ioentineo, tLe nature ol tLe risk must le analyseo ano its
relative importance neeos to le evaluateo. 1Le analysis ol tLe risk sLoulo reveal
vLat causes tLe risk, tLe evaluation ol tLe risk in its context vill enalle a juog-
ment to le maoe alout vLat action to take. ¡n some cases, a risk migLt le ioenti-
neo lut assesseo to le very lov in importance ano costly to eliminate. ¡n tLis
case, tLe evaluation migLt leao a community to accept tLe risk ano simply
monitor tLe prollem. Cn tLe otLer Lano, tLe evaluation ol anotLer risk migLt
oemano urgent action to protect tLe community.
î.1 k|sk a|atemeat
Cnce a risk Las leen recognizeo ano evaluateo as leing important, steps must le
taken to minimize tLe risk. Eisk alatement is tLe main strategy lor managing
risk in tLe oomain ol plumling. Plumling risks can le preventeo ano minimizeo
ly eoucation ano training ano ly tLe aooption ol quality assurance systems sucL
as cooes ol lest practice. Many countries enlorce tLese cooes ol lest practice ly
estallisLing lavs ano regulations tLat oemano certain stanoaros ol practice. !or
example, mooern cooes ol practice proLilit tLe use ol certain oangerous materials,
sucL as leao, in pipes tLat supply vater lor Luman use. Eisk alatement
strategies are only ellective il tLeir application is assiouously maintaineo. Eisk
alatement in plumling requires lotL tLe community ano inoiviouals to make a
major continuing investment in time ano money to prevent risks, ano to mini-
mize risk once oiscovereo.
î.4 k|sk acceptaace aa6 r|sk traasfer
Because it is impossille to ioentily ano eliminate every possille risk, plumlers
must lace tLe possilility tLat even vitL gooo stanoaros ol practice tLere vill le
occasions vLen some prollem vitL a plumling installation vill occur. ¡n some
ol tLese situations people may le maoe ill or injureo ano tLe plumler may le
Lelo responsille. 1Lere are tLree possille vays to oeal vitL tLese kinos ol
circumstances. 1Le nrst ano normally tLe lest etLical approacL is to accept
responsilility ano rectily tLe prollem. 1Le secono is risk acceptance ÷ tLe
plumler is connoent tLat tLe risk is very lov ano makes an inlormeo juogment
not to correct it. ¡n tLis case tLe impact ol leing vrong voulo le nnancially
catastropLic lecause ol legal lialility. ¡n tLe tLiro option, tLen, tLe plumler can
transler tLe nnancial risk to an insurer ly paying an annual lee. AltLougL tLis
practice is possille in oevelopeo countries it migLt le less leasille in many oevel-
oping countries.
å. I|| |0|| 0| ||JM|||: |N ||:| |::|::M|NI |N| ||:| M|N|û|M|NI
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Eegulation ol plumling tecLnology ano practice is intenoeo to minimize
pullic as vell as private LealtL risks. 1Le main instrument ol regulation is tLe
oevelopment ano implementation ol gooo practice guioelines, commonly calleo
a cooe ol practice. 1Lere is no ooult tLat tLe implementation ol a vell-oesigneo
plumling cooe ol practice vill assist tLose vLo oesign plumling systems ano tLe
plumlers tLemselves, ano Lelp to protect tLe pullic.
ã. |r|ac|p|es ef effect|ºe
p|am||aq s¡stems
ê. |||NC||||: 0| ||||CI|\| ||JM||Nû :\:I|M:
1Lis cLapter summarizes tLe aims ano oljectives ol a gooo local plumling
system ÷ tLat is, tLe orinking-vater supply tLat serves a luiloing ano tLe system
lor liquio vaste removal tLat connects tLe luiloing to tLe sever mains. 1Le
system sLoulo le operating vitLin a context ol stanoaros ano cooes, oetermineo
ano overseen ly qualineo pullic autLorities, tLat specily tLe requirements lor its
oesign, composition ano management, ano tLe training ano practices ol tLe
plumlers ano operators vLo luilo ano maintain it. ¡n places vLere tLese princi-
ples are not currently attainalle, tLey sLoulo le regaroeo as LigL-priority goals
to le acLieveo vLen circumstances permit, ano positive steps sLoulo le taken to
acLieve tLose goals. 1Ley are laseo upon tLe neeo to preserve tLe LealtL, salety
ano vell-leing ol tLe people serveo ly a plumling system. ¡llorts sLoulo le
maoe to promote pullic avareness ol tLe lenents ol quality plumling ano tLe
oangers ol an improperly installeo plumling system.
1Le tLree cLiel aims ol a gooo plumling system are to supply sale orinking-
vater in aoequate quantities, to remove liquio vastes elnciently, ano to minimize
risk ol lailure tLrougL vigilance ano quality assurance. ¡acL ol tLese cLiel aims
incluoes a numler ol sulsioiary oljectives, vLicL are oescrileo in tLis cLapter.
ã.1 Water sapp|¡ qea|s
1Le goal lor every community or group ol Lomes sLoulo le lor a pipeo central
source ol gooo-quality vater lor all oomestic uses. ¡n aooition, vitL a pipeo
orinking-vater supply, proper sanitary transport ano vaste treatment ano oisposal
lacilities are important to ensure a sale oomestic ano community environment.
1Lere are costs lotL in tLe initial construction ano maintenance ol tLese lacilities,
ano sustainalility requires provisions lor nnance, operation ano maintenance.
ê.¹.¹ I|e |ec+| ar|a||a¡-w+ter .ajj|¡ .|ea|a |e +ae|a+te |a term. el |a+at|t¡,
.+let¡, ceat|aa|t¡ +aa re||+||||t¡
1Le quality ol tLe vater provioeo tLrougL pullic mains is tLe responsilility ol
tLe orinking-vater supply autLority. ¡t sLoulo le continuous ano pressureo at
all times, ano it sLoulo meet national stanoaros or WHC orinking-vater guioe-
lines at tLe consumers` taps. 1Le oistrilution system sLoulo not le allecteo ly
excessive leakage ano it sLoulo le constructeo ol appropriate materials.
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
ê.¹.z \+ter .ajj||ea ler |am+a cea.amjt|ea .|ea|a |e .+le +t +|| t|me.
Plumling systems in oomestic or commercial premises sLoulo not le permitteo
to oegraoe tLe mains vater in any vay. 1Le orinking-vater supply must le pro-
tecteo lrom cross-connections vitL unsale sources or vitL vastevater plumling
systems. ¡t must le alle to cope vitL tLe Lazaros ol lackpressure or lack-
sipLonage, ano tLe vater sLoulo not le in contact vitL plumling materials tLat
migLt impart contamination. 1Lose materials sLoulo meet quality ano perlorm-
ance specincations oetermineo ly tLe autLorities, or ly an accepteo certincation
ê.¹.1 |.er¡ |a||a|a¡ .|ea|a |+.e +a |atera+| ar|a||a¡-w+ter j|jea .¡.tem
An aoequate pipeo supply provioes sale access to vater lor oomestic neeos. ¡t
olviates tLe neeo lor tLe oeoication ol time ano ellort to transport ol vater, ano
reouces tLe risk ol contamination ouring collection, transport ano storage.
Eeaoy access to sulncient sale vater vitLin tLe Lome improves personal Lygiene
ano lacilitates sale management ano oisposal ol sanitary vaste. 1Le quality ano
quantity ol tLe orinking-vater supply vitLin tLe Lome not only Las a prolouno
ellect on tLe LealtL ol tLe LouseLoloers, lut also contrilutes to tLe comlort ano
enjoyment ol tLeir lives ano tLose ol tLe community. ¡nterim measures, laseo on
pullic stanopipes ano communal lacilities, are ellective lut tLey sLoulo le
regaroeo as an intermeoiate stage tovaros tLe realization ol tLese principles.
ê.¹.+ \+ter .|ea|a |e cea.er.ea |¡ m|a|m|t|a¡ |e+|+¡e +aa w+.t+¡e
Piping systems ano plumling nxtures sLoulo le so oesigneo, maintaineo ano
useo as to minimize leakage ano vastage. ¡eakage can also le avoioeo ly souno
installation practices ano protection ol pipes ano nxtures against corrosion ano
accioental oamage, incluoing tLat causeo ly lreezing. Çuickly repairing leaking
laucets is an important practice. Wastage can also le minimizeo ly proper
eoucation on tLe neeo lor rational use ol orinking-vater.
ê.¹.å \+ter .|ea|a |e .ajj||ea lrem + .a|t+||e aam|er el +cce..|||e +aa |¡¡|ea|c l\tare.
¡oeally, every sell-containeo lamily ovelling sLoulo Lave, as a minimum, one vater
closet, one vasLlasin, one kitcLen sink ano one latLtul or sLover, ano provision lor
launory lacilities. CtLer luiloings, vLetLer useo lor Lalitation or otLer purposes,
sLoulo le provioeo vitL an aoequate numler ol nxtures in accoroance vitL tLeir
respective neeos. All plumling nxtures sLoulo le maoe ol ouralle, smootL, non-
alsorlent ano corrosion-resistant material, so oesigneo as to le nt lor tLe purpose
ano easily cleaneo, lree lrom concealeo surlaces tLat coulo lecome louleo, ano
incapalle ol contaminating tLe mains orinking-vater supply ly lacksipLonage.
1Ley sLoulo le locateo ano spaceo so tLat tLey are accessille lor tLe intenoeo use
ano lor cleaning. Walls ano otLer surlaces tLat may lecome accioentally louleo

ouring tLe use ol tLe nxture sLoulo le impervious to vater ano accessille lor clean-
ê.¹.ê |a||a|a¡ ceateat. .|ea|a |e jretectea lrem t|e ellect. el m+|laact|ea|a¡
el t|e j|am||a¡ .¡.tem
Precautions sLoulo le taken against oamage to tLe property, or oanger to tLe
LealtL ol its occupants, in tLe event ol mallunctioning ol tLe system. !ixtures
sLoulo le provioeo vitL aoequate overhov capacity. Eool tanks ano otLer Lio-
oen elements ol tLe system sLoulo le similarly provioeo vitL overhovs tLat
oiscLarge in sucL a vay as to act as a varning lelore causing oamage. ¡very pres-
sure vessel tLat is part ol tLe system sLoulo le equippeo vitL a temperature ano
pressure reliel valve. !ooo preparation ano storage rooms vitLin tLe luiloing
sLoulo le locateo so tLat any leakage or lackhov in tLe orainage system cannot
contaminate tLeir area or contents. ¡n tLe case ol inoustrial or commercial
premises vLere looo is processeo or prepareo, or vLere sterile gooos or simi-
larly susceptille materials are storeo or Lanoleo, aooitional precautions sLoulo
le taken ly inoirect connections ol tLe internal nxtures to tLe plumling
ê.¹.I |ae|a+te ||¡|t|a¡ +aa .eat||+t|ea .|ea|a |e jre.|aea ler te||et +aa w+.||a¡ l\tare.
Eooms vLere vater closets, toilets, urinals or otLer similar nxtures are locateo
sLoulo le properly ligLteo ano ventilateo. Þo sucL nxture sLoulo le alloveo in
a room useo lor living, vorking, looo preparation or otLer sucL purposes. ¡nous-
trial or commercial premises or pullic luiloings containing rooms vLere looo
ano orinks or otLer material lor Luman consumption are serveo, Lanoleo, storeo
or prepareo sLoulo not Lave a vater closet or urinal open oirectly lrom sucL a
room, lut sLoulo le separateo ly an aoequately ventilateo lolly or passage.
CtLer nxtures, sucL as sinks, vasLlasins ano latLs, sLoulo le locateo so tLat
ligLting ano ventilation are aoequate to ensure tLeir sale ano Lygienic use.
ê.¹.° |et w+ter .¡.tem. .|ea|a |e c+rela||¡ ae.|¡aea te +.e|a |e+|t| |+t+ra.
¡quipment lor Leating ano storing Leateo vater sLoulo le oesigneo ano installeo
in ventilateo areas to guaro against oangers lrom explosion or overLeating. Pipes
useo lor tLe conveyance ol Lot vater sLoulo le maoe ol materials suitalle to
vitLstano tLe temperature ol tLeir contents, ano vater temperatures sLoulo le
maintaineo at tLe specineo level.
ã.1 ||ça|6 waste 6|spesa| qea|s
ê.z.¹ |||a|a w+.te. .|ea|a |e a|.je.ea el jremjt|¡ +aa |¡¡|ea|c+||¡
¡very nxture, incluoing a vall-mounteo tap, sLoulo Lave orainage lacilities to
prevent tLe accumulation ol vastevater ano spillage, even tLougL tLis may le
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uncontaminateo. Wastes sLoulo le removeo rapioly lrom eacL nxture ly a
system ol orainpipes tLat vill prevent any lurtLer Luman contact. WLen a pullic
sever exists vitLin reasonalle oistance ol tLe premises tLe luiloing vaste
system sLoulo orain to tLat sever. WLere no sucL sever exists, oisposal sLoulo
le tLrougL an approveo metLoo ol treatment, sucL as to a septic tank, vLere
soils ano population oensities permit, tLat is locateo so as to cause no nuisance to
tLe occupants ol tLe luiloing or to tLose ol neigLlouring properties. WLere
cLemical closets are useo, aoequate arrangements must le maoe lor sanitary
oisposal ol vastevater (sucL as tLe vastevater lrom otLer nxtures, sinks or
latLs), as vell as tLe resioue lrom tLe cLemical closet.
ê.z.z |r+|a+¡e .¡.tem. .|ea|a |e el +ae|a+te .|te +aa e+.||¡ c|e+aea
Lrains sLoulo le ol aoequate capacity ano sLoulo le oesigneo, constructeo ano
maintaineo to convey vastevater rapioly lrom tLe luiloing vitLout louling,
oepositing solios or clogging. 1Ley sLoulo le lurnisLeo vitL aoequate, easily
accessille clean-outs or access cLamlers (manLoles) arrangeo so tLat tLe pipes
can le reaoily cleaneo.
ê.z.1 |r+|a+¡e .¡.tem. .|ea|a |e e|a|jjea w|t| |||a|a .e+| tr+j.
¡acL nxture, or group ol nxtures, connecteo to tLe orainage system sLoulo le
equippeo vitL a liquio seal trap. 1Le oeptL ol liquio in eacL seal must le
aoequate to prevent tLe emission ol ooours ano gases, ano must prevent access ly
insects or rooents lrom tLe sever to tLe premises. Sell-sealing vaste valves are a
possille alternative to liquio seal traps in some situations.
ê.z.+ ||| ar+|a. .|ea|a |e +ae|a+te|¡ .eat||+tea
¡very orainage system sLoulo le oesigneo ano constructeo so tLat aoequate
quantities ol air can circulate tLrougL every pipe, tLus enalling tLe system to
lunction properly ano protecting tLe liquio seal ol tLe traps. 1Le uppermost part
ol tLe orainage system sLoulo le connecteo to a ventilating pipe ol aoequate size,
oiscLarging alove rool level ano positioneo so tLat tLe return ol loul air to tLe
luiloing is preventeo. Air aomittance valves are a possille alternative vLen
positive pressure is not requireo. 1Le valves open automatically on sensing nega-
tive pressure vitLin tLe system, alloving air ingress only.
ê.z.å |e|eter|ea. .a|.t+ace. .|ea|a |e e\c|aaea lrem .ewer.
Precautions sLoulo le taken to excluoe lrom tLe orainage system any sulstance
tLat may clog or increase tLe likeliLooo ol clogging ol pipes, proouce explosive
mixtures, corrooe or otLervise oamage pipes or tLeir joints, or interlere vitL tLe
lunctioning ol sevage treatment plants or not le removalle ly tLem, tLus con-
taminating receiving vaters. Sulstances tLat can enoanger tLose vLo vork on
tLe pullic severage system must also le excluoeo. Pretreatment requirements
ano otLer controls sLoulo le imposeo on inoustrial ano non-oomestic oiscLarg-
ers so tLat tLey use suitalle oisposal metLoos lor tLose vastes.
ê.z.ê |+c|âew el .ew+¡e .|ea|a |e jre.eatea
Lrainage systems sLoulo le oesigneo ano constructeo so tLat sevage cannot
enter luiloings connecteo to tLe severage system in tLe event ol lackhov lrom
tLe pullic severs oue to hooo, llockage or any otLer cause.
ã.1 ||am||aq qea|s
ê.1.¹ ||am||a¡ m+ter|+|. +aa wer|m+a.||j .|ea|a cealerm te +ccejtea |a+||t¡ .t+aa+ra.
Pipes, joints, nxtures ano otLer elements ol a plumling system sLoulo conlorm
to accepteo quality ano perlormance stanoaros, ano sLoulo le sulnciently
ouralle to give satislactory service over a long perioo. ¡noications ol conlorm-
ance vitL stanoaros is olten markeo on tLe proouct. 1Lese stanoaros sLoulo le
specineo or aoopteo lrom existing stanoaros ly appropriate autLorities. Cnly
tLose persons vLo Lave leen properly traineo ano Lave given evioence ol tLeir
competence sLoulo le responsille lor tLe selection ano installation ol plumling
ê.1.z ||am||a¡ |a.t+||+t|ea. .|ea|a |e te.tea +aa a|.|alectea |elere |e|a¡ jat |ate .er.|ce
1ests suitalle lor various types ano oesigns ol plumling systems sLoulo le
specineo ly tLe vater, severage ano otLer autLorities concerneo, ano no system
sLoulo le put into service until sucL tests Lave leen satislactorily completeo (see
section 7.+).
ê.1.1 |ae|a+te tr+|a|a¡ .|ea|a |e jre.|aea ler j|am||a¡ jrele..|ea+|. +aa t|e ja|||c
.|ea|a |e m+ae +w+re el t|e a+a¡er. el jeer j|am||a¡
¡t is imperative tLat inoiviouals installing ano monitoring plumling systems
Lave access to aoequate continuing eoucation ano training. An accreoitation
system sLoulo le oevelopeo to ensure tLat all sucL inoiviouals Lave acLieveo ano
oemonstrateo appropriate levels ol competency.
ê.1.+ ||am||a¡ .¡.tem. .|ea|a |e jrejer|¡ m+|at+|aea
Eisk avoioance ano minimization oepeno on tLe ellectiveness ol maintenance ol
equipment ano lacilities. !or large or complex systems, or vLere pullic use or
tLe Lanoling ol looo lor sale is involveo, tLe pullic LealtL (or otLer) autLority
may require periooic inspection ano retesting as a conoition lor approval. 1Le
ovner ol any plumling system, irrespective ol its size or purpose, sLoulo le
olligateo to ioentily ano to promptly Lave repaireo any lault tLat may oevelop,
vLatever its cause.
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I. Ce6es ef pract|ce fer p|am||aq
A cooe ol practice is intenoeo to ensure tLe quality ano lunctionality ol plumling
systems ano to protect tLe LealtL ol tLe occupants ol tLe premises vLere a pluml-
ing system is to le installeo, as vell as tLe LealtL ol tLe pullic in general.
Þational cooes ol practice are olten oesigneo to cover all tLe states, territories or
provinces in tLat country, ano tLeir content applies to all plumling proposals. ¡n
some instances, tLe national cooe may only cover tecLnical specincations ano
local autLorities may neeo separate ly-lavs or regulations to regulate aoministra-
tive matters lor connection to tLe autLority`s vater, severage or orainage
Çuality assurance is a major strategy lor risk minimization in tLe supply ol
vater ano oisposal ol vastevater. A major component ol quality assurance
programmes in plumling is tLe use ol cooes ol gooo practice tLat specily tLe
requirements to le met to assure conlormance vitL norms. 1Lese cooes are
usually supporteo ly legislation or ly local government regulations ano are
tLerelore relerreo to as cooes ol practice or manoatory cooes ol practice. ¡n some
countries, tLe term °oroinance° is useo to oescrile tLem. 1Le term °cooe ol
practice° is useo in tLis oocument.
Cooes ol practice attempt to minimize risk ly specilying tecLnical stanoaros
ol oesign, materials, vorkmansLip ano maintenance lor plumling systems.
Some mooel text Laving particular LealtL signincance ano a sample mooel
plumling cooe ol practice (oroinance) is provioeo in section 7.1. Citations to
otLer cooes are also provioeo lor relerence.
1Le primary aims ol a plumling cooe ol practice are to ensure tLe lolloving:
º tLat planners, aoministrators ano plumlers oevelop tLe requireo compe-
tency so tLese cooes are respecteo ano applieo,
º tLat stanoaros are set to ensure tLat plumling assemllies, materials ano
tecLnologies are sale ano ellective,
º tLat plumling installations meet tLese stanoaros,
º tLat plumling installations are maintaineo to ensure continuous salety ano
1Le economic, geograpLic, oemograpLic ano cultural circumstances relating to
plumling neeos vary lrom country to country ano lrom region to region. 1Le
plumling cooe ol practice lor any given community must take tLese variations
into account ano specily minimum stanoaros accoroingly.

1Le responsilility lor overseeing tLe implementation ol tLe cooe ol practice is
avaroeo to a oesignateo autLority sucL as a national or state government oepart-
ment or a local government organization. 1Le oesignateo autLority must Lave
tLe requisite competence, ano tLe pover ano responsilility to enlorce compli-
ance vitLin its area ol jurisoiction. 1Le essential leature ol tLe autLority is tLat
responsilility ano pover ol implementation are vesteo in a single ioentinalle
looy, vLose responsililities ano autLority are clearly oenneo in tLe plumling
cooe ol practice. 1Le concept ol unoivioeo responsilility lor enlorcing tLe cooe
ol practice is particularly important since tLere may le numerous autLorities
tLat Lave specinc roles ano requirements linkeo to plumling systems. 1Ley may
incluoe vater ano severage autLorities, LealtL oepartments, luiloing (incluoing
plumling) cooe olncials, looo ano orug olncials, ano looies tLat oeal vitL
environment, tourism, Lousing, inoustry ano transportation. Plumling cooes ol
practice sLoulo aooress tLe unique requirements ol eacL ol tLese oillerent looies so
tLat a luiloing ovner, luiloer or plumler neeo only oeal vitL a single autLority.
Cne ol tLe most ellective vays to estallisL stanoaros ano ensure compliance
is tLrougL a national plumling cooe ol practice tLat is enlorceo ly a national
government oepartment or ministry. 1Lis national autLority may in turn oele-
gate its povers to state, provincial or local governments. ¡n tLis vay, a set ol
all-inclusive national stanoaros ano regulations can le aoopteo in vLole or in
part to suit tLe specinc requirements ol tLe particular jurisoiction. ¡t is not
alvays necessary to oevelop oe novo a cooe or stanoaros since many mooels are
availalle, Lovever, it vill usually le necessary to aoapt a cLosen cooe to local
conoitions. Some examples ol local variations coulo incluoe piping materials to
suit local corrosive vater conoitions, or tLe oeptL ol lurieo piping requireo to
prevent lreezing.
¡n some areas, tLe local autLority may estallisL committees to aovise it on
matters oealing vitL tLe aoministration ol tLe plumling cooe. 1Lis coulo le in
tLe lorm ol a plumling loaro to oeal vitL tLe qualincations ano licensing ol
plumlers, ano a committee to oeal vitL tecLnical issues in tLe cooe ol practice.
1Lese committees voulo ioeally incluoe oesign engineers, installation contrac-
tors ano lalour representatives.
A typical plumling cooe ol practice vill grant tLe lolloving povers to tLe
autLority cLargeo vitL enlorcing compliance:
º tLe rigLt to register ano license plumlers to specineo qualincations,
º tLe rigLt ol entry to lacilities lor tLe purpose ol making inspections,
º tLe estallisLment ol proceoures ano conoitions unoer vLicL permits lor
plumling installations may le granteo,
º tLe rigLt to cLarge lees lor granting plumling licences ano permits, in
accoroance vitL an approveo scale,
º tLe rigLt to take aoministrative actions ano actions in tLe courts ol lav in
tLe event ol violations.
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1Le success ol nevly aoopteo plumling cooes ol practice ano associateo regu-
lations oepenos to a signincant extent on acceptance ly tLe pullic. ¡oucation
programmes may le neeoeo to inlorm tLe pullic ol tLe LealtL ano salety lenents
ol regulateo plumling installations ano tLe oangers ol non-compliance.
1Le lormulation ol a plumling cooe ol practice is a oemanoing task. Hovever,
most ol tLe cLallenges Lave alreaoy leen aooresseo in tLe preparation ol cooes ol
practice in countries ano cities arouno tLe voro, ano many ol tLese cooes Lave
stooo tLe test ol time. Many cooes empLasize tLe aims ano roles ol a cooe ol
practice in tLe lorm ol a preamlle or tLe presentation ol general principles, vLicL
sets tLe scene lor tLe regulations tLat lollov.
I.1 k samp|e me6e| ce6e ef pract|ce
1Lis section ollers some mooel text taken lrom existing cooes ol practice as
illustrations to assist tLose preparing a cooe ol practice. A typical introouctory
statement coulo le as lollovs:
1Le lolloving stanoaros ano regulations lor plumling systems vere prepareo
unoer tLe autLority ol paragrapL XXX [page YYY| ol tLe plumling cooe ol
practice numler ZZZ oateo AAA ano aoopteo ly tLe AutLority or 1ovn Council
ol MMM, leing tLe autLority Laving jurisoiction, at its meeting on BBB.
1Le lolloving is a sample cooe ol practice tLat oesignates tLe tovn council (or
otLer autLority) ol tLe municipality as tLe autLority Laving jurisoiction over
plumling in its area:
1. 1Le tovn council ol tLe municipality (relerreo to Lere as °tLe autLority°)
is Lerely oesignateo as tLe autLority Laving jurisoiction over all plumling
systems vitLin tLe lounoaries serveo ly tLe pullic orinking-vater supply
system ol tLe municipality.
2. !or tLe purposes ol tLis Cooe ol Practice tLe voros °plumling systems° sLall
le taken to mean all vater pipes, orains, sanitary nxtures ano otLer instal-
lations, vLetLer vitLin or outsioe luiloings, connecteo or capalle ol leing
connecteo in tLe luture, oirectly or inoirectly, to a pullic vater main or to a
pullic sever, irrespective ol vLetLer tLese plumling systems are pullicly or
privately ovneo.
3. 1Le autLority sLall specily stanoaros ano regulations as it consioers neces-
sary to ensure tLat all plumling systems vitLin its jurisoiction are oesigneo,
installeo ano maintaineo in accoroance vitL accepteo sanitary principles.
1Lese stanoaros ano regulations sLall comprise tLe °plumling cooe ol prac-
tice° ol tLe municipality, tLat is relerreo to Lere as °tLe cooe°.
+. 1Le autLority sLall aominister tLe cooe, lor vLicL purpose it sLall engage sucL
stall or assistance as is necessary ano sLall take sucL actions as may le neces-
sary ano reasonalle to oltain compliance vitL its provisions, as regaros lotL

plumling systems alreaoy existing vitLin its area ano tLose to le installeo at
any time in tLe luture.
5. Þo person sLall construct, install, exteno or materially alter any plumling
system vitLout making lormal application to, ano receiving lormal approval
lrom, tLe autLority. Contravention ol tLe cooe vill le sulncient grounos lor
approval to le vitLLelo.
6. 1Le autLority sLall maintain a register ol persons qualineo unoer tLe regula-
tions ol tLe examining loaro ol tLe national association ol plumlers vLo Lave
applieo to Lave tLeir names entereo. 1Le autLority may grant a licence, at its
oiscretion, to anyone so registereo to lecome a °licenseo plumler°, alter it is
satisneo tLat sucL person is capalle, ol gooo repute, ano lamiliar vitL tLe
provisions ol tLe cooe. ¡icences ol a graoe commensurate vitL tLe applicant`s
qualincations ano experience sLall le granteo lor a nxeo perioo ol years, alter
vLicL tLey may le reneveo alter reapplication, lut tLe autLority sLall Lave tLe
pover to revoke or terminate a licence in tLe event ol unsatislactory vork or
oelilerate lreacL ol tLe provisions ol tLe cooe. ¡n tLe event ol a oispute regaro-
ing tLe issuing, reneval or termination ol a plumler`s licence, sucL oispute
may le relerreo to an arlitrator, nominateo ly tLe autLority or incumlent
presioent ol tLe national association ol plumlers ano acceptalle to lotL
parties, vLose oecision sLall le linoing.
7. ¡xcept vLere tLe autLority sLall agree in vriting to otLer oispositions, only
a licenseo plumler sLall le autLorizeo to le responsille lor tLe construction,
repair, alteration or removal ol pipes, valves, orains or otLer appurtenances
ol any orinking-vater supply or orainage system (incluoing storm orainage
oiscLarging into a pullic sever or vatercourse) in any luiloing or on any lano.
Cnly a licenseo plumler may make a connection to a pullic vater main or to
a pullic sever, ano Le sLall le responsille lor giving notice to tLe vater ano
severage autLorities ol tLe intention ol making sucL connection lor satislying
any requirements ol tLose looies.
8. 1Le autLority may require any plumler to vLom a licence is granteo unoer
tLis cooe to oeposit a perlormance lono in an amount to le agreeo, lut not
exceeoing (tLe sum to le stateo) vitL tLe autLority. 1Lis lono sLall certily
tLat all plumling vork perlormeo ly tLe licensee or unoer Lis supervision
sLall le in accoroance vitL tLe provisions ol tLe cooe, ano tLat in tLe case
ol any violation ol any ol tLese provisions Le sLall pay all nnes or penalties
properly imposeo ly tLe council. A scLeoule ol sucL nnes or penalties accom-
panies tLis cooe ol practice.
9. 1Le autLority sLall specily tLe graoes ano quality ol materials tLat are accept-
alle lor use in tLe vater ano severage systems in its jurisoiction. 1Le autLority
sLall Lave tLe rigLt to conoemn any useo plumling materials or equipment
vLicL tLe autLority oeems to le so vorn, oamageo or oelective tLat its reuse
voulo constitute a sanitary or salety Lazaro. SucL conoemneo material sLall
le promptly removeo lrom tLe site ano sLall not le reuseo lor plumling in
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tLe area unoer tLe jurisoiction ol tLe autLority. ¡t is not tLe intention ol tLis
paragrapL tLat useo material vLicL is capalle ol satislactory reuse sLall le
conoemneo solely on tLe grounos tLat it is not nev.
10. 1Le ouly oelegateo representative ol tLe autLority (relerreo to Lere as °tLe
inspector°) sLall Lave tLe rigLt ol entry into premises lor vLicL proposals lor
tLe installation ol plumling systems Lave leen sulmitteo to tLe autLority,
or in vLicL plumling Las alreaoy leen installeo. SucL entry sLall le maoe
at a reasonalle Lour ano in tLe company ol a representative ol tLe ovner or
11. Particular premises in vLicL tLere exists any oual vater system, premises in
vLicL looo, orink or otLer material susceptille to contamination is prepareo,
storeo or ollereo lor sale, ano any otLer premises vLicL in tLe opinion ol tLe
autLority present any special LealtL Lazaros, sLall le periooically examineo
ly tLe inspector, alter a minimum ol 2+ Lours` notice Las leen given to tLe
ovner or occupant, to connrm tLat tLe plumling system is leing maintaineo
satislactorily ano in conlormity vitL tLe cooe.
12. ¡n tLe event ol any lreacL ol tLe cooe tLe autLority sLall, vitLin one calenoar
montL ol tLe contravention`s leing lrougLt to its attention, serve notice upon
tLe ollenoer specilying tLe nature ol tLe ollence ano tLe measures requireo to
remeoy it. At tLe same time, vLere applicalle, it sLall orav attention to tLe
statutory penalty specineo lor tLe lreacL ol tLe cooe, as listeo in tLe scLeoule
ol penalties accompanying ano lorming part ol tLis cooe ol practice. Payment
ol tLe penalty ano completion ol tLe specineo remeoial vorks sLall oiscLarge
tLe ollence.
13. ¡n tLe event tLat tLe person receiving notice lrom tLe autLority oisputes tLe
ollence in vriting vitLin 60 oays ol receipt ol tLe aloresaio notice, tLe
autLority may take steps to reler tLe oispute to a court ol lav or to a lorm ol
arlitration to le agreeo upon ly tLe parties concerneo, lotL sioes to le louno
ly tLe oecision so reacLeo.
1+. 1Le autLority may reluse to grant permission lor a plumling installation to le
connecteo to tLe pullic vater mains or severs il it Las reason to lelieve tLat
tLe system contravenes tLe plumling cooe. ¡n sucL a case tLe ovner or occu-
pant ol tLe premises concerneo may call upon tLe autLority to provioe oetails
ol tLe allegeo inlringement ol tLe cooe. ¡n tLe event ol oispute tLe matter sLall
le relerreo to a court ol lav or otLer lorm ol arlitration.
1Le mooel cooe may neeo to le varieo oepenoing on lactors sucL as tLe lollov-
º vLetLer or not tLe °autLority Laving jurisoiction° lor plumling is also tLe
vater ano severage autLority,
º il a single municipal, state, or provincial autLority Las coverage ol a numler
ol local communities,
º vLetLer ol not tLere is a national system lor tLe training ano examination
ol plumlers,
º vLetLer tLe plumling autLority is also responsille lor tLe aoministration
ol luiloing regulations.
1Le lolloving sections elalorate on tLe cooe ol practice ano provioe aooitional
context ano oiscussions on particular aspects ol tLe cooe.
I.1 kpp||cat|eas fer appreºa| te |asta|| p|am||aq s¡stems
1Le process ol application lor a plumling proposal vill vary lrom autLority to
autLority. Some autLorities may only require a vritten application, ano otLers
may require plans ano ngures oetailing tLe plumling proposal supporteo ly
existing luiloing oetails:
Application lor tLe autLority`s approval lor plumling proposals in accoroance vitL
paragrapL XXX [page YYY| ol tLe plumling cooe ol practice sLall le in sucL lorm
ano must le accompanieo ly sucL plans as tLe autLority may require.
¡l tLe autLority requires stanoaro lorms to le useo lor applications, approvals,
appeals or otLer purposes, a scLeoule vitL a sample ol lorms can le attacLeo to
tLe cooe or maoe reaoily availalle ly otLer means.
WLere an autLority requires plans to accompany applications sucL require-
ments sLoulo also le clearly oenneo. ¡l tLese requirements may le relaxeo in
certain cases tLose circumstances sLoulo le oescrileo in tLe text.
A sample oescription ol plan requirements is given lelov:
Plans accompanying applications lor permission to install, exteno or alter pluml-
ing systems must le sulmitteo in ouplicate ano one copy vill le retaineo ly tLe
autLority. 1Le secono copy vill le returneo to tLe applicant vitL tLe autLority`s
lormal approval.
Plans sLall consist ol elevations ano sections as necessary, oravn to a scale ol not
less tLan 1:100, sLoving tLe lolloving oetails in relation to all structural leatures
ol tLe luiloing:
(a) ¡very plumling nxture, soil-pipe, orain, vater service, ventilating pipe, storm
vater pipe, grease-trap, interceptor or otLer apparatus, il requireo, incluoing
tLe size ano graoient ol all orains ano tLe oiameter ol all otLer piping,
(l) 1Le LeigLt ano position ol cLimneys, vinoovs or otLer leatures ol tLe luilo-
ing vitLin a oistance ol 6 m (20 lt) lrom tLe open eno ol any soil-pipe or
ventilating pipe,
(c) 1Le level ol tLe lovest hoor ol tLe luiloing ano ol tLe surrounoing open
spaces, ano tLe relative level ol tLe LigLvay, street, lane, ano ol tLe invert ol
any sever vLicL is to le connecteo to tLe orains.
A llock plan, to a scale ol not less tLan 1:1000, sLall also le provioeo sLoving
tLe premises at vLicL tLe vork is to le carrieo out, tLe limits ol tLe property, tLe
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positions ol tLe pullic vater main ano any sever at vLicL connections vill le
maoe, togetLer vitL otLer relevant oetails. 1Le premises must le accurately ioenti-
neo ly property numler or name ano street name. 1Le position ano oiameter ol
tLe proposeo vater service letveen tLe main ano tLe premises, as vell as tLe size,
graoient ano line ol any orain, septic tank or otLer metLoo ol vaste oisposal, must
also le sLovn.
Most autLorities vill not permit tLe oiscLarge ol storm vater into tLe autLority
sanitary severage system. Plans ol storm vater orainage may le requireo ly
some otLer autLorities.
1Le plan must incluoe, or le accompanieo ly, aoequate specincations ano oescrip-
tions ol tLe vork proposeo. 1Ley must le signeo ly tLe applicant, vLo sLall state
vLetLer Le or sLe is tLe ovner, occupant or agent ol tLe property. ¡l tLe applicant
is not tLe ovner tLen tLe ovner`s name ano aooress sLall le sLovn.
1Le plans must inoicate tLe intenoeo use ol eacL luiloing covereo ly tLe applica-
tion. ¡xcept in tLe case ol single oomestic units, tLe estimateo oaily consumption
ol vater on vLicL tLe plumling oesign Las leen laseo must le clearly sLovn.
Aooitional allovances may also le requireo lor nrengLting services.
¡l it is intenoeo tLat tLe vater service pipe, orain or any otLer part ol tLe plumling
system sLall cross any lano or property tLat is not unoer tLe same ovnersLip as tLe
premises to vLicL tLe application relers, tLen tLe name ano aooress ol tLe ovner
ol sucL otLer lano or property must le sLovn ano an inoication ol tLe nature ol
tLe agreement covering vay-leave ano rigLt ol access lor maintenance ano repair
must le given.
1Le application accompanying tLe plans sLoulo also give tLe name ano registration
numler ol tLe licenseo plumler vLo vill le responsille lor carrying out tLe vork
in accoroance vitL tLe cooe.
¡n some cases an application lor approval ol plumling proposals may le accepteo
ly tLe vater ano severage autLorities as an application ol permission to connect
to tLe main ano sever. ¡n otLer instances a separate approacL is requireo, ano it
is essential to make tLe appropriate proceoure clear ly relerence in tLe cooe.
I.1 !ett|aq p|am||aq staa6ar6s
1Lere are certain oetails incluoeo in tLe cooe tLat coulo le regaroeo as regula-
tions emanating lrom autLorities otLer tLan tLose responsille lor plumling
stanoaros. !or example, it is usually consioereo most oesiralle tLat inoivioual
ovellings sLoulo eacL Lave a separate connection lrom tLe vater main ano to tLe
pullic sever. Hovever, tLere are occasions, sucL as vLen crovoeo estates or
properties remote lrom pullic services are oealt vitL, vLen tLis requirement is
relaxeo. 1Lis is usually oone vitL a special agreement vLerely tLose vLo sLare
a comlineo service accept responsilility lor a proportion ol luture maintenance

AnotLer oetail tLat sLoulo le specincally oenneo is tLe lounoary letveen
pullic services ano private plumling. WLere vater mains ano severs are laio
unoer tLe pullic roao or street it is common practice lor tLe respective autLori-
ties to accept responsilility lor tLe orainpipes ano service connections tLat lie
letveen tLe lounoary ol tLe property to le serveo ano tLe pullic main or sever.
Sometimes tLe autLorities concerneo install tLese pipes tLemselves ano cLarge
tLe applicant lor tLe initial cost, sometimes tLe licenseo plumler makes tLe
connection ano lays tLe pipe, vLicL tLe autLority takes over upon completion,
sometimes tLe vater autLority provioes an unoergrouno valve on a service line
just vitLin tLe property lounoary, ano tLe ovner accepts responsilility leyono
tLat point. ¡n tLe same vay tLe severage autLority may construct, or require tLe
construction ol, an access cLamler on tLe loroer letveen private ano pullic
lano. 1Lese practices may vary in oillerent jurisoictions, lut in any case it is
essential tLat tLe one tLat is to le aoopteo sLoulo le clearly oenneo, prelerally
in tLe cooe.
I.4 0aa||t¡ assaraace aa6 test|aq
Lpon approval ol tLe application tLe autLority vill issue a permit to unoertake
tLe vork vitLin a stateo time, ano specily tLe tests to le applieo to tLe plumling
system upon completion.
¡t is tLe responsilility ol tLe applicant to ensure tLat tLe vork is executeo in
accoroance vitL tLe plans ano specincations sulmitteo vitL tLe application, ano
tLat any conoitions attacLeo to tLe permit are complieo vitL. 1Le autLority`s
inspector vill Lave tLe rigLt ol entry to verily tLat tLe terms ol tLe permit are
leing olserveo.
Lpon completion ol tLe plumling vork, lut lelore tLe grouno Las leen nlleo
in or tLe internal pipevork Liooen ly structural leatures, tLe applicant sLoulo
give notice tLat tLe system is reaoy lor testing. 1Le lorm ol tLese tests sLoulo
eitLer le part ol a national cooe or sLoulo le oetermineo ly tLe local autLority.
1Leir purpose is to ensure tLe vatertigLtness ol lotL vater piping ano tLe orain-
age system.
Lnless otLervise requireo ly a national cooe or autLority, tLe vater system
may le aoequately testeo ly nlling tLe system lrom tLe mains ano inspecting all
joints ano nttings lor signs ol leakage. Some autLorities in LigL-pressure areas
may require tLat tLe installation le testeo ly increasing tLe pressure alove tLe
vater main pressure. 1Le minimum test pressure ol 1.5 times tLe operating
pressure sLoulo le useo unless tLe manulacturer`s instructions inoicate oillerently.
¡n complex systems tLe autLority may require an air test sucL as one in vLicL tLe
vLole piping system is suljecteo to a pressure equivalent to 35 kilopascals (kPa)
Lelo lor a perioo ol at least 15 minutes. WLere sucL tests are to le perlormeo it is
usual lor tLe autLority to leno or rent tLe necessary compressor ano gauges, ano
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lor tLe responsille plumler to connect tLese ano set up tLe test unoer tLe
oirection ol tLe inspector.
1ests on tLe orainage ol tLe plumling system are usually applieo in sections.
Lnoergrouno orains are commonly given a vater test or air test as soon as tLey
are completeo. Alter approval tLe grouno can tLen le nlleo in, tLus reoucing tLe
time tLat tLe site is oisrupteo. 1Le usual proceoure is to insert a orain plug in tLe
sever connection point or tLe access cLamler nearest to tLe sever (tLis may le
at tLe lounoary ol tLe property) ano to nll tLe vLole ol tLe sulsurlace orainage
system vitL vater. A Leao ol 3 metres maximum to any section ol orain may le
applieo ly temporarily aooing a sLort lengtL ol vertical pipe at tLe upper eno. ¡t
is not alvays practicalle to apply tLis Leao, especially il tLere are a numler ol
gullies in tLe system, in vLicL case tLe orains vill le nlleo to tLe LigLest point
possille ano tLe test applieo in sections.
1Le vater sLoulo remain in tLe system lor a minimum ol 10 minutes lor clay
orains ano 5 minutes lor otLer materials, ouring vLicL time tLe vater level
sLoulo not orop signincantly. ¡l tLe joints ol tLe orain are ol cement ano are ory,
tLe system sLoulo le nlleo at least an Lour lelore tLe test so tLat no vater is
alsorleo ly tLe jointing material. ¡l vater is scarce, or il lor any otLer reason tLe
autLority prelers an air test, tLe orains sLoulo le pluggeo ano suljecteo to air
pressure ol 30 kPa lor a minimum ol 3 minutes vitLout a orop in pressure.
¡xcessive pressures ol eitLer vater or air are unoesiralle on unoergrouno orain-
pipes, vLicL are not oesigneo to resist sucL internal stresses. 1Le joints
(especially cement joints ol clay pipes) may also lecome looseneo or oamageo il
too great a Leao is applieo lrom vitLin. ¡n sucL cases tLe test pressures can le
reouceo to provioe a minimum ol 10 kPa or 1 metre Leao.
As an aooitional precaution tLe lover access cLamler sLoulo le inspecteo
alter tLe vater test Las leen completeo ano tLe orains emptieo, or alter a perioo
ol rain, to connrm tLat tLere is no innltration lrom tLe surrounoing grouno into
tLe pipe.
Water tests may le applieo to tLe orain outlets lrom nxtures vitLin tLe
luiloing ly nlling tLe pipes up to tLe spill level ol tLe nxtures. ¡n multi-storey
luiloings, a vater or air test may neeo to le oone in sections ol tvo storeys. An
alternative is a smoke test, in vLicL a macLine is useo to nll tLe internal orainage
system vitL smoke unoer pressure lrom a testing macLine. 1Le vent stack must
le pluggeo at its upper eno as soon as tLe smoke emerges, ano tLe pressure
applieo sLoulo not exceeo 250 pascals or tLe liquio in tLe nxture traps vill le
llovn out. 1Le pressure sLoulo remain steaoy lor at least 15 minutes, ouring
vLicL time all nxtures, traps ano pipe joints sLoulo le inspecteo lor signs ol
emerging smoke.
WLen tLe vLole system Las leen successlully testeo ano inspecteo tLe
autLority may issue a certincate to tLat ellect as evioence tLat tLe plumler`s
vork Las leen properly carrieo out. ¡n some countries it is requireo tLat tLe
plumler issue a compliance certincate inoicating tLat tLe plumling ano orainage
vork complies vitL tLe regulations ano, in ellect, tLe plumler must guarantee
tLe vorkmansLip lor a nominateo perioo ol time.
I.î 0|s|afect|ea ef aew p|am||aq |asta||at|eas
Any vater useo lor testing tLe vater piping sLoulo le lrom a sale orinking-
vater source, ano alter completion ol tLe test it is gooo practice lor tLe autLority
to require tLat tLe system le oisinlecteo. Cne approacL is oetaileo Lere. Lisin-
lection is normally accomplisLeo ly oosing tLe storage tank vitL a cLlorine
compouno (e.g. sooium LypocLlorite or calcium LypocLlorite) to proouce a
20÷50 milligrams per litre solution ol lree resioual cLlorine, running all taps ano
nxtures until tLe smell ol cLlorine is evioent at all outlets, tLen closing all taps
ano nxtures ano alloving tLe system to stano lor an appropriate perioo (lrom at
least one Lour at 50 milligrams per litre to at least tvo Lours at 20 milligrams per
litre). ¡t is tLen husLeo to vaste until tLe cLlorine levels ol tLe emerging vater
oecrease to normal values. CtLer approveo oisinlectants may le useo, lor
example appropriate concentrations ol cLlorine oioxioe, lut it is more oilncult to
oltain ano Lanole tLan cLlorine (lleacL or lleacLing povoer). Cl course, it is
essential tLat tLe gaskets ano nttings ano otLer materials in tLe plumling system
Lave leen selecteo to le resistant to oamage lrom tLe cLlorine or otLer oisinlect-
ant at tLe ooses tLat voulo le useo.
WLen oisinlecting tLe system alter installation, or vLen putting a system
lack into service alter a serious contamination incioent, it is necessary to calcu-
late tLe approximate quantity ol oisinlectant to le useo. 1Lis oepenos upon
tLree lactors ÷ tLe volume ol vater containeo in tLe system vLile no orav-oll is
taking place, tLe percentage ol lree cLlorine (or otLer oisinlectant) in tLe
compouno cLosen ano tLe cLlorine oemano ol tLe vater.
1Le culic capacity ol tLe pipevork can reaoily le oltaineo ly measuring tLe
lengtLs ol pipe ol oillerent oiameters ano multiplying ly tLeir cross-sectional
areas. 1o calculate tLe ngure accurately is a lalorious process, ano it is more
practical to make a generous estimate since tLe oisinlectant solution can le
somevLat overstrong, lut sLoulo not le veaker tLan specineo. 1o tLe pipevork
capacity must le aooeo tLe volume ol tLe supply cistern ano any husL tanks
connecteo to tLe system. Hovever, it is important to strive to acLieve a relatively
accurate calculation so excessive oeterioration ol nttings or otLer prollems are
avoioeo. Manulacturers` instructions sLoulo alvays le lolloveo.
1o oltain a 50 parts per million solution, 50 grams ol lree cLlorine per 1000
litres (7 ounces per 1000 LS gallons, 8 ounces per 1000 LI gallons)
vill le
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Conversions: 1 ounce = 28.35 grams, 1 pouno (ll) = 0.+5 kilograms, 1 LS gallon = 3.79 litres,
1 LI gallon = +.55 litres.
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1Le strengtL ol tLe compouno to le useo (vLetLer solio or liquio)
sLoulo le knovn ano tLe quantities aojusteo accoroing to tLe percentage ol lree
cLlorine. ¡l, lor example, a lleacLing povoer ol 25° availalle cLlorine is tLe
agent cLosen, 200 grams ol tLe compouno vill le requireo per 1000 litres ol
solution (1.7 ll per 1000 LS gallons, 2 ll per 1000 LI gallons). ¡l tLe compouno
is in solio lorm it vill le expeoient to oissolve it immeoiately lelore use (1aylor
& Wooo 1982, ¡PH¡ 200+). Lse tLe supernatant liquio.
Belore oosing legins, all pipevork sLoulo le husLeo out, tLe incoming mains
supply sLut oll ano tLe system emptieo ly opening valves on all nxtures. 1Le
oeao space in tLe supply tank lelov tLe lovest orav-oll point sLoulo le emptieo
ano cleaneo out. Prior to emptying tLe plumling system, all ol tLe occupants ol
tLe luiloing sLoulo le notineo ol tLe expecteo lengtL ol interruption ol supply
so tLat vater lor use ouring tLat perioo may le oravn oll ano storeo. 1Ley must
also le varneo against using any husL tank or otLer nxture vLile oisinlection is
taking place.
WitL all nxture taps closeo, vater lrom tLe main is reaomitteo to tLe storage
tank ano tLe prepareo oisinlectant graoually aooeo to tLe incoming supply close
to tLe lall valve to ensure tLorougL mixing. Most, lut not all, ol tLe oisinlectant
sLoulo le aooeo in tLis vay until tLe tank is lull. Water sLoulo tLen le oravn oll
lrom eacL nxture in turn until cLlorine (as evioenceo ly tLe smell) emerges, alter
vLicL tLe nxture taps are sLut ano lelt unoisturleo lor tLe requireo time. !lusL
tanks sLoulo le operateo until tLe vater tLey contain is cLlorinateo. 1Le supply
tank sLoulo tLen le toppeo up (using tLe remainoer ol tLe concentrateo
oisinlectant) ano tLe incoming supply sLut oll once more.
At tLe eno ol tLe contact perioo tLe system is once more emptieo tLrougL tLe
nxtures, mains vater is reaomitteo to tLe supply tank, ano nxtures sucL as sink
or vasLlasin taps are openeo ano alloveo to run until cLlorine cannot le
smelleo. Analytical test systems are reaoily availalle to test lor resioual cLlorine.
1Lis is unnecessary lor vater closets or otLer nxtures vLere tLe vater vill not
le orunk or come into contact vitL tLe skin.
¡n luiloings vLere no supply tank is installeo ano nxtures are supplieo
oirectly lrom mains pressure tLe proceoure is more complex, calling lor tLe use
ol a lorce pump, ano tLis migLt le carrieo out ly tLe pullic autLorities, or
accoroing to tLeir special requirements.
More elalorate oisinlecting proceoures may le requireo lor complex systems,
ano lor periooic maintenance ol piping ano storage tanks in luiloings serving
special purposes, lor example Lospitals, loaroing scLools, resioential Lotels ano
As plumling in many countries still uses non-metric measures lor nxtures ano nttings ano tLeir
use, non-metric equivalents to stanoaro S¡ units are given, vLere appropriate, in tLis look. 1Lese
equivalents may le rounoeo oll, accoroing to requirements in eacL instance.

looo estallisLments. 1Le autLority may require a lacteriological test (E. coli or
laecal colilorms) ol tLe vater in tLe system alter oisinlection ol tLe plumling
system Las leen carrieo out. Alter any oisinlection proceoure is carrieo out, tLe
contractor sLoulo issue a certincate ol conlormity.
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ê. |mp|emeatat|ea ef the p|am||aq
ce6e ef pract|ce
¡l a plumling cooe ol practice is to operate ellectively, it is important tLat tLe
autLority responsille lor its implementation lully unoerstanos its roles ano
responsililities ano tLe limits ol its povers. 1Lese roles vill vary accoroing to
tLe scope ano pover ol tLe autLority, lut usually incluoe tLe interpretation ol
tLe cooe, approval ol applications, inspection ano certincation ol nev vork ano
lunctions sucL as periooic inspection to ensure continueo compliance ano penal-
ties lor non-compliance.
ê.1 kpp||cat|ea aa6 appreºa| precess
1Le plumling cooe ol practice vill set out requirements regaroing tLe sul-
mission ol application lorms ano plans ano otLer essential inlormation relating
to tLe proposeo plumling vork. °Plumling vork° must le clearly oenneo
vitLin tLe cooe ol practice ano it is likely to cover nev installations, as vell as
sulstantial replacements or aooitions to existing systems.
1ypes ol vork tLat are exempteo lrom tLe neeo lor approval, sucL as tLe repair
or replacement ol a single plumling nxture or small oomestic installations
connecteo neitLer to a vater main nor to a pullic sever, sLoulo le oenneo.
¡nspectors employeo ly tLe autLority sLoulo le competent to give guioance in
cases ol ooult. Boroerline cases are most likely to arise in inoustrial ano
commercial premises, vLere temporary piping is sulject to continual aojustment
ano realignment. 1Lese realignments must le carelully scrutinizeo vLere cross-
connection vitL unsale sources migLt occur. Some countries make an exception
regaroing oomestic property vLere tLe vork is to le carrieo out ly tLe ovner,
lut otLers regaro tLis exemption as oangerous as it may result in oelective
installations tLat may contaminate pullic supplies.
Þormally tLe responsilility lor making application to tLe autLority lies vitL
tLe ovner ol tLe property or tLe plumling contractor. Most autLorities require
applications to le maoe on stanoaro lorms, tLis saves time ly ensuring tLat
essential items ol inlormation are presenteo in a recognizalle ano unilorm
manner. 1Le oetail requireo on tLe application lorm vill oepeno on tLe extent
ano complexity ol tLe vork in question. All application lorms sLoulo incluoe tLe
name ol tLe plumler or plumling lusiness responsille lor tLe vork ano tLe
registration numler ol tLe inoivioual or lusiness.
Applications lor particular types ol vork usually neeo to le supporteo ly

plans, ano tLe cooe sLoulo contain oetails ol tLe autLority`s requirements. Some
hexilility is appropriate. Eelatively simple oomestic jols may require lasic plans
vLereas proposals lor larger installations in multi-storey apartments or in
inoustrial or commercial premises sLoulo le sLovn in consioeralle oetail. ¡n
some cases it may le appropriate to require no more tLan notincation ol certain
categories ol vork ratLer tLan require tLe sulmission ol a lormal application lor
approval. 1Lis vill largely oepeno on tLe nature ol tLe vork, tLe inspection
resources ol tLe autLority (vLicL are olten limiteo) ano tLe terms ol tLe cooe ol
practice. Aovance notincation is typically requireo ano tLe cooe ol practice
sLoulo specily tLe numler ol oays lelore tLe vork is oue to legin. 1Le autLority
vill usually reserve tLe rigLt to inspect tLe site at any time lelore, ouring or
upon completion ol tLe vork, ano prior to it leing put into service. !ailure to
notily is likely to le treateo as a lreacL ol tLe cooe.
Cnce tLe application ano plans are sulmitteo an inspector sLoulo le given
responsilility eitLer to approve or reject plans or to recommeno tLeir approval or
rejection to tLe autLority. Eejection sLoulo only le on tLe grounos tLat tLe
proposals oo not comply vitL tLe cooe ol practice, or may inoicate a LealtL risk
or signincant lailing, ano tLe reasons lor rejection sLoulo le specineo ly tLe
inspector. Þegotiations voulo usually le capalle ol resolving oillerences. 1Lere
Lave leen examples ol lrilery ol inspectors ano tLis sLoulo le scrupulously
preventeo. ¡nspectors must le vell traineo ano avare ol tLeir nouciary
responsililities as pullic LealtL ano vellare olncials.
ê.1 Cert|0cat|ea ef ceafermaace
Alter tLe plans ano applications are approveo tLe plumler sLoulo notily tLe
inspector (olten on a stanoaro lorm) vLen vork is oue to legin. Similar notinca-
tion vill le requireo ol tLe oate vLen tLe completeo vork is reaoy lor testing
ano approval. Betveen tLese oates tLe inspector sLoulo Lave tLe rigLt to enter
tLe premises at any reasonalle Lour to inspect tLe progress ol tLe vork ano to
examine any materials useo. At tLe conclusion ol any test (vLetLer intermeoiate
on part ol tLe system or nnal on tLe completeo installation), tLe inspector sLoulo
connrm tLe nnoings in vriting, usually on a stanoaro lorm.
¡n some countries a system ol sell-certincation operates. 1Lis allovs appro-
priately qualineo ano approveo plumlers or plumling lusinesses to issue a
certincate connrming tLat tLey Lave carrieo out tLe vork in accoroance vitL tLe
plumling cooe ol practice. SucL sell-certincation vill le limiteo to tLose vLo
Lave met specineo approval criteria (sucL as Loloing lormal plumling qualinca-
tions, leing traineo in tLe content ol tLe cooe itsell ano Loloing appropriate
lialility insurance coverage) ano may le limiteo to particular types ol vork. ¡t
migLt also le possille unoer sucL a system to vaive tLe normal requirements lor
notincation or approval ol certain types ol vork vLere tLe vork is to le unoer-
taken ly a plumler or plumling lusiness vitL a proven track recoro tLat meets
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tLe autLority`s approval criteria. Work completeo unoer a system ol sell-certincation
may also le sulject to periooic auoit ly tLe autLority, ano tLe alility to issue
luture sell-certincation may le vitLoravn in tLe ligLt ol any signincant
prollems arising lrom tLe auoit.
1Le autLority may provioe its ovn apparatus lor testing (sucL as pressure-
measuring equipment ano orain plugs) or it may require tLe plumler to supply
tLese items. WLere tLe autLority`s equipment is useo, it is common lor tLe
plumler to collect it, set up tLe test ano return tLe apparatus alter successlul
completion. A rental lee may sometimes le cLargeo ly tLe autLority lor tLis
ê.1 |er|e6|c |aspect|ea
An essential leature ol risk prevention ano risk minimization strategies is tLat
lacilities are regularly monitoreo ano maintaineo. As part ol its responsilility lor
protection ol pullic LealtL ano salety, tLe autLority must make certain tLat
plumling systems are assiouously maintaineo at tLe stanoaro requireo in tLe
plumling cooe ol practice. ¡nsuring ongoing compliance vitL tLe cooe ol prac-
tice tLrougL a process ol periooic inspection ol installations is expensive, so
appropriate priorities neeo to le set.
!or systems tLat Lave tLe potential to pose a serious risk to pullic LealtL (sucL
as premises vLere looo or orink is processeo, Lotels ano looging Louses, ano
inoustrial or commercial premises) it may le a conoition ol tLe autLority`s
approval tLat tLe plumling system sLoulo le retesteo at specinc intervals (sucL
as every tvo years), ano tLat sucL tests sLoulo le vitnesseo ly tLe inspector. 1Le
inspector sLoulo le satisneo tLat no cross-connections or otLer violations ol tLe
cooe Lave occurreo since tLe previous inspection ano test.
ê.4 |eaa|t|es aa6 eafercemeat
1Le long-term ellectiveness ol a cooe ol practice oepenos on ellective enlorce-
ment. Any contravention ol tLe provisions ol tLe plumling cooe ol practice
sLoulo constitute a lreacL ol tLe lav, ano sLoulo le punisLeo accoroingly alter
tLe nature ol tLe ollence ano tLe ioentity ol tLe ollenoer Lave leen estallisLeo.
Because tLis process can le costly ano time consuming, comparatively minor
lreacLes are rarely lolloveo up in tLis vay. ¡t is common practice to annex to tLe
cooe ol practice a scLeoule ol aoministrative penalties relateo to violation ol
particular sections. ¡n case ol oispute over lreacLes tLe autLority may take tLe
matter to tLe courts, or settle it ly arlitration il tLe ollence is ol a tecLnical
nature. More orastic sanctions sucL as tLe vitLoraval ol tLe licence ol a practis-
ing plumler, relusal to permit connection ol a nev system to tLe pullic mains,
or oisconnection ol an existing installation are reserveo lor serious lreacLes ol
tLe cooe ol practice. Some examples migLt incluoe carrying out vork vLile not
leing registereo or licenseo, altering plumling systems vitLout notilying tLe
autLority, alloving vater to le vasteo or contaminateo tLrougL misuse or
neglect ol pipes or nttings, using vater lor unautLorizeo purposes, interlering
vitL valves or otLer apparatus lelonging to tLe autLority, or tampering vitL tLe
operation ol any meter upon vLicL vater cLarges are laseo, ano relusing aomis-
sion to tLe autLority`s inspector, or otLervise olstructing tLe inspectors in tLe
perlormance ol tLeir outy.
ê.î ||aaac|a| aspects ef a6m|a|strat|ea ef the p|am||aq ce6e ef pract|ce
¡mplementation ol tLe cooe ol practice ano ensuring ongoing compliance Lave
necessary costs. 1Lese incluoe costs ol Liring stall to process applications,
inspect vork ano test systems, as vell as olnce accommooation, training ano
management, printing, transport ano otLer incioental items. ¡n some countries
tLese expenses are recovereo lrom applicants tLrougL lees lor particular services
(sucL as an application lee or an inspection lee) ano tLese lees are sLovn as a
scLeoule in tLe cooe ol practice. 1Ley sLoulo le clearly oistinguisLeo lrom tLe
lees or cLarges tLat may le levieo ly tLe vater, severage or otLer autLority lor
specinc items ol vork sucL as lor making a connection to a vater main or sever,
lor replacing tLe LigLvay surlace alter lacknlling a trencL, lor clearing a septic
tank or lor permitting oiscLarge ol inoustrial vaste into pullic severs.
Many countries preler not to incluoe tLe collection ol lees as part ol tLe cooe.
Cne justincation lor tLis approacL is tLat tLe services oescrileo are provioeo to
tLe community as a vLole ano sLoulo tLerelore le lorne ly tLe community as a
vLole tLrougL tLe taxing system. AnotLer reason is tLat it is oilncult to proouce
a scale ol lees vLere tLe amount cLargeo is lairly apportioneo in accoroance vitL
tLe service provioeo. Hovever, it is possille tLat tLe reason sometimes is more
practical, in tLat tLe income likely to le receiveo may le more tLan outveigLeo
ly tLe cost ol extra stall ano otLer expenses incurreo in collecting ano account-
ing lor it.
°. |M|||M|NI|I|0N 0| I|| ||JM||Nû C0|| 0| |||CI|C|
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
9. Ira|a|aq aa6 req|strat|ea ef p|am|ers
Plumling is a cralt calling lor tecLnical knovleoge as vell as manual skills. A
national plumlers` guilo or similar appropriate institution can approve stanoaro
metLoos lor oillerent plumling practices as a lasis lor training ano lor examina-
tion ano certincation ol plumlers.
1raining programmes must ensure tLat lotL tLeoretical ano practical aspects
are lully covereo. Most plumling training systems specily tvo levels ol acLieve-
ment. 1Le nrst ol tLese oescriles a person vLo Las gaineo tLe knovleoge ano
oemonstrateo tLe skills necessary to vork inoepenoently vitLout supervision,
usually oesignateo a journeyman or journeyvoman. 1Le secono is a master
plumler, a oesignation applieo to tLose vLo Lave completeo a numler ol years
as a journeyperson, ano vLo Lave oemonstrateo a superior level ol skill ano
unoerstanoing in tLe prolession. A master plumler is oeemeo competent to
supervise apprentices ano to oversee major construction projects tLat incluoe tLe
installation ol LigLly complex systems. Master plumlers also may vork as
inspectors lor local government autLorities. Many countries Lave lormal accreo-
iteo training programmes lor tLose visLing to gain tLe title ol master plumler.
¡n many oeveloping countries, vLere tLe lormal eoucation system ollers limiteo
opportunities lor tLe oesignation ol master plumlers, it is lunoamental tLat tLe
vater autLorities tLemselves make an ellort to support tLe estallisLment ol
scLools lor plumlers conoucive to tLe lormation ol tLis type ol prolessional.
9.1 Ira|a|aq pr|er te a6m|ss|ea te the p|am||aq tra6e
¡n most oevelopeo countries, training lor aomission to tLe traoe is eitLer tLrougL
lormal apprenticesLip lasting lour to seven years, or tLrougL training at a post-
seconoary institution, sucL as a community college or tecLnical college. WLen
training in plumling is provioeo ly a college or otLer tertiary institution, a
oiploma or certincate may le avaroeo vLen a stuoent completes tLe requireo
course ol stuoy. Hovever, vLile knovleoge acquireo lrom textlooks ano
lectures is important, it alone ooes not lully prepare an inoivioual lor tLe oemanos
ol tLe plumling vorkplace. 1Lose knovleoge-laseo programmes must le
coupleo vitL ellective on-tLe-jol training in tLe nelo, unoer tLe supervision ol
a lully qualineo ano experienceo plumler (usually a master plumler).

9.1 ||ceas|aq aa6 req|strat|ea
1raining programmes, vLetLer apprenticesLip or college laseo, are generally
oesigneo to prepare journeymen or journeyvomen to successlully meet local
licensing, registration or certincation requirements. 1Le granting ol a licence is
recognition ol tLe alility ol tLe person to carry out satislactory plumling vork
vitLout supervision. WLere it is a legal requirement to le licenseo, registereo or
certineo, tLe licensing autLority Las tLe pover to suspeno or revoke a plumler`s
licence lor cause. 1Lis provioes an important incentive lor a licenseo plumler to
maintain gooo stanoaros ol perlormance ano to avoio lreacLes ol tLe local cooe
ol practice. Plumlers may also le askeo to provioe evioence ol gooo cLaracter
ano relialility lelore tLey are licenseo. Plumlers may also le requireo ly tLe
licensing autLority to provioe a oeposit or some lorm ol inoemnity or perlorm-
ance lono to cover tLe cost ol repairing oelective vork lelore a licence is grant-
¡n some countries a unit ol tLe national government, sucL as tLe pullic vorks
oepartment or tLe national vater loaro, takes responsilility lor all aspects ol
training ano registration. ¡n tLese cases, tLe relevant ministry conoucts training
courses, Lolos examinations ano maintains a register ol qualineo plumlers
rankeo accoroing to lotL practical ano tLeoretical experience. Plumlers vLo are
listeo on tLe register are not requireo to take lurtLer tecLnical examinations to
oltain a licence to practise tLeir traoe. WLen training is laseo upon an appren-
ticesLip system, tLe apprenticesLip programme sLoulo le accreoiteo ano
monitoreo ly an appropriate tLiro party or ly a state or national apprenticesLip
agency. 1Le tLiro party may le a national sanitation or LealtL organization, a
luiloing researcL institute, a traoe union or a prolessional society.
Some countries oo not regulate tLe activities ol plumlers ly lav. 1Lis lack ol
regulation ano oversigLt may contrilute sulstantively to poor plumling,
especially in oeveloping countries.
9.1 lsta|||sh|aq a tra|a|aq preqramme
1Le nrst cLallenge in setting up a nev lormal training programme in a city or
country vLere no sucL programme Las existeo is tLe recruitment ol qualineo
ano experienceo inoiviouals to Lelp oesign ano estallisL tLe training ano certin-
cation programmes. 1Lis may involve tLe importation ol vell-traineo plumlers
lrom outsioe tLe local area or lrom nearly nations. 1Le nrst training
programmes can le set up on a small scale, ano tLese pilot programmes can later
le expanoeo to meet tLe neeos ol tLe region. Þumerous mooels lor tLese train-
ing programmes exist ano tLey can le tLe lasis lor tLe programme targeteo to a
specinc jurisoiction.
°. I|||N|Nû |N| ||û|:I||I|0N 0| ||JM|||:
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû

1ê. !taa6ar6s fer mater|a|s ase6 |a
p|am||aq s¡stems
1ê.1 !taa6ar6s
Stanoaros are sets ol rules tLat outline specincation ol oimensions, oesign ol
operation, materials ano perlormance, or oescrile quality ol materials, prooucts
or systems. 1Lese stanoaros sLoulo cover tLe perlormance expectations ol tLe
proouct lor particular applications, as vell as, in tLe case ol orinking-vater con-
tact, tLe cLemicals tLat may le leacLeo lrom tLe proouct into tLe vater. 1Le
intent ol stanoaros is to provioe at least minimum quality, salety or perlormance
specincations so as to ensure relatively unilorm prooucts ano perlormance, ano to
remove amliguity as to tLe suitalility ol certain commercial prooucts lor par-
ticular applications. 1Ley reouce tLe risk ol error ly installers, ano also provioe
assurance to tLe plumling system ovners. Stanoaros also provioe oirection to
manulacturers in respect to tLe expectations ol tLe prooucts tLat tLey proouce.
¡nternationally accepteo stanoaros provioe economies to lotL tLe manulacturer
ano tLe user ly reoucing tLe numler ol prooucts ol tLe same type tLat must le
proouceo. Stanoaros may le oevelopeo ly inoustry, non-pront organizations or
traoe associations, as vell as national or international looies. 1Le existence ol
creoille stanoaros ano certiners relieves tLe regulatory autLority ol tLe neeo to
oevelop its ovn case-ly-case stanoaros ano proouct assessment system.
1Le existence ol a stanoaro ooes not alvays ensure tLat all availalle prooucts
meet a specinc stanoaro. ¡n oroer to le connoent ol unilormity in a proouct
tLere must le cLecks ano lalances. 1Lis is accomplisLeo ly assessment conlorm-
ity. Assessment conlormity, proouct listing ano certincation all Lave tLe same
meaning. Simply stateo, it means tLat a proouct, material or oevice Las leen
testeo ano verineo to meet tLe specincation tLat Las leen oevelopeo. 1Lere are at
least tLree types ol certincation: vLere tLe manulacturer or seller sell-certines
ano guarantees tLe proouct ly varranty or contract, vLere tLe manulacturer or
seller oltains verincation ly a contract laloratory, or vLere tLe specinc com-
mercial proouct (not just tLe class ol proouct) Las leen evaluateo ly a creoille
inoepenoent tLiro-party testing or certilying organization tLat is in no vay
relateo to or a part ol tLe manulacturer or seller, ano vLicL Las a system lor
policing tLe valioity ol its certincations.
Assessment conlormity, ly any name, means tLat a proouct, service, material,
system, oevice or component Las unoergone testing to ensure it meets tLe
intenoeo stanoaro lor sucL proouct, material, system, oevice or component.
1Lere are several organizations tLat perlorm assessment conlormity ano, in
most cases, il a specinc proouct, material, system, oevice or component meets a
oesignateo stanoaro, tLe testing organization may allov placement ol a mark or
logo ol tLe organization on tLe proouct, material, system, oevice or component
to certily tLat tLe relevant stanoaro vas successlully met.
1ê.1 |re6acts aa6 mater|a|s ase6 |a p|am||aq
¹ò.z.¹ :t+aa+ra. ler j|am||a¡ jreaact. +aa m+ter|+|.
1Le ouralility ol a plumling system is oepenoent on tLe quality ol its compo-
nent parts ano tLe assemlly skills ol tLose vLo install it. Þo plumling system,
Lovever vell oesigneo, can le expecteo to operate salely or Lygienically il tLe
prooucts or materials useo are unsatislactory. 1Le inverse is also true ÷ il tLe
lest-quality prooucts or materials are useo lut are installeo incorrectly, tLe
system vill le a lailure.
Most inoustrializeo countries Lave national stanoaros or cooes tLat set out tLe
minimum requirements lor tLe material specincations, oesign ano use ol specinc
plumling prooucts. Hovever, plumling cooes ol practice vary consioerally
accoroing to tLe extent to vLicL tLey specily tLe oetaileo stanoaros lor pluml-
ing prooucts ano otLer matters. Some countries take tLe viev tLat tLe level ol
oetail sLoulo le minimizeo, vLereas otLers are very prescriptive. Hovever, even
prescriptive cooes sLoulo allov lor tLe introouction ano innovative use ol prom-
ising nev prooucts, materials ano installation practices vitLout unoue oelay.
Countries tLat are memlers ol tLe ¡nternational Crganization lor Stanoaroization
(¡SC) may cLoose to aoopt tLe ¡SC lramevork as a minimum stanoaro set lor
plumling prooucts ano materials. WHC Guioelines lor Lrinking-vater
Çuality sLoulo le useo as relerence in oecisions concerning LealtL-relateo matters.
Several national ano international stanoaros ano certilying organizations utilize
ano expano upon tLose lasic principles ly ioentilying specinc prooucts tLat
comply. ¡t is important to ensure tLat commonly useo plumling prooucts ano
materials are ol tLe same type, at least tLrougLout a country, to take aovantage
ol economies ol scale in manulacturing ano to ensure easy accessilility.
1Le process ol certincation ol quality ol plumling prooucts may necessitate
tLe setting up ol testing estallisLments vLere prooucts can le assesseo. ¡n many
cases it vill le more economical to simply aoopt an existing qualineo stanoaros
ano certincation programme tLat alreaoy Las international acceptance. 1Lis vill
also avoio unnecessary prolileration ol stanoaros. Proouct certiners ano tLeir
testing lacilities must le ol tLe LigLest stanoaro ano sulject to external auoiting.
1Le application ol suitalle materials ano prooucts must le supporteo ly
aoequate levels ol training ol plumlers vLo use tLem so tLat tLey can ioentily
ano use only appropriate prooucts.
¹ò. :I|N||||: |0| M|I|||||: J:|| |N ||JM||Nû :\:I|M:
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû

¹ò.z.z :e|ect|a¡ .a|t+||e jreaact.
Þumerous stanoaros ano certincation looies exist nationally ano internation-
ally, so it may not le necessary lor a country to oevelop a unique set ol stanoaros.
¡t coulo oecioe to aoopt one ol tLe existing systems ano require tLat prooucts
are certineo to meet tLat system`s requirements. ¡n juoging a proouct or
material, tLe regulating autLority (or certiner) must consioer lactors sucL as tLe
º ¡s tLe proouct or material unoer consioeration suitalle lor tLe application
or purpose¹
º Will it le Larmlul to tLe LealtL ol tLe community in its normal use¹
º ¡s tLere a risk ol tLese materials leing releaseo into tLe environment (e.g.
tLe vater) in tLe nrst instance or alter tLe vorking lile ol tLe proouct or
material Las expireo¹
All pipes, valves, taps ano otLer nttings useo lor tLe supply ol orinking-vater or
tLe removal ol vastevater must not contain Larmlul sulstances alove tLe speci-
neo amount tLat coulo leacL into tLe vater. ¡eao, caomium ano arsenic are
examples ol many possille contaminants tLat coulo le present. 1Le pipes, valves,
taps ano otLer nttings must le capalle ol conveying vater at a nominateo pressure
vitLin a prescrileo environment, ano must le ol sulncient strengtL to contain
anticipateo internal pressures. 1Ley must also le alle to vitLstano external
pressures il tLey are to le lurieo. 1Le impact ol environmental lactors sucL as
Leat, colo, expansion, contraction, corrosion, pH ano lacteria levels also neeo to
le consioereo.
WHC ano many national autLorities Lave oevelopeo guioelines or stanoaros
tLat set out tLe maximum acceptalle levels ol metals ano cLemicals ano otLer
contaminants in pullic orinking-vater supplies (WHC 200+a). 1Lese are tLen
converteo to apply to contaminants tLat may leacL lrom tLe nxtures ano tLe
associateo netvork ol piping systems. !or example, a pipe stanoaro migLt
require tLat tLe leacLing level ol a Leavy metal must not exceeo 10° ol tLe
orinking-vater stanoaro laseo upon a stanoaro test tLat simulates use ano expo-
sure conoitions. Some autLorities also insist tLat piping systems lor soil ano
vaste-vater orainage systems comply vitL tLe same material criteria. Manulac-
turers in tLese areas are olligeo to comply or risk losing market sLare or perLaps
lace prosecution. 1Le stanoaros set lor materials in contact vitL orinking-vater
are minimum requirements ano are laseo upon a specineo use conoition range,
lor example, a proouct suitalle lor a colo vater system vill, in most cases, not le
acceptalle lor a Lot vater system. ¡t is common lor piping ano construction
materials, as vell as tLe vater leing conveyeo, to le seriously allecteo ly aggres-
sive environments ano local conoitions. ¡n summary, it is still very mucL in tLe
Lanos ol tLe inoivioual project aoviser or installer to ensure tLat tLe plumling
prooucts ano materials selecteo lor tLe application are in accoroance vitL olncial

requirements, vill not le unouly allecteo or inhuenceo ly local lactors ano are
correct lor tLe application.
As vell as oecioing vLat is an acceptalle plumling proouct or material, tLe
vater autLority or governing organization must set stanoaros lor tLe level ol
training attaineo ly tLe installation personnel, a point tLat cannot le over-
empLasizeo. ¡n some countries, lor reasons ol economy, transport, proximity to
manulacturing plants or restricteo access to international markets, tLe cLoice ol
availalle materials lor plumling prooucts ano piping systems is olten limiteo.
Socioeconomic reasons may also oictate tLe quality ano stanoaro ol plumling in
oomestic ovellings.
1ê.1 Meta|||c aa6 aea-meta|||c mater|a|s ase6 |a p|pewerk
1Lere are tvo lamilies ol materials availalle lor vater pipevork systems: metal-
lic ano non-metallic materials. Cl tLese tLe most commonly useo materials lor
orinking-vater supply piping are galvanizeo steel or iron, copper, polylutylene,
unplasticizeo polyvinylcLlorioe (PVC), cLlorinateo polyvinylcLlorioe (CPVC)
ano polyetLylene (P¡). Metal alloys, vLicL lar exceeo tLe perlormance specinca-
tions ol tLeir respective parent materials, are also vioely useo. Þev materials
ano construction tecLnologies are continually leing oevelopeo lor tLe luiloing
inoustry ano tLe plumling inoustry. WitLout some lorm ol control at tLe respective
levels vitLin tLe plumling ano luiloing inoustries it voulo le easy lor unscru-
pulous manulacturers to use inlerior materials to tLe oetriment ol installers ano
eno-users. 1Lis can ultimately oamage tLe environment ano tLe LealtL ol tLe
community ano leao to greater costs later vLen systems lail prematurely.
¹ò.1.¹ û+|.+a|tea .tee| er |rea
Galvanizeo steel or iron vas tLe traoitional piping material in tLe plumling
inoustry lor tLe conveyance ol vater ano vastevater. 1Le term °galvanizing°
once relerreo to Lot oippeo galvanizing, in otLer voros total immersion in molten
zinc alter pretreatment cleaning. 1Lis tecLnology alloroeo a reasonalle level ol
internal ano external protection to tLe metal pipe. ¡n more recent times, tLe use
ol electroplating tecLnologies Las provioeo a more attractive external nnisL, lut
little or no internal protection. AltLougL still incluoeo in many cooes ol practice
tLrougLout tLe vorlo, tLe popularity ol galvanizeo piping is oeclining. ¡t is still
leing useo extensively in tLe nre protection inoustry, lut overall tLere are
increasing limitations on Lov ano vLere galvanizeo piping may le useo. ¡nternal
ano external corrosion is a particular prollem vLere galvanizeo steel or iron piping
is connecteo to oissimilar materials, sucL as copper alloy (lrass) in taps ano valves.
¡nternal corrosion can aoo iron, vLicL causes an unoesiralle taste ano may also
cause unsigLtly precipitation ol iron salts on clotLes. AestLetic guioelines containeo
in tLe WHC Guioelines lor Lrinking-vater Çuality aooress tLese matters.
¹ò. :I|N||||: |0| M|I|||||: J:|| |N ||JM||Nû :\:I|M:
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
1Le use ol galvanizeo steel or iron as a conouit lor orinking-vater is a greater
prollem vLere tLe vater hov is slov or static lor perioos ol time oue to rust
oiscoloration causeo ly internal corrosion. Galvanizeo steel or iron piping may
also impart an unpalatalle taste ano smell to tLe vater conveyeo unoer corrosive
conoitions. Galvanizeo steel piping systems are generally accepteo lor outooor
use, lut lecause ol tLe size or lulk ol tLe pipe ano nttings, ano tLe inhexilility
ol sucL systems overall, tLe material is not oesiralle lor internal vater plumling.
Galvanizeo pipe is Leavy to Lanole ano is generally joineo ly tLreaoing ano
screving tLe components togetLer. 1Lis is a lengtLy proceoure vLen compareo
to tLe assemlly ol competing non-metallic pipevork systems.
¹ò.1.z Cejjer ta||a¡
Copper tuling is extremely hexille in tLe Lanos ol a competent installer ano
smaller in overall oiameter tLan tLe equivalent galvanizeo steel pipes ano nt-
tings. Corrosion can le a prollem, tLougL usually to a lesser oegree tLan vitL
galvanizeo steel, care must le exerciseo to avoio contact vitL oissimilar metals.
Copper tuling, oue to its tLinner vall section, is relatively ligLt to Lanole ano is
availalle in coil lorm or straigLt lengtLs as requireo. WLen assemlleo ano
installeo correctly it can lleno into luiloing structures vitLout oilnculty. Piping
systems can le assemlleo vitL tLe aio ol compression nttings, couplings, or ly
leao-lree soloer or lrazing. A LigL oegree ol skill is requireo ol installers vLo
perlorm lraze veloing. Compression nttings are mucL simpler, lut may le
Copper tule or pipe is also particularly uselul lor Lot vater supply systems.
Hovever, Leat loss can lecome an issue il aoequate insulation is not provioeo. As
vitL all metallic materials, tLe risk ol electrolytic corrosion sLoulo le consio-
ereo. 1Lis occurs most commonly vLere galvanizeo steel pipes or nttings
connect vitL copper alloy (lrass) nttings.
System oesigners must le avare tLat vater hovs tLrougL copper tule piping
systems must not exceeo 3 metres per secono. WLen tLis occurs tLere is a LigL
risk tLat tLe internal lore ol tLe piping system vill le erooeo ly LigL hov ano
velocity scouring. Lue to its electrical conouctivity tLere is a neeo lor care to
ensure tLat grounoing connections are separateo lrom piping systems ano any
electrical viring.
¹ò.1.1 |e|¡|at¡|eae
Polylutylene in non-metallic piping systems is lecoming accepteo as a suitalle
material lor tLe conveyance ol orinking-vater in oomestic ovellings in some
inoustrializeo countries. Hovever, it is lanneo ly plumling cooes in LSA oue
to prollems vitL leaks at joints resulting in signincant vater oamage in ovell-
ings. ¡t is a ligLt, hexille material tLat is easy to Lanole ano install. ¡t can le useo
in oomestic ovellings lor lotL Lot ano colo vater supplies. Caution must le
exerciseo as it can suller oegraoation il exposeo to excessive pressure ano tem-
perature, ano exposure to ultraviolet ligLt (sunligLt) is also oetrimental to tLe
1Lere are several jointing systems availalle lor tLe connection ol polyluty-
lene pipevork systems, incluoing electrolusion ano socket lusion veloing ano a
variety ol mecLanical jointing metLoos. Some mecLanical joints rely on an
integral gral ring vLile otLers Lave a compression-type joint, via a nut or a
compression crimp ring or lano. Some jointing systems comprise metal in-line
as vell as eno-ol-line nttings, vLicL may not le appropriate in some locations or
conoitions. Polylutylene pipe is generally availalle in straigLt lengtLs up to
6 metres or coils 60 metres in lengtL.
¹ò.1.+ C||er|a+tea je|¡.|a¡|c||er|ae (C|\C}
CPVC is vioely useo in vater ano sanitary systems lor Lot ano colo vater
oistrilution. ¡t is a tLermoplastic proouceo ly polymerization ol vinyl cLlorioe,
vitL aooitional cLlorination. CPVC piping is manulactureo ly extrusion metLoos
in sizes ol oiameter 0.25 incL (0.635 centimetres) to 12 incL (30.5 centimetres) in
ScLeoule +0, ScLeoule 80 ano stanoaro oimension ratio (SLE) oimensions.
¡t is
manulactureo to copper tule size (C1S).
¡t ollers mucL letter resistance to
corrosion ano Las a LigL tolerance to acios. ¡t is nre resistant, tLougL toxic lumes
are emitteo vLen it is lurneo. CPVC is ligLtveigLt, non-toxic ano ooourless,
ano reouces grovtL ol lungi, algae ano lacteria. ¡t is oesigneo to vitLstano
continuous operating pressure ol 600 kPa at a temperature ol 95 C. Pipe ano
nttings are reaoily cut, ano joineo ly solvent veloing.
¹ò.1.å Jaj|+.t|c|tea je|¡.|a¡|c||er|ae (|\C}
PVC, vLen useo vitL a solvent cement jointing system, is comparalle in lulk to
galvanizeo steel or iron lor orinking-vater piping, lut mucL ligLter. ¡t ooes not
suller tLe same corrosion prollems internally or externally as ooes galvanizeo
steel. Hovever, it is susceptille to pLysical oamage il exposeo alove grouno ano
it lecomes lrittle vLen exposeo to ultraviolet ligLt. 1Le pipe is ligLt to Lanole,
lut it is too lulky lor aestLetically acceptalle internal use in oomestic luiloings.
¡t is useo extensively arouno tLe vorlo lor orainage (vaste or soil ano storm
vater) applications.
¹ò. :I|N||||: |0| M|I|||||: J:|| |N ||JM||Nû :\:I|M:
Pipe oimensions are nominal ratLer tLan actual, 1-incL ScLeoule +0 pipe, lor example, Las an
actual outsioe oiameter ol 1.32 incLes ano an insioe oiameter ol 1.0+9 incLes.
Copper tule size (C1S) vas aooeo to iron pipe size (¡PS) vLen copper tuling vas oevelopeo.
C1S is closer to actual size tLan ¡PS. Generally, a proouct maoe in ¡PS is calleo °pipe°, ano a
proouct in C1S is calleo °tuling°. CPVC is an exception, leing calleo °pipe° lut leing solo in
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
PVC is availalle vitL a solvent cement or ruller (elastomeric) ring jointing
system lor internal or external orainage systems. Caution must le exerciseo
vLen using PVC close to vater Leaters ano similar Leat sources. ¡n aooition to
tLe inLerent prollems associateo vitL tLe expansion ano contraction ol PVC,
tLe material vill solten ano oelorm il exposeo to a Leat in excess ol 65 °C.
¹ò.1.ê |e|¡et|¡|eae (||}
P¡ pipes ano nttings ol numerous types ano oesigns Lave leen availalle lor over
lorty years. 1Le market requirements tooay Lave leen renneo to tLree general
groupings, as lollovs:
High-density PL is availalle in a post-manulactureo stress-relieveo state (lest-
practice P¡), or as extruoeo proouct vitL no treatment. ¡t is useo mainly lor
orainage applications vLere it can vitLstano LigLer temperature oiscLarges tLan
PVC. 1o avoio ovality ano installation prollems vLen laying to graoe tLe pipe is
lest useo in straigLt lengtLs, normally up to 6 metres long. jointing is acLieveo
ly electrolusion or lutt-lusion veloing or vitL compression-type joints lor
smaller oiameter pipes ano nttings.
Medium-density PL is more hexille tLan tLe LigL-oensity pipe. ¡t Las a sligLtly
tLinner vall tLickness ano is capalle ol vitLstanoing LigLer internal pressure. ¡t
is tLe prelerreo material lor long-oistance orinking-vater piping. Because ol tLe
application ano tLe rolust nature ol tLe material it is generally availalle in coils
ol up to 200 metres (650 leet) lengtL, oepenoing upon tLe oiameter. 1Le metLoo
ol jointing is tLe same as lor LigL-oensity P¡ pipe. ¡n coloer climates coileo
polyetLylene piping can le very oilncult to use ano may le impractical.
Low-density PL is suitalle lor tLe irrigation inoustry, vLere operating pressures
are very lov ano a LigL oegree ol hexilility ano lov cost is requireo. ¡ov-oensity
P¡ pipe ano nttings are not acceptalle lor use lor connection to tLe vater mains
in many countries lecause ol tLe lov pressure rating ol tLe material ano its LigL
leakage rate.
1ê.4 6eaera| |ssaes re|ate6 te ase ef p|ast|c p|p|aq
1Lere are numerous composite P¡ piping systems availalle ano nev plastic
materials are constantly leing oevelopeo. ¡acL must le consioereo on its merits
lor tLe particular application in Lano. ¡n some types, tLe molecular structure is
cross-linkeo to attain a stronger proouct vitL a reouceo vall tLickness, alloving
savings in tLe amount ol rav material neeoeo. Comlining oillerent types ol rav
material togetLer vitL lamination, overlay extrusion or simply aooing selecteo
reinlorcement into tLe extrusion process can lurtLer enLance specinc qualities ol
tLe structure ol tLe material to make it more acceptalle lor use in lotL oomestic
ano specializeo plumling applications.
Provioing tLat tLe LealtL, salety ano ouralility stanoaros are met, pipes ano
nttings manulactureo lrom plastic materials Lave many aovantages lor use in
lotL Lot ano colo vater plumling systems. 1Ley are ligLt, easily Lanoleo ano
transporteo, ano require lever joints tLan metal pipes vLen availalle in long
lengtLs. Pipes ano nttings manulactureo lrom plastic materials may cost more to
purcLase tLan metal pipes or tules ano tLeir ancillary nttings, lut tLe time spent
installing a plastic pipe system is generally mucL less tLan a metallic system ano
tLis may result in overall savings.
WLere a large project is to le unoertaken, it is not uncommon lor a plastic pipe
manulacturer to lring in mouloing or just extruoing macLines vitL tLe
appropriate oies, tooling ano rav materials, ano commence manulacturing in
close proximity to tLe market or project site. 1Lis in turn can lring alout savings
in transportation ano Lanoling costs. ¡ong oelays in supply can also le averteo,
resulting in rapio on-site progress. Sometimes only tLe pipe is maoe at tLe
remote locations oue to its lulk, ano nttings, especially vLen tLere is a large ano
varieo range, are lrougLt in separately.
¡t is important lor plumling systems tLat oillerent pipe types remain separateo
ano not intermixeo vitL similar prooucts. !or example, rainvater or storm
vater orainage pipes ano nttings sLoulo not le useo lor sanitary plumling (soil,
vaste or vent pipe) applications. 1Ley Lave a tLinner vall section ano are not
oesigneo lor LigLer temperatures or oeeper tLan near-surlace ano alove-grouno
applications vLere ouralility is not a major concern. Conversely soil, vaste ano
vent pipes ano nttings coulo le useo lor rainvater or storm vater, lut tLey are
unnecessarily expensive lor tLose applications.
Some stanoaros ano cooes call lor oillerent-coloureo pipes ano nttings to
oenne tLe oesignateo application ol tLe proouct ano to assist installers, as vell as
lor luture ioentincation to prevent cross-connections. !or example, PVC pipe
ano nttings are easily manulactureo in various colours, otLer materials tLat are
not so easy to colour may rely on a stripe ol colour set onto tLe pipe ouring
extrusion or painteo lanos ano lalels applieo alter installation, vitL specinc
markings or instructions vitL regaro to nttings, etc. CtLer autLorities, sucL as
electricity ano gas provioers, may also utilize colour cooing lor tLeir lurieo
pipelines. 1o avoio conlusion care sLoulo le taken to cooroinate tLe ioentincation
strategies or policies lor all pipes ano services.
1ê.î lartheaware p|pes
¡artLenvare is also relerreo to as glazeo stonevare, terracotta or vitrineo clay.
!urnace-lakeo eartLenvare Las leen tLe most commonly useo material lor unoer-
grouno orainage systems. ¡t can le locally proouceo in almost any country
provioeo tLere is a source ol gooo-quality clay ano an energy supply to nre it. ¡n
tLe past, glazing vas acLieveo ly tLroving salt into tLe nre tovaros tLe eno ol
tLe nring process. 1Lis metLoo ol salt glazing oamages kilns ano ooes not
¹ò. :I|N||||: |0| M|I|||||: J:|| |N ||JM||Nû :\:I|M:
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
alvays create an even nnisL or glaze. Aovanceo material ano management tecL-
nologies, comlineo vitL tLe use ol sopListicateo tunnel kilns, Lave in recent
years seen tLe emergence ol a completely nev generation ol vitrineo eartLenvare
pipes ano nttings ol a quality previously unattainalle. 1Ley are cLemical ano
temperature resistant vitL elastomeric jointing couplings. 1Le LigL cost
currently precluoes tLeir use in oomestic ovellings, lut tLere are many special
commercial or inoustrial applications.
¡nstalling olo-style eartLenvare orainage systems is oilncult ano maintenance
is oemanoing lecause ol lreaks ano llockages. 1Le inLerent rigioity ol tLe
system can cause tLe pipes to lreak loose at tLe joints or cause tLe pipe itsell to
lreak close to tLe joint just leLino tLe collar. 1ree roots can grov into tLe open
joint or lroken pipe ano vill eventually llock tLe orain. ¡n some cases
grounovater can innltrate tLe orain, causing tLe system to lecome overloaoeo.
1Lere is also tLe risk ol contaminating tLe grounovater ly tLe leakage ol rav
sevage lrom tLe lroken joint or pipe. A lurtLer oisaovantage is tLat eartLenvare
pipes are Leavy to transport ano expensive to install compareo to ligLter
materials sucL as plastics.
Plastic, mainly PVC, is nov tLe most commonly useo material lor orainage
systems lor tLe conveyance ol sevage ano vastevater lrom ovellings. CtLer
materials, sucL as cast iron, ouctile iron, copper, nlre cement ano vilrateo
concrete, are sometimes useo lor orainage systems. ¡acL Las its strengtLs ano
veaknesses, tLeir longevity in service is oepenoent on Lov vell tLey are
installeo, tLe nature ol tLe vater or otLer materials passing tLrougL tLem, ano
tLe installation environment.
1ê.ã 0es|qa ef p|am||aq 0xtares
BotL tLe component materials ano tLe oesign ol plumling nxtures (latLs, vasL-
lasins, sinks, tuls, toilet pans, etc.) sLoulo le sulject to stanoaros ano certinca-
tion to ensure integrity ano salety. !ixtures sLoulo le lree ol sLarp projections
ano sLarp corners tLat may cause injury. ¡n oroer to prevent orainage sever
gases lrom entering tLe area vLere tLe nxture is installeo, a nxture trap sLoulo
le incorporateo into tLe ntting, or provision sLoulo le maoe lor ntting one at a
later oate. 1o protect tLe orinking-vater supply, all plumling nxtures sLoulo le
oesigneo so as to ensure tLat incoming vater is oelivereo tLrougL an air gap.
1apvare sLoulo le appropriately matcLeo to tLe nxture tLat it is intenoeo to
serve. WLen installeo, all taps ano vater oelivery outlet nttings sLoulo Lave an
aoequate clearance letveen tLe vater outlet ano tLe spill level or vater overhov
level ol tLe nxture leing serveo. ¡t is possille lor tLe overhov on any nxture to
lecome llockeo, vLicL voulo compromise tLe air gap ly not leaving tLe correct
clearance. ¡n situations vLere a portalle or hexille Lose or tule is attacLeo to tLe
vater outlet, ano an air gap cannot le provioeo, an appropriate lackhov preven-
tion oevice sLoulo le installeo in tLe pipevork supplying tLe nxture.
¡ocal usage ano customs sLoulo le consioereo vLen assessing plumling
requirements. An example is tLe cLoice ol peoestal toilet lovls or squats. ¡t may
also le necessary to conouct training sessions in tLe use ol particular nxtures to
ensure tLat tLey are maintaineo in a satislactory ano Lygienic state. ¡n some
areas it is customary to provioe a orinking-vater supply tap aojacent to tLe toilet
nxture to lacilitate personal allutions. ¡n sucL cases strict precautions must le
taken to prevent contamination or cross-connection vitL tLe orinking-vater
supply system.
1ê.I !aa|tar¡ 0xtares
Sanitary nxtures sLoulo le ouralle, smootL ano impermealle to vater. 1Lere
sLoulo le no Liooen surlace tLat can lecome louleo or polluteo. BotL internal
ano exposeo outsioe surlaces sLoulo le accessille lor cleaning. 1Le most com-
mon ano most economical material lor oomestic nxtures sucL as toilet lovls,
urinals, ano vasLlasins is vitreous cLina. !or more ouralle oay-to-oay use in
kitcLen sinks ano launory tuls, stainless steel is recommenoeo, lut enamelleo
presseo steel ano suitalle plastic materials may le acceptalle.
Plastics are commonly useo lor latLtuls, sLover trays, launory tuls, cisterns,
vasLlasins ano toilets ano are olten reinlorceo vitL nlreglass lor extra strengtL
ano ouralility. Plastic materials, altLougL generally ouralle in tLemselves, are
reaoily prone to surlace oamage sucL as scratcLes ano cuts. Stainless steel is a
prelerreo material lor plumling nxtures vLere tLere is a risk ol oamage lrom
users, sucL as in institutions ano pullic amenities. Stainless steel is currently tLe
only suitalle cLoice in commercial or inoustrial looo preparation areas.
1ê.ê Ceacrete pre6acts
1Le manulacture ol plumling prooucts ol any kino is expensive lecause ol tLe
capital investment in plant ano tLe associateo tooling. Lnless LigL proouction
volumes are anticipateo, it is olten more economical to import sucL items. 1o
save loreign currency, materials sucL as concrete can le useo lor tLe local manu-
lacture ol nxtures lor some oomestic applications. 1Lese prooucts are inlerior to
tLose oiscusseo alove, lut tLey may le a realistic option. ¡oeally, concrete
prooucts sLoulo le oesigneo so tLat angles, lotL internal ano external, are
rounoeo lor ease ol cleaning, ano outlet pipes may le integrally cast into tLe
looy ol tLe nxture. Concrete nxtures sLoulo le restricteo to sLover trays ano
latLs, ano possilly launory nxtures sucL as trougLs. ¡t is recommenoeo tLat
concrete nxtures le cast in place vLerever possille to eliminate tLe neeo lor
transportation. Concrete sLoulo not le approveo lor kitcLen or looo preparation
sinks or lencLes. ¡ocal cooes sLoulo cover all prolalle issues involving concrete
nxtures, general oesign principles, etc., ano also specily tLe proportions ol sano,
aggregate, cement ano vater requireo vitL general mixing, placement ano nnisL-
ing instructions. Preliminary investigations sLoulo ascertain tLe availalility ol
¹ò. :I|N||||: |0| M|I|||||: J:|| |N ||JM||Nû :\:I|M:
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
local materials ol tLe appropriate quality to ensure tLat tLe prooucts can le
proouceo satislactorily. Concrete prooucts cannot le maoe completely
impervious, surlace treatments sucL as ceramic tiles are sometimes useo to
aooress tLis prollem.
11. 0es|qa ef p|am||aq s¡stems
¹¹. ||:|ûN 0| ||JM||Nû :\:I|M:
A plumling system is a long-term investment ano sLoulo le so oesigneo tLat it
ooes not lecome outoateo ano neeo replacement vLile its major parts are still
servicealle. 1Lis requires carelul estimation ol current ano luture oemano so
tLat tLe correct capacity can le specineo.
1Le capacity ano oimensions ol component parts in a plumling installation
sLoulo le aoequate to meet lotL immeoiate neeos ano anticipateo luture use.
Hovever, perlection in oesign is lrequently compromiseo ly cost, especially in
poor ano oeveloping communities.
Gooo oesign ol plumling systems is an important step in ensuring tLat tLe
installations are elncient, sale ano alloroalle. ¡t sLoulo take into account tLe
special neeos ano limitations ol oeveloping countries ano sLoulo also ensure tLat
tLe installations are appropriate lor tLe oillerent situations tLey serve. An unoer-
stanoing ol tLe tecLnical requirements ano regulatory restrictions is vital lor tLe
provision ol gooo plumling services. 1Lis cLapter incluoes oesign recommenoa-
tions lor plumling installations in single ovellings, multiple ovellings ano
multi-storey luiloings. ¡t oeals vitL special issues relateo to inoustrial ano otLer
special purposes, Lot vater ano otLer oual supply systems ano storm vater
orainage. ¡t incluoes guioelines on capacities ol plumling systems, plumling
materials ano prooucts, ano tLe use ol protective oevices to prevent lack-
sipLonage ano lackhov.
11.1 0r|ak|aq-water sapp|¡ p|pes aa6 spec|0cat|eas
1alle 11.1 lists tLe typical unit vater oemanos lor tLe oesign ol plumling
systems lor various classes ol luiloings.
¡n eacL case tLe actual values vill oepeno on local conoitions, lut no vater
service pipe sLoulo le ol less tLan 20 millimetres (0.75 incL) oiameter ano all
vater service pipes sLoulo le laio so as to avoio LigL points vLere air may
lecome trappeo. Lsually tLe vater service pipe letveen tLe pullic main ano tLe
curl cock (tLe vater autLority`s main vater sLut-oll valve) at tLe lounoary ol
tLe property lelongs to tLe vater autLority, vLicL assumes responsilility lor its
luture maintenance, ano tLe remainoer ol tLe service pipe is tLe responsilility ol
tLe ovner ol tLe property (in many cases, tLe responsilility ol tLe vater autLor-
ity is extenoeo up to tLe meter).
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
1Le oeptL at vLicL tLe service pipe sLoulo le laio vill oepeno on climatic ano
otLer circumstances. ¡n areas sulject to lrost, tLe oeptL specineo sLoulo le
sulncient to avoio oamage lrom lreezing, ano a oeptL ol 1 metre (3 leet) or even
more may le requireo. Hovever, a maximum oeptL sLoulo le specineo to lacili-
tate luture maintenance ano installation proceoures ano to enalle tLe pipe to le
trackeo il requireo. ¡n tropical areas it is oesiralle tLat tLe incoming vater
sLoulo le kept cool, ano a oeptL ol 0.5 metres (20 incLes) may le suitalle. WLere
tLe grouno is unoer cultivation, a oeptL ol 0.8 metres (30 incLes) sLoulo provioe
aoequate protection. Listance requirements lrom otLer services sucL as electric,
telecommunications ano gas pipes sLoulo le specineo. Lnoer no circumstances
sLoulo a service pipe le permitteo to pass tLrougL a sever, access cLamler or
inspection cLamler. 1alle 11.2 sLovs tLe minimum oiameter ol vater pipes
neeoeo to supply various types ol plumling nxtures.
11.1 0ra|ap|pes
¡acL separately occupieo luiloing sLoulo Lave its ovn orain connection termi-
nating at tLe pullic sever. SucL orains sLoulo le ol aoequate size, ano laio at a
constant graoient tLat vill permit tLeir contents to oiscLarge at a sell-cleansing
velocity. Lrains carrying Luman vastes neeo to Lave a oiameter ol at least 100
millimetres (+ incLes) lor a single ovelling ano at least 150 millimetres (6 incLes)
il more tLan one property is serveo. WLere a numler ol plumling systems Lave
ï/||| !!.! ïì||t/| ||//||: |0| l/||0|: |:|:
C|ass ef |a||6|aq Ceasampt|ea per 6a¡ (||tres)
|we|||a¡ |ea.e. +aa +j+rtmeat., jer eccaj+at +ò-¹zò
|aaa.tr|+| +aa cemmerc|+| jrem|.e., .t+ll .+a|t+r¡ l+c|||t|e., jer .t+ll mem|er ¹ò-1ò
|aa|t|ea jer .t+ll mem|er, |l .|ewer. er |+t|. +re jre.|aea ¹ò-¹å
Mete|., jer eccaj+at j|a. .t+ll.
\|t| cemmaa+| |+t|. ¹òò-zòò
\|t| jr|.+te |+t|reem. ler e+c| |eareem zòò-+òò
|a\ar¡ |ete|. |a t|e trej|c. +òò-êòò
|e.j|t+|., jer |ea, |ac|aa|a¡ c+ter|a¡ +aa |+aaar¡ 1åò-åòò
Nar.e.' |eme. +aa mea|c+| |a+rter., jer eccaj+at ¹¹å-¹åò
:c|ee|., jer eccaj+at j|a. .t+ll.
|+¡ .c|ee|. ¹å-1ò
|e+ra|a¡ .c|ee|. ¹òò-zòò
C|aem+., t|e+tre., jer .e+t °-¹å
|e.t+ar+at., jer .e+t j|a. .t+ll Iå-¹òò
|+aaar|e., jer |¡ ar¡ |+aaar¡.
|+aa ejer+tea 1ò-+ò
Mec|+a|tea êò-°ò
||rjert., |a. er r+||w+¡ term|a+|., jer j+..ea¡er c+terea ler j|a. .t+ll ¹å-+å
|aa|t|ea jer j+..ea¡er c+terea ler, |l .|ewer. er |+t|. +re jre.|aea ¹ò-¹å
:earce. I+¡|er & \eea ¹°°z (j. åå}.
¹¹. ||:|ûN 0| ||JM||Nû :\:I|M:
ï/||| !!.' /|||/|/ ||ï|||/| ||//|ï|| 0| ¦/ï|| ||||: ï0 |||/|||6 ||/ï|||:
||am||aq 0xtare M|a|mam |ateraa| 6|ameter
|r|a||a¡ leaat+|a, w+.||+.|a, w+ter c|e.et w|t| âa.| t+a| ¹ò mm (ò.1Iå |ac|}
|+t|ta|, aeme.t|c a|.|w+.|er, |e.e ceaaect|ea, aeme.t|c w+ter |e+ter,
.|ewer, .|a|, ar|a+| w|t| âa.| t+a| ¹å mm (ò.å |ac|}
Cemmerc|+| .|a|, ar|a+| w|t| âa.| .+|.e zò mm (ò.Iå |ac|}
\+ter c|e.et w|t| âa.| .+|.e zå mm (¹ |ac|}
:earce. I+¡|er & \eea ¹°°z (j. êò}.
a single connection to tLe sever, tLe plumling autLority may require a comlineo
orainage agreement or otLer oocumentation to ensure tLat oisputes oo not arise
over tLe apportionment ol maintenance responsilility.
AltLougL internal ano external orains are olten relerreo to as °Lorizontal°,
tLey sLoulo never le laio level, lut at a constant graoient tLat vill ensure satis-
lactory orainage. A minimum velocity ol 0.6 metres (2 leet) per secono vill
prevent solios luiloing up to llock tLe pipe, ano il tLe maximum velocity is
limiteo to 3 metres (10 leet) per secono tLis vill prevent scouring ano oamage to
tLe pipes. 1alle 11.3 sLovs tLe graoients at vLicL tLese velocities are reacLeo in
pipes ol various oiameters ano tLe approximate quantities tLat vill le carrieo at
sucL velocities.
ï/||| !!.? 6|/||||ï: ï0 ||0||t| /|||/|/ /|| ///|/|/ l||0t|ï||: || ||/||:
M|a|mam ºe|ec|t¡ ê.ã metres Max|mam ºe|ec|t¡ 1 metres
(1 feet) per secea6 (1ê feet) per secea6
0|ameter 6ra6e Carr¡|aq capac|t¡ 6ra6e Carr¡|aq capac|t¡
ef p|pe per secea6 per secea6
0! 0K 0! 0K
mm |aches ¼ ||tres qa||eas qa||eas ¼ ||tres qa||eas qa||eas
¹òò + ò.°I å ¹.1 ¹.¹ z¹.I z+ ê.+ å.1
¹åò ê ò.å¹ ¹¹ z.° z.+ ¹z.ê å+ ¹+.z ¹¹.°
zåò ¹ò ò.zê 1ò I.° ê.ê ê.+ ¹åò 1°.ê 11.ò
1òò ¹z ò.zò +1 ¹¹.+ °.å å.ò z¹ê åI.ò +I.å
:earce. I+¡|er & \eea ¹°°z (j. å°}.
¡t may le necessary to use a pipe vitL a larger oiameter il tLe relative levels ol tLe
luiloing ano tLe sever are sucL tLat tLe appropriate graoient is inaoequate to
give a sell-cleansing velocity lor a particular size ol pipe. Hovever, a larger pipe
vill also Lave a tenoency to lover velocity oue to tLe lact tLat more ol tLe vater
is in proximity to tLe lrictional leo (contact surlace letveen vater ano pipe). ¡l
tLe slope ol tLe grouno voulo cause tLe maximum velocity or graoient to le
exceeoeo, tLe orain sLoulo le steppeo, vitL tLe lase ol eacL vertical riser leing
aoequately supporteo ano tLe vertical section ol tLe orain securely Lelo in place.
SucL vertical sections can le more reaoily secureo insioe an access cLamler.
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11. 0es|qa ef p|am||aq s¡stems
fer s|aq|e 6we|||aqs
11.1 6eaera| ceas|6erat|eas
A single ovelling is a luiloing oesigneo lor a single lamily or a group living as a
lamily. ¡t may le a Louse ol one storey or more (vLetLer oetacLeo or part ol a
terrace or llock) or a sell-containeo apartment, ano it Las its ovn separate vater
ano orainage connection. All pipes carrying eitLer vater or vastes sLoulo le
vatertigLt, ouralle ano Lave a smootL ano unolstructeo interior. ¡n oroer to
avoio tLe risk ol cross-contamination, tLe orinking-vater supply lrom tLe vater
main ano tLe orain connection to tLe pullic sever sLoulo le separateo. ¡l lor
some reason vater service ano orainage pipes must le laio in tLe same trencL, tLe
vater pipe sLoulo le laio on a nrm sLell oug along one sioe ol tLe common
trencL ano sLoulo le at least 50 centimetres (20 incLes) alove tLe orain tLrougL-
out its lengtL, ano lotL pipes sLoulo le laio vitL a minimum numler ol joints.
Care sLoulo le extenoeo to ensure tLat tLe vater main is oeep enougL to prevent
lreezing in climates vitL lov amlient temperatures.
Pipes neeo to le aoequately protecteo against stresses causeo ly settlement or
movement ol grouno vLere tLey pass into tLe luiloing or unoer any interior
vall. 1Ley sLoulo not le rigioly luilt into tLe structure, lut sLoulo le separateo
ly a layer ol sano or hexille nller tLat can alsorl stress oue to unequal settle-
1Le vater service sLoulo le controlleo ly a corporation stop connecteo to tLe
main ly use ol a special tool, vLicL allovs its installation vitLout sLutting oll
tLe pullic supply. 1Le corporation stop is usually unoer tLe street or sioevalk
ano reacLing tLe valve voulo require lreaking tLe pavement. 1Le incoming
vater service is lurtLer controlleo ly a curl cock typically situateo near tLe
point vLere tLe pipe crosses tLe lounoary or property line. 1Le curl stop is
useo to isolate tLe luiloing lrom tLe main lor repairs. ¡t is normally placeo in a
lox to allov easy access lor opening ano closing tLe valve. A long-Lanoleo
vrencL is tLe tool normally useo to reacL tLe valve. WLere tLere is a serious risk
ol contamination ol tLe pullic vater mains ly lacksipLonage, tLis sLoulo le
lolloveo ly a lackhov prevention oevice. A stop sLut-oll valve sLoulo le locateo
as close as possille to tLe meter ano lelore any tappings or connections are maoe.
A orain cock sLoulo le positioneo so tLat it allovs emptying ol all internal
piping connecteo to tLe mains orinking-vater supply. 1Lis system connection
allovs lor orainage il tLe ovelling is lelt vacant lor a perioo or il pipes neeo to le
mooineo or repaireo. 1Lis is especially important in areas sulject to lrost. 1Le
orain cock sLoulo le easily accessille, ano ioeally it sLoulo le ntteo vitL a Lose
connection to permit tLe oraineo vater to le leo outsioe tLe luiloing. ¡l ntteo
vitL a Lose connection an approveo lackhov prevention oevice sLoulo le also
11.1 0emest|c steraqe taaks
1Lere is consioeralle oelate over tLe oesiralility in oistriluteo vater systems ol
oomestic storage tanks or cisterns. An argument in lavour ol oomestic storage is
tLat it provioes an air lreak tLat virtually excluoes tLe possilility ol lack-
sipLonage ano contamination ol tLe pullic mains. WitLout tLis air lreak it is
possille lor contamination to occur vLenever tLe mains pressure is reouceo. ¡n
tLe event ol temporary stoppage ol mains supply (oue to planneo stoppages,
lreakoovn or repairs), sulncient vater is storeo in tLe tank to provioe oomestic
supply lor a sLort perioo. 1Le major oisaovantage is tLat tLese tanks can lecome
contaminateo. WLere oistrilution systems vork vitLout intermittency ano tLe
autLority ensures a continuous positive pressure nxtures connecteo oirectly to
tLe incoming vater service pipe sLoulo le prelerreo, avoioing tLe neeo lor a
1anks sLoulo alvays le covereo ly a close-ntting lio Laving an overlap to
prevent its oisplacement, lut not so airtigLt tLat air pressure can luilo up vLen
tLe vater level huctuates vitLin tLe tank (1aylor & Wooo 1982). 1Lose locateo
lelov or at grouno level are at special risk, as are tLose vLose contents can le
removeo ly oipping vitL a container. 1Ley sLoulo le inspecteo periooically ano
oisinlecteo. CLlorine is lrequently useo lut otLer approveo oisinlectants may
also le ellective.
¡n aooition tLe pressure on plumling nxtures remains constant oespite
huctuations in tLe mains pressure. 1Lis is especially important vLere Leaters or
vasLing macLines may le useo.
An overhov pipe ol at least 50 millimetres (2 incLes) oiameter must le ntteo
to every tank, ano tLe tank ano tLe overhov pipe sLoulo le ntteo vitL insect
screening. 1Le internal oiameter ol tLe overhov pipe sLoulo le sizeo to accom-
mooate tLe possille hov ol vater oue to complete lailure ol tLe inlet valve.
Possille restrictions causeo ly tLe insect screen sLoulo le taken into consioera-
tion. ¡nougL space sLoulo le alloveo to permit tLe vater to rise to a LeigLt ol at
least tvice tLe oiameter alove tLe top ol tLe overhov vitLout spilling. 1Le lall
valve inlet sLoulo le not less tLan 75 millimetres (3 incLes) alove tLe top ol tLe
overhov, tLus provioing an air lreak letveen tLe inlet pipe ano tLe vater in tLe
1Le outlet(s) lrom tLe storage tank to tLe plumling system sLoulo le taken
lrom at least 50 millimetres (2 incLes) alove tLe hoor ol tLe tank, ano sLoulo le
controlleo ly a stop valve (or valves) at tLe nrst accessille point vitLin tLe
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ovelling. A separate orain sLoulo le set at tLe lottom ol tLe tank ano controlleo
ly a valve to permit complete emptying ol tLe tank. 1Le oiameter ol tLe incoming
service pipe sLoulo remain constant letveen tLe orain cock ano tLe storage tank.
¡n a Louse vitL a pitcLeo rool it is usual to locate tLe tank vitLin tLe ralters,
provioeo tLere is sulncient access to permit inspection, cleaning ano repairs. !or
any rool mounting, tLe structure must le strong enougL to carry tLe veigLt ol
tLe lull tank. A lull 500-litre (130 LS gallons, 110 LI gallons) tank vill veigL
more tLan 500 kilograms (0.5 tonne). Sometimes it may le necessary to oistril-
ute tLe loao ly interconnecting tvo or more smaller tanks, lut tLis sLoulo le
avoioeo lecause ol tLe potential tLat tLe vater coulo stagnate (especially in tLe
alsence ol resioual oisinlectant), tLus causing excessive grovtL ol LeterotropLic
lacteria (Bartram et al. 2003). ¡l tanks are joineo togetLer, tLe inlets ano outlets
sLoulo permit a gooo tLrougLhov ol vater to Lelp oelay or prevent stagnation.
A single lall valve may serve to control tLe vater level in lotL lut eacL sLoulo
Lave its ovn overhov pipe. ¡n areas sulject to extreme Leat (> 20 C) or colo
(< + °C), tanks neeo to le insulateo aoequately. ¡n a sell-containeo apartment it
may le necessary to mount tLe tank near to tLe ceiling, sucL as insioe an airing
cuploaro. A orip tray ol aoequate size lelov vill collect conoensation or leak-
age resulting lrom lailure ol tLe tank itsell.
Some autLorities may specily a stanoaro tank size laseo upon tLe numler ol
occupants ano nttings, ano tLe expecteo consumption per person (see 1alle
11.1). 1Lus, in an area vLere tLe oaily vater consumption is assumeo to le 80
litres (20 LS gallons, 18 LI gallons) per aoult ano +0 litres (10 LS gallons, 9 LI
gallons) per cLilo, a ovelling capalle ol Lousing nve aoults voulo neeo a tank
vitL a capacity ol +00 litres (100 LS gallons, 90 LI gallons). An apartment
oesigneo lor tvo aoults ano one cLilo voulo require a storage capacity ol only
200 litres (50 LS gallons, +5 LI gallons).
WLile tanks sLoulo le sulnciently accessille to permit maintenance, cleaning
ano aojustment ol tLe lall valve vLen necessary, tLey sLoulo never le so placeo
tLat vater can le vitLoravn manually ly tLe LouseLoloer tLrougL oipping or
laoling, lecause tLis voulo make it mucL more vulneralle to microlial con-
1Le sink tap connecteo oirectly to tLe main is ooully vulneralle to tLe pos-
silility ol vater useo lor orinking or looo preparation lecoming contaminateo
vitLin tLe luiloing plumling system. WLen tLis connection is permitteo, it
sLoulo le protecteo ly an approveo air gap or lackhov protection oevice or an
air gap letveen tLe outlet ol tLe tap ano tLe overhov level ol tLe nxture or sink.
11.1 0emest|c water c|esets
1alle 11.2 lists oiameters lor connections lrom tLe vater line or storage tank
outlet to tLe various plumling nxtures. Water closets sLoulo eacL le provioeo
vitL a husLing cistern vitL an internal or external overhov controlleo ly a lall
valve or a similar oevice. Properly oesigneo husLing cisterns oeliver a nxeo quan-
tity ol vater in a sLort perioo, ano renll at a steaoy rate tLrougL an inlet valve.
1Le air lreak in tLe cistern provioes an aooitional LealtL saleguaro.
Some autLorities permit tLe use ol husLometer valves insteao ol husLing
cisterns lor oomestic vater closets. Hovever, tLese contrilute to excessive vater
use. Pipes ol a greater oiameter are requireo to give a complete husL, ano tLis
may aoo to tLe cost. !lusLometer or husL valves are also pressure ano hov
oepenoent ano Lave maximum ano minimum operating parameters. Cverhovs,
normally at least tvice tLe oiameter ol tLe inhov inlet pipe, sLoulo le taken
tLrougL tLe vall to oiscLarge outsioe. 1Ley sLoulo not oiscLarge into tLe closet
lovl lecause leakage olten goes unoetecteo. Cverhov pipes sLoulo le locateo
so as to provioe a visille varning tLat tLe lall valve is not operating properly to
cut oll tLe incoming supply.
1Le inlet valve itsell sLoulo le set LigLer tLan tLe top ol tLe overhov pipe, tLe
vertical separation leing at least one ano a Lall times tLe oiameter ol tLe over-
11.4 Wastewater traps
1Le outlet lrom every plumling nxture sLoulo le trappeo separately ly a vater
seal oevice vitL a liquio seal ol not less tLan 50 millimetres (2 incLes) ano not
more tLan 100 millimetres (+ incLes) in oeptL. Sell-sealing vaste valves may also
le appropriate lor tLis purpose. 1Le pipe leaoing lrom tLe trap neeos to Lave a
oiameter at least equal to tLat ol tLe trap itsell. 1Le requirement tLat eacL pluml-
ing nxture sLoulo le equippeo vitL its ovn separate trap may le relaxeo unoer
certain circumstances, notally vLen comlination nxtures are useo, sucL as
prelalricateo units incorporating sLover, vasLlasin, sink or otLer nxtures. ¡t is
sometimes allovalle to install separate nxtures ol tLis nature ano comline tLe
untrappeo outlets into a single trap serving all. Lnoer no circumstances sLoulo a
vater closet le part ol sucL an arrangement, it is letter to insist upon inoivioual
trapping. 1Le amount ol money saveo ly comlining outlets is small, ano tLe
orains alove tLe trap are more sulject to clogging ano tLe emission ol loul
ooours oue to tLe oeposition ol grease or soap on tLe vall ol tLe pipe.
Sinks, vasLlasins ano similar nxtures sLoulo incorporate overhovs tLat
oiscLarge into tLe vaste pipe lelov tLe stopper ano alove tLe outlet trap. WasL-
lasins ano similar nxtures may incorporate integral or attacLeo overhovs to
oiscLarge into tLe nxture vaste pipe alove tLe vater seal ol tLe trap ano lelov
tLe orain plug or stopper to tLe nxture. Sinks useo in looo preparation areas
sLoulo not le ntteo vitL overhovs as tLey can lecome an entrapment area lor
looo particles ano a lreeoing grouno lor microorganisms ano vermin. 1Le outlet
lrom a vater closet sLoulo le not less tLan 75 millimetres (3 incLes) in oiameter.
CtLer oomestic nxtures sLoulo Lave outlets ol at least tLe lolloving oimen-
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º vasLlasin, lioet or oisLvasLer: 32 millimetres (1.25 incLes),
º sink or sLover: +0 millimetres (1.5 incLes).
Þote: Some cooes ol practice require tLat a sLover orain may not le less tLan 50
millimetres (2 incLes) in oiameter.
¡acL nxture sLoulo Lave a grille or strainer to prevent solios, sucL as Lair ano
pieces ol soap, lrom entering ano cLoking tLe trap. 1Le grille or strainer sLoulo
le easily removeo in case a cLilo`s nnger lecomes trappeo.
11.î 0ra|as aa6 ºeat||at|ea p|pes
1Le vertical ventilation or stack pipe is an essential leature ol all plumling
systems. ¡t prevents loul ooours lrom tLe orain entering tLe luiloing ano also
provioes outlet to tLe open air. ¡t also ensures tLat neitLer vacuum nor pressure
can luilo up in tLe orainage system tLat migLt suck or llov tLe liquio seal lrom
tLe nxture traps. 1Lere is no signincant LealtL oillerence letveen systems vitL
exterior stacks ano tLose vitL interior or concealeo stacks. WLen plumling is to
le installeo in existing luiloings not alreaoy equippeo vitL plumling systems,
installation may le simpler ano less expensive il external stacks are alloveo.
¡n some locations tLe most common metLoo ol installing tLe stack pipe in
single ovellings is ly mounting it outsioe against tLe exterior vall ol tLe luilo-
ing. 1Le veigLt ol tLe pipe is supporteo at tLe lover eno ly a raoius leno, set
into a llock ol concrete aojacent to tLe luiloing lounoation. ¡ts upper eno is
taken tLrougL or arouno tLe eaves (ol a sloping rool) ano extenoeo upvaro at
least 0.3 metre (1 loot). 1Le vater closet is locateo insioe ano aojacent to tLe
exterior vall ano its outlet carrieo tLrougL tLe vall to join tLe stack pipe at a
junction ntting. Provision sLoulo le maoe to permit tLermal movement letveen
oillerent plumling materials, nxtures, pipes ano nttings ano tLe inlrastructure
ol luiloings into vLicL sucL materials are installeo. Cl particular importance is
pipevork letveen nxeo points tLat neeo to incorporate stress reliel points ano
hexille joints to prevent lailures to tLe plumling system itsell or tLe Lost struc-
1Le use ol exterior stack pipes ol tLis nature is not universal. ¡n colo climates
tLe oanger ol llockage or lracture lrom lreezing prevents tLeir use, ano it may le
necessary to keep all orainage vitLin tLe luiloing using a one-pipe system, as
oescrileo later in tLis oocument. Hovever, air aomittance valves may also le
useo in primary or seconoary ventilateo systems, provioeo tLey are useo vitLin
tLeir application limits (see section 6.2.+). ¡xterior stacks may also le consioereo
an eyesore, ano tLe autLority may require tLat tLe stack le installeo vitLin a vall
vLere it cannot le seen except lor tLe section tLat projects tLrougL tLe rool. An
interior stack sLoulo le testeo lor not less tLan 15 minutes ano visually examineo
to ensure tLat all joints are vatertigLt prior to tLe application ol tLe vall nnisL-
ing material tLat vill conceal tLe piping. 1Lis may le oone ly closing all outlets
except tLe LigLest ano completely nlling tLe stack vitL vater. ¡l leaks are
oetecteo, tLe vater sLoulo le oraineo lrom tLe stack, tLe leak repaireo ano tLe
system retesteo until no leaks are evioent. ¡l leaks oo occur in concealeo pipes, a
loul ooour may le tLe only inoication tLat a pipe is not vatertigLt or gasprool.
¡xterior pipes reouce tLe risk ol leakage going unoetecteo ano are lar more
accessille il repairs are necessary.
As inoicateo earlier, tLe upper eno ol any type ol stack sLoulo le at least 0.3
metre (1 loot) alove rool level. ¡l tLe rool is hat ano accessille tLis LeigLt sLoulo
le increaseo to at least 2 metres (6 leet). 1Le stack pipe sLoulo le vell clear ol
vinoovs or lresL-air inlets, ano sLoulo le protecteo ly a vire cage to stop liros
nesting in it. WLere it is impossille to carry any internal stack alove rool level it
may le taken tLrougL tLe outsioe vall ol tLe luiloing ano carrieo upvaros to
terminate at least 3 metres (10 leet) Lorizontally lrom or 0.75 metre (2.5 leet)
alove any vinoov or otLer opening ol tLe luiloing or ol any aojacent luiloing.
Þo vent pipe, eitLer alove tLe rool or tLrougL tLe vall, sLoulo le useo lor any
otLer purpose, sucL as supporting an antenna, stay vire or otLer structural
Water closets sLoulo le connecteo to tLe Lorizontal orain leaving tLe luiloing
ly tLe sLortest possille route. !or ovellings more tLan one storey LigL, tLe
orain lrom a vater closet on tLe upper hoor sLoulo oesceno vertically, tLe upper
part ol tLis vertical pipe leing carrieo upvaro to terminate in tLe open air alove
rool level. ¡n single-storey luiloings a vertical ventilation pipe sLoulo le carrieo
upvaro lrom tLe top ol tLe orain as close as possille to tLe outlet lrom tLe vater
closet. 1Le connection ol tLe vater closet outlet to tLe stack pipe sLoulo le ly
means ol a junction ntting. WLere tLe vater closet lovl is set on a rigio hoor
sucL as concrete, tLe pipe connecting it to tLe stack may le ol rigio material vitL
cement mortar or otLer solio jointing. WLere tLe hoor is ol vooo or otLer
resilient material, eitLer tLe pipe must le ol plastic or ol similar non-rigio com-
position or tLe joint letveen tLe lovl ano tLe outlet pipe must le hexille,
otLervise tLere is a oanger ol tLe lovl snapping.
WLere in a single-storey luiloing tLe stack is carrieo upvaro lrom tLe top ol
tLe vater closet outlet pipe, tLe veigLt ol tLe vertical stack must le eitLer
supporteo inoepenoently or a concrete lase llock must le provioeo to prevent
oelormation or crusLing ol tLe Lorizontal outlet pipe. At tLe lottom ol tLe stack
pipe a raoius leno (to prevent clogging) leaos tLe vater closet outlet to tLe Leao
ol tLe Lorizontal orain connecting vitL tLe pullic sever.
Cutsioe tLe luiloing at least one vatertigLt inspection point or access
cLamler sLoulo le constructeo, tLis sLoulo Lave a rigio cover capalle ol learing
any loaos tLat it is exposeo to. 1Lis access cLamler serves several purposes:
º ¡t gives an access point lrom vLicL tLe orains can le inspecteo ano roooeo
(lotL tovaros ano avay lrom tLe luiloing).
º ¡t provioes a point lrom vLicL tests can le applieo to tLe orainage element
ol tLe plumling system.
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º ¡t lorms a junction into vLicL tLe orainage lrom otLer plumling nxtures
may le lrougLt to oiscLarge into tLe Lorizontal orain. ¡l more tLan one
vater closet is installeo in tLe luiloing tLe junction letveen tLem must
also le maoe in tLe access cLamler.
An aooitional access cLamler sLoulo le constructeo vLerever tLere is a cLange
ol oirection or graoient ol tLe Lorizontal orain, a junction ol tvo orains or a
lengtL ol orain ol more tLan 30 metres (100 leet).
WLen tLe tvo-pipe system vitL exterior stack pipes is useo, tLe outlets lrom
nxtures otLer tLan vater closets sLoulo le carrieo outsioe tLe luiloing ano
oiscLargeo into tLe Lorizontal orain at an inspection joint or access cLamler.
Eelaxation ol tLis conoition is sometimes permitteo vLere, lor example, a single
vasLlasin or similar nxture is to le connecteo oirectly to a stack or Lorizontal
section ol tLe orainage system vitLin tLe luiloing. ¡n sucL cases a properly maoe
ntting vitL no interior olstruction tLat migLt cause clogging sLoulo le useo,
ano any connection to a Lorizontal section sLoulo le maoe at tLe top ol tLe pipe.
Clean-outs sLoulo le provioeo to enalle all parts ol tLe connection to le
!ormerly it vas consioereo necessary lor an interceptor cLamler, lounoary
trap or access cLamler vitL a trappeo outlet to le constructeo at tLe last point
on tLe property lelore tLe Lorizontal orain crosseo tLe lounoary. Some
autLorities still make tLis manoatory. Cccasionally a lresL-air inlet is also
requireo, lut mooern practice omits tLe neeo lor tLis trap in tLe orain provioeo
tLe plumling system is ventilateo as oescrileo alove.
11.ã Ceaaect|eas te the pa|||c sewer
1Le vastevater orain sLoulo terminate at tLe pullic sever vLere it is connecteo
ly a lrancL ntting or ly a saoole jointeo to tLe upper part ol tLe pipe. 1Le sever-
age autLority vill olten Lave its ovn regulations lor jointing to tLe sever. 1Le
actual jointing operation is lrequently carrieo out ly stall employeo ly tLe
autLority (tLe cost leing cLargeo to tLe ovner ol tLe luiloing). ¡n some cases tLe
autLority vill construct tLe entire orain system lrom tLe property lounoary to
tLe sever. MucL vill oepeno on vLetLer tLe autLority takes over ovnersLip ano
responsilility lor maintenance ol tLis part ol tLe orain. 1Le plumling cooe ol
practice sLoulo specily tLe respective responsililities ol autLority ano ovner in
tLis matter.
11. 0es|qa ef p|am||aq s¡stems
fer ma|t|p|e 6we|||aqs
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A multiple ovelling is a luiloing Lousing several lamilies or inoiviouals in
oiscrete units. 1Le term incluoes apartment luiloings, tenements, Lotels, larracks,
nursing Lomes ano loaroing scLools. 1Le common lactors are tLat tLeir prime
purpose is lor Lalitation, at least parts ol tLeir plumling systems are in commu-
nal use ano tLey are supplieo ly tLe normal pressure in tLe pullic mains.
1Le lasic types ol nxture vill le tLe same as tLose oealt vitL unoer single
ovellings ÷ vater closets, latLs, sLovers, sinks ano vasLlasins. Hovever, otLer
nxtures may le introouceo, sucL as orinking lountains, launory appliances ano
urinals. HealtL Lazaros are similar to tLose alreaoy oescrileo, lut tLe risks are
intensineo ly tLe possilility ol cross-contamination ol tLe orinking-vater
supply ol one resioent tLrougL tLe carelessness or unsanitary actions ol anotLer.
HealtL precautions must tLerelore le similar to, lut more stringent tLan, tLose
alreaoy oescrileo lor single ovellings.
1Le oesign ol every plumling system, ano tLe capacity ano oimensions ol its
component parts, sLoulo le aoequate to satisly immeoiate neeos ano tLose tLat
can le reasonally anticipateo ouring its expecteo lile, laseo on tLe unit oemanos
listeo in 1alle 11.1. WLenever vater hovs in a pipe tLere vill le some resistance
to its hov as a result ol its viscosity ano also lriction letveen tLe hoving vater
ano tLe valls ol tLe pipe. 1Lis resistance is relateo to tLe velocity ol hov, tLe
rougLness ol tLe piping material ano tLe oiameter ol tLe pipe. ¡n single ovellings
tLe resistance to hov in vater ano orainage pipes vill le very small, provioeo
pipes ol recommenoeo oiameters ano materials Lave leen installeo. 1Le
pipevork in multiple ovellings is more complex ano resistance to hov must le
taken into account vLen oesigning tLe system to accommooate tLe LigL rates ol
hov tLat vill occur vLen several plumling nxtures are leing useo simultane-
¡n a single ovelling, vLen a latL is leing nlleo at tLe same time as a vater
closet husL tank only a minor reouction in hov vill result. ¡n a multiple ovell-
ing tLere is a possilility tLat many oillerent nxtures vill le operateo simultane-
ously, ano tLis coulo Lave more serious ellects: some nxtures may receive no
vater at all, ano tLe orainage system may lecome temporarily overloaoeo.
Various strategies can le employeo to avoio tLis situation ano are oetaileo else-
vLere in tLis oocument. Any autLority expecting tLat a numler ol multiple
ovellings vill le erecteo in its area ol jurisoiction may vell incluoe one ol tLese
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
oesign metLoos in its plumling cooe ol practice or simply make relerence to tLe
lact tLat special conoitions apply to multiple ovellings.
11.1 0emest|c steraqe taaks
1Le size ol tLe vater storage tank neeoeo vill oepeno on sucL lactors as tLe
capacity ano pressure ol tLe pullic mains supplying tLe luiloing, tLe prolalility
ol an interruption ol hov ano vLetLer a Lot vater ano central Leating system is
to le installeo. ¡t is generally consioereo gooo practice to Lave sulncient storage
lor one oay`s consumption.
Water autLorities usually specily tLe maximum LeigLt to vLicL tLey can
consistently supply mains vater, ano vater storage tanks may not le necessary
lor luiloings lelov tLe nominateo LeigLt. Hovever, vLere tanks are not in-
stalleo an approveo lackhov prevention oevice sLoulo le provioeo in tLe in-
coming vater service as near as possille to tLe stop valve vitLin tLe luiloing.
1Le lackhov prevention oevice prevents contaminants leing introouceo into
tLe pullic mains ly lackpressure or lacksipLonage. ¡l a vater tank lor ngLting
nres is installeo, it sLoulo not le comlineo vitL tLe oomestic vater tank. 1Lis
precaution excluoes tLe possilility ol contamination ol tLe oomestic vater storage.
11.1 Ceatre| ºa|ºes
¡n multiple ovellings Laving units unoer separate occupation, control valves
must le inserteo into tLe orinking-vater supply system to enalle eacL
separately occupieo unit to le isolateo lrom tLe remainoer ol tLe luiloing. 1Lis
permits repairs or maintenance to le carrieo out in one ovelling unit vitLout
interlering vitL tLe supply to otLer occupants. ¡t also enalles tLe vater to le cut
oll in a temporarily unoccupieo apartment. ¡n luiloings sucL as Lotels or loaro-
ing Louses, especially vLere vater closets or latLrooms are useo communally ly
a numler ol occupants, tLe neeo lor separate control ol eacL ovelling unit may
le less, lut tLere sLoulo le sulncient valves to control relatively small groups ol
nxtures or rooms.
Some autLorities require eacL nxture to le controlleo ly a separate valve in
multiple ovellings. 1Lis allovs eacL nxture to le serviceo or replaceo vitLout
sLutting oll any otLer nxture ano minimizes risk ol negative pressure ano lack-
sipLonage vLenever a sulstantial part ol tLe system Las to le sLut oovn or
11.1 Waste s¡stems
Lrainage lrom a multiple ovelling may le oesigneo on tLe one-pipe, tvo-pipe
or single-stack principle. ¡n tLe one-pipe system all vastes lrom vater closets,
sinks, latLs ano otLer nxtures are collecteo togetLer ano conveyeo to tLe
unoergrouno orainage pipes ly common stacks. All lrancLes are ventilateo to
protect tLe traps lrom positive or negative air pressure. ¡n tLe tvo-pipe system
tLe vastevater pipes (carrying Luman sevage) ano greyvater pipes are kept
separate ano oiscLargeo outsioe tLe luiloing into gullies. Wastevater lrom
upper hoors is conveyeo to tLe gullies or trencLes ly vertical pipes lrom tLe nx-
tures ano is carrieo to a lack inlet gully. WLen vent pipes are omitteo lrom tLe
one-pipe system, it is calleo a single-stack system. ¡n tLe single-stack system, tLe
stack ano tLe lrancLes must le carelully oesigneo to provioe ellective ventilation
vitLin tLe stack ano lrancLes. 1Le one-pipe system may le necessary in very
large ano complex luiloings or vLere tLere is tLe risk ol lrost oamage.
1Le contents ol vastevater pipes sLoulo le collecteo into vertical stacks, tLe
lover enos ol vLicL are connecteo oirectly to unoergrouno orains. junctions
letveen orains lrom oillerent stacks sLoulo le maoe in covereo access cLamlers
outsioe tLe luiloing. ¡l tLe numlers ol orains is so large as to make junctions ol
tLis nature impracticalle, tvo or more orains may le comlineo into suitally
sizeo common orains. ¡acL stack sLoulo usually le carrieo separately alove tLe
rool to lorm a vent, unless special conoitions make it necessary to comline tLe
upper enos ol tvo or more stacks into a common ventilating stack. Carelul plan-
ning ol tLe luiloing enalles tLe numler ol stacks to le kept to tLe minimum ly
grouping tLe vater closets close togetLer, ano one alove tLe otLer in luiloings ol
several storeys. 1Le lengtL ol tLe outlet pipe letveen tLe nxtures ano tLe stack
sLoulo le kept to a minimum in every case. Many autLorities require tLat tLe
stack pipe is locateo outsioe tLe luiloing lor tLe reasons given in cLapter 12. !or
luiloings sucL as Lotels, vLere a large numler ol rooms Lave inoivioual vater
closets, it voulo le impracticalle to locate all ol tLese pipes on exterior valls, so
a numler ol vells or sLalts are olten constructeo vitLin tLe luiloing. 1Ley must
le accessille lor cleaning, as tLis is tLe only vay to keep tLem clear ol rats ano
cockroacLes. SLalts must alvays le ol sulncient size lor repair vork.
!ixtures otLer tLan tLose carrying Luman vastes sLoulo Lave tLeir trap out-
lets carrieo to tLe open air tLrougL an exterior vall vLere tLey orain eitLer
oirectly to a gully or trencL, or tLrougL a Lopper Leao into a vertical pipe set over
a gully or trencL, tLe outlet lrom vLicL is connecteo to tLe unoergrouno orain in
an access cLamler. Hovever, it sLoulo le noteo tLat Lopper Leaos are no longer
acceptalle in tLe Lniteo Iingoom or ¡urope, oue to tLe unsanitary implication
ol unLygienic vater splasLing oirectly to tLe atmospLere. SLoulo tLe numler ol
nxtures le so large as to make inoivioual oiscLarges ol tLis nature impracticalle,
tLe outlets may le comlineo into suitally sizeo common outlets, oiscLarging
eitLer to tLe open air as oescrileo or into stacks conveying vaste-vater only.
WLen nxture outlets are comlineo in tLis vay eacL outlet sLoulo le separately
ventilateo to protect against evaporation ol tLe liquio in tLe trap seal.
Ventilation gases may le exLausteo to tLe open air ly means ol ventilation
pipes. 1Lese are separate sLort lengtLs ol 25 millimetres (1 incL) oiameter pipe
÷ some cooes ol practice provioe lor a minimum vent pipe size ol +0 millimetres
¹1. ||:|ûN 0| ||JM||Nû :\:I|M: |0| MJ|I|||| |\||||Nû:
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû

(1.5 incLes) ÷ terminating in a vire grating or mosquito gauze capping outsioe
tLe exterior vall. Alternatively, tLe ventilation pipes lrom tLe nxture orains close
to tLe oovnstream sioe ol eacL trap may le comlineo ano carrieo upvaro to a
vaste stack at a point alove tLe LigLest connection carrying liquio vaste to tLe

14. 0es|qa ef p|am||aq s¡stems
fer ma|t|-stere¡ |a||6|aqs
¹+. ||:|ûN 0| ||JM||Nû :\:I|M: |0| MJ|I| -:I0||\ |J||||Nû:
!or plumling purposes, tLe term °multi-storey° is applieo to luiloings tLat are
too tall to le supplieo tLrougLout ly tLe normal pressure in tLe pullic vater
mains. 1Lese luiloings Lave particular neeos in tLe oesign ol tLeir sanitary
orainage ano venting systems. Water main supply pressures ol 8÷12 metres (25÷
+0 leet) can supply a typical tvo-storey luiloing, lut LigLer luiloings may neeo
pressure looster systems. ¡n Lilly areas, tLe orinking-vater supply pressures
vill vary oepenoing on tLe grouno elevation. ¡n tLese cases, tLe vater autLority
may Lave to specily areas vLere particular supply pressures can le relieo upon
lor tLe oesign ano operation ol luiloings. WLere a luiloing ol tLree or more
storeys is proposeo a certincate sLoulo le oltaineo lrom tLe orinking-vater
supply autLority guaranteeing tLat tLe present ano luture pullic orinking-vater
supply pressure vill le aoequate to serve tLe luiloing. ¡l tLe pullic vater
pressure is inaoequate, suitalle means sLall le provioeo vitLin tLe luiloing to
loost tLe vater pressure.
14.1 !¡stems fer |eest|aq water pressare
Pressure-loosting systems can le ol several oillerent types:
º pumping lrom a grouno level or lasement gravity tank to a gravity rool
º pumping lrom a gravity storage tank or pullic vater main into a Lyoro-
pneumatic pressure tank tLat uses captive air pressure to provioe aoequate
orinking-vater supply pressure,
º installation ol looster pump sets consisting ol multiple stageo pumps or
varialle speeo pumps tLat orav vater oirectly lrom a gravity storage tank
or tLe pullic vater main. Multistage looster pump sets typically incluoe
oiscLarge pressure regulating valves to maintain a constant orinking-vater
supply pressure.
Written approval sLoulo le oltaineo lrom tLe appropriate autLority lelore any
pump or looster is connecteo to tLe supply. WLere looster pump sets are
permitteo to orav oirectly lrom pullic vater mains, tLe pullic orinking-vater
supply must le aoequate to meet tLe peak oemanos ol all luiloings in tLe area.
CtLervise, tLere is a LigL risk ol lackhov ano sulsequent contamination ol tLe
mains lrom luiloings not equippeo vitL a looster pump. Builoing looster
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
pumps are not a solution to tLe prollem ol inaoequate orinking-vater supply.
WLere pullic orinking-vater supply systems are overluroeneo ano cannot pro-
vioe aoequate pressure on a continuous lasis, vater must le storeo on site ouring
perioos vLen aoequate pressure is availalle to nll a gravity storage tank. 1Le size
ol tLe storage tank vill vary accoroing to tLe oaily vater oemano ol tLe luilo-
ing, ano tLe availalility ol aoequate pressure availalle in tLe pullic vater mains.
¡t sLoulo not le excessively oversizeo to avoio stagnation oue to inaoequate
Multi-storey luiloings can usually le oivioeo into zones ol vater pressure
control. 1Le lover tvo to tLree storeys can generally le supplieo oirectly lrom
tLe pressure in tLe pullic vater main. Lpper storeys, usually in groups ol nve to
eigLt storeys, can le supplieo lrom pressure-loosteo main risers tLrougL a
pressure reouction valve lor eacL group. Systems can le up-leo or oovn-leo.
Lp-leo systems usually originate lrom a pressure looster pump set or Lyoro-
pneumatic tank in tLe lasement ol tLe luiloing. Lovn-leo systems usually
originate lrom a rooltop gravity tank. WLere a luiloing is oivioeo into vater
pressure zones, care must le taken not to cross-connect tLe piping letveen tvo
or more zones. 1Lis is a particular prollem vLen oomestic Lot vater is recircu-
lateo lrom a central supply system.
WLere Lyoropneumatic tanks are useo lor storage, tLe tank is nlleo to one
tLiro to a Lall lull ly a hoat level oevice tLat controls tLe orinking-vater supply
source (a vell pump or pressure looster pump). 1Le pressure is maintaineo at tLe
oesireo operating level ly an air compressor. As tLe luiloing uses vater lrom tLe
tank, tLe vater level ano air pressure orop. WLen tLe vater level orops to tLe
°on° setting ol tLe hoat level control, tLe vell pump or looster pump starts ano
raises tLe vater level in tLe tank to tLe °oll° level. 1Lis restores tLe pressure in
tLe tank. ¡l some ol tLe captive air alove tLe vater Las leen alsorleo ly tLe
vater, tLe air compressor starts ano restores tLe air cLarge, raising tLe system
pressure to tLe normal level. Hyoropneumatic tanks are typically maoe ol steel
or nlreglass ano must le rateo lor tLe system operating pressure. Steel tanks
must Lave a protective coating ol suitalle composition lor orinking-vater
contact on tLe insioe to protect tLe tank lrom corrosion ano avoio contaminating
tLe vater. 1Ley sLoulo le cLeckeo on a regular lasis to ensure tLat tLe protective
coating is intact ano tLe vater remains potalle.
Smaller Lyoropneumatic tanks can also le useo to Lelp control pressure
looster pumps, alloving tLem to le cycleo on ano oll ly a pressure svitcL. 1Le
captive air vitLin tLe tank keeps tLe system pressurizeo vLile tLe pump is oll.
WLen tLe vater pressure orops to tLe °on° pressure setting, tLe pump starts ano
raises tLe volume ano pressure ol tLe vater in tLe tank. Þo air compressor is
neeoeo vLere tanks Lave a hexille oiapLragm letveen tLe air ano tLe vater in
tLe tank, cLargeo vitL air at initial start-up. 1Le size ol pressure tanks lor
looster pumps must matcL tLe capacity ol tLe pump ano tLe peak system
oemano so tLat tLe pump °oll° cycle is longer tLan tLe °on° cycle ano tLe pump
ooes not cycle too lrequently.
14.1 0ra|aaqe s¡stems
¹+.z.¹ |r+|a+¡e .¡.tem cea.|aer+t|ea.
¡n tLe orainage system lor a multi-storey luiloing, tLe orains lrom tLe plumling
nxtures are connecteo to vertical orain stacks tLat convey tLe vaste ano sevage
to lelov tLe lovest hoor ol tLe luiloing. 1Le nxture orain traps must le venteo
to prevent tLeir vater trap seal lrom leing sipLoneo ly negative pressure or
llovn out ly positive pressure in tLe orain piping. 1Le nxture vent pipes must
exteno tLrougL tLe rool to outooors. 1Ley can le run inoivioually or le
comlineo into one or more vents tLrougL tLe rool. WLere luiloings are over 10
storeys LigL, tLe orainage stacks require reliel vent connections at specineo
intervals lrom tLe top, ano connecteo to a vent stack tLat terminates alove tLe
rool. 1Lis relieves ano equalizes tLe pressure in tLe orainage stack to maintain
tLe vater seal in traps serving plumling nxtures.
WLerever possille, tLe sanitary orainage system lrom a luiloing sLoulo
oiscLarge to tLe pullic sever ly gravity. All plumling nxtures locateo lelov
grouno level sLoulo le pumpeo into tLe pullic sever or tLe orainage system
leaoing to tLe sever. 1Le pump line sLoulo le as sLort as possille ano loopeo up
to a point not less tLan 0.6 metres (2+ incLes) alove grouno level to prevent lack-
sipLonage ol sevage. 1Le pump oiscLarge rate sLoulo le controlleo so as not to
cause scouring ol tLe internal lore ol tLe pump line or tLe orainage or sever
system into vLicL it oiscLarges. HigL-velocity oiscLarge rates may also cause
tLe hoooing ol aojoining plumling nxtures or overloaoing ol tLe sever itsell.
1Le sump pits lor sevage pumps must Lave sealeo covers, le venteo to outooors
ano Lave automatic level controls ano alarms. Sevage pumps in multiple ovell-
ings ano in multi-storey ovellings sLoulo le ouplex, vitL eacL pump Laving
100° ol tLe requireo pumping capacity lor tLe luiloing. Alternatively, an
approveo vacuum orainage system may le consioereo.
¹+.z.z \+caam ar+|a+¡e .¡.tem.
¡n a vacuum orainage system, tLe oillerential pressure letveen tLe atmospLere
ano tLe vacuum lecomes tLe oriving lorce tLat propels tLe vastevater tovaros
tLe vacuum station. 1alle 1+.1 provioes a summary ol tLe aovantages ano oisao-
vantages ol vacuum orainage systems. 1alle 1+.2 provioes inlormation on
specinc installation ano operation requirements. Vacuum orainage systems
sLoulo le consioereo vLen one or more ol tLe lolloving conoitions exist:
º vater sLortage,
º limiteo severage capacity,
º vLere separation ol llack vater ano greyvater is oesireo,
º vLere orainage ly gravity lecomes impractical,
¹+. ||:|ûN 0| ||JM||Nû :\:I|M: |0| MJ|I| -:I0||\ |J||||Nû:
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
ï/||| !+.! /|l/|ï/6|: /|| ||:/|l/|ï/6|: 0| l/t||/ :ì:ï|/: (l||:|: 6|/l|ïì :ì:ï|/:¹
k6ºaataqes 0|sa6ºaataqes
|ew |a.t+||+t|ea ce.t. ||¡| cemjeaeat ce.t.
|a.|reameat+||¡ .+le Mec|+a|c+| cemjeaeat. - je..|||||t¡ el l+||are
||ectr|c+| jewer ea|¡ re|a|rea +t .+caam .t+t|ea :||||ea ae.|¡a, |a.t+||+t|ea +aa m+|atea+ace re|a|rea
||w+¡. .e|l-c|e+a.|a¡ |e¡a|+r m+|atea+ace re|a|rea
Ne je..|||||t¡ el .erm|a |a j|je||ae. :t+aa|¡ l+c|||t|e. re|a|rea
|e..|||e w+ter-.+.|a¡ tec|a||ae |l .+caam te||et. a.ea |e|a|re +re+ ler .|ta+t|ea el .+caam t+a|. +aa .+caam
||¡| w+ter .e|ec|t|e. jre.eat aeje.|t. |a j|jewer| ¡eaer+t|ea e|a|jmeat
M|a|m+| r|.| el |e+|+¡e ||¡|-.e|ec|t¡ w+ter m+¡ c+a.e tr+a.|eat j|am||a¡ ae|.e
C+a a.e .m+|| -a|+meter ||¡|twe|¡|t j|je. t|+t c+a
|e |a.t+||ea w|t|eat + ceat|aaea. l+||
\ert|c+| ||lt. +re je..|||e
|||||t¡ te e+.||¡ .ej+r+te ¡re¡w+ter +aa ||+c| w+ter
||¡| tara+reaaa t|me - ae aeea ler c|.tera te rel||
ler .a|.e|aeat âa.|e.
ï/||| !+.' t0/|/||:0| 0| ||:ï/||/ï|0| /|| 0|||/ï|0| ||(||||/||ï: 0| ||/||/6| :ì:ï|/:
|arameter Ceaºeat|eaa| (qraº|t¡) Ceaºeat|eaa| (pampe6) Vacaam
||je .|te (mm} |r+ac|e. 1z-¹òò |r+ac|e. 1z-¹òò ||.c|+r¡e lrem .+|.e. 1z-åò
:t+c|. ¹òò-¹åò :t+c|. ¹òò-¹åò :er.|ce ceaaect|ea 1°-°ò
||je||ae ¡r+a|eat Ie + l+|| Ie + l+|| ||e\|||e +rr+a¡emeat., w|t|
m|a|m+| ¡r+a|eat. er .+w
teet| jrel|e. \ert|c+| ajw+ra
âew .ect|ea. ||lt. c+a |e a.ea
M+|atea+ace Ne¡||¡|||e, ea|¡ +lter |e¡a|+r j|+aaea |e¡a|+r, j|+aaea .er.|c|a¡ el
re|a|remeat. +|a.e er ||ec|+¡e .er.|c|a¡ el jamj. +aa jamj. +aa |aterl+ce aa|t.
|aterl+ce aa|t.
|aer¡¡ re|a|remeat. |t t|me el |a.t+||+t|ea |t t|me el |a.t+||+t|ea +aa |t t|me el |a.t+||+t|ea +aa
t|rea¡|eat ||let|me el t|rea¡|eat ||let|me el
|a||a|a¡ |a||a|a¡
|etrelt er e\tea.|ea el M+¡ |e a|llca|t te +ccem- M+¡ re|a|re +aa|t|ea+| ||e\|||e |+¡eat m+|e. |a.t+| -
.¡.tem w|t||a |a||a|a¡ mea+te j|jewer| +aa l+||. jamj. |+t|ea .|mj|e
Cea.eat|ea+| w+ter I.å ||tre âa.| \C I.å ||tre âa.| \C N|
cea.amjt|ea \C.
|ew w+ter ê ||tre âa.| \C. ê ||tre âa.| \C. ¹.å-1 ||tre âa.| .+caam
cea.amjt|ea \C. te||et.
|e+a|a¡ el .ewer+¡e |ejeaaeat ajea |ejeaaeat ea jamj|a¡ ||.c|+r¡e lrem lerw+ra|a¡
.¡.tem +jj||+ace. |a.t+||ea r+te jamj. c+a |e t|mea te
ce|ac|ae w|t| |ew-âew jer|ea.
N|. aet +jj||c+||e.
:earce. ||| zòò¹ (j. 1}.

º in penal installations vLere isolation ano control ol tLe appliances is neces-
sary to prevent concealment ol veapons ano orugs,
º unstalle soil or hat terrain,
º vLere a LigL vater talle exists,
º in Lospitals, Lotels, olnce luiloings or otLer areas vLere congesteo usage
occurs, ano hexilility in pipe routing is requireo to orain appliances,
º restricteo construction conoitions,
º luiloing relurlisLment.
WLen conventional gravity orainage systems are extenoeo, as in relurlisLment
vork, tLe existing gravity orainage system can le leo into tLe vacuum orainage
system. 1Lis may le acLieveo ly tLe use ol a sump into vLicL tLe vastevater
lrom tLe gravity system orains. WLen sulncient vater Las accumulateo in tLe
sump, an interlace valve vill open alloving tLe vastevater to enter tLe vacuum
orainage system. 1Lis arrangement can also le useo to collect rainvater or as an
interlace letveen a luiloing vitL conventional orainage ano a vacuum sever.
1Le collection arrangements ano tLe small-lore pipevork ol vacuum orain-
age systems provioe tLe possilility ol easily separating greyvater ano llack
vater. 1Lis voulo le ol particular aovantage il severage capacity vas limiteo, as
tLe greyvater coulo le run to a vatercourse alter appropriate treatment.
14.1 ket water aa6 ether 6aa| sapp|¡ s¡stems
Lual orinking-vater supply systems are tLose in vLicL tvo oillerent graoes ol
vater are availalle in separate piping systems. An example is tLe provision ol a
tap at a sink supplying vater oirectly lrom tLe incoming vater service vLile all
otLer nxtures are leo lrom a storage tank. ¡n oevelopeo countries, tLe most
common is a seconoary system ol piping carrying Lot vater to sink, vasLlasin
ano latL. Cccasionally a vater soltener is installeo to treat part ol a oomestic
system, lut apart lrom tLese cases oual orinking-vater supply systems are rarely
louno vitLin single ovellings. An approacL to vater conservation leing
introouceo in some communities is to recycle greyvater to an outsioe tap lor
irrigation uses. A principal concern ol all oual systems is tLe assurance tLat no
cross-connections Lave occurreo ouring installation or repair.
¹+.1.¹ |et w+ter .¡.tem.
Correct installation ol non-return oevices vill prevent Lot vater lrom entering
tLe colo vater system in tLe event ol an interruption ol pressure. Eegulations
controlling tLe oelivery ol Lot vater lrom a Lot vater vessel may require tem-
pereo or tLermostatically controlleo vater in all allution areas, ageo persons`
Lomes, Lospitals, scLools ano otLer pullic places, ano use ol tLermostatically
controlleo mixing valves is encourageo vLere practicalle. 1Le acceptalle tem-
perature ol Lot vater systems at tLe tap sLoulo le oetermineo in concert vitL
pullic LealtL olncials. 1o avoio scaloing, especially ol cLiloren, ano in Lospitals
¹+. ||:|ûN 0| ||JM||Nû :\:I|M: |0| MJ|I| -:I0||\ |J||||Nû:
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû

ano ageo persons` Lomes, lover temperatures may le necessary. Cn tLe otLer
Lano, grovtL ol Legionella organisms is reouceo at temperatures alove 50 C,
ano tLis is a particular concern in Lospitals ano otLer large luiloings sucL as
Lotels (see sections 3.1.+ ano 3.3.1) (¡PH¡ 2005).
Builoings sucL as Lospitals, Lotels, multiple ovellings ano scLools require
large quantities ol vater to le Leateo, storeo ano oistriluteo. Heating is usually
carrieo out ly a separate loiler, a steam coil or a Leat excLange lrom a central
Leating or otLer system, ano tLe temperature is normally controlleo to vitLin
lairly narrov limits, 60 °C leing an average temperature setting in some coun-
tries. 1Lermostatic oevices sLoulo le installeo to cut oll tLe incoming Leat
source sLoulo tLe vater in tLe storage vessel lecome excessively Lot, ano
pressure reliel valves sLoulo also le provioeo. BotL tLese salety oevices sLoulo
le set in sucL a vay tLat auoille or visille varning is given vLenever tLey come
into operation. Heating ano storage vessels sLoulo le clearly markeo vitL tLeir
sale vorking pressure limits, ano gauges sLoulo le ntteo to enalle a regular
cLeck to le maoe tLat tLose limits are leing olserveo. Water Leaters lor tLe
supply ol Lot vater sLoulo alvays le installeo strictly in accoroance vitL tLe
manulacturer`s vritten instructions.
!or reasons ol salety, tLe vater Leater must le ntteo vitL a comlination
temperature ano pressure reliel salety valve at tLe top ol tLe unit prior to tLe
commissioning ol a mains or LigL-pressure vater Leater. 1o acLieve tLis, a
pressure reliel salety valve must le ntteo in tLe inlet or colo orinking-vater
supply pipevork. 1Le temperature ano pressure settings ol tLe respective salety
valves sLoulo le specineo ly tLe manulacturer in accoroance vitL tLe oesign
capalilities ol tLe specineo vater Leater. 1Le pressure setting lor tLe pressure
reliel valve sLoulo le lover tLan tLe pressure setting lor tLe comlination
temperature ano pressure reliel valve so tLat as tLe vater Leats up in tLe storage
vessel ano expanos, tLe aooitional or excess volume is gently expelleo lrom tLe
lover ano coloer section ol tLe vater Leater tLrougL tLe pressure reliel salety
valve. WLere tLe availalle orinking-vater supply pressure exceeos tLe upper
limits ol tLe pressure reliel salety valve it is necessary to install a pressure
reouction valve, appropriate to tLe pressure ratings involveo, immeoiately alter
tLe isolation valve to tLe vater Leater ano lelore tLe non-return valve. ¡n some
cases, it may le preleralle to lover tLe orinking-vater supply pressure to tLe
vLole system to avoio pressure imlalance in tLe Lot ano colo orinking-vater
supply systems. ¡n tLese cases, tLe pressure reouction valve coulo le installeo in
tLe colo orinking-vater supply pipevork lelore it enters tLe luiloing.
¡ov-pressure vater Leaters must not le pressurizeo leyono normal localizeo
atmospLeric conoitions vitLin tLe operating parameters ol tLe manulacturer`s
specincation. ¡qualizing tLe orinking-vater supply pressure in a particular
ntting (sucL as a sLover) vitL tLe vLole system is a little more complicateo lut
it can le oone ly taking oll a oeoicateo colo vater service line lrom tLe
orinking-vater supply tank to tLe Leater unit. Lepenoing on tLe capacity ol tLe
colo vater oistrilution system, a separate supply tank may le requireo to avoio
oepleting tLe oeoicateo colo orinking-vater supply tank serving tLe Lot vater
system. 1Le Lot vater system tLat is not consioereo potalle sLoulo never le
alloveo to enter tLe colo vater cistern (see section 12.2).
¹+.1.z 0t|er aa+| .ajj|¡ .¡.tem.
Multiple ovellings ano multi-storey luiloings may Lave nre protection systems
sucL as sprinkler variety systems or LigL-pressure mains ano Lyorants. ¡nous-
trial ano commercial estallisLments may Lave one or more systems ol piping.
1Lese may carry cooling or process vater lrom a seconoary source or mains
vater tLat Las leen specially treateo lor tLe purpose.
WLen one component ol tLe oual system Las leen oeriveo lrom anotLer
source, or vLen it carries mains vater tLat Las leen treateo, Leateo or storeo, it
is essential tLat tLe non-mains component is not alloveo to reconnect vitL tLe
mains vater. Lrinking-vater supply systems sLoulo le oesigneo, installeo ano
maintaineo so as to prevent contaminants lrom leing introouceo into tLe orinking-
vater supply system. Water ol orinking-vater quality sLoulo le supplieo to
plumling nxtures or outlets lor Luman consumption, latLing, looo preparation
ano utensil or clotLes vasLing. WLere vater supplieo lrom one source is con-
necteo to anotLer vater source, an appropriate lackhov prevention oevice sLoulo
le ntteo ano tLe installation sLoulo le registereo vitL tLe vater supplier.
Systems tLat permit tLe introouction ol any loreign sulstance into tLe vater
service sLoulo not le connecteo oirectly or inoirectly to any part ol tLe orinking-
vater supply system. 1Lis incluoes systems lor nre protection, garoen vatering
ano irrigation, or any temporary attacLment to tLe vater service. 1Lis can only
le oone vitL lackhov prevention ano cross-connection control oevices.
Comlineo tanks storing potalle vater alongsioe vater lor otLer purposes
sLoulo Lave a ooulle partition vall installeo internally to separate tLe tvo
supplies. 1Le space letveen tLe partition valls sLoulo le arrangeo to ensure tLat
any leakage cannot enter tLe otLer compartment ol tLe tank. 1o acLieve tLis, an
external orainage point sLoulo le provioeo lrom tLe lottom ol tLe voio or space
so tLat any oiscLarge or leak is reaoily noticeo.
14.4 Water steraqe ºesse|s
Separate vater storage vessels are an integral part ol many oual supply systems.
1Lis section oeals vitL requirements lor tLe storage ol vater supplieo lrom tLe
vater main or otLer orinking-vater sources. ¡n tLe oesign ol tLese systems, it is
important to ensure tLat tLe requireo air gap is estallisLeo letveen tLe orinking-
vater supply inlet ano tLe overhov spill level ol tLe nxture.
Water storage tanks are appropriate lor use in tLe lolloving circumstances:
¹+. ||:|ûN 0| ||JM||Nû :\:I|M: |0| MJ|I| -:I0||\ |J||||Nû:
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû

º sanitary husLing
º supply ol orinking-vater
º nrengLting
º air-conoitioning
º relrigeration
º allutions
º prevention ol cross-connections
º make-up vater
º contingency reserve.
Eequirements relating to installation ano protection ol vater storage tanks:
º 1anks must le installeo on lases, platlorms or supports oesigneo to lear
tLe veigLt ol tLe tank vLen it is nlleo to maximum capacity, vitLout unoue
oistortion taking place.
º Metal tanks (ano otLer tanks vLen similarly specineo) sLoulo le installeo
vitL a memlrane ol non-corrosive insulating material letveen tLe support
ano tLe unoersioe ol tLe tank.
º 1anks must le supporteo in sucL a manner tLat no loao is transmitteo to
any ol tLe attacLeo pipes.
º 1anks must le accessille lor inspection, repairs, maintenance ano replacement.
º 1anks must le provioeo vitL a cover, oesigneo to prevent tLe entry ol oust,
rool vater, surlace vater, grounovater, liros, animals or insects.
º ¡nsulation lrom Leat ano colo sLoulo also le provioeo.
º 1anks storing potalle vater sLoulo not le locateo oirectly leneatL any
sanitary plumling or any otLer pipes conveying non-potalle vater.
Eequirements relating to access to vater storage tanks:
º Aoequate Leaoroom ano sioe access must le provioeo to enalle inspection,
cleaning ano maintenance ol tLe interior ano exterior ol tLe tank.
º WLere tLe interior oeptL ol any storage tank exceeos 2 metres, access laooers
ol stanoaro oesign sLoulo le installeo ano entry salety cooes complieo vitL.
Eequirements relating to materials useo in vater storage tanks:
º 1Le internal surlaces ol tanks sLoulo le coateo vitL a protective coating
approveo lor orinking-vater contact applieo in accoroance vitL tLe manu-
lacturer`s instructions il tLe tank is to supply orinking-vater.
º Storage cylinoers sLoulo le maoe ol non-corrosive material.
º 1anks, pipes, Leating coils ano relateo nttings sLoulo all le ol a similar
metal to prevent electrolysis, vLicL is more likely to cause corrosion in Lot
vater systems tLan in colo.
º ¡l steel is useo lor tLe tank ano piping, it sLoulo alvays le Leavily

14.î |a|e|||aq aa6 ce|ear ce6|aq ef aea-6r|ak|aq-water sapp|¡ s¡stems
WLere tLe alternative supply is a non-potalle orinking-vater supply, it neeos to
le clearly ano permanently lalelleo °Caution ÷ not lor orinking° at every outlet.
¡xposeo piping must le ioentineo ly colour cooing (lilac) ano permanent
markings or lalelling. 1Le use ol tLe lilac (ligLt purple) colour on pipes ano
outlet points Las leen aoopteo in some countries to varn tLat tLe contents leing
conveyeo vitLin are not lor orinking purposes. ¡n tLe Lniteo Iingoom
greyvater colours are green-llack-green, ano reclaimeo vater pipe colours are
green-llack-green vitL an aooitional vLite lano in tLe centre.
WLere tLe non-potalle alternative supply is installeo lelov grouno, tLe
service sLoulo Lave a continuous marker tape stating tLat tLe pipe lelov is a
°Þon-potalle orinking-vater supply ÷ not lor orinking°. 1Le marker tape
sLoulo le installeo in tLe trencL immeoiately alove tLe service. WLere piping
conveys vater oovnstream lrom a LigL or meoium Lazaro, tLe lackhov
prevention oevice sLall le clearly ano permanently lalelleo °Caution ÷ not lor
orinking° along its lengtL. 1o lurtLer assist in ioentincation, outlet points or
taps sLoulo le painteo or coateo lilac ano a lalel or sign sLoulo le nxeo or
erecteo immeoiately aojacent stating °Caution ÷ not lor orinking°.
1Le level ol potential cross-connection Lazaro rating sLoulo le classineo ly
use ol a metLoo tLat allovs easy ioentincation ol tLe risk level. A commonly
useo approacL is to classily tLe containeo huios accoroing to levels ol risk lrom
1 (no risk or minimal risk) to 5 (LigLest risk).
Iluid category 1. Lrinking-vater supplieo ly tLe autLority ano complying vitL
tLe plumling cooe ol practice.
Iluid category 2. Water in huio category 1 vLose aestLetic quality is impaireo
oue to cLange in temperature or tLe presence ol sulstances or organisms causing
a cLange in taste, ooour or appearance. 1Lis incluoes vater in a Lot vater oistri-
lution system.
Iluid category 3. !luio tLat represents a sligLt LealtL Lazaro lecause ol tLe
concentration ol sulstances ol lov toxicity. 1Lis incluoes any huio tLat contains
copper sullate solution or similar cLemical aooitives ano sooium LypocLlorite
(as louno in cLlorine ano common oisinlectants).
Iluid category 4. !luio tLat represents a signincant LealtL Lazaro lecause ol tLe
concentration ol toxic sulstances. 1Lis incluoes any huio tLat contains cLemical
or carcinogenic sulstances or pesticioes (incluoing insecticioes ano Lerlicioes)
ano organisms tLat pose a potential risk to LealtL at concentrations sulnciently
alove orinking-vater stanoaros or guioelines.
Iluid category 5. !luio tLat represents a serious LealtL Lazaro lecause ol tLe
concentration ol patLogenic organisms or raoioactive or very toxic sulstances.
¹+. ||:|ûN 0| ||JM||Nû :\:I|M: |0| MJ|I| -:I0||\ |J||||Nû:
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
1Lis incluoes any huio tLat contains laecal material or otLer Luman vaste,
lutcLery or otLer animal vaste, or patLogens lrom any otLer source.
14.ã !|taat|eas where there |s a r|sk ef cress-ceaaect|ea
1Lere are recognizeo risks ol cross-connection in agricultural ano Lorticultural
properties, catering ano allieo traoe installations, oomestic installations, LealtL
ano sanitary service installations, ano in inoustrial ano commercial installations.
1Le level ol protection requireo sLoulo le oetermineo ly ioentilying tLe Laz-
aros vitLin tLe premises, tLen vorking upstream lrom eacL Lazaro. 1Le vater
must le regaroeo as non-potalle until a lackhov prevention oevice is provioeo
suitalle to tLe oegree ol tLe rateo Lazaro. ¡l a cross-connection Las leen
oetecteo, tLe pipe system sLoulo le taken out ol service, husLeo, cleaneo ano
oisinlecteo, ano tLe vater testeo ano oetermineo to le sale lelore it is put lack
into service. WLen assessing a potential lackl¡ov conoition, consioeration must
le given to tLe complexity ol piping, tLe possilility tLat tLe piping connguration
Las leen altereo ano tLe possilility tLat negligent or incorrect use ol equipment
Las resulteo in a lackhov conoition. 1Le lolloving summarizes tLe main risks
in eacL ol tLese situations.
¹+.ê.¹ |¡r|ca|tar+| +aa |ert|ca|tar+| jrejert|e.
¡n market garoens, poultry larms ano oairy larms tLere is a risk ol cross-
connection letveen tLe vater service ano oam vater, orinking nipples, logging
sprays, irrigation pipes, antiliotic injectors, cleansing injectors, vertical sprays
lor veLicle vasLing or any sulmergeo outlet or Lose at tanks or leeo trougLs.
¹+.ê.z C+ter|a¡ +aa +|||ea tr+ae |a.t+||+t|ea.
¡n commercial kitcLens, Lotels ano cluls tLere is a risk ol cross-connection
letveen tLe vater service ano vater-cooleo relrigerant units containing metLyl
cLlorioe gas or any sulmergeo outlets or Loses tLat connect to glassvasLers ano
oisLvasLers, lains-marie, looo vaste oisposal units, garlage can vasLers, ice-
making macLines or relrigerators, or Loses supplying vater to sinks or otLer
¹+.ê.1 |eme.t|c |a.t+||+t|ea.
¡n oomestic installations, tLere is a risk ol cross-connection ol tLe vater service
to a Laemooialysis macLine, lioet, vater-operateo venturi-type ejectors
attacLeo to garoen Loses vLen useo to empty or clean out vastevater pits,
septic tanks, gullies or trencLes, storm vater sumps, oomestic grease traps, or
any sulmergeo outlets, or oiscLarge point ol tLe vater service in sanitary husL-
ing cisterns, garoen Loses supplying vater to svimming pools, ornamental
ponos, nsL ponos, Lose taps lelov tLe hooo level rim ol any nxture, or locateo
lelov grouno surlace level.
¹+.ê.+ |e+|t| +aa .+a|t+r¡ .er.|ce |a.t+||+t|ea.
1Lese installations incluoe tLe lolloving risks ol cross-connection:
º council sanitary oepots: cross-connection letveen tLe vater service ano
sanitary pan vasLers, truck vasLers ano pan-oumping macLines,
º oental surgeries: any sulmergeo outlets ol tLe vater service connecteo to
cLair lovls ano venturi-type vater aspirators,
º luneral parlours: in emlalming areas, tLe cross-connection letveen tLe
vater service ano vater-operateo aspirator pumps,
º Lospitals ano nursing Lomes: sulmergeo outlets ol tLe vater service at leo
pan vasLers, leo lottle vasLers, sterilizers, steam autoclaves, instrument
vasLers, ano any cross-connection letveen tLe vater service ano steam
pipes, steam loilers or steam caloriners,
º mortuaries: postmortem areas, sulmergeo vater service outlets at autopsy
talles, husLing rim hoor gullies or trencLes, specimen talles ano instru-
ment-vasLing sinks.
¹+.ê.å |aaa.tr|+| +aa cemmerc|+| |a.t+||+t|ea.
A common site ol cross-connection relates to tLe use ol tanks. Any sulmergeo
oiscLarge point ol Loses or pipes tLat supply vater to rinse tanks, process tanks
ano otLer tanks may pose a cross-connection risk. 1Le inoustries ano commer-
cial installations tLat carry a risk ol cross-connection in tLese installations
incluoe tLe lolloving:
º alattoirs: cross-connection letveen tLe vater service ano steam pipes,
steam loilers or steam caloriners, ano tLe vasLing sprays in contact vitL
animal carcasses,
º lleacLing vorks: cross-connection letveen tLe vater service ano steam
pipes, steam loilers, steam caloriners, or any sulmergeo outlets at revolving
orum vasLers, or any pipes conveying non-potalle vater,
º lreveries ano coroial ano solt orink plants: cross-connection letveen tLe
vater service ano tLe contents ol gas cylinoers, steam pipes, steam loilers
or steam caloriners, or any sulmergeo vater service outlets at orum vasL-
ers, lottle vasLers or process tanks,
º lutcLer sLops: cross-connection letveen tLe vater service ano any vater-
cooleo relrigerant units containing metLyl cLlorioe gas, or vater-povereo
looo-processing macLines,
º cLemical plants: cross-connection letveen tLe vater service ano cLemical
pipelines, or tLe sulmergeo vater service pipe outlets at orum vasLers ano
process tanks,
º ory cleaners: cross-connection letveen tLe vater service ano solvent
º oyeing vorks: cross-connection letveen tLe vater service pipes ano steam
¹+. ||:|ûN 0| ||JM||Nû :\:I|M: |0| MJ|I| -:I0||\ |J||||Nû:
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
pipes, loul vater inlet sprays in process tanks, ano any sulmergeo vater
service pipe outlets at vats, tanks ano colanoers,
º engineering vorks: cross-connection letveen tLe vater service ano any
steam loilers, oiesel oil recirculating systems, recirculateo cooling vater lor
macLines, testing pressure vessels, oil-cooling coils, pump priming, com-
presseo air pipelines ano venturi-type ejectors in veLicle maintenance pits,
º laloratories: cross-connection letveen tLe vater service ano any aspirator
pumps, lume cuploaros, stills, centriluges, llooo-testing macLines, air
scrullers, test-tule-vasLing macLines, animal leeoing trougLs, ano LigL-
pressure gas cylinoers,
º launories: cross-connection letveen tLe vater service ano any clotLes-
vasLing macLines, starcL tanks, soap-mixing vats, ano recirculateo Lot
vater tanks,
º milk-processing plants: cross-connection letveen tLe vater service ano
any steam pipes, steam loilers, steam caloriners, or any sulmergeo outlets
at lottle-vasLing macLines, milk can-vasLing macLines, ano process
cLilling tanks,
º oil storage oepots: cross-connection letveen tLe vater service ano loam
nrengLting equipment,
º poultry-processing plants: cross-connection letveen tLe vater service ano
any steam pipes, steam loilers, steam caloriners, or any sulmergeo outlets
at leatLer-plucking macLines, carcass-vasLing macLines, ollal loilers ano
process tanks,
º pLotograpLic oevelopers: cross-connection letveen tLe vater service ano
X-ray equipment, or any sulmergeo outlets at tanks ano rinse macLines,
º plating vorkings: cross-connection letveen tLe vater service ano solvent,
acio or alkali tanks, cooling coils, steam pipes, or any sulmergeo outlets at
tanks ano rinse macLines,
º tanneries: cross-connection letveen tLe vater service ano vats, orum
process tanks or steam pipes,
º vool processors: cross-connection letveen tLe vater service ano lanolin
centriluges ano Leao recycling coils, or any sulmergeo outlets or Loses at
vats, orums ano tanks.
14.I ||xtare aa|t ca|ca|at|eas fer ma|t|p|e 6we|||aqs
1Le nxture unit concept is a metLoo ol calculating orinking-vater supply ano
orainage piping requirements vitLin large luiloings vLere economies may le
maoe in construction costs. 1Leoretically all pipes sLoulo le ol sucL a size as to
le capalle ol serving tLe nxtures to vLicL tLey are connecteo vLen all otLer
nxtures in tLe luiloing are leing operateo at tLe same time. ¡n practice, tLe
cLances ol tLeir simultaneous use are remote ano tLe piping oesign criteria may
le relaxeo to some oegree.
A nxture unit (l/u) value is assigneo to eacL type ol nxture laseo on its rate ol
vater consumption, on tLe lengtL ol time it is normally in use ano on tLe average
perioo letveen successive uses. Some examples ol nxture unit values assigneo to
tLe most common nxtures are given in 1alle 1+.3. WLen tLese are aooeo tLeir
total gives a lasis lor oetermining tLe hov tLat may le expecteo in a vater or
orainage pipe to vLicL tvo or more nxtures are connecteo. 1Le total is tLen
reouceo ly a lactor, usually in tLe oroer ol 0.6 to 0.7, lut oepenoing upon tLe
margin ol simultaneous use protection necessary unoer local conoitions (1aylor
& Wooo 1982).
1Le total numler ol nxture units connecteo to eacL lrancL pipe is tLen aooeo,
multiplieo ly tLe lactor relerreo to alove, ano tLe result useo to calculate tLe
hov in vater or orainage pipes in accoroance vitL talles sucL as tLe lolloving
examples. ¡l incluoeo in, or annexeo to, a plumling cooe, tLese talles sLoulo le
oetaileo lor a larger scLeoule covering tLe vLole range ol nxture unit values to le
expecteo, examples may le louno in various national cooes.
ï/||| !+.? ||/ï||| |||ï l/|||: |0| :0/| t0//0| |||/|||6 ||/ï|||:
||xtare ||xtare aa|ts
|+t| er .|ewer z
||aet z
C|et|e. w+.|er (+atem+t|c} 1
|r|a||a¡ leaat+|a 1
||tc|ea .|a| ¹.å
Jr|a+| er w+ter c|e.et (w|t| âa.| t+a|} 1
Jr|a+| er w+ter c|e.et (w|t| âa.| .+|.e} ê
\+.||+.|a ¹
:earce. I+¡|er & \eea ¹°°z (j. ¹å1}.
!rom 1alle 1+.+ tLe size ol tLe vater pipes may le calculateo using normal
oesign principles (alloving lor Leao loss, lriction ano otLer lactors). !ixtures
using lotL Lot ano colo vater (sucL as in latLs ano sinks) sLoulo le assumeo to
take equal quantities ol eacL lor oesign purposes: a latL voulo le counteo as one
nxture unit on tLe colo vater system, ano one nxture unit on tLe Lot vater.
Supply piping voulo le calculateo accoroingly, vLile tLe total ngure ol tvo
nxture units voulo le useo to oesign tLe orainage piping.
!rom 1alle 1+.5 tLe size ol internal ano external orains may le calculateo
accoroing to tLe total numler ol nxtures oiscLarging into eacL section, vitL tLe
proviso tLat unoergrouno orains sLall not le smaller tLan 100 millimetres (+
incLes) oiameter, ano tLat no internal lrancL or orain ol less tLan 80 millimetres
(3 incLes) oiameter sLoulo carry tLe oiscLarge ol more tLan tvo vater closets.
An alternative to tLe nxture unit metLoo lor calculating hovs is useo in some
!rencL-speaking countries. 1Lis metLoo assigns inoivioual hov values to eacL
¹+. ||:|ûN 0| ||JM||Nû :\:I|M: |0| MJ|I| -:I0||\ |J||||Nû:
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
nxture, multiplies tLe cumulative hov so oltaineo ly a simultaneous use lactor
oltaineo lrom a nomogram ano curve, ano selects pipe sizes ly relerence to
precalculateo talles.
ï/||| !+.+ ||/| ¦/ï|| ||//|| 0| |||/|||6 ||/ï|||:
Ne. ef 0xtare ||tres 0! qa||eas 0K qa||eas
aa|ts per secea6 per m|aate per m|aate
å ò.z1 1.êå 1.ò+
¹ò ò.1+ å.1° +.+°
zò ò.å+ °.åê I.¹+
åò ¹.¹1 ¹I.°+ ¹+.°1
¹òò ¹.êI zê.å¹ zz.òI
:earce. I+¡|er & \eea ¹°°z (j. ¹å1}.
ï/||| !+.: ///|/|/ |0/|: |0| |0||/0|ï/| ||/ï||| ||/|t||: /|| |||||||6 ||/||: 0| :|¦||:
0|ameter ef 6ra|ap|pe ||xtare |raach 8a||6|aq 6ra|a er sewer
M|a. s|epe !|epe ê.î¼ !|epe 1¼ !|epe 1¼ !|epe 4¼
1¼ (1 |a îê) (1 |a 1êê) (1 |a 1êê) (1 |a îê) (1 |a 1î)
mm |aches f/a
1z ¹.zå ¹ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
+ò ¹.å 1 ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
åò z ê ÷ ÷ ÷ zê
êå z.å ¹z ÷ ÷ ÷ 1¹
°ò 1 1z ÷ 1ê +z åò
¹òò + ¹êò ÷ ¹°ò z¹ê zåò
¹åò ê êzò ÷ Iòò °+ò ¹òòò
zòò ° ¹+òò ¹+òò ¹êòò ¹°zò z1òò
l/a ¬ l\tare aa|t..
:earce. I+¡|er & \eea ¹°°z (j. ¹å+}.
1î. 0es|qa ef p|am||aq s¡stems fer
|a6astr|a| aa6 temperar¡ app||cat|eas
¹å. ||:|ûN 0| ||JM||Nû :\:I|M: |0| |N|J:I|||| |N| I|M|0|||\ |||||C|I|0N:
1î.1 8ack0ew preºeat|ea |a |a6astr|a|, cemmerc|a| aa6 |ast|tat|eaa|
water s¡stems
Any vater piping installation vLere tLere is a possilility tLat a Larmlul
sulstance may gain access to a orinking-vater supply must Lave a lackhov
protection oevice installeo. Various types ol lackhov protection are oescrileo
in tLis cLapter. 1Lis topic is aooresseo in consioeralle oetail in tLe Cross-
connection control nanual (¡PA 2003). !olloving are some examples ol
installations tLat require lackhov protection oevices:
º irrigation ano vatering systems vLere Larmlul cLemicals can le sipLoneo
lack into tLe orinking-vater supply system,
º loilers ano cooling tovers vLere Larmlul vater treatment cLemicals can
seep into tLe orinking-vater supply system,
º laucets tLat are installeo lelov tLe overhov rim ol latLtuls, sinks ano
lavatories or otLer plumling nxtures,
º vater connections, vater closets, urinals,
º laucets ano make-up lines to open tanks,
º automatic orink-venoing macLines vLere tLere is a neeo to prevent carlon
oioxioe gas lrom getting into tLe orinking-vater supply system,
º Lospitals, mortuaries ano inoustrial lacilities,
º svimming pools ano spa make-up vater,
º connections to private orinking-vater supply systems,
º locations vLere orinking-vater supply Loses can le placeo in contaminateo
vater or sevage.
Langers associateo vitL Lose connections are more insioious lecause precau-
tions against contamination oepeno on tLe user ratLer tLan tLe installer ano
consequently are mucL more oilncult to control.
1î.1 8ack0ew aa6 |acks|pheaaqe
Backhov is an unvanteo hov ol potentially contaminateo vater, useo vater,
inoustrial huios or otLer sulstances lrom any oomestic, inoustrial or institutional
piping system into a orinking-vater system. 1Le hov unoer tLese conoitions is
in tLe reverse oirection lrom tLat intenoeo. Backhov is causeo ly a reverse
pressure graoient tLat, il not interrupteo, vill cause a hov ol vater lack into tLe
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
orinking-vater system. 1Lis is sometimes relerreo to as a vacuum, vLicL in
tLese circumstances means a pressure lelov tLat ol tLe atmospLere. So in a vater
oistrilution system a true vacuum is not necessarily tLe cause ol lackhov ol
huios, a small oillerence ol pressure is all tLat is necessary to cause tLe reversal
ol hov in any pipeline.
BacksipLonage is an unoesiralle or reverse oirection ol hov causeo ly atmos-
pLeric pressure oillerentials exerteo against a pollutant liquio, lorcing it tovaros
a orinking-vater supply system tLat is unoer a lover pressure. WLen huio is
sipLoneo out ol a container tLrougL a piece ol tuling, tLe huio vill hov up ano
over tLe rim ol tLe container ano tLen oovn into a lover elevation. ¡n a oanger-
ous cross-connection, unvanteo huio may le suckeo over into tLe orinking-
vater line. ¡t is not necessary lor a true vacuum to exist in tLe system main lor
tLis sipLonage to occur, all tLat is requireo is a negative oillerence in pressure
ano a section ol tuling or pipe tLat is completely lull ol huio.
1î.1 Water s¡stem |ack0ew pretect|ea 6eº|ces
Protective oevices are installeo in oroer to minimize risks associateo vitL tLe
operation ol orinking-vater supply ano oomestic severage systems. A vital role
ol tLese oevices is to prevent lackhov or lacksipLonage into tLe mains orinking-
vater supply. 1Lis section oescriles tLe nature ano operation ol tLe most
common protective oevices. 1Le oiagrams ol tLe oevices are lrom tLe 2000
Unijorn Plunbing Code illustrated training nanual pullisLeo ly tLe ¡nter-
national Association ol Plumling ano MecLanical Clncials (¡APMC 2000).
Air gap. 1Lis is a pLysical separation letveen orinking-vater (tLe mains orinking-
vater supply system) ano otLer huios.
Atmospheric or non-pressure-type vacuum breaker. 1Lis oevice is alvays
installeo oovnstream lrom tLe sLut-oll valve. 1Le air vent valve closes vLen
vater hovs in tLe normal oirection. As soon as tLe vater ceases to hov tLe air
||6||| !:.! /ï/0:|||||t l/t||/ |||/|||
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|re+||a¡ je.|t|ea
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vent valve opens, tLus interrupting any possille lacksipLonage ellect (!igures
15.1 ano 15.2). Þo Lose sLoulo le attacLeo to tLe oevice ano run to a point ol
LigLer elevation lecause tLe veigLt ol tLe vater in tLe Lose vill keep tLe reliel
valve closeo ano tLe oevice vill not provioe tLe intenoeo protection.
Ck!l !I00\ 1. Ck|0k0kNl 8kCK||0W 0k 8kCK!||k0Nk6l
Approximately ll litres of chlordane, a highly toxic insecticide, was sucked back (back-
siphoned) into the water system of a residential area of a city. Pesidents complained that
the water "looked milky, felt greasy, foamed and smelledª. The problem developed while
water department personnel were repairing a water main. Meanwhile, a professional
exterminator was treating a nearby home with chlordane for termite elimination.
The workman for the exterminator company left one end of a garden hose that was
connected to an outside hose bib tap in a barrel of diluted pesticide. During the water
interruption, the chlordane solution was backsiphoned from the barrel through the
house and into the water main. Portunately, due to the obvious bad taste, odour and
colour of the contaminated water, no one consumed a sufñcient quantity to endanger
Source: Adapted from LPA 2003 (p. 8).
Double check valve assembly. 1Lis consists ol tvo internally loaoeo, specially
oesigneo operating cLeck valves. 1Lis assemlly is ntteo vitL a tigLtly closing
sLut-oll valve upstream ano oovnstream ol tLe cLeck valves (!igure 15.3).
Pressure-type vacuum breaker. 1Lis oevice is oesigneo to open vitL tLe aio ol
a spring vLen tLe line pressure orops so tLat air vill lreak a potential vacuum. ¡t
incluoes a single cLeck valve tLat closes at tLe cessation ol normal hov (!igure
¹å. ||:|ûN 0| ||JM||Nû :\:I|M: |0| |N|J:I|||| |N| I|M|0|||\ |||||C|I|0N:
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:earce. |||M0 zòòò (j. I}.
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||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
Ck!l !I00\ 4. 8kCK!||k0Nk6l |k0M k k0!l
The water system of a small town had been contaminated with caustic sodium hydroxide.
Pesidents were covered with tiny blisters after showering in their homes. One person
complained of blisters on her head after she washed her hair and others complained of
burned throats or mouths after drinking the water. Several persons received medical
treatment at the emergency room of the local hospital. A possible source of the con-
tamination was from a nearby chemical company that distributes chemicals such as
sodium hydroxide. The sodium hydroxide is brought to the plant in liquid form in bulk
tanker trucks and is transferred to a holding tank and then pumped into 208-litre drums.
while washing the truck's tank, the driver was adding the water from the bottom of the
tank truck instead of the top, when the water main broke and sodium hydroxide back-
siphoned into the water main ( Pigure l5.5).
Source: Adapted from LPA 2003 (p. 3).
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Keduced pressure principle device. 1Lis is an assemlly ol tvo internally loaoeo,
inoepenoently operating cLeck valves, vitL a reliel valve letveen tLe valves. ¡t is
specincally oesigneo to maintain a zone ol reouceo pressure letveen tLe tvo
cLeck valves at all times, ano Las a tigLtly closing upstream ano a tigLtly closing
oovnstream sLut-oll valve (!igure 15.6).
Ck!l !I00\ î. !k||\kk0 Ck0!!- C0NNlCI|0N
The drinking-water system at a coastal shipyard became contaminated from incor-
rectly connected water lines between ships at the pier and the shipyard. The cause of the
problem was a direct cross-connection between the on-board saltwater ñre protection
system and the freshwater line connected to one of the ships at the dock. As a result, the
on-board saltwater ñre protection system, being at a greater pressure than the potable
supply, forced the salt water, through backpressure, into the shipyard potable supply
(Pigure l5.7).
Source: Adapted from LPA 2003 (p. 7).
Devices to protect sewerage systems. 1Lis category ol oevices aims to limit
unvanteo contamination ol oomestic sevage outhov ano to protect tLe envi-
ronment. WLere possille, reclamation ol uselul vaste materials lor recycling
sLoulo le attempteo. A large numler ol specializeo protective oevices ol tLis
nature are nov commercially availalle. Many ol tLese promise to le more
elncient in tLe long run tLan tLe traoitional oevices illustrateo Lere. 1Le illustra-
tions lor tLe grease trap, grease interceptor ano grease ano sano interceptor are
oiagrammatic only. 1Le size ano oesign ol tLese oevices or apparatus is oepeno-
ent on tLe nature ol tLe material to le treateo, its temperature, tLe anticipateo
hov rates involveo ano numerous otLer lactors.
||6||| !:.é ||||t|| |||::||| ||||t|||| |/t|||0¦ |||l||ï||
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Ne. ¹
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:||j|e+ra r+w w+ter
jamj|a¡ .¡.tem
Ie w+.|reem.
|et+||e .ajj|¡ |e.e
C+leter|+ ar|a||a¡ leaat+|a.
+aa .+a|t+t|ea w+ter
Ie w+.|reem.
|eaacea jre..are jr|ac|j|e |+c|âew
jre.eater. .|ea|a |+.e |eea |a.t+||ea +t
aec|.|ae eat|et. +aa et|er |ec+t|ea.
:earce. ||| zòò1 (j. I}.
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ceaaect|ea |r+|a ceaaect|ea
:ar¡e ceatre| .+|.e
||je .|te
:t+t|c w+ter ||ae
Crease trap. 1Lis oevice is installeo insioe tLe lacility, usually near tLe grease-
prooucing nxtures (!igure 15.8).
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
Crease interceptor. 1Lis type ol oevice is usually installeo outsioe tLe luiloing
(!igure 15.9).
||6||| !:.^ 6||/:| ||ï||t||ï0|
|a|et 0at|et
:earce. |||M0 zòòò (j. ¹°}.
Sand and oil interceptor. 1Lis oevice is useo to prevent sano ano oil lrom park-
ing areas getting into severs or storm severs (!igure 15.10).
||6||| !:.!^ |||t/:ï t0|t||ï| :/|| /|| 0|| ||ï||t||ï0|
||| ltt|a¡. +re +'C| j|je
|ea¡|taa|a+| .ect|ea
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Ie |e c+.t |a âeer .|+|
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1î.4 6a|6aace fer pretect|ºe 6eº|ces
Backhov prevention oevices are classineo as testalle or non-testalle lor tLe
purposes ol regulation. 1Lese oevices can also le classineo accoroing to tLe
level ol Lazaro involveo.
¹å.+.¹ Ie.t+||e ae.|ce.
Eequirements lor reouceo pressure zone oevices ÷ LigL Lazaro:
º must Lave lree ventilation to tLe atmospLere lor tLe reliel valve outlet at all
º must not le locateo in an area tLat may le sulject to ponoing,
º must Lave tLe reliel orain outlet locateo not less tLan 300 millimetres (12
incLes) alove tLe surrounoing surlace,
º must le locateo so as not to le sulject to lreezing,
º must le testeo ano certineo every year.
Eequirements lor pressure-type vacuum lreakers ÷ meoium Lazaro:
º must le locateo not less tLan 300 millimetres (12 incLes) alove tLe LigLest
º must le ventilateo to tLe atmospLere at all times,
º must not le locateo in an area tLat may le sulject to ponoing or lreezing,
º must le testeo ano certineo every year.
Eequirements lor ooulle cLeck valves ÷ meoium Lazaro:
º must le locateo so as not to le sulject to lreezing,
º must le testeo ano certineo every year.
1estalle oevices sLoulo le testeo annually to ensure tLey are operating properly.
1Le orinking-vater supply autLority or company sLoulo le alle to register ano
monitor all sucL oevices using an inspection ano maintenance report system.
¹å.+.z Nea-te.t+||e ae.|ce.
Þon-testalle oevices incluoe atmospLeric vacuum lreakers, Lose connection
vacuum lreakers, venteo ooulle cLeck valves, oual cLeck valves, oual cLeck
valves vitL atmospLeric vent ano single cLeck valves. Þon-testalle oevices oo
not require annual reports. Hovever, tLey sLoulo le regularly cLeckeo ly tLe
ovner-occupant to ensure tLat tLey are operating correctly.
Eequirements lor atmospLeric vacuum lreakers:
º must le locateo not less tLan 150 millimetres (6 incLes) alove tLe LigLest outlet,
º must Lave no isolating valves locateo oovnstream ol tLe vacuum lreaker,
º must not remain continuously pressurizeo lor more tLan 12 Lours in
normal operation,
¹å. ||:|ûN 0| ||JM||Nû :\:I|M: |0| |N|J:I|||| |N| I|M|0|||\ |||||C|I|0N:
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
º must le ventilateo to tLe atmospLere at all times,
º must not le locateo in an area tLat may le sulject to ponoing,
º must le locateo in line, ano le at least tLe same size as tLe supply ano
oiscLarge piping.
Eequirements lor Lose connection vacuum lreakers:
º must le locateo oovnstream ol tLe isolation valve,
º must not remain continuously pressurizeo vitL tLe vater lor more tLan 12
Lours in normal operation,
º must le ventilateo to tLe atmospLere at all times.
Eequirements lor venteo ooulle cLeck valves:
º must not le locateo in an area tLat is sulject to ponoing or lreezing,
º must Lave tLe vent port locateo not less tLan 300 millimetres (12 incLes)
alove tLe surrounoing surlace so tLat tLe oevice is lreely oraineo.
Eequirement lor oual cLeck valves:
º must le locateo in an area not sulject to lreezing.
Eequirements lor oual cLeck valve vitL atmospLeric vent:
º must not le locateo in an area tLat is sulject to ponoing,
º must Lave tLe vent port locateo not less tLan 300 millimetres (12 incLes)
alove tLe surrounoing surlace so tLat tLe oevice is lreely oraineo.
Eequirements lor single cLeck valve:
º must Lave an isolating valve installeo upstream ano aojacent to tLe oevice,
º must le ntteo in an accessille location,
º must only le useo in nre services.
Þote: Single cLeck valves are not oeemeo to le lackhov prevention oevices.
1î.î 6a|6aace fer saa|tar¡ waste s¡stems
All Luman ano oomestic vaste must le oiscLargeo to a pullic sever, or a private
sevage oisposal system containing a septic tank ano proper seepage pits or ois-
posal nelo. Lntreateo Luman or oomestic vaste must not le oiscLargeo oirect to
tLe grouno or into vatervays. All sanitary vaste systems, vLetLer oiscLargeo
to a pullic sevage treatment lacility or to a septic tank ano oisposal system,
sLoulo contain oomestic sevage only. All otLer vaste sLoulo le pretreateo or
processeo. 1Le lolloving guioelines sLoulo le olserveo:
º ¡noustrial vaste sLoulo le pretreateo to remove Larmlul cLemicals ano
Leavy metals lrom tLe vaste stream. 1Le governmental autLority sLoulo
specily tLe pretreatment requirements.
º Eestaurants sLoulo Lave kitcLen vaste oiscLargeo tLrougL a grease trap or
grease interceptor to remove grease lrom tLe sanitary sever.
º Svimming pools, cooling tovers ano vater oisplays sLoulo oiscLarge into
tLe sanitary sever insteao ol tLe storm sever.
º Eainvater surlace hovs tLat lecome contaminateo ly contact vitL oil,
grease or Larmlul cLemicals sLoulo le pretreateo il possille prior to leing
alloveo to oiscLarge into tLe storm sever or vatervay.
º ¡noustrial or laloratory vaste oiscLarge tLat may cLange tLe pH ol tLe
sever system must le pretreateo to neutralize tLe inoustrial vaste stream
so it ooes no Larm to tLe vaste treatment operation.
º ÞotLing sLoulo le aomitteo into tLe pullic sever tLat coulo oamage,
cLoke or clog tLe pipes, proouce a hammalle or explosive mixture, consti-
tute a oanger to tLe pullic or tLe autLority`s vorkers or interlere vitL tLe
sever treatment process.
1Le sever autLority sLoulo consioer tLe lolloving lactors vLen oecioing vLetLer
to accept an inoustrial vaste:
º WLat is tLe relation letveen tLe quantity ol tLe elhuent to le oiscLargeo
ano tLe quantity ol sevage vitL vLicL it vill le mixeo¹ ¡l tLe elhuent is
oiluteo sulnciently it may le less Larmlul.
º Hov complex is tLe process ol treatment ano vLat space ano lacilities are
availalle at tLe lactory site¹
º Are tLere otLer inoustries in tLe neigLlourLooo prooucing similar vaste¹
1Lere may le arguments in lavour ol comlining tLe outhovs ano treating
tLem togetLer.
Some sever autLorities lase tLeir cLarges lor receiving ano oisposing ol inoustrial
vaste on tLe quantity receiveo ano on tLe oegree ol treatment necessary. 1Lis
encourages larger lactories to install tLeir ovn treatment plants. Hovever,
smaller companies may le unalle to oo tLis lecause ol lack ol space or ol capital.
¡n areas vLere a particular inoustry is important to tLe community, it may le
letter lor tLe autLority to accept vaste ano cLarge accoroingly. WLen oealing
vitL commercial vaste, tLe autLority vill also Lave to le guioeo ly tLe nature,
quantity ano strengtL ol tLe elhuent lelore oecioing vLetLer to receive it
untreateo into tLe pullic severs. Premises sucL as slaugLterLouses, lreveries
ano oairies may at particular times oiscLarge quantities ol LigLly oxioizeo vaste
tLat can upset tLe liological process at tLe oisposal vorks unless special
precautions are taken. Lnoer certain circumstances it may le necessary to
require tLat tLe vaste is oiverteo to a Loloing tank ano releaseo at a steaoy rate
over a specineo perioo ol time ratLer tLan in suooen rusLes or large latcLes.
1î.ã !term water 6ra|aaqe s¡stems
Cnly clear, clean uncontaminateo storm vater orainage sLoulo le alloveo into
a storm vater orainage system or oiscLargeo into local vatervays. Storm vaters
containing oeleterious sulstances sLoulo not le oiscLargeo into vatercourses or
¹å. ||:|ûN 0| ||JM||Nû :\:I|M: |0| |N|J:I|||| |N| I|M|0|||\ |||||C|I|0N:
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
surlace vater orainage. 1Ley must eitLer le taken to tLe pullic storm sever, or
must le treateo on site to remove tLe ollensive pollutants. 1Lese requirements
may, Lovever, le incompatille in inoustrial ano similar premises. !or example,
rainvater lalling on roaos ano paveo areas sLoulo le separateo lrom sevage to
prevent overloaoing ol tLe severage system. ¡t sLoulo le oiscLargeo to a oitcL or
vatercourse. Hovever, il cLemicals, oil or otLer spillage on tLe roao is vasLeo
into tLe vatercourse, serious oamage to nsL ano otLer vilolile may result.
1Lerelore, precautions sLoulo le taken to oivert tLe initial hov into tLe sanitary
sever ano tLe overhov tLen can le oiscLargeo to tLe storm vater orainage
1î.I Iemperar¡ p|am||aq |asta||at|eas aa6 ceaaect|eas
A plumling Lazaro tLat is particularly oilncult to control is a temporary instal-
lation lor a particular purpose. Backhov ano lacksipLonage oevices sLoulo le
installeo as oescrileo in sections 1+.5 ano 15.3. Because tLese temporary instal-
lations are not part ol a plumling system or connecteo to conventional nxtures,
tLey are not sulject to tLe requirement ol plans sulmission, lut tLey sLoulo le
sulject to otLer controls. SucL temporary installations can le more oangerous
tLan permanent systems, especially vLen tLey are not sulject to tLe plumling
cooe ol practice construction ano use requirements.
¹å.I.¹ Iemjer+r¡ ceaaect|ea. ea |a||a|a¡ .|te.
Cne common purpose lor a temporary connection is lor provision ol vater
ouring luiloing construction. Hoses lrom stanopipes on luiloing sites com-
monly oeliver vater into tanks ol muooy vater. A orop in mains pressure coulo
sipLon tLe contents lack into tLe pullic system. Hoses may also connect stano-
pipes to concrete mixers ano provioe vater lor various luiloing processes.
1emporary latrines may le constructeo vitL oelective sanitary nxtures tLat are
illegally connecteo to tLe main.
¹å.I.z 0t|er temjer+r¡ ceaaect|ea.
Hoses or otLer temporary piping may constitute a oanger in otLer circumstances,
sucL as at a petrol garage (gas station), larmyaro, lairgrouno, commercial garoen
or pesticioe applicator (especially vLen coupleo to an insecticioe sprayer), or
vLen cleansing a market or tLe interior ol market veLicles. 1Le plumling
approval voulo cover tLe permanent system, possilly incluoing a legitimate
external tap to vLicL a Lose may le connecteo, lut normally tLe use ol tLe Lose
is not covereo in tLe cooe ol practice. Cne saleguaro is an agreement letveen tLe
vater autLority ano tLe ovner tLat sLoulo specily tLe purpose ol tLe Lose or
temporary piping ano assess tLe payment lor tLe vater useo. Eules lor sanitary
usage may also le incorporateo into tLe permit or agreement.
All tLe vater piping oovnstream ol lackhov protection oevices is normally
classineo as an inoustrializeo vater system. 1o protect vorkers lrom taking tLis
vater lor oomestic use, eacL outlet in sucL inoustrializeo vater systems sLoulo
le clearly markeo °¡noustrial vater ÷ oo not orink°.
Most vioely useo mooel plumling cooes ol practice specily tLe use ano type
ol lackhov prevention oevices lor specinc applications. WLile every potential
cross-connection scenario cannot le covereo ly tLe plumling cooe ol practice,
tLe oenneo governing principles protecting tLe orinking vater system are
usually specineo.
WLen vriting a plumling cooe ol practice tLe autLority sLoulo carelully
assess tLe applications ol lackhov protection oevices to le expecteo in tLeir area
togetLer vitL any special Lazaros associateo vitL tLem. 1Le plumling cooe ol
practice can le lrameo compreLensively lut vitLout leing overloaoeo vitL
inappropriate material. ¡t is olten letter to restrict tLe cooe to lasic principles
ano reserve tLe rigLt ol tLe autLority to impose conoitions in special circum-
stances, ratLer tLan attempting to cover every possille situation in oetail.
¹å. ||:|ûN 0| ||JM||Nû :\:I|M: |0| |N|J:I|||| |N| I|M|0|||\ |||||C|I|0N:
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
1ã. !term water 6ra|aaqe
1Lere are tLree principal vays to oispose ol rainvater lrom rools, courtyaros
ano paveo areas: storm vater severs, soakavays ano collection in storage tanks.
Storm vater severs, vLicL may in some cases consist ol open cLannels, are more
common in urlan or oensely luilt-up areas, ano tLey normally serve to take tLe
orainage lrom LigLvays as vell as lrom luiloings.
1ã.1 0|scharqe |ate sterm water chaaae|s er p|pes
WLere a storm vater pipe or oitcL exists vitLin reasonalle oistance ol tLe
property on a luiloing site, tLe orainage lrom tLe rool ano lrom any paveo or
encloseo areas must le collecteo ano oiscLargeo into tLe storm vater pipe or
oitcL. ¡n many cases, tLe oitcLes or cLannels are laio alongsioe tLe roao just
outsioe tLe lounoary ol tLe property ano are tLe responsilility ol tLe LigLvay
autLority, vLicL may Lave its ovn connection requirements tLat sLoulo le
incorporateo into tLe plumling cooe ol practice. !or pipeo severs, any connecting
orains vill neeo to comply vitL requirements similar to tLose tLat apply to orains
carrying vastes to tLe soil sever. 1Le saoole or junction connection must le
maoe unoer tLe oirection ol a licenseo plumler or qualineo person ano must not
olstruct tLe hov ol tLe sever or tLe orain. 1Le orain itsell must le laio to a sell-
cleansing graoient ano must le properly jointeo to prevent tLe access ol tree roots
or ol tLe surrounoing soil. Hovever, tLe materials may not neeo to le ol as LigL
a quality ano tLe orain may not neeo to unoergo a test lor vatertigLtness.
LiscLarges into an open orainage cLannel may le tLrougL a pipe or tLrougL a
sulsioiary cLannel. Care must le taken to prevent erosion ano oamage to tLe
cLannel lining. Sulsioiary cLannels ano pipes vill usually le requireo to
oiscLarge in tLe oirection ol hov ol tLe main cLannel at a level alove tLat ol tLe
normal orainage hov. ¡l tLe main cLannel is unlineo ano tLe oiscLarge into it is
tLrougL a pipe, a protective concrete apron may le requireo at tLe point ol
oiscLarge. Sulsioiary cLannels sLoulo le laio to a sell-cleansing graoient, lut
tLis, togetLer vitL requirements relating to oiameter, may le mooineo accoroing
to soil conoitions.
LiscLarges into storm vater severs or cLannels must not contain any Luman
vaste, sullage vater or otLer sulstances tLat may cause a nuisance or injury to
LealtL. ¡n tropical countries Laving a long ory season, small oiscLarges, sucL as a
orain lrom a single tap, may increase tLe risk ol inlestation lecause protozoans
or otLer parasites may lreeo in sLallov pools or vaterloggeo grouno. WLere a
cLannel or orain may remain virtually ory lor perLaps montLs at a time small
oiscLarges may cause consioeralle nuisance, especially il tLey contain oeleteri-
ous matter sucL as oil or grease. 1Le autLority may make special provisions to
avoio tLis ly requiring tLat a paveo area vLere cars migLt le vasLeo sLoulo le
provioeo vitL a petrol, sano or oil trap ano plate separator.
1Lese oangers must le lalanceo against tLe oesiralility ol oealing vitL clean
vater oiscLarges vitLout requiring tLeir leing connecteo to Luman vaste sev-
ers. SucL instances as tLe orainage lrom air-conoitioning units ano ol cooling
vater lrom a oairy or small inoustry, or tLe Losing oovn ol a vareLouse hoor,
sLoulo not call lor oisposal treatment, lut tLe volume ol vater may le too great
to le oealt vitL ly soakavays.
1ã.1 Cem||ae6 sewers
Some severage autLorities operate systems ol comlineo severs into vLicL lotL
sevage ano rainvater may le aomitteo. 1Lese systems vere installeo in tLe past
lut are not currently recommenoeo. Comlineo severs are not economical
lecause mucL greater hovs must le provioeo lor in tLe severs ano in tLe sevage
oisposal plant. 1Lese systems are also Lazaroous to LealtL lecause storm over-
hovs must le provioeo to Lanole Leavy oovnpours. 1Lose overhovs are neces-
sary to relieve surcLarge ol tLe system at peak hovs, ano tLey may permit
untreateo sevage vaste to oiscLarge into open vatercourses.
Comlineo severs are rarely installeo tooay, lut tLey are olten louno in
congesteo areas ol oloer cities vLere pLysical ano nnancial constraints may
prevent tLe laying ol a secono system ol pipes to carry oll rainvater. Wastevater
autLorities provioe separate severage lacilities lor nev oevelopments, as every
aooitional connection to a comlineo sever makes its ultimate replacement more
oilncult ano expensive.
1ã.1 !eakawa¡s
Eainvater lrom sloping rools must le collecteo in gutters ano carrieo to grouno
level ly oovnpipes or oovnspouts. !lat rools sLoulo le oraineo ly vertical pipes
ano tLe orainage sLoulo le conveyeo ly pipe to a surlace vater sever or to a suit-
alle soakavay. ¡xcept vLen a rool is tLatcLeo, gutters ano oovnpipes or
oovnspouts sLoulo alvays le consioereo essential lecause tLey prevent rool
runoll lalling lrom a LeigLt in concentrateo sLeets or streams, vLicL can cause
erosion close to tLe lounoations ol tLe luiloing. ¡l guttering cannot le installeo
a concrete patL or apron sLoulo le laio immeoiately unoer tLe eaves, ano sLoulo
le slopeo to carry tLe vater avay lrom tLe lounoations.
1Le sizes ol gutters ano oovnpipes or oovnspouts vill oepeno on tLe area ol
rool to le oraineo, tLe slope ol tLe gutter ano tLe intensity ol rainlall expecteo.
1o insist on guttering capalle ol oealing vitL tLe vorst storms voulo le
¹ê. :I0|M \|I|| ||||N|û|
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
unreasonally expensive in many areas, ano voulo le ol little overall lenent
vLen tLe entire surrounoing grouno vas leing suljecteo to a oovnpour. 1Le
autLority sLoulo calculate tLe average storm intensity expecteo ano nx tLeir
stanoaros accoroingly. 1alles 16.1, 16.2 ano 16.3 relate rool area, guttering slope
ano storm intensity (1aylor & Wooo 1982). 1Lese talles can le aoapteo to suit
local conoitions. 1Le capacity ol a range ol storm vater orains is also sLovn, ano
may le applieo to tLe orains connecting tLe lover enos ol tLe oovnspouts vitL
tLe surlace vater sever.
WLetLer or not tLe use ol soakavays is a practical option vill oepeno to a great
extent on tLe nature ol tLe soil. Soakavays sLoulo le vell clear ol tLe luiloing
lounoations, ano sLoulo consist ol Loles oeep enougL to penetrate tLe sulsoil,
nlleo almost to tLe surlace vitL Laro material sucL as lroken stone, concrete or
lrick tLat vill not solten vLen vet. WLere tLe vater talle is LigL, it may le prel-
eralle to use sLallov oitcLes nlleo vitL Laro rullle insteao ol soakavay pits.
1ã.4 ka|awater taaks
WLen rainvater is leing storeo lor oomestic use tLe tanks sLoulo le ol vater-
tigLt construction, covereo vitL material tLat is veatLerprool, insectprool ano
verminprool, ventilateo, ano supplieo vitL access lor regular inspection ano
cleaning. 1Lere are many stanoaros tLrougLout tLe vorlo. !or more tecLnical
oetail on tLis sulject, please cLeck your area lor its stanoaros. Eainvater storage
tanks are a valualle supplement to mains supplieo in ario areas ano may even
sulstitute lor a mains supply. A system ol gutters ano collector piping must also
le vatertigLt, ano tLe contents must le protecteo against pollution lrom oust
ano reluse llovn ly tLe vino, entry ly liros ano vermin, ano mosquito lreeo-
ing. ¡l tLe rainvater is supplementary to a mains supply it may le lilteo lrom tLe
principal storage tank via a pump, lrom vLere it is pipeo to all nxtures. ¡l tLere
is no mains orinking-vater supply tLen vater lor all purposes vill neeo to le
taken lrom tLe rainvater storage tank. Strict precautions sLoulo le olserveo in
sucL cases to maintain tLe quality ol tLe storeo vater. A vasL-out orain tap or
oiverter sLoulo le incluoeo in tLe collector pipe so tLat tLe nrst vasLings ol tLe
rool at tLe leginning ol tLe rains can le run to vaste (tLese vasLings vill le
contaminateo vitL liro oroppings, vinollovn oust, etc.). ¡t is at tLis time tLat
tLe storage tank sLoulo le given its annual cleaning, a process tLat is mucL easier
il tLe tank is luilt in tvo sections tLat can le emptieo ano cleaneo in turn.
1ã.î ka|awater |ateas|t¡ aa6 reef 6ra|aaqe
1Le varialle lactors in selecting tLe size ol rainvater guttering are:
º tLe anticipateo intensity ol tLe rainlall,
º tLe slope at vLicL tLe gutters are to le nxeo,
º tLe area ol tLe rool surlace oraineo ly eacL gutter.
!rom a practical point ol viev an upper limit ol rainlall intensity must le
assumeo. Luring oovnpours ol LigLer tLan tLe assumeo concentration, surplus
rainvater vill overhov tLe guttering lut vill aoo comparatively little to tLe
general oeluge. ¡n 1alles 16.1, 16.2 ano 16.3 tLe maximum intensity Las leen
assumeo to le 100 millimetres (+ incLes) per Lour ÷ a LigL ngure. ¡n tLe cooe tLe
ngures voulo le recalculateo lor an intensity tLat is realistic lor local conoi-
1Le slope ol tLe gutter vill le limiteo ly tLe vertical gap letveen tLe eaves
ano tLe gutter at tLe lover eno ol tLe run. ¡l tLis gap is mucL greater tLan tLe
oiameter ol tLe cLannel small oiscLarges vill le llovn clear ol tLe gutter ly
quite mooerate vinos. A slope ol 1° (0.125 incL per 1 loot run) may le taken as
an average, in vLicL case an eaves lengtL ol 10 metres vill result in a vertical gap
ol 10 centimetres. ¡engtLs vell over tLis vill require tvo or more vertical
oovnspouts vitL consequent increase in cost. ¡n 1alle 16.1 tLe rool areas tLat
can le oraineo ly gutters installeo vitL slopes ol 0.5°, 1° ano 2° are sLovn
lor purposes ol comparison. 1Lis talle can le aojusteo to allov lor otLer slopes
permitteo unoer tLe cooe ano can also le extenoeo as neeoeo to cover gutters ol
larger oiameters.
ï/||| !é.! 6|ïï|| :|0||: /|| |00| ||/||/6| |/|||/|| ||ï||:|ïì !^^ mm ||| |0||
keef area 6ra|ae6 w|th qatter s|epes ef:
6atter|aq 6|ameter ê.î¼ (1 |a 1êê) 1¼ (1 |a 1êê) 1¼ (1 |a îê)
mm |aches m² ft² m² ft² m² ft²
°ò 1 ¹ê ¹Iò zz z+ò 1z 1åò
¹òò + 11 1êò +I å¹ò êI Izò
¹zå å å° êzå °z °°ò ¹¹ê ¹ zåò
¹åò ê °° °êò ¹zê ¹ 1êò ¹I° ¹ °zò
:earce. I+¡|er & \eea ¹°°z (j. ¹åê}.
1Le area ol rool to le oraineo is calculateo on tLe lasis ol tLe Lorizontal
projection ano not on tLe actual surlace ol a sloping rool. 1alle 16.2 sLovs tLe
maximum rool area tLat can le oraineo ly nve common sizes ol vertical
oovnspouts or leaoers vLen tLe rainlall intensity is 100 millimetres (+ incLes)
per Lour. 1Lese are suitalle eitLer to take tLe oiscLarge lrom guttering or lrom
hat rools oraineo oirectly into tLese leaoers. 1Le ngures sLoulo le aojusteo to
apply to oiscLarges lrom storms ol oillerent intensity accoroing to local
conoitions ano experience.
¹ê. :I0|M \|I|| ||||N|û|
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
ï/||| !é.' |00| /||/: ||/|||| |ì l||ï|t/| |0¦|:|0|ï: |/|||/|| ||ï||:|ïì !^^ mm ||| |0||
0|ameter ef 6ewaspeats keef area 6ra|ae6
mm |aches m² ft²
åò z êå Iòò
êå z.å ¹zò ¹ 1òò
°ò 1 zòå z zòò
¹òò + +1ò + êòò
¹åò ê ¹ zåå ¹1 åòò
:earce. I+¡|er & \eea ¹°°z (j. ¹åI}.
1alle 16.3 sLovs tLe total rool area, tLe oiscLarge lrom vLicL may le conveyeo
ly Lorizontal orains (alove or lelov grouno) into vLicL one or more vertical
oovnspouts are connecteo, ano vLicL may also serve to orain paveo areas sucL
as courtyaros. 1Le same storm intensity Las leen assumeo ano tLree graoients
÷ 1°, 2° ano +° ÷ Lave leen talulateo. Again, amenoments ano extrapolations
sLoulo le maoe to suit local conoitions or any requirements ol tLe local cooe.
ï/||| !é.? t/|/t|ï||: 0| |0||/0|ï/| :ï0|/ ||/||: |/|||/|| ||ï||:|ïì !^^ mm ||| |0||
karea te |e 6ra|ae6 w|tha s|epe ef:
0|ameter ef 6ra|as 1¼ (1 |a 1êê) 1¼ (1 |a îê) 4¼ (1 |a 1î)
mm |aches m² ft² m² ft² m² ft²
°ò 1 Iå °zò ¹¹ò ¹ ¹°ò ¹åò ¹ êzò
¹òò + ¹Iå ¹ °°ò z+å z ê+ò 1åò 1 IIò
¹åò ê +°å å 1åò Iòò I ååò °°å ¹ò Iòò
zòò ° ¹ òIò ¹¹ åòò ¹ å¹å ¹ê 1òò z ¹1å z1 òòò
:earce. I+¡|er & \eea ¹°°z (j. ¹åI}.
1I. |aterme6|ate aa6 cemmaaa|
me6e|s fer 6r|ak|aq-water sapp|¡
aa6 saa|tat|ea
¹I. |NI||M||||I| |N| C0MMJN|| M0|||: |0| |||N||Nû- \|I|| :J|||\ |N| :|N|I|I|0N
Plumling cooes usually require tLat every occupieo luiloing sLoulo Lave a
supply ol orinking-vater. A pipeo orinking-vater system vill require a sever-
age system to oispose ol tLe increaseo volume ol vastevater tLat is generateo.
Lntil tLese are acLieveo, °plumling°, in tLe sense useo in tLese guioelines, is
impossille. 1Lere are various intermeoiate stages letveen tLe use ol an
unprotecteo natural source ano tLe attainment ol tLis goal. 1Lis incluoes situa-
tions vLere pullic orinking-vater supply ano vaste oisposal are only partly
availalle, ano vLere cost or otLer constraints require tLe estallisLment ol lasic
communal sanitation lacilities as an interim measure.
1I.1 |aterme6|ate t¡pes ef 6r|ak|aq-water sapp|¡ aa6 saa|tat|ea
¡n a community vitL no pullic orinking-vater supply service, tLe nrst improve-
ment tLat may le maoe is tLe provision ol a sale vater source sucL as a protecteo
vell or protecteo spring. 1Le secono may le tLe provision ol a Lanopump or
otLer oevice tLrougL vLicL vater can le oelivereo oirectly into a carrying con-
tainer. 1Le next stage may le tLe estallisLment ol a central point to vLicL vater
is pumpeo, ano vLere it is storeo ano possilly cLlorinateo lelore leing collecteo.
A lurtLer improvement comes vLen treateo vater is pipeo to pullic stanopipes
close to tLe Lomes ol tLose vLo vill orav tLeir vater lrom tLem, or tLe piping
ol vater to a private stanopipe vitLin eacL property or compouno. 1Le nnal
stage lelore tLe installation ol plumling ano plumling nxtures is tLe installation
ol a single laucet vitLin tLe Louse, usually serving a kitcLen sink.
1Le loregoing service level is linkeo to likely quantities ol vater useo ano tLe
Lygiene consequences ol sucL use. 1alle 17.1 illustrates a laooer ol services unoer
tLe perspective ol oistance ano time to source.
!rom a pullic LealtL point ol viev, tLe crucial aspects to take into account
incluoe tLe protection ol tLe vater source to prevent contamination, ano provision
ol access to vater on inoivioual properties, tLus eliminating tLe neeo lor carrying
LouseLolo supplies ano storing tLem vitLin tLe Lome. ¡n many cases tLe earlier
stages may le lypasseo, sucL as vLen a complete nev pullic orinking-vater
supply is installeo in a community tLat previously Lao no protecteo vater source.
More commonly, economic constraints make it necessary to provioe a somevLat
more restricteo service initially so tLat tLe orinking-vater supply is improveo
incrementally in parallel vitL tLe community`s improving social conoitions.
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
¡t is important to empLasize tLe ultimate goal ol provioing on-plot vater
supplies to every LouseLolo, ano to ensure tLat provioing any intermeoiate level
ol service is carrieo out vitL tLis ultimate goal in mino. !or instance, mains laio
to pullic stanopipes sLoulo not le ol a size merely aoequate to serve tLose
stanopipes, lut ol sulncient carrying capacity to permit Louse connections to le
maoe later. CtLervise, tLe expense ol replacement ly larger oiameter pipes in
tLe luture vill le an olstacle to tLe implementation ol tLe next stage ol
WLere mains ano severs are planneo to le installeo in tLe near luture, or
vLere vater supplies lut no severs Lave leen constructeo, any private
intermeoiate arrangements sLoulo le so oesigneo ano installeo as to le reaoily
aoapteo to comply vitL local cooes ol practice. 1Lis vill ultimately le
aovantageous to lotL tLe inoivioual LouseLoloer ano to tLe autLority Laving
jurisoiction. Connection to a luture pullic supply is maoe easier ano cLeaper il
tLe internal piping ano nxtures alreaoy comply vitL tLe relevant provisions ol
tLe plumling cooe. Similarly, orainage to a septic tank or cesspool sLoulo le so
ï/||| !/.! :||l|t| ||l|| ||:t|||ï0|: 0| ¦/ï|| || |||/ï|0| ï0 |ì6||||
!erº|ce |eºe| 0|staace/t|me ||ke|¡ çaaat|t|es |eºe| ef hea|th
6escr|pt|ea measare ce||ecte6 ceacera
Ne +cce.. Mere t|+a ¹òòò \er¡ |ew. eltea |e.. t|+a å ||tre. \er¡ ||¡| +. |¡¡|eae aet +..area +aa
metre., er 1ò jer c+j|t+ jer a+¡ cea.amjt|ea aeea. m+¡ |e +t r|.|.
m|aate. tet+| 9a+||t¡ a|llca|t te +..are, emj|+.|.
ce||ect|ea t|me ea ellect|.e a.e +aa w+ter |+aa||a¡
|+.|c +cce.. |etweea ¹òò +aa |ew. +.er+¡e |. aa|||e|¡ te e\ceea Mea|am. aet +|| re|a|remeat. m+¡ |e
¹òòò metre., er å zò ||tre. jer c+j|t+ jer a+¡, |+aaar¡ met. 9a+||t¡ a|llca|t te +..are
te 1ò m|aate. tet+| +aa/er |+t||a¡ m+¡ eccar +t w+ter
ce||ect|ea t|me .earce w|t| +aa|t|ea+| .e|ame. el
|atermea|+te 0a j|et, e.¡. .|a¡|e Mea|am. |||e|¡ te |e +reaaa |ew. me.t |+.|c |¡¡|eae +aa
+cce.. t+j |a |ea.e er åò ||tre. jer c+j|t+ jer a+¡, ||¡|er cea.amjt|ea aeea. met. |+t||a¡ +aa
¡+ra .e|ame. aa|||e|¡ +. eaer¡¡/t|me |+aaar¡ je..|||e ea .|te, w||c| m+¡
re|a|remeat. .t||| .|¡a|lc+at |acre+.e lre|aeac¡ el |+aaaer|a¡.
|..ae. el ellect|.e a.e .t||| |mjert+at.
9a+||t¡ mere re+a||¡ +..area
0jt|m+| +cce.. \+ter |. j|jea |ate \+r|e. .|¡a|lc+at|¡ |at jre|+||¡ \er¡ |ew. +|| a.e. c+a |e met, |a+||t¡
t|e |eme t|rea¡| +|e.e ¹òò ||tre. jer c+j|t+ jer a+¡ re+a||¡ +..area
ma|t|j|e t+j. +aa m+¡ |e aj te 1òò ||tre. jer
c+j|t+ jer a+¡
:earce. |ew+ra +aa |+rtr+m zòò1.
¹I. |NI||M||||I| |N| C0MMJN|| M0|||: |0| |||N||Nû- \|I|| :J|||\ |N| :|N|I|I|0N
oesigneo ano installeo tLat it can le oiverteo to a luture sever lrom a convenient
access cLamler vitL no alteration necessary otLer tLan tLe oisconnection ano
nlling in ol tLe oisposal tank or cesspool.
1I.1 keasehe|6 water treatmeat
¡n tLe alsence ol access to a sale ano relialle central vater system, consumers
must make tLeir ovn provisions to le assureo ol tLe salety ol tLe vater tLat tLey
use lor orinking ano looo preparation. Several metLoos are availalle ano more
are in oevelopment. 1Ley range lrom lov-tecL approacLes like loiling to cLemi-
cal oisinlection using cLlorine or iooine, various lorms ol sano or ceramic nlters
ano oisinlection using sunligLt. More sopListicateo tecLniques incluoe com-
lineo coagulation ano oisinlection prooucts, ultraviolet lamps ano oevices tLat
can oisinlect, nlter ano remove cLemicals ano improve tLe aestLetic quality ol
tLe vater, ano more expensive solutions like sale lottleo vater. Lisinlection is
almost alvays essential. Water autLorities sLoulo initiate tLese programmes ano
vork to ensure tLat a range ol tLese tecLnologies or systems are availalle, sucL
tLat consumers can cLoose vLat is acceptalle, alloroalle ano appropriate lor
tLeir LouseLolo. As a minimum tLey sLoulo vork to ensure tLat tLe training ano
inlormation tLat consumers neeo to make gooo oecisions is availalle. AutLori-
ties sLoulo also monitor tLese situations to le sure tLat tLe LouseLolo treatment
is lunctioning successlully. ¡t is alvays important tLat tLe vater quality prollem
is unoerstooo so tLat appropriate treatment metLoos can le selecteo il some-
tLing leyono microlial control is a concern. ¡t is also important tLat, vLere
appropriate, vater treatment oevices Lave leen testeo ano certineo to specinc
claims ano perlormance (Cotruvo 2005, WHC 2005). WitL recent researcL inoi-
cating tLat LouseLolo-laseo approacLes to managing vater are cost ellective,
leao to signincant oiarrLoeal oisease reouctions ano are rapioly oeployalle,
WHC Las taken tLe leao in cooroinating tLe ¡nternational Þetvork to Promote
HouseLolo Water 1reatment ano Sale Storage (WHC 2006l).
1I.1 Cemmaaa| s¡stems fer 6r|ak|aq-water sapp|¡ aa6 saa|tat|ea
!actors otLer tLan installation costs may oelay improvements at an intermeoiate
stage. ¡n oensely populateo or periurlan slum areas, tLe cost ol internal pluml-
ing migLt le greater tLan tLe value ol tLe properties to le serveo. ¡t migLt seem
logical in tLis case to Lalt orinking-vater supply improvements at tLe pullic
stanopipe stage penoing tLe renovation ano reluiloing ol unsanitary Lousing.
Hovever, vaterlorne inlectious oisease vill not vait ano it is tLose in vulneralle
circumstances tLat are most in neeo ol lacilities lor sale orinking-vater,
personal Lygiene ano clotLes vasLing. ¡n tLe interim, provision ol communal
latrines, latLLouses ano launories may tLerelore le a reasonalle strategy, tLeir
expense leing justineo ly tLe improvement in tLe LealtL ol tLe pullic as a vLole,
as vell as in tLe quality ol lile ol tLe inoiviouals vLo vill use tLem.
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
A lorm ol sanitation particularly suitalle to crovoeo cities is tLe aqua privy,
consisting ol a single unoergrouno septic tank upon vLicL are luilt a numler ol
inoivioual latrines. Cutlets lrom tLe latrines orop vertically tLrougL tLe tank
rool ano oiscLarge unoer tLe surlace ol tLe septic liquio lelov. ¡l properly
oesigneo, constructeo ano maintaineo, an aqua privy can serve tLe neeos ol lour
or more LouseLolos, eacL Laving its ovn private culicle containing a latrine.
Sevage is lroken oovn ano liqueneo ano tLe elhuent liquio is comparatively
innocuous. Hovever, unoer oense population conoitions tLe removal ol tLis
liquio may present a prollem il tLe sulsoil is impervious. A orainage system to
collect tLe elhuent lrom a numler ol aqua privies may le constructeo at a
lraction ol tLe cost ol severs. Because only liquio is oiscLargeo ano tLere is con-
sequently no oanger ol llockage, smaller pipe sizes may le useo lor tLe orains.
Accumulateo solios eitLer must le removeo vLen tLe system is nlleo to capacity
or anotLer site louno, ano tLe excavation suitally covereo ano lacknlleo.
Plumling in ano lor communal lacilities neeos to le more rolust tLan tLat
installeo on private premises. Precautions neeo to le taken in tLe oesign against
vanoalism, tLelt ano misuse. Brass laucets are particularly sulject to vanoalism
il tLey can le easily unscreveo: orilling a Lole in tLe tLreaoeo union ano lasten-
ing vitL a set screv or rivet is one security metLoo. Stanopipes ano exposeo
piping may le emleooeo in concrete, tLougL tLis makes maintenance more oil-
ncult. HigL-level husLing cisterns ano sLover control valves may le mounteo
alove tLe ceiling vitL only tLe cLain ano Lanole visille in tLe culicle. 1Le seats
ol peoestal vater closet lovls can le maoe ol sturoy vooo, prelerally open at
tLe lront ano nxeo, ratLer tLan ol Lingeo plastic. Control valves, vLetLer lelov
grouno or mounteo in tLe luiloing, are letter encloseo in lockalle loxes. Similar
consioerations may govern tLe oesign ol truly pullic lacilities, like tLose erecteo
in markets or otLer pullic places.
1Le plumling ol multiple latrines, latLLouses ano launories sLoulo comply
vitL tLe general principles ol tLe plumling cooe vitL regaro to cross-connection,
lacksipLonage ano lackhov. By provioing eacL vitL its ovn storage tank, peak
use hovs are eveneo out ano economies may le possille in tLe oelivery mains
ano connections. ¡n many ario areas, it is customary to provioe storage at groups
ol stanopipes lor tLe same reason.
Alove all, tLe maintenance ol tLe installations vill oepeno upon tLe coopera-
tion ol tLose using tLem. ¡llorts to luilo a sense ol communal ovnersLip ano
prioe ol possession are important so tLat cooperation is voluntarily given or
assureo ly peer pressure, ano enlorcement is tLerelore unnecessary. ¡n tLis vay,
communal sanitary lacilities can le kept clean ano vorking vitL tLe minimum
neeo lor supervision ano inspection.
1ê. Ceaserºat|ea ef water |a pa|||c aa6
6emest|c sapp|¡ s¡stems
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All vater, even vastevater, Las value ano it sLoulo not le vasteo. 1Le conservation
ol clean vater oepenos on minimizing vastage lrom leaks ano reoucing unnecessary
or excessive consumption. Some vastage appears to le inevitalle in every orinking-
vater supply system, ano tLe term °vaste prevention° is useo Lere lor measures
intenoeo to reouce losses to a minimum. ¡n tLis context, tLe term °vaste° relers
to vater tLat escapes lrom tLe system unuseo or unaccounteo lor, ano not to
Luman vastes or otLer lorms ol useo or oegraoeo vater tLat are carrieo avay ly
orains or severs. 1Lere are cases vLere in tLe oroer ol 60° ol tLe oistriluteo
vater is unaccounteo lor, ano not lilleo, oue to leaks or non-metering.
Wastage ano leakage ol vater can occur lrom tLe pullic (mains) system or in
tLe private systems ovneo ly inoivioual customers. ¡n tLe pullic supply system,
tLe lest protection against vastage is tLe carelul oesign ano construction ol tLe
mains, comlineo vitL an active programme ol supervision ano preventive main-
tenance ano leak oetection. ¡n tLe private system, tLe main strategies are tLe
prompt correction ol leaks, tLe use ol tecLnologies to reouce overuse, ano pullic
eoucation on vater conservation, as vell as metering ano use ol rate structures
tLat are a lunction ol volume consumeo versus llock lilling.
WLile leaks in tLe pullic mains system can le minimizeo ly systematic
inspection ano maintenance ly tLe autLority concerneo, it is more oilncult to
trace ano remeoy leaks on private property. A relatively small (3 millimetres)
leak in a service pipe, or a oripping tap, unoer normal vorking pressure can
vaste 3+0 litres (90 LS gallons, 75 LI gallons) per oay, tLe amount requireo to
supply tLe neeos ol a lamily ol tLree. WLile leaks vitLin private properties are
cLargeo to tLe property ovner, a multiplicity ol leaks can compromise tLe
orinking-vater supply system. ¡eakage ano vastage on private property can le
minimizeo ly tLe use ol quality materials ano vorkmansLip in tLe installation
ol plumling systems, as vell as promptly instituting repairs vLen neeoeo.
¡eakage into orains (innltration) can leao to tLe overloaoing ol severs ano
sevage oisposal vorks, vitL consequent aooitional expense to tLe severage
autLority. 1Le innltration ol storm vater into vastevater oisposal systems may
create LealtL Lazaros. Measures must le taken to excluoe materials tLat can
cLoke severs, or tLose ol inhammalle, explosive, corrosive or toxic nature tLat
may le potentially oangerous to tLe pullic, or may interlere vitL tLe purinca-
tion process at tLe oisposal vorks.
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¡eaking pipes signincantly increase tLe vulneralility ol pipelines to contami-
nation, especially vLere tLe supply is intermittent or tLe pressure huctuation can
leao to innltration ol contaminateo vater into tLe oistrilution system.
1ê.1 !pec|a| pre||ems assec|ate6 w|th pa|||c |a||6|aqs aa6
cemmaaa| accemme6at|ea
Pullic LealtL autLorities Lave a particular interest in tLe plumling ol luiloings
useo ly large numlers ol people, sucL as scLools, looging Louses, Lotels, pullic
latLs, Lospitals ano transport terminals. Lnsale or inaoequate vater ano vaste
system plumling in tLose estallisLments can leao to major outlreaks ol inlec-
tious oisease. !or tLis reason, sanitary nttings must le appropriate lor tLe LigL
level ol use ano must le installeo ano maintaineo so as to minimize risks to
LealtL. Special precautions are necessary on premises vLere looo ano orink are
processeo, storeo or serveo to tLe pullic.
1Le responsilility lor ensuring tLat pullic plumling systems conlorm to
ellective Lygienic stanoaros is primarily locateo vitL tLe orinking-vater supply
autLority ano tLe looy responsille lor sevage oisposal. 1Le LealtL autLority Las
tLe overall task ol ensuring tLat tLese vater ano severage autLorities take tLeir
responsililities seriously. 1Le oay-to-oay supervision ol nev plumling installa-
tions is olten tLe responsilility ol a local agency, tLe luiloing control inspector,
vLose prime outy is to ensure tLe stalility ol tLe particular premises in vLicL
tLe plumling system is installeo, ano tLe salety ol its occupants. Supervision ol
plumling installations requires special knovleoge ano skill, so it is essential tLat
vell-traineo ano conscientious plumling inspectors are serving in tLose critical
1ê.1 |eakaqe aa6 wastaqe |a the pa|||c 6r|ak|aq-water sapp|¡ s¡stem
Þo pullic supply is completely leakprool, not even tLe lest-oesigneo ano care-
lully constructeo system can remain alsolutely vatertigLt tLrougLout its lile.
An elncient pullic orinking-vater supply autLority vill tLerelore maintain a
continuous programme ol inspection ano preventive maintenance to oiscover
ano stop leakage lor lotL nnancial ano LealtL reasons. Lnaccounteo-lor vater
represents a lost opportunity lor tLe autLority to earn income lrom tLe supply ol
vater. ¡eaks tLat allov vater to hov out ol tLe system can also provioe tLe
means ol entry lor contaminants, vLicL may in turn cause illness. A lurtLer
reason to maintain a continuous programme ol inspection ano timely implemen-
tation ol repairs to tLe pullic orinking-vater supply mains is tLat it sets an
example lor tLe ovners ol private properties to maintain tLeir ovn orinking-
vater supply systems so as to minimize vaste.
Wastage lelov grouno is oilncult to oetect ano isolate ano olten expensive to
remeoy. 1Le lest strategy is tLerelore to ensure tLat tLe orinking-vater supply
systems are luilt to tLe LigLest possille stanoaros. 1Le selection ol materials,
installation practices ano vorkmansLip in lotL pullic ano private orinking-
vater supply systems sLoulo all contrilute to reoucing tLe incioence ol unseen
vastage. 1Le usual proceoure lor tracing tLese leaks in tLe mains system is a
comlination ol oistrict metering ano inspection ol tLe mains ano services vitL a
leak oetection system sucL as a listening oevice letveen mionigLt ano oavn
vLen supply oemanos are lov. 1Lis can le lolloveo ly tLe investigation ol
suspect properties.
1ê.1 |eakaqe aa6 wastaqe frem pr|ºate 6r|ak|aq-water sapp|¡ s¡stems
¡eakage lrom piping systems vitLin a luiloing is usually sell-evioent lecause it
tLreatens to oamage tLe luiloing structure ano internal valls ano nttings. ¡t is in
tLe interest ol tLe ovner ol tLe property to Lave tLis remeoieo promptly,
especially since a leak can lecome progressively vorse as tLe escaping vater
increases tLe size ol tLe orince tLrougL vLicL it emerges. ¡n certain situations,
especially vLere vater cLarges are not laseo on metereo volumes ol vater useo,
povers ol enlorcement may Lave to le useo to compel tLose responsille to
unoertake repairs.
AnotLer type ol vastage is very oilncult to control vitLout tLe cooperation ol
tLe luiloing`s occupants, namely tLat oue to leaking taps, valves or incorrectly
aojusteo nttings in nxtures sucL as vasLlasins or toilet cisterns. Because tLe
vastevater is conveyeo tLrougL tLe nxture to tLe orainage system or is oiscLargeo
tLrougL an overhov, it may cause no olvious nuisance vitLin tLe luiloing, ano
tLerelore tLere is less incentive lor tLe property ovner to take action to nx tLe
leak. ¡n large luiloings, lactories or LigL-oensity Lousing estates, tLe total
vastage oue to tLis cause may le very consioeralle. 1Le actual cost ol replacing
vorn vasLers ano aojusting leaking nttings is minor once tLe leaks Lave leen
ioentineo. Because ol tLis, some orinking-vater supply autLorities oller to carry
out simple remeoial vorks or repairs lree ol cLarge to consumers, tLus
encouraging tLem to report sucL laults at an early stage.
1ê.4 0se ef meters te re6ace wastaqe aa6 excess ceasampt|ea
¡nstallation ol inoivioual vater use meters in all properties is an important
strategy to encourage consumers to repair leaks promptly ano to avoio excessive
use ol vater. Metering ensures tLat tLe cost ol vasteo vater vill le lorne ly tLe
inoivioual consumer ratLer tLan ly tLe pullic autLority. 1Lis strategy is ellective
in tLe case ol large commercial ano inoustrial premises ano in large multiple
ovellings vLere tLere are lacilities lor inspection ano repair ly maintenance
stall. 1Lis strategy sLoulo also le applieo to single ovellings, vLicL usually
constitute tLe greatest part ol tLe total oemano lor a orinking-vater supply in
non-inoustrializeo communities.
Meters are an essential tool in tLe proper management ol a vater oistrilution
system. ¡n many countries tLere is a treno tovaros private operation ol vater
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supplies or tLe corporatization ol pullicly ovneo vater suppliers, vLicL in turn
leaos to lull-cost accounting. Assistance to oisaovantageo persons can tLen le
provioeo lrom tLe pullic purse ratLer tLan a system ol implicit sulsioy ly
LigLer vater users, sucL as Lospitals, scLools, sports grounos or inoustries.
1Le provision ano installation ol meters ooes not represent tLe nnal cost ol
tLeir use. Meters Lave a limiteo lile ano are a continuously oepreciating invest-
ment. !acilities lor repair ano calilration must le provioeo ano a team ol meter
reaoers ano supporting clerical personnel must le supporteo, altLougL remote
sensing systems Lave leen oevelopeo tLat olviate tLe neeo lor oirect reaoing. ¡n
some cases tLe cost ol installation ol meters in all oomestic premises in a supply
area may le greater tLan tLe cost ol supplying consumers vitL more vater to
compensate lor tLe vastage tLan migLt Lave leen preventeo ly metering. Hov-
ever, tLe latter presupposes tLat not only is tLere unlimiteo lov-cost source
vater ano tLe means to treat it, lut also tLat tLere is aoequate capacity lor sevage
treatment ol vaste hovs il tLe vastage is going to orains. ¡t also assumes tLat
tLere is no risk ol contamination il tLe leakage is lrom pipes. Many analysts con-
cluoe tLat tLe compensation lor increaseo oemano oue to vastage ly increasing
supply is at lest a sLort-term nx. ¡n aooition, reoucing vastage vitL meter use
may allov consumer oemano to le met lrom tLe existing supply lor a longer
time, tLerelore reoucing tLe overall cost ol vater.
¡l every connection to tLe main supply Las its ovn meter, tLe meters can Lelp
reouce tLe cost ol supplying vater ly assisting vitL tLe ioentincation ol
unaccounteo-lor vater, lelov grouno leakage ano excess usage. Lnoergrouno
leakage tLrougL tLe mains ano lrancLes can le oetecteo ly comparing tLe
quantity ol vater entering a oistrict or section ol tLe mains system (tLrougL a
recoroing meter inserteo in tLe mains) vitL tLe sum ol tLe quantities registereo
on tLe inoivioual meters on outlets connecteo lrom tLat section ol tLe mains
ouring tLe same perioo. Similarly, vLen inoivioual meter reaoings are LigLer tLan
average, tLe property ovner vill lecome alerteo ano vill le more likely to
ioentily tLe cause ano take corrective action.
1ê.î M|a|m|t|aq s¡stemat|c excess|ºe aa6 wastefa| ase ef water
¡n a nev orinking-vater supply area, tLe entire oistrilution system may le
oesigneo vitL tLe elncient use ol tLe availalle vater in mino, vater pressures
may le regulateo ano maximum hovs ano capacities ol plumling nxtures regu-
lateo ly tLe plumling cooe. ¡n oloer systems tLere are a numler ol actions tLat
can le taken, lut tLe nrst ano most important is to secure tLe cooperation ol
consumers tLrougL pullicity, eoucation ano otLer lorms ol communication.
¡n some instances it coulo le economical to luno tLe retront ol vater-saving
nxtures ano hov controls in private connections so as to lover oemano. 1Lese
costs may le less tLan tLe expenoiture on inlrastructure to increase supply.
¡arger consumers may le persuaoeo to install oevices to cut oovn vater use il
lree auoits are provioeo to quantily ano cost tLe potential savings. Lse ol hov
control valves ano elncient sLover Leaos sLoulo le encourageo, ano consumers
sLoulo le maoe avare ol tLe sulstantial aooitional savings in Leating costs lor
Lot vater tLat can le acLieveo. ¡n estallisLments sucL as large lactories, inous-
trial complexes, mining camps ano Lotels, vLere large numlers ol people use
sLovers ano LanovasLing lacilities, tLe savings on energy ly reoucing tLe
oemano on Lot vater generation vill oramatically reouce tLe paylack perioo lor
expenoitures on hov control valves ano elncient sLover Leaos.
¡n oomestic properties vitL husLing toilets tLe toilet may account lor one
tLiro ol tLe oaily LouseLolo consumption ol vater. ¡ov husL toilets tLat utilize
5 or 6 litres (1.5 LS gallons) versus alout 20 litres (5 LS gallons) per husL are nov
vioely availalle. WasLing, latLing ano sLovering may account lor an aooitional
one tLiro ol vater useo vitLin tLe Lome. By regulating toilet husLing volumes
ano tLe hov rates at vasLlasin taps ano sLovers Leaos it is possille to conserve
up to Lall ol tLis vater vitLout loss ol amenity to tLe LouseLoloer.
Care is neeoeo vLen regulating tLe hov rate ol Lot vater taps ano sLovers as
some ol tLe instantaneous types ol vater Leaters are hov regulateo at tLe unit
ano lurtLer hov reouction at tLe tap may le oetrimental to tLe operation ol tLe
Lot vater Leater. SLover Leaos also require carelul consioeration, as ntting a
hov restrictor to a poorly oesigneo sLover Leao may reouce tLe amenity to tLe
user to sucL an extent as to cause tLe consumer to remove tLe restrictor ano
return to LigLer hov rates. ¡n multiple sLover installations tLe risk ol tLermal
sLock or temperature spiking must le taken into account. 1Lese prollems can
olten le traceo to poorly lalanceo hov rates at various taps or sLover Leaos.
A guioe to tLe vater use elnciency ol sLovers, as oetermineo ly hov rates at
tLe point ol use unoer normal orinking-vater supply conoitions ano pressures,
is as lollovs:
º 6÷8 litres per minute: Very gooo
º 8÷12 litres per minute: Gooo
º 12÷18 litres per minute: Eeasonalle
º 18÷2+ litres per minute: !air
º > 2+ litres per minute: Poor ano very vastelul
1ê.ã M|a|m|t|aq water asaqe |a 0ash|aq c|steras
1Lere are tLree main categories ol husLing cisterns tLat are connecteo to toilet
lovls ÷ LigL level, intermeoiate level ano close coupleo. 1Le application ol tLe
LigL-level cistern is normally restricteo to a single husL operation, vLereas tLe
intermeoiate ano close-coupleo toilet cisterns are availalle in a variety ol oesigns
ano materials incorporating a oual husL lunction. 1ypically, tLe lull husL vol-
ume is 6 litres (1.6 LS gallons or 1.+ LI gallons) ano a Lall husL volume is 3 litres
(0.75 LS gallons or 0.66 LI gallons) or less. Plumling cooes must ensure tLat
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only matcLing toilet lovls oesigneo to operate vitL lov husL volumes are useo
in conjunction vitL tLese oual husL or lov husL cisterns. 1Le volume ol tLe
larger husL in a oual husL system sLoulo not exceeo 6 litres, ano tLe lesser husL
volume must not exceeo tvo tLiros ol tLe larger husL volume. Lrinals vitL
husLing controls are also availalle. Sensors control tLeir operation so tLat husL-
ing ooes not occur vLen tLey are not in use. Waterless urinals are also availalle tLat
can acLieve signincant savings il tLey are installeo ano maintaineo correctly.
Eeouceo toilet husLing volumes may cause prollems il tLe orainage system
ooes not Lave a sulstantial hov into tLe system upstream ol tLe toilet. WLen
vater hovs are too lov, solios may le stranoeo in tLe orainage piping ano may
cause llockages. 1Lis ano similar prollems can le avoioeo il plumling cooes are
regularly reviseo to incorporate nev oesign practices.
AltLougL tLe Lall husL is an important strategy lor reoucing vater usage in
cisterns, it may not le ellective vLen toilet tissue paper is useo vitL a Lall husL.
1Le prollem is tLat tLe tissue paper olten lecomes stranoeo at tLe outlet veir ol
tLe toilet lovl. 1Lis in turn results in tLe oraining out ol tLe vater trap seal oue
to tLe inalility ol tLe reouceo husL volume to carry tLe tissue paper clear ol tLe
vater seal zone ol tLe lovl. Alter one or tvo sucL events tLe user may resort to
using tLe lull husL every time ano tLe potential lenents ol tLe oual husL system
are lost.
¡n areas ol extreme vater scarcity it may le necessary to install cLemical or
composting toilets insteao ol vater closets. 1Lere are a numler ol types, lut
most are sell-containeo. Since tLey oo not strictly come unoer tLe Leaoing ol
plumling nxtures, tLey vill not le oiscusseo Lere.
1ê.I M|a|m|t|aq water wastaqe |a |awa aa6 qar6ea |rr|qat|ea
WLen promoting a vater use elnciency programme, steps sLoulo le taken to
minimize tLe use ol orinking-vater on garoens ano lavns. More tLan +0° ol
LouseLolo vater use can le external in LouseLolos in ory areas tLat Lave lully
estallisLeo garoens ano lavns. Aovice on appropriate garoening practices, selec-
tion ol plants suitalle lor tLe local climate ano suitalle irrigation vatering scLeo-
ules all Lelp to reouce vater use vitLout loss ol amenity. ¡n localities vitL LigL
oaytime temperatures, lavn ano garoen vatering ano some otLer external LigL-
volume uses sLoulo le lanneo ouring tLe Lottest part ol tLe oay to reouce loss
tLrougL evaporation. ¡n some situations, more orastic restrictions or lans on
lavn vatering ano otLer LigL-volume external uses may le requireo, at least
1ê.ê kttempts te re6ace water asaqe threaqh |aterm|tteat sapp|¡
Water autLorities aoopt various expeoients to reouce consumption ly tLe pullic
ouring perioos ol vater sLortage. Cne ol tLe most unacceptalle is to make
supplies intermittent. ¡n tLis strategy mains supply to all or part ol tLe system is
sLut oovn completely ouring certain Lours ol tLe oay. Cne ol tLe vorst conse-
quences is tLe oevelopment ol negative pressures, vLicL carries a risk ol serious
lackhov contamination ol mains vater. ¡n aooition, oeposits ol rust, oetritus
ano otLer seoiments vitLin tLe mains are stirreo up ano carrieo in suspension
vLen tLe hov resumes. Air may le oravn into tLe system, causing airlocks or
vater Lammer. Cessation ol mains hov means tLat emergency calls lor vater lor
nrengLting cannot le met vitLout unoue oelay.
¡t is also ooultlul vLetLer signincant savings result in tLe long run, since
consumers nll latLtuls ano containers in anticipation ol sLutoovns. Luring tLe
sLutoovn perioo, consumers may turn on a vater tap ano, nnoing tLat tLe supply
is unavailalle, leave tLe tap in tLe open position, vater is tLen vasteo vLen supply
is resumeo. AltLougL vater is not availalle ouring tLe sLutoovn perioo, alter tLe
supply is returneo to normal tLere may le consioeralle vater vastage tLrougL
open taps ano tLe oisposal ol excess vater tLat vas storeo in latLs or sinks. 1Lese
losses coulo easily cancel out any potential vater savings.
A letter strategy is to maintain aoequate pressure in tLe oistrilution mains to
eliminate lov or negative pressures in Lilly conoitions or vLere tall luiloings
must le serveo. 1Le hov to inoivioual premises can le controlleo ly inserting
pressure reouction or limiting valves aojacent to tLe vater autLority`s stop valves
lor eacL service. 1Lus, tLe system can more easily le lalanceo to provioe eacL
lrancL vitL aoequate hovs at all times. !urtLer lalancing ol hovs ano pressure
is tLen possille in eacL private service leeoing multiple ovellings or tall luilo-
ings so as to provioe equal amenity to all consumers. ¡t is important tLat all
lrancLes lrom tLe main oistrilution system are regulateo, as any uncontrolleo
hovs vill Lave an aoverse ellect on a lalanceo system.
1Le plumling ol multiple latrines, latLLouses ano launories sLoulo comply
vitL tLe general principles ol tLe plumling cooe vitL regaro to cross-
connection, lacksipLonage ano lackhov. By provioing eacL vitL its ovn
storage tank, peak use hovs are eveneo out ano economies may le possille in tLe
oelivery mains ano connections. ¡n many ario areas, it is customary to provioe
storage at groups ol stanopipes lor tLe same reason.
Alove all, tLe maintenance ol tLe installations vill oepeno upon tLe coopera-
tion ol tLose using tLem. ¡llorts to luilo a sense ol communal ovnersLip ano
prioe ol possession are important so tLat cooperation is voluntarily given or
assureo ly peer pressure, ano enlorcement is tLerelore unnecessary. ¡n tLis vay,
communal sanitary lacilities can le kept clean ano vorking vitL tLe minimum
neeo lor supervision ano inspection.
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19. Wastewater ase
1Le use ol vastevater lor a variety ol purposes is gaining increaseo popularity
as a means ol preserving scarce lresLvater resources. Wastevater ano greyvater
use is increasingly consioereo a metLoo comlining vater ano nutrient recycling,
increaseo LouseLolo looo security ano improveo nutrition lor poor LouseLolos.
¡conomic ano environmental pressures, ano tLe conservation etLic, Lave leo to
vioespreao ano groving applications lor recycling ol vastevater, incluoing
irrigation ol looo ano non-looo crops, green spaces, recovering ario lano, nre
systems, inoustrial cooling or inoustrial processing, sanitation ano even as
inoirect ano possilly oirect sources ol orinking-vater. 1Le lenencial use ol
vastevater also Lelps to oecrease tLe impact on tLe environment ol oisposal ol
sevage or inoustrial elhuent. 1Le eno use ol vastevater oetermines tLe requireo
quality ol tLe vater ano management proceoures requireo to ensure salety.
WHC ano several countries Lave oevelopeo guioelines ano stanoaros lor tLe sale
use ol vastevater in agriculture ano otLer settings (WHC 2006a).
19.1 0se ef qre¡water
1Lere Las leen consioeralle locus on tLe use ol greyvater. 1Le 2000 Unijorn
Plunbing Code illustrated training nanual pullisLeo ly tLe ¡nternational
Association ol Plumling ano MecLanical Clncials oennes greyvater as
°untreateo LouseLolo vastevater vLicL Las not come into contact vitL toilet
vaste. Greyvater incluoes useo vater lrom latLtuls, sLovers, latLroom vasL
lasins, ano vater lrom clotLes vasLing macLines ano launory tuls. ¡t sLall not
incluoe vastevater lrom kitcLen sinks or oisLvasLers° (¡APMC 2000). ¡ven
tLougL greyvater ooes not incluoe vastevater, patLogens may still le present
lrom oillerent sources (e.g. lalies` nappies or oiapers). Hovever, patLogen
concentrations are generally mucL lover tLan in vastevater. Greyvater can le
useo in oomestic installations, lor vater closet husLing ano lor garoen vatering.
Lepenoing on tLe use, greyvater may require some treatment (e.g. oisinlection)
or management steps prior to application to ensure salety. !or example,
greyvater useo lor garoen irrigation sLoulo not le oistriluteo ly aerial spraying,
as tLere is LigL risk ol spreaoing airlorne inlectious particles (see section 1+.5).
But il tLe greyvater is applieo lelov tLe soil surlace lor lanoscape irrigation,
little or no treatment may le necessary. WHC Las recently completeo Guioelines
lor tLe Sale Lse ol Wastevater, ¡xcreta ano Greyvater, vLicL provioe more
inlormation on risk management associateo vitL tLe use ol tLese sulstances
(WHC 2006a). 1alle 19.1 summarizes tLe suitalility ol oillerent graoes ol vater
lor use in oillerent applications.
ï/||| !^.! :||ï/||||ïì |0| |:| 0| ||||||||ï 6|/||: 0| ¦/ï||
Water qra6e 0e0a|t|ea aa6 rease app||cat|eas
ûre¡w+ter \+ter lrem + jet+||e .earce t|+t |+. +|re+a¡ |eea a.ea ler |+t||a¡, w+.||a¡, |+aaar¡
er w+.||a¡ a|.|e.
\+.tew+ter Cem||aea aeme.t|c elâaeat t|+t ceat+|a. .ew+¡e
|ec|+|mea w+ter \+ter t|+t |+. |eea tre+tea .e t|+t |t. |a+||t¡ |. .a|t+||e ler j+rt|ca|+r .jec|lea jarje.e.,
e.¡. |rr|¡+t|ea, te||et âa.||a¡, etc.
ûreea w+ter |ec|+|mea w+ter t|+t |+. |eea tre+tea te + re|+t|.e|¡ ||¡| .t+aa+ra, .a|t+||e ler ¡eaer+|
a.e +. + aea-jet+||e .earce |a j+r+||e| w|t| t|e jet+||e .earce. |t m+¡ |e |aeat|lea
t|rea¡| |ac|a.|ea el + ¡reea a¡e +aa .ajj||ea t|rea¡| + aea|c+tea j|jewer| .¡.tem
|r|a||a¡-w+ter \er¡ ||¡|-|a+||t¡ w+ter +..area te |e .a|t+||e ler ar|a||a¡ |¡ |am+a.
19.1 0se ef wastewater
Greyvater ooes not incluoe tLe vastevater lrom toilets, urinals or lioets. 1Le
oiscLarges lrom tLese nxtures are classineo as vastevater (sometimes relerreo to
as llack vater), lecause tLey contain LigL levels ol patLogenic organisms ano
solios. SucL oiscLarges sLoulo unoergo specializeo treatment prior to any
seconoary use. 1Le installation ano operation ol vastevater use systems must le
strictly controlleo. Sale vastevater use systems require sulsoil oiscLarge in
oroer to limit tLe amount ol exposure to Lumans ano animals, so minimizing
any possilility ol transmission ol inlections ly viruses, lacteria or parasites.
Hovever, precautions sLoulo le taken to avoio tLe contamination ol grouno-
vater resources useo lor orinking-vater.
¡n larger urlan severage systems, tLe elhuent lrom at least seconoary treateo
community sevage treatment plants can le reclaimeo ly nltration, oisinlection
ano otLer more aovanceo treatments (e.g. memlranes) ano solo lor inoustrial
processes or cooling, or useo lor irrigation ol community sports grounos ano
garoens, or even lor inoirect potalle reuse. ¡noustrial ano mine processing sites
may set up internal recycling ol cooling ano process vater to reouce tLeir
reliance on community supplies. A compreLensive overviev ol management
measures lor tLe reuse ol vastevater in agriculture ano aquaculture is presenteo
in tLe WHC guioelines (WHC 2006a).
19.1 Maaaqemeat ef 6aa| water s¡stems
Community ano large inoustrial vater reuse systems require a separate vater
oistrilution system tLat runs parallel to tLe orinking-vater oistrilution system.
¡xtreme care is requireo to keep tLe tvo systems separate, to prevent cross-
¹°. \|:I|\|I|| J:|
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
connection ano to prevent inaovertent use ol non-potalle vater lor looo
preparation or consumption ly lotL Lumans ano animals. Lual vater systems
ol tLis type must le clearly ioentineo vitL a system ol colour cooing, lalels ano
tags tLat conlorm to a national stanoaro. All non-potalle vater outlets must le
clearly lalelleo, ano sLoulo le pLysically separateo lrom potalle (orinking)
vater outlets. WLere possille, non-potalle vater outlets sLoulo le lockeo oll to
prevent unautLorizeo use. ¡n a oomestic environment non-potalle vater is lest
restricteo to uses sucL as vater closet husLing or garoen irrigation. A closeo
oistrilution system vill prevent casual use ol tLe vater lor otLer uses.
AnotLer potential user ol a oual vater system is tLe nrengLting service. Hov-
ever, vater outlets sucL as Lyorants useo lor nrengLting may also le illegally
useo ly tLe pullic lor oomestic purposes. ¡pioemics Lave leen traceo to tLe use
ol vater lrom nre Lyorants lor oomestic purposes in tLe poorer sections ol cities
vLere tLe nre service vater is oravn lrom vater supplies ol unknovn quality.
Because unautLorizeo use cannot le preventeo, nre Lyorants in pullic places
sLoulo le supplieo vitL sale orinking-vater vLen possille.
19.4 |6eat|0cat|ea ef peta||e aa6 aea peta||e-6r|ak|aq-water s¡stems
1Le pipes in all luiloings Laving orinking-vater ano non-orinking-vater
systems must le clearly ioentineo. 1Le lolloving is a suggesteo system ol colour
cooes ano lalels useo to ioentily oillerent graoes ol vater:
º Lrinking-vater: green lackgrouno vitL vLite lettering
º Þon-orinking-vater: yellov lackgrouno vitL llack lettering, vitL tLe
voros °Caution ÷ non-potalle vater, oo not orink° or °Þon-orinking-
vater, oo not orink°.
º Eeclaimeo vater: purple or lilac (Pantone colour #512) lackgrouno,
imprinteo in nominal 12.7 millimetre (0.5 incL) LigL, llack, upper case let-
ters vitL tLe voros °Caution ÷ reclaimeo vater, oo not orink°.
º ¡acL system sLall le ioentineo vitL a coloureo lano to oesignate tLe liquio
leing conveyeo, ano tLe oirection ol normal hov sLall le clearly sLovn.
1Le minimum size ol tLe letters ano lengtL ol tLe colour nelo sLall
conlorm to tLe recommenoations in 1alle 19.2.
º A coloureo ioentincation lano sLall le inoicateo every 6 metres (20 leet)
lut at least once per room, ano sLall le visille lrom tLe hoor level. WLere
vacuum lreakers or presenters are installeo vitL nxtures, ioentincation ol
tLe oiscLarge sioe may le omitteo.
º ¡acL outlet on tLe non-potalle vater line tLat coulo le useo lor special
purposes sLall le posteo as lollovs: °Caution ÷ non-potalle vater, oo not
ï/||| !^.' /|||/|/ |||6ï| 0| t0|0|| ||||| /|| :|/| 0| ||ïï||:
0ats|6e 6|ameter ef p|pe er M|a|mam |eaqth ef ce|ear M|a|mam s|te ef |etters
ceºer|aq |a |aches (mm) 0e|6 |a |aches (mm) |a |aches (mm)
ò.å-¹.zå (¹1-1z} ° (zò1} ò.å (¹z.I}
¹.å-z.ò (+ò-åò} ° (zò1} ò.Iå (¹°.¹}
z.å-ê.ò (êå-¹åò} ¹z (1òå} ¹.zå (1z.ò}
°-¹ò (zòò-zåò} z+ (ê¹°} z.zå (ê+.ò}
> ¹ò (> zåò} 1z (°¹1} 1.å (°°.ò}
:earce. |||M0 zòò1.
Aooitional inlormation on grey vater systems, reclaimeo vater systems, private
sevage oisposal systems, ano orinking-vater supply ano oistrilution systems
can le oltaineo lrom tLe lolloving organizations:
Worlo Plumling Council (WPC)
IPMG !ioes
1+ CLemin Le-Þormanoie
Geneva, Svitzerlano
¡nternational Association ol Plumling ano MecLanical Clncials (¡APMC)
5001 ¡ast PLilaoelpLia Street
Cntario, CA 91761-2816 LSA
¡nstitute ol Plumling & Heating ¡ngineering (¡PH¡)
6+ Station ¡ane
HorncLurcL, ¡ssex
EM12 6ÞB
Lniteo Iingoom
Worlo HealtL Crganization
Water, Sanitation ano HealtL Programme
20 Avenue Appia
1211 Geneve 27
¹°. \|:I|\|I|| J:|
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
6|essar¡ ef p|am||aq aa6
ether terms ase6 |a the text
access chamber. An opening into tLe grouno lrom vLicL orains can le inspect-
eo ano roooeo or cleaneo out, lotL tovaros ano avay lrom a luiloing, also
acting as a junction into vLicL tLe orainage lrom otLer plumling nxtures may
oiscLarge into tLe Lorizontal orain.
accessible. ¡n relerence to a plumling nxture, appliance, equipment or connec-
tion: easily reacLeo, tLougL tLe use ol tools may le requireo to remove an
access panel or open a ooor.
air break. A pLysical separation letveen any pipe ano receptor tLrougL tLe lree
atmospLere. 1Le separation may le lelov tLe hooo level ol tLe receptor lut
alove tLe trap seal.
air gap. A pLysical separation letveen a sale orinking-vater system ano alove
tLe hooo level ol tLe receptor. 1Le separation sLoulo le at least tvice tLe
supply pipe oiameter, lut never less tLat 25 millimetres (1 incL).
authority. An inoivioual olncial, loaro, ministry or otLer political entity estal-
lisLeo ano autLorizeo ly governmental sanction or a specinc lav enacteo ly a
governing looy tLat conlers statutory povers to lormulate ano enlorce a cooe
ol practice lor plumling.
backüow. 1Le reversing ol tLe normal hov ol vater or otLer sulstances into tLe
orinking-vater oistrilution system lrom any unintenoeo source.
backpressure. 1Le reversing ol normal hov resulting lrom a pressure oovn-
stream tLat is LigLer tLan tLe supply pressure in tLe oistrilution piping ol a
orinking-vater supply system.
backsiphonage. 1Le reversing ol normal hov resulting lrom negative or sulatmos-
pLeric pressures in tLe oistrilution piping ol a orinking-vater supply system.
backwater valve. A oevice lor preventing sevage or orainage vater lrom hoving
lack into a luiloing in tLe event ol hoooing or sever llockage.
black water. Comlineo oomestic elhuent incluoing liquio ano solio Luman
looy vaste ano tLe vater oiscLargeo lrom toilet usage.
building drain. 1Le lovest part ol a luiloing orainage system vLere tLe orain-
age pipes meet ano convey tLe oiscLarge lrom vitLin tLe valls or lootings ol
any luiloing to tLe luiloing sever. Also calleo louse drain. See also combined
building drain, sanitary building drain.
building sewer. 1Lat part ol tLe Lorizontal piping ol a orainage system tLat ex-
tenos lrom tLe eno ol tLe luiloing orain ano tLat receives tLe oiscLarge ol tLe
luiloing orain ano conveys it to a pullic sever, private sever, private sevage
oisposal system or otLer point ol oisposal. Also calleo louse seuer. See also
combined building sewer, sanitary building sewer, storm building sewer.
building subdrain. 1Lat portion ol a orainage system tLat ooes not orain ly
gravity into tLe luiloing sever. Also calleo louse subdrain.
check valve. A valve tLat allovs tLe hov ol a liquio in only one oirection lut
closes vLen tLe normal oirection ol hov is reverseo.
cistern. A vessel open at tLe top to tLe atmospLere useo to Lolo a supply ol colo
cleaning eye. Sane as access cLamler.
colour marking. 1Le marking ol pipes ano nttings vitL oillerent colours to oes-
ignate tLe application ol tLe proouct ano to assist installers in ioentincation
ano prevention ol cross-connections.
combined building drain. A luiloing orain tLat conveys lotL sevage ano storm
vater or otLer orainage.
combined building sewer. A luiloing sever tLat conveys lotL sevage ano storm
vater or otLer orainage.
conservation. 1Le preservation ano protection ol natural resources.
corrosion. A surlace reaction causing a graoual erosion ol tLe material allecteo.
cross-connection. Any pLysical connection or arrangement letveen tvo otLer-
vise separate piping systems or containment means, one ol vLicL contains
potalle vater, ano tLe otLer vater or huio ol unknovn or questionalle
disinlection. Iilling or renoering Larmless microlial contaminants ly cLemical
or pLysical processes.
downpipe or downspout. A vertical orainage pipe lor conveying storm vater
lrom tLe rool or gutter orains.
drain. Any pipe tLat carries vaterlorne vaste in a luiloing orainage system. See
also building drain, storm drain, subsoil drain.
drainage system. All tLe piping vitLin pullic or private premises tLat conveys
sevage or otLer liquio vastes to a point ol oisposal. ¡t ooes not incluoe tLe
mains ol a pullic sever system or a pullic sevage treatment or oisposal
drain cock. A valve, usually installeo in tLe lovest portion ol a piping system or
vessel, tLat controls tLe hov ol liquio lrom tLe system or vessel. Also calleo
drain :al:e.
dual system. A situation in vLicL a secono plumling system is installeo along-
sioe tLe system lor provision ol orinking-vater. An example is a potalle
orinking-vater system ano a greyvater system in tLe same lacility.
electrolysis. A cLemical cLange tLat occurs vLen an electric current is generateo
ly tLe connection ol tvo oillerent metals, eitLer oirectly or via an electrolyte
û|0::||\ 0| ||JM||Nû |N| 0I||| I||M: J:|| |N I|| I|/I
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
hxture. See plumbing hxture.
hxture unit. An arlitrarily cLosen scale or quantity tLat represents tLe loao ol
a nxture on a orainage system. Cne nxture unit vas originally estallisLeo as
7.5 imperial (LI) gallons = 9 LS gallons = 3+ litres per minute oiscLarge ly
gravity tLrougL a nxture.
üammable waste. Waste tLat is easily igniteo ano vill lurn.
üoat valve. A valve tLat operates ly means ol a lull or lall hoating on tLe sur-
lace ol a liquio in a tank or container. 1Le rise ano lall action operates a lever,
vLicL opens ano closes tLe valve.
üushometer valve. A oevice activateo ly oirect vater pressure to oiscLarge a
preoetermineo quantity ol vater to nxtures lor husLing purposes.
lrost protection. MetLoos, sucL as lurial or insulation, useo to protect against
lreezing ol pipes or nxtures.
grease interceptor. A oevice, usually outsioe a luiloing, tLat retains grease ano
prevents it passing into tLe severage system.
grease trap. A grease interceptor installeo insioe a lacility, usually near tLe
grease-prooucing nxtures.
green water. Eeclaimeo vater tLat Las leen treateo to a stanoaro, suitalle lor
general oomestic non-potalle applications. ¡t may le ioentineo tLrougL
inclusion ol a green oye ano supplieo tLrougL a oeoicateo colour-cooeo pipe-
vork system.
greywater. Water tLat Las alreaoy leen useo lor latLing, vasLing, launory or
oisLvasLing, lut ooes not contain excreta.
indirect connections. Waste piping tLat oiscLarges into a receptor or interceptor
tLrougL an air lreak or air gap into tLe orainage system.
industrial waste. ¡iquio or vaterlorne vaste lrom inoustrial or commercial
inspection chamber. Sane as access chamber.
interceptor. A oevice useo to separate oeleterious, Lazaroous or unoesiralle
matter lrom normal vastes, retaining it vLile permitting normal sevage or
liquio vastes to oiscLarge into tLe orainage system ly gravity.
liquid waste. 1Le oiscLarge lrom any nxture, appliance or appurtenance in con-
nection vitL a plumling system tLat ooes not receive laecal matter.
manhole. Sane as access chamber.
mixing valve. A valve or laucet tLat mixes liquios using automatic or manual
negative pressure. Pressure lelov tLe external atmospLere pressure, taking into
account tLe local elevation.
non-return valve. Sane as check valve.
oil trap. An interceptor useo to retain oil ano prevent it passing into severs.
overüow system. An outlet or receptacle oesigneo to collect surplus liquios alter
tLe oesireo amount Las leen receiveo.
pH. 1Le negative logaritLm (lase 10) ol tLe Lyorogen concentration. Cn tLe scale
ol 0 to 1+, 7 is neutral, lover numlers are acioic, ano LigLer numlers are lasic.
plumbing hxture. A general term applieo to any plumling receptacle, oevice
or appliance tLat can le temporarily or permanently nxeo in place. ¡t is con-
necteo to tLe orinking-vater supply or to tLe orainage system eitLer ly an
inoirect or oirect connection.
potable water. Sane as drinking-water.
pressure reduction valve. A oevice tLat regulates pressure in liquios or gases
ly reoucing a LigLer pressure to a oennite lover pressure, maintaining tLe
liquios or gases at a constant pressure.
pressure reliel valve. A salety valve tLat is Lelo closeo ly a spring or otLer means
ano automatically relieves tLe pressure in excess ol its setting. See also tem-
perature and pressure reliel valve.
reclaimed water. Water tLat Las leen treateo so tLat its quality is suitalle lor
particular specineo purposes, sucL as irrigation, toilet husLing or possilly
orinking. Also calleo recycled uater.
rool drainage. Conveyance ol rainvater lrom a sloping rool ly gutters ano
oovnspouts, or lrom a vertical rool ly pipe, to a surlace vater sever or suit-
alle soakavay.
sale or potable drinking-water. Water tLat is intenoeo lor Luman consumption
ano suitalle lor all usual oomestic uses, complying vitL tLe requirements ol
tLe WHC Guioelines lor Lrinking-vater Çuality or appropriate national
stanoaros estallisLeo ly tLe regulating autLority.
sanitary building drain. A luiloing orain tLat conveys only oomestic or inous-
trial vaste, not storm vater.
sanitary building sewer. A luiloing sever tLat conveys only oomestic or inous-
trial vaste, not storm vater.
sanitary sewer. A sever intenoeo to receive only oomestic or inoustrial vaste,
not storm vater.
sewage. ¡iquio vaste ano vastevater generateo ly resioential ano commerical
sources ano carrieo in severs.
sewer. A cLannel or conouit, usually sulterranean, lor carrying oll vater ano
vaste matter, sucL as surlace vater lrom rainlall, LouseLolo vaste lrom sinks
ano latLs, ano vastevater lrom inoustrial vorks. See also building sewer,
sanitary sewer.
sewerage. 1Le vorks comprising a sever system, pumping stations, treatment
vorks ano all otLer vorks necessary to tLe collection, treatment ano oisposal
ol sevage.
sewer system. System incluoing a luiloing sever, a private or pullic sever, ano
a private or pullic sevage oisposal system.
stop valve. A key control valve capalle ol sLutting oll tLe vLole plumling sys-
tem tLat is unoer mains pressure.
û|0::||\ 0| ||JM||Nû |N| 0I||| I||M: J:|| |N I|| I|/I
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
storm drain. 1Le part ol tLe Lorizontal piping ano its lrancLes tLat oirects sul-
soil ano surlace orainage lrom areas, courts, rools or yaros to a luiloing or
storm sever.
storm water drainage. Lrainage ol rainvater lrom rools, courtyaros ano paveo
areas ano conveying it avay lrom luiloings to a place ol oisposal.
subsoil drain. A orain tLat collects sulsurlace or seepage vater ano conveys it
to a place ol oisposal.
temperature and pressure reliel valve. A oevice tLat controls lotL temperature
ano pressure, releasing vater to atmospLere at preoetermineo settings. See
also pressure reliel valve.
trap. A oevice or ntting tLat provioes a liquio seal to prevent tLe emission ol
sever gases vitLout materially retaroing tLe hov ol sevage or vastevater
tLrougL it.
vent. Any pipe provioeo to ventilate a plumling system in oroer to prevent
lackpressure ano trap sipLonage, or to equalize tLe air pressure vitLin tLe
orainage system.
waste. See liquid waste, industrial waste.
wastewater. 1Le spent or useo vater ol a community, incluoing lrom resioences
ano commercial luiloings, ano any surlace vater or storm vater tLat contains
oissolveo or suspenoeo matter.
water closet. A vater-husLing oevice or nxture oesigneo to receive Luman vaste
oirectly lrom tLe user ano oiscLarge it to tLe orainage system.
û|0::||\ 0| ||JM||Nû |N| 0I||| I||M: J:|| |N I|| I|/I
AinsvortL EG, eo. 200+. Saje piped uater· nanaging nicrobial quality in piped
distribution systens. WHC Lrinking-Water Çuality Series. ¡onoon, ¡WA
Bartram j et al., eos. 2003. Heterotroplic plate counts and drinking-uater sajety·
tle signiþcance oj HPCs jor uater quality and lunan lealtl. ¡onoon, ¡WA
BE¡ (Builoing EesearcL ¡stallisLment). 2001. Vacuun drainage systens guid-
ance. Lniteo Iingoom, joint pullication ol BE¡, ¡nstitute ol Plumling ano
Heating ¡ngineering ano CLartereo ¡nstitution ol Builoing Services.
CLC (Centers lor Lisease Control ano Prevention). 2003. Guidelines jor en:i-
ronnental injection control in lealtl care jacilities. Morlioity ano Mortality
Weekly Eeport (MMWE) 2003/52(EE10):1÷+2. Availalle at vvv.coc.gov/
mmvr/previev/mmvrLtml/rr5210a1, accesseo 21 january 2006.
Cotruvo j. 2005. Point ol use treatment lor Lome ano travel. ¡n: Gralov W, eo.
Water and Public Healtl, in Encyclopedia oj Lije Support Systens (¡C¡SS).
Cxloro, LI, ¡C¡SS PullisLers.
¡PA (¡nvironmental Protection Agency). 2003. Cross-connection control
nanual. ¡PA 816-E-03-002, !elruary 2003. Availalle at vvv.epa.gov/
salevater/crossconnection.Ltml, accesseo 21 january 2006.
¡xner M, Vacata V, Gelel j. 2003. Pullic LealtL aspects ol tLe role ol HPC: an
introouction. ¡n: Bartram j et al., eos. Heterotroplic plate counts and drinking-
uater sajety· tle signiþcance oj HPCs jor uater quality and lunan lealtl
12÷19. ¡onoon, ¡WA PullisLing.
Hovaro G, Bartram j. 2003. Donestic uater quantity, ser:ice le:el and lealtl.
Geneva, Worlo HealtL Crganization.
¡APMC (¡nternational Association ol Plumling ano MecLanical Clncials).
1997. 1997 Unijorn Plunbing Code illustrated training nanual. Cntario,
Calilornia, ¡APMC.
¡APMC (¡nternational Association ol Plumling ano MecLanical Clncials).
2000. 2000 Unijorn Plunbing Code illustrated training nanual. Cntario,
Calilornia, ¡APMC.
¡APMC (¡nternational Association ol Plumling ano MecLanical Clncials).
2003. 2003 Unijorn Plunbing Code illustrated training nanual. Cntario,
Calilornia, ¡APMC.
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
¡PH¡ (¡nstitute ol Plumling ano Heating ¡ngineering). 200+. Disinjection.
Availalle at vvv.ipLe.org.uk/oatalyte/oisinlection.pol, accesseo 21 january
¡PH¡ (¡nstitute ol Plumling ano Heating ¡ngineering). 2005. Legionella. Avail-
alle at vvv.ipLe.org.uk/oatalyte/legionella.pol, accesseo 21 january 2006.
Stevens M et al. 200+. Eisk management lor oistrilution systems. ¡n: AinsvortL
E, eo. Saje piped uater· nanaging nicrobial uater quality in piped distribu-
tion systens. ¡onoon, ¡WA PullisLing.
Surman-¡ee et al. 2006 (in preparation). Legionella and tle pre:ention oj le-
gionellosis. Geneva, Worlo HealtL Crganization.
1aylor !, Wooo W, eos. 1982. Guidelines on lealtl aspects oj plunbing. ¡nterna-
tional Eelerence Centre lor Community Water Supply ano Sanitation (¡EC)
1ecLnical Paper Series Þo. 19. 1Le Hague, ¡EC.
LÞLP (Lniteo Þations Levelopment Programme). 1999. Hunan de:elopnent
report 1999. Þev York, Cxloro Lniversity Press.
WHC (Worlo HealtL Crganization). 1998. Tlree billion people uorlduide lack
sanitation jacilities· WHO strategy on sanitation jor ligl risk connunities.
WHC press release, 29 january 1998. Availalle at vvv.vLo.int/inl-pr-1998/
en/pr98-18.Ltml, accesseo 21 january 2006.
WHC (Worlo HealtL Crganization). 2003. !inal report· Anoy Gardens. WHC
¡nvironmental ¡nvestigation. Availalle at vvv.iapmo.org/common/pol/
¡SS-Eome/SAES_Amoy_Garoens_HI.pol, accesseo 21 january 2006.
WHC (Worlo HealtL Crganization). 200+a. Guidelines jor drinking-uater
quality, 3ro eo. Geneva, WHC.
WHC (Worlo HealtL Crganization). 200+l. Water, sanitation and lygiene links
to lealtl. Availalle at vvv.vLo.int/vater_sanitation_LealtL/pullications/
lacts200+/, accesseo 21 january 2006.
WHC (Worlo HealtL Crganization). 2005. Managing uater in tle lone· ac-
celerated lealtl gains jron inpro:ed uater supply. Availalle at vvv.vLo.int/
vater_sanitation_LealtL/ovq, accesseo 21 january 2006.
WHC (Worlo HealtL Crganization). 2006a. Guidelines jor tle saje use oj uaste-
uater, excreta and greyuater Volumes 1÷+. Geneva, WHC.
WHC (Worlo HealtL Crganization). 2006l. Tle International Netuork
to Pronote Houselold Water Treatnent and Saje Storage. Availalle at
vvv.vLo.int/LouseLolo_vater, accesseo 9 !elruary 2006.
WHC/LÞ¡C¡! (Worlo HealtL Crganization ano Lniteo Þations CLil-
oren`s !uno). 2005. Water jor lije· naking it lappen. WHC/LÞ¡C¡!
joint Monitoring Programme lor Water Supply & Sanitation. Availalle at
vvv.vssinlo.org/en/+0_vh_2005.Ltml (p.13), accesseo 21 january 2006.
Ceatr||at|aq aathers
Þeil Bogatz ano Galriella Lavis, Project Co-Aoministration, ¡nternational
Association ol Plumling ano MecLanical Clncials, LSA
Eolert Burgon, ScottisL ano ÞortLern ¡relano Plumling ¡mployers
!eoeration, Scotlano
Sio CavanaugL, Lniteo Association ol journeymen ano Apprentices ol tLe
Plumling ano Pipe !itting ¡noustry ol tLe Lniteo States ano Canaoa
josepL Cotruvo, josepL Cotruvo & Associates, ¡¡C, LSA
Lale Courtman, ¡nstitute ol Plumling ano Heating ¡ngineering, Lniteo
joLn Hallivill, ¡nternational Association ol Plumling & MecLanical Clncials,
Lon Ieenan, Master Plumlers, Gasntters ano Lrainlayers Þev Zealano, ¡nc.,
Þev Zealano
EalpL 1. Martin, 1Le ¡nstitute ol Plumling, Australia
StepLen j. Movley, 1Le ¡nstitute ol Plumling, Australia
!rank Penlolo, Cntario Plumling ¡nspectors Association, Canaoa
Plumling ¡noustry Commission AutLority ol Victorian Government,
Plumling-Heating-Cooling Contractors Þational Association, LSA
Hari EamanatLan, ¡nternational Association ol Plumling ano MecLanical
Clncials, LSA
¡ovaro Saltzlerg, ¡ovaro Saltzlerg & Associates, LSA
Eolert SLepLero, ¡nternational Association ol Plumling ano MecLanical
Clncials, LSA
jurg 1ester, ScLveizeriscLer Spenglermeister uno ¡nstallateur-Verlano,
Murray 1Lomas, Plumling Livision Manager ÷ PP1C Skills, Western
EicLaro Wagner, ¡nvironmental ¡ngineering, LSA
CLarles Watson, Curtin Lniversity ol 1ecLnology, PertL, WA, Australia
Anoy Watts, ¡nstitute ol Plumling ano Heating ¡ngineering, Lniteo Iingoom
SLiming ZLao, Builoing Lesign ¡nstitute ol tLe Ministry ol Construction,
Peoples Eepullic ol CLina
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
access cLamler 26, 35, 36, 58, 59, 65, 66,
69, 10+, 118, 119, 121
Aerononas 12
aestLetic 79, 105, 120
air lreak 61, 63, 118, 120
air gap 5+, 62, 77, 86, 118, 120
arsenic 7, 13, 1+, +8
assessment 15, 18, 19, 20, +6, +7
auoit 5, +2
autLority 1, 2, 5, 23, 27, 29, 30, 31, 32,
33, 3+, 35, 36, 37, 39, +0, +1, +2, +3, +5,
+6, +8, +9, 57, 59, 61, 6+, 66, 67, 71, 79,
93, 9+, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 10+, 107,
108, 109, 118, 121
automolile oil 8
lackhov 5, 25, 27, 5+, 57, 60, 61, 62, 68,
71, 77, 79, 80, 85, 86, 87, 88, 90, 91, 93,
9+, 96, 97, 106, 113, 118
lackpressure 5, 2+, 68, 90, 118, 122
lacksipLonage 5, 2+, 57, 60, 61, 68, 73, 85,
86, 87, 88, 90, 96, 106, 113, 118
lacteria 2, 8, 10, 11, 12, 20, +8, 51, 62, 115
BanglaoesL 13, 1+
lionlms 12, 17
llack vater 73, 75, 112, 115, 118
lleacL 7, 37
loiler 76
looster pump +, 71, 72
lottleo vater 8, 12, 105
lrass +9, 50, 106
calcium 17, 37
Canpylobacter 10
carlon nlter 12
cement joint 36, 51
Centers lor Lisease Control x, 12, 12+
central Leating 68, 76
ceramic nlter 10+
certincation 5, 2+, +0, +1, +2, ++, +5, +6,
+7, +8, 5+
cLeck valve 87, 88, 90, 93, 9+, 119, 120
cLiloprool 15
cLloramine 8
cLloroane 87
cLlorinateo polyvinylcLlorioe (CPVC)
x, +9, 51
cLlorination 7, 15, 51
cLlorine 8, 11, 37, 38, 61, 79, 105
circulating pump +
cistern 37, 62, 63, 7+, 77, 111, 119
clay 36, 53
clay pipe 36
climate 6, 112
cooe ol practice 5, 20, 22, 28, 29, 30, 31,
32, 33, +0, +1, +2, +3, +5, 66, 68, 79, 96,
97, 98, 118
colo vater system +8, 53, 75, 83, 120
colilorm 11
colour cooing 53, 79, 116
comlineo sever 98
communal systems 22, 2+, 58, 67, 103,
105, 107, 108, 113
concrete 5+, 55, 56, 6+, 65, 92, 96, 98, 99,
100, 106
conservation 6, 20, 75, 107, 11+, 119
contamination 2, +, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13,
1+, 15, 18, 19, 20, 2+, 32, 37, 55, 60, 61,
62, 67, 68, 71, 85, 88, 90, 91, 103, 108,
110, 113, 115
control valve 68, 91, 106, 111, 119, 122
copper 17, +9, 50, 51, 5+, 79
corrosion 13, 17, 20, 2+, +8, +9, 50, 51, 72,
78, 119
cross-connection +, 5, 20, 2+, +0, +2, 53,
55, 75, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 85, 86, 90,
97, 106, 113, 116, 119, 12+
Cryptosporidia 8, 10, 11
oesalination 6
oesign ol plumling systems 1, 2, +, 5, 12,
20, 22, 23, 2+, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33,
+2, +6, 53, 55, 57, 58, 60, 6+, 67, 71, 85,
107, 108
LLaka 9
oiameter ol vater pipes 33, 3+, 37, 50, 51,
52, 57, 58, 59, 61, 62, 63, 6+, 67, 69, 83,
98, 101, 102, 10+, 117, 118
oiarrLoea vii, 6, 7, 12
oisease 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 1+, 21, 105, 108
oisinlection 2, 8, 13, 15, 37, 38, 39, 105,
11+, 115, 119
oomestic storage 61, 68
ooulle cLeck valve 87, 88, 93, 9+
oovnpipe 99, 119
Dracunculus nedinensis 11
orainage system 25, 26, 27, 28, 31, 35,
36, +8, 52, 53, 5+, 6+, 66, 67, 75, 95, 96,
106, 109, 112, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122
orainpipe 26, 35, 36, 58, 8+
orains +, 26, 30, 31, 33, 36, 58, 59, 63, 6+,
65, 66, 69, 70, 73, 75, 83, 8+, 98, 100,
102, 106, 107, 110, 118, 119
orinking-vater vii, viii, ix, 1, 2, 3, +, 5,
6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 1+, 15, 18, 20, 21,
23, 2+, 30, 31, +6, +7, +8, +9, 50, 51, 52,
5+, 55, 57, 60, 67, 68, 71, 72, 75, 76, 77,
78, 79, 82, 85, 86, 90, 93, 100, 103, 105,
107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 11+, 115,
116, 117, 118, 120, 121
oual systems +, 32, 57, 75, 77, 111, 112,
115, 116, 119
eartLenvare 52, 5+
electrolysis 78, 119
enlorcement +2, 106, 109, 113
Entanoeba listolytica 11
Esclericlia coli 10, 11, 12, 39
evaporation 6, 69, 112
laecal contamination 2, 11, 12, 39, 80
nltration 2, 8, 115
nre protection +9, 77, 90
nxture unit 82, 83, 8+, 120
!la:obacteriun 12
huorioe 7, 13, 1+
husLing 37, 38, 62, 63, 78, 80, 81, 91, 106,
111, 112, 11+, 115, 116, 117, 120, 122
looo 5, 6, 10, 12, 18, 25, 27, 29, 32, 39,
+2, 55, 62, 63, 77, 80, 81, 105, 108,
11+, 116
lresL vater 6, 90, 11+
lrost 58, 61, 69, 120
galvanizeo steel +9, 50, 51, 78
Giardia 10, 11
graoient 33, 3+, 58, 59, 66, 7+, 8+, 85, 98,
gravity systems 71, 72, 73, 7+, 75, 119,
120, 121
grease 33, 63, 80, 90, 91, 92, 9+, 95, 99,
green vater 79, 115, 120
greyvater 69, 73, 7+, 75, 79, 11+, 115, 117,
grounovater 6, 8, 10, 13, 1+, 55, 78, 115,
grovtL 8, 11, 12, 16, 50, 62, 76
Guioelines lor Lrinking-vater Çuality
11, 12, 15, 19, +7, +9, 120, 12+
Lazaro assessment 18, 19
LealtL vii, viii, 1, 2, 3, +, 5, 6, 10, 11, 12,
13, 15, 16, 17, 20, 22, 23, 2+, 25, 27, 28,
29, 30, 32, 39, +1, +2, +5, +8, +9, 53, 63,
6+, 67, 75, 79, 80, 81, 87, 98, 103, 10+,
105, 107, 108, 119, 120, 121, 122
LelmintLes 11
Hepatitis 10, 11
LeterotropLic plate count (HPC) x, 12,
LeterotropLs 11, 12
Lorizontal orain 59, 65, 66, 67, 8+, 101,
102, 119, 122
Lospital +, 12, 13, 19, 38, 59, 75, 76, 81,
85, 88, 108, 110
Lot vater system 12, 15, 25, +8, 50, 57,
68, 72, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 83, 111, 120
Lotel 5, 19, 38, +2, 58, 67, 68, 69, 75, 76,
80, 108, 111
LouseLolo vater treatment 7, 105
Lyoration 6, 7
Lyoropneumatic tank 72
Lygiene vii, 6, 7, 19, 2+, 103, 10+, 105, 121
LypocLlorite 37, 79
immunocompromiseo 12, 13
inoustrial premises 5, 6, 9, 25, +0, +1, +2,
5+, 55, 57, 59, 77, 80, 81, 85, 9+, 95, 96,
109, 111
inlection 10, 12, 13, 115
innltration 36, 107, 108
inspection 5, 26, 29, +0, +1, +2, +3, 58, 62,
6+, 66, 78, 93, 100, 106, 107, 108, 109,
113, 120
intermittent supply 112
iooine 105
iron 16, +9, 50, 51, 5+
irrigation 5, 6, 52, 75, 77, 81, 85, 112, 11+,
115, 116, 122
||||I| |:||CI: 0| ||JM||Nû
jurisoiction 29, 30, 31, 32, +5, 67, 10+
Klebsiella 12
latrines 10, 96, 105, 106, 113
launory 6, 2+, 55, 58, 67, 103, 11+, 115,
leao pipe 13, 20, 21
leakage 1, 8, 23, 2+, 25, 35, 39, 52, 5+, 62,
63, 65, 75, 77, 107, 108, 109, 110
Legionella 11, 12, 15, 76
lialility 22, +1
licence, licensing 29, 31, 3+, 35, +2, +5, 98
liquio seal trap 26
liquio vaste 1, 3, +, 20, 23, 25, 68, 119,
120, 121, 122
looging Louse 5, +2, 108
mains 1, 2, +, 5, 13, 23, 2+, 32, 35, 38, +2,
52, 60, 61, 67, 68, 71, 72, 76, 77, 86, 96,
100, 10+, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 113,
120, 121, 122
maintenance 1, 5, 16, 23, 27, 28, 3+, 38,
39, 5+, 57, 58, 59, 62, 66, 68, 7+, 78, 82,
93, 106, 107, 108, 109, 113
management 1, 2, 3, 10, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20,
23, 2+, +3, 5+, 109, 11+, 115
materials 17, 20, 21, 23, 2+, 25, 27, 28, 29,
31, 36, 37, +0, +1, +6, +7, +8, +9, 50, 52,
53, 5+, 55, 56, 57, 6+, 67, 78, 90, 98, 107,
108, 111
metering 107, 109, 110
microorganisms 2, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 1+,
17, 63
mixing valve 15, 16, 75, 120
multiple larriers 2, 7, 18
multiple ovelling 57, 67, 68, 73, 76, 77,
82, 109, 113
multi-storey luiloing +, 36, +1, 57, 71,
72, 73, 77
Mycobacteriun a:iun 16
negative pressure 5, 26, 68, 73, 113, 120
nitrate/nitrite 13, 1+
non-testalle oevice 93
Noro:irus 10, 11
ooour 8, 12, 26, 51, 63, 6+, 65, 79, 87
one-pipe system 6+, 68, 69
overhov 25, 5+, 61, 62, 63, 77, 85, 96, 99,
101, 109, 120
patLogens 2, 8, 9, 10, 11, 80, 11+
penalties 31, 32, +0, +2
pesticioe 8, 13, 79, 87, 96
pH 16, +8, 95, 121
plastic piping +9, 51, 52, 53, 5+, 55, 65
plumler 1, 2, 16, 20, 21, 23, 28, 29, 31, 33,
3+, 35, 36, 37, +0, +1, +2, ++, +5, +7
plumling nxture 2+, 33, +0, 5+, 55, 58,
59, 61, 62, 63, 66, 67, 73, 77, 83, 8+, 85,
103, 110, 118, 112, 120, 121
point ol use 2, 7, 16, 111
polylutylene +9, 50, 51
polyetLylene x, +9, 52
polyvinylcLlorioe (PVC) x, +9, 51, 52,
53, 5+
pressure 5, 8, 23, 2+, 25, 26, 35, 36, 37, 38,
+2, +8, 51, 52, 61, 63, 6+, 67, 68, 71, 72,
73, 75, 76, 77, 82, 85, 86, 87, 88, 90, 91,
93, 96, 106, 107, 108, 110, 111, 113, 11+
118, 120, 121, 122
prevention 7, 18, 19, +2, 5+, 60, 61, 68, 77,
78, 79, 80, 85, 93, 9+, 97, 107, 119
privy 105, 106
protozoa 8, 10, 11, 98
Pseudononas 11, 12, 15
pullic LealtL 1, 2, 5, 10, 11, 15, 20, 27, +1,
+2, 75, 103, 108
pullic vater supply 2, 3, 5, 7, 30, 31, 32,
3+, 60, 71, 72
qualincations 29, 31, +1
quality 1, 2, 6, 7, 11, 17, 18, 20, 21, 23, 2+,
27, 28, 31, +6, +7, +9, 53, 5+, 56, 77, 79,
98, 100, 10+, 105, 107, 11+, 115, 116,
raoon 13
rainlall 99, 100, 101, 102, 122
reclaimeo vater 79, 115, 116, 117, 120,
registration 3+, +0, ++, +5, 91
reuse 6, 115, 112
rool 9, 25, 26, 62, 6+, 65, 69, 71, 73, 78,
98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 106, 118, 119, 122
Bota:irus 11
runoll 8, 10, 1+, 16, 99
salmonellae 11
sanitary vaste 1, 8, 2+, 9+
sanitation vii, viii, 3, 6, 7, +5, 91, 103, 105,
Sapo:irus 11
scaloing 12, 15, 16, 75
Sclistosona 11
sell-certincation 5, +1, +2
septic tank 8, 10, 1+, 26, 3+, +3, 80, 9+,
10+, 106
Serratia 12
sevage 1, 3, 9, 11, 12, 1+, 18, 26, 27, 5+,
69, 73, 85, 90, 9+, 95, 96, 99, 106, 107,
108, 110, 11+, 115, 117, 118, 119, 120,
121, 122
severage 1, 2, 3, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, 3+,
35, +3, 66, 73, 7+, 75, 86, 90, 96, 99,
103, 107, 108, 115, 120, 122
sLellnsL 10
Sligella 11
sLut-oll valve 57, 60, 86, 87, 90
single ovelling 57, 58, 60, 6+, 67, 75, 109
single-stack system 69
soakavay 98, 99, 100, 122
specincation 1, 15, 2+, 28, 3+, 35, +6, +7,
+9, 57, 76
stack pipe 6+, 65, 66, 69
stanoaros 15, 18, 21, 23, 27, 28, 29, 30, 3+,
++, +5, +6, +7, +8, +9, 53, 5+, 79, 100,
108, 11+, 120
stanopipe 8, 2+, 96, 103, 10+, 105, 106,
stop valve 61, 68, 113, 121
storage tank 11, 37, 38, 39, 61, 62, 68, 71,
72, 75, 77, 79, 98, 100, 106, 113, 118,
storm vater 33, 3+, 51, 53, 57, 80, 95, 96,
98, 100, 107, 119, 122
supply vii, 1, 2, 3, +, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 13, 18,
20, 21, 23, 2+, 28, 30, 31, 37, 38, +2, +8,
+9, 50, 53, 5+, 55, 57, 58, 60, 61, 63, 67,
68, 71, 72, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82,
83, 86, 90, 91, 93, 9+, 100, 103, 10+,
105, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113,
117, 118, 119, 121
surlace vater 6, 10, 13, 1+, 78, 96, 99,
100, 122
tap 2, 7, 8, 12, 15, 16, 18, 23, 25, 37, 38,
+8, +9, 5+, 55, 62, 80, 87, 96, 98, 100,
10+, 107, 109, 111, 113
temperature 7, 12, 15, 16, 17, 25, 51, 52,
53, 5+, 60, 75, 76, 78, 79, 90, 111, 112,
121, 122
testalle oevice 93
testing +, 5, 27, 35, 36, 37, +1, +2, +6, +7,
81, 82
toilet +, 25, 5+, 55, 7+, 109, 111, 112, 11+,
115, 122, 123
training 19, 21, 23, 27, 33, +3, ++, +5, +8,
+9, 55, 105, 11+
trap 3, 26, 33, 36, 5+, 62, 6+, 66, 68, 69,
70, 73, 80, 90, 91, 9+, 99, 112, 118, 120,
121, 122
treatment 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 18, 19,
23, 25, 26, +9, 52, 56, 75, 85, 88, 9+, 95,
99, 105, 110, 11+, 115, 120, 122
tvo-pipe system 66, 68
typLoio 11
urinal 25, 55, 59, 67, 83, 85, 112, 115
vacuum systems 72, 7+, 75
velocity (in pipe) 50, 58, 59, 67, 73, 7+
vent pipe 53, 65, 69, 73
ventilation 3, 25, 6+, 65, 69, 70, 93
Vibrio clolerae 11
virus 8, 10, 11, 115
vitrineo clay 53
vastage 1, 2+, 107, 108, 109, 110, 112, 113
vaste 1, 2, 3, +, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 15, 17, 20,
23, 2+, 25, 26, 3+, 37, +3, 51, 53, 63, 68,
70, 73, 80, 90, 9+, 95, 98, 99, 100, 103,
107, 108, 110, 11+, 118, 119, 120, 121,
vastevater 3, +, 16, 2+, 25, 26, 28, +8, +9,
5+, 63, 66, 69, 73, 75, 80, 99, 103, 107,
109, 11+, 115, 122
vater closet +, 2+, 25, 38, 59, 62, 63, 6+,
65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 83, 8+, 106, 112, 11+,
116, 122
vater Lammer 16, 113
vater Leater 12, 16, 52, 59, 76, 111
vater salety plan (WSP) x, 2, 18, 19
Worlo HealtL Crganization (WHC) vii,
viii, ix, x, 2, 3, 1+, 18, 23, +8, 105, 11+
Yersinia enterocolitica 11

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