Arabic & Translation Studies Division

TECHNOLOGY FOR TRANSLATORS AND INTERPRETERS
Student Handbook

This is a first draft of STTI101“Technology for Translators and Interpreters” Student Handbook (Fall ’13)

All rights reserved. No part of this handbook may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical or other means, including photocopying and recording, or in any information or retrieving system without permission in writing from the Arabic and Translation Studies Division, School of Continuing Education, The American University in Cairo. © 2007

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Forward
Changes in how professional translators practice their profession have been recently frequent. They are not only derived by the growth of the young discipline of translation, which is the success story of the 1980s, but also by changes in the world around us such globalized societies and economies, the spread of internet, and the need for intercultural communication, not to mention the changes in the geography of translation with the move of the multi-million industry towards the Middle East and the Arabic language. Translation in the era of globalization requires interdisciplinary approach to translation that stresses the need for a translator with background knowledge in various fields. This necessitates training the learners in more than one field of specialization, and hence a career certificate which focuses on the specializations of legal, UN and economic translation on the one hand, and a career certificate which includes journalistic, literary and audio-visual translation on the other hand. Taking a quick path unto automation and digitalization, the translation profession nowadays looks into practical techniques to help translators produce more and waste less. The new course ‘Technology for Translators and Interpreters’ in the Foundation Certificate in Translation and Interpreting with a focus on CAT tools and translation software programs does not only train learners on computer-assisted translation, but takes them directly into the online translation environment. To satisfy a need for the translator as intercultural communicator, also derived from globalization and the spread of new technologies, new courses such as literary translation and audiovisual translation were offered in a Career Certificate in Media and Literary Translation. The changes in the translation market have been given due focus in the advanced courses such as Advanced Translation Problem-Solving Strategies and Translation Portfolio and Project, which focus on topics such as translation market and environment, project management in translation, code of ethics etc. Learners in the Professional Diploma in Translation and the Professional Diploma in Translation and Interpreting are nourished from day one on the highest standards of professionalism of translation as an activity in the market of service, of translation as a translator/client relationship and translation as a mental process. Furthermore, the translation diploma at ATS can be viewed as comprising three stages. The first stage (The Foundation Certificate in Translation and Interpreting) develops all basic translation skills required to produce an acceptable translation including command of the language, familiarity with
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culture, computer skills and e-tools for translators, background knowledge, and contrastive and transfer skills between the source and the target languages. Finishing this stage, a trainee can produce a good translation of a general text but not necessarily of a specialized text such as legal, UN and journalistic texts. The second stage (The Career Certificate in Legal and UN Translation and The Career Certificate in Literary and Audiovisual Translation) focus on the textspecific features in translation so that a trainee can be able to produce a translation in a specialized field. After the career certificate, the trainee can produce a sound translation in a certain specialization, but he may not be aware of many factors related to the environment of translation such as certain code of ethics, rates, project management etc. The diploma is the level of professionalism which makes the trainee ready to go to the market after being enlightened on many issues related to translation theory and the translation market.

Dr. Hussein Ali Director, Arabic and Translation Studies Division

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The American University in Cairo School of Continuing Education Arabic and Translation Studies Division

CURRICULUM DESIGN FORM
Course Title: Technology for Translators and Interpreters Course Code: STTI101 Course Type: (Regular/ Customized): Regular/Customized Number of Continuing Education Units (CEUS): 3.0 1 Target Audience: The course is designed for both beginner and experienced translators seeking knowledge about the uses of electronic tools in translation and interpreting; knowledge about the translation and interpreting on-line environment and market, and knowledge about website localization. Course Pre-Requisites (if any): 1. None Course Description This course is an exploration of the available tools for translators and interpreters on and off-line; application of electronic resources on translation and interpreting; introduction to website localization; and investigation of the on-line market and environment of translation and interpreting. Learning Outcomes: By the end of this course, learners will be able to 1. identify electronic resources available for translators and interpreters; 2. employ electronic resources for translators and interpreters effectively; 3. identify the on-line market of translation and interpreting; 4. use industry-specific jargon to communicate better with players in the field of translation worldwide; 5. explain fundamentals of localization; 6. contrast websites in Arabic and English; and 7. translate websites into Arabic. Instructional Materials: 1. Technology for Translators and Interpreters. ATS Student Study Guide. (Updated Every Term) 2. Bernardini, Silvia. (2003). "Corpora in translator education: An introduction". Federico Zanettin, Silvia Bernardini and Ddominic Stewart, eds. Corpora in translator education. Manchester: St. Jerome. 1-14. 3. Bernardini, Silvia. (2005). "Tools for translators: Machine readable corpora as resources for translators". The encyclopaedia of language & linguistics. 2nd Edition. London: Elsevier. 4. Chiew, Quah. (2006). Translation and technology. France: Lavoisier. 5. http://www.proz.com/ 6. http://www.translatorscafe.com/cafe/default.asp 7. http://www.wordfast.net/?whichpage=anywhere 8. http://isg.urv.es/library/papers/BiauPym_Technology.pdf 9. http://benjamins.com/jbp/series/Target/20-1/art/05alc.pdf
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Offered as customized; the number of CEUs depends on client's request.

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Syllabus / Training Outline: Serial* Title/subtitle 1 Assignment Selected readings  Introduction to electronic resources in the field of translation and interpreting 2  Computer-based resources in the field of translation and interpreting Selected readings and lab practice Lab practice 3  Web-based resources in the field of translation and interpreting  Quiz 1 4 5  Terminology management  CAT tools  Quiz 2 Lab practice Selected reading 6 7  CAT tools  Translation Memories  Translation on-line market and environment  Quiz 3 Selected reading Selected readings and Lab practice Web Exploration and search Writing report Selected readings Selected readings Distribution of the final project 8 9 10  On-line translation project management  Introduction to Localization 11 12  Product and website translation  Discussion of the project Lab practice * Session: In this course one session equals 2.5 contact hours. vi .

For all written courses.edu ** Exact dates will be announced in class two sessions before the quiz. collaborative learning of translation project management and case studies of website translation. or email m_shorbargy@aucegypt. Assessment of Learning Outcomes Frequency** : Three assessments and a project. Learners’ grades are based upon three assessments during the course (70%) and an end -of-term project (30%).Instructional Methods The course is mainly computer-based practice on the e-tools available for translators and interpreters.      Classroom assessments should not take more than 30 minutes. The first two assessments should be recorded in the class folder by session 7. problem-based and enquiry learning of computer-based solutions to translation problems. or project is due. Instructors are required to provide learners with appropriate feedback on their performance throughout the course. Type: Written tests and/or projects. vii . three assessments at least should be conducted as follows: Session 3 Session 5 Session 8 Project Total 20 points 25 points 25 points 30 points 100 points For further information or Inquiries: Please see the Assistant Division Director for Regular Programs in Room 617 SCE. or call 2797-6873. exam.

End-of-term achievement tests measure learners’ overall performance in the course."‫التقدير النهائي في التسجيل إلى "راسب‬ viii .  At the end of each term. final course grades are posted on the divisional bulletin boards along with learners’ ID numbers.  You are allowed to be late twice without penalty.‫ يُسمح لك بالتأخر مرتين دون محاسبة‬ ‫ غير أنه‬،‫مرات التأخر التالية على أنها حاالت غياب‬ .‫سيُسمح لك بحضور المحاضرات‬ :‫نظام التقويم والتقديرات‬ ‫ يتم تقويم الدارسين خالل الدورة الدراسية عن طريق‬ ‫ أو‬،‫ أو الواجبات‬،‫ أو االمتحانات الموجزة‬،‫االختبارات‬ ‫ وتقيس‬.‫ضروري لمعرفة نتيجة المادة الدراسية‬ :‫التقديرات غير المكتملة‬ ‫“) وذلك‬I”. Accordingly. projects or other means of evaluation.  You will be considered late if you enter the class any time after the start of instruction.‫للدارسين خالل الدورة‬ ‫ يعتمد التقدير النهائي في كل دورة على أداء الدارسين في‬ .‫ء على تقدير مدرس الدورة‬ ‫الطلبة الذين انتظموا في الدورة لكنهم ال يستطيعون أداء‬ ‫االختبار النهائي أو استكمال متطلبات الدورة لظروف‬ . although you will be allowed to attend the class.‫التقويم المستمر واالختبار النهائي‬ ً ‫ فطب‬،"‫ ال يعتمد تقدير نهاية الدورة على نسبة "الحضور‬ ‫قا‬ %57 ‫لسياسة الكلية يتعين على جميع الدارسين حضور‬ ‫من عدد المحاضرات حتى يسمح لهم بحضوراختبار نهاية‬ . although you will be allowed to attend classes. but cannot sit for the final examination or cannot complete course requirements due to circumstances beyond their control. all requirements should be completed before the end of the second week of the following term. Failure to change an incomplete grade will result in the final grade being recorded as "F". the ID number is necessary to know your course grade. since in accordance with SCE’s attendance policy. assignments. Incomplete( ‫ يسمح بمنح تقدير غير مكتمل‬ ً ‫بنا‬ ‫ وال يتم هذا اإلجراء إال مع‬. ‫إرشادات خاصة بالدارسين بكلية التعليم المستمر‬ :‫سياسة الحضور‬ ‫ من عدد‬% 57 ‫ يجب أن تحضر نسبة ال تقل عن‬ ،‫ وفي حالة عدم االلتزام بذلك‬. Punctuality Policy:  You are expected to arrive on time for all scheduled classes and laboratory sessions.Classroom Guidelines for SCE Learners CLASSROOM GUIDELINES FOR SCE LEARNERS Attendance Policy:  You must attend at least 75% of the class sessions.‫المحاضرات‬ :‫سياسة االنضباط في المواعيد‬ ‫ عليك مراعاة الحضور في الموعد المحدد لكل المحاضرات‬ ً ‫والمعامل وف‬ . Incomplete Grade:  An incomplete grade (I) for any scheduled course may be given at the discretion of the course instructor only to learners who have attended the course. NOT their names.‫الدرس‬ ‫ وسيتم اعتبار كل‬. All successive instances of tardiness will be counted as absences. quizzes. ‫التالي‬ .‫قا للجدول المحدد‬ ‫ تعتبر متأخرً ا إذا دخلت الفصل في أي وقت بعد بدء‬ .  The final grade in each course is based on learners’ performance on continual assessment measures and the final test. Failure to do so will result in failing the course.  In order to record the final course grade. Grading System:  Learners are assessed throughout the term by tests.‫ أو أي وسائل أخرى للتقويم‬،‫المشروعات‬ ‫اختبارات التحصيل في نهاية الفصل الدراسي األداء العام‬ . learners must attend at least 75% of the class sessions in order to be allowed to take the final examination.‫خارجة عن إرادتهم‬ ‫ من أجل تسجيل التقدير النهائي للدورة ينبغي استيفاء جميع‬ ‫المتطلبات قبل نهاية األسبوع الثاني من الفصل الدراسي‬ ‫ وفي حالة عدم تغيير تقدير "غير مكتمل" سيتحول‬.  Final course grades are NOT based on attendance.‫الدورة‬ ُ ،‫ في نهاية أي دورة دراسية‬ ‫تعلن تقديرات الدارسين على‬ ‫ مقرونة بأرقام‬،‫لوحة اإلعالنات الخاصة بكل قسم‬ ‫ وليس بأسمائهم؛ وعليه فإن رقم الدارس‬،‫الدارسين‬ .‫محاضرات المادة الدراسية‬ ‫ غير أنه سيُسمح لك بحضور‬،‫ستعتبر راسبًا في المادة‬ .

you will be permanently dismissed from SCE.Learner Evaluation of Instruction:  Learner evaluation of instruction is very important.  SCE values your input.‫ بما في ذلك سرقة اإلنتاج الفكري‬،‫األكاديمية‬ ‫ضبط الدارس وهو يقوم بالغش في االختبار‬ ‫في حال‬ ِ ُ ،‫النهائي‬ "F" ‫تسجَّ ل درجته النهائية لهذه المادة الدراسية بـ‬ . Remember that instructors are not permitted to see their evaluation results until after your grades are posted. including sexual harassment.‫ أسبوعًا والرسوب في المادة الدراسية‬21 ‫مدته‬ ‫ سيتم فصل الدارس‬،‫وفي حالة تكرار الغش للمرة الثالثة‬ .‫المشكلة‬ . your final course grade will be recorded as ‘F’. Learner Petitions and Grievances:  You may appeal to a division administrator in any aspect pertaining to class instruction.‫الخاصة بالعمل أو الدراسة‬ ‫ تلتزم كلية التعليم المستمر بتوفير بيئة آمنة للتعليم والعمل‬ .‫قرارً ا نهائيًا‬ ‫ سيتم تجاهل كل الشكاوى أو االلتماسات التي ال تتضمن‬ ُ ‫ و‬،‫اسم صاحبها‬ ‫تعامل كل االلتماسات في إطار من السرية‬ . All petitions are handled with discretion.  Please take these evaluations seriously and answer all the questions honestly. :‫التحرش‬ ‫ ال تسمح كلية التعليم المستمر بأي شكل من أشكال‬ .‫األسئلة بأمانة‬ ‫كر أنه ال يُسمَح للمدرسين برؤية نتائج‬ . protecting your best interests. Based upon your response and comments.  In instances of a third offense. using unauthorized material during an examination.‫التقويم إال بعد إعالن النتائج النهائية للدارسين‬ .‫وبما يخدم مصالح الدارسين‬ ‫الغش غير مقبول في أي من المؤسسات التي تكرس‬ ‫ ويشمل الغش إعطاء أو تلقي معلومات‬.  The penalty for a second offense is automatic suspension from studying at SCE for one 12-week term and failing the course.  Sexual harassment is any conduct of a sexual nature that significantly impairs a person’s ability or opportunity to perform his or her job or educational pursuits. and administrators.‫جهودها للتعليم‬ ‫ واستخدام مواد يُحظـَر استخدامها أثناء‬،‫أثناء االختبار‬ ‫ وصدور أي أفعال تتصف بعدم األمانة‬،‫االختبار‬ . instructors.‫ يُمكن عمل التغييرات الالزمة‬،‫استجابتك وتعليقاتك‬ ‫ يُرجى مراعاة الجدية في عمليات التقويم واإلجابة عن كل‬ َّ ‫ تذ‬. Cheating includes giving or receiving information during an examination.‫ تقدِّر كلية التعليم المستمر مشاركتك في هذا التقويم‬ :‫التماسات الدارسين وتظلماتهم‬ ‫ من حقك أن تتقدم بشكوى ألحد مديري األقسام تتعلق بأي‬ ‫ أو البيئة‬،‫من الجوانب الخاصة بالتدريس في الفصل‬ .  SCE is committed to providing a secure educational and work environment for its learners. Photocopying:  Photocopying textbooks and original content including computer software is a violation of AUC copyright and photocopying policies and thus will not be allowed in SCE classes. or administration processes.  You may seek resolution at higher administrative levels if the matter is not resolved.‫ ومديريها‬،‫ والعاملين بها‬،‫ ومدرسيها‬،‫لدارسيها‬ :‫النسخ‬ ‫ بما‬،‫ يُعد نسخ كتب المقررات الدراسية والمحتوى األصلي‬ ً ‫ مخال‬،‫في ذلك نسخ برامج الحاسب اآللي‬ ‫فا لسياسات حقوق‬ ‫ وبالتالي غير‬،‫النشر والنسخ بالجامعة األمريكية بالقاهرة‬ . Cheating:  Cheating is not acceptable in an institution dedicated to learning.  If you are caught cheating on the final examination.)‫(راسبًا‬ ‫عِ قاب الغش للمرة الثانية هو إيقاف الدارس تلقائيًا من‬ ‫الدراسة في كلية التعليم المستمر لمدة فصل دراسي واحد‬ .‫ إن تقويم الدارس لعملية التدريس هام للغاية‬ ‫ء على‬ .‫ بما في ذلك التحرش الجنسي‬،‫التحرش‬ ‫ التحرش الجنسي هو أي تصرف ذي طبيعة جنسية يُفسد‬ ‫بدرجة كبيرة قدرة الشخص أو فرصته للقيام بأنشطته‬ . changes can be made. including plagiarism. The decision of the Associate Dean for Instructional Affairs is final. :‫تقويم الدارس لعملية التدريس‬ ً ‫ فبنا‬. and other acts of academic dishonesty. staff.  Anonymous complaints or petitions will be completely disregarded.‫مسموح بذلك في فصول كلية التعليم المستمر‬ ix .‫نهائيًا من كلية التعليم المستمر‬ :‫الغش‬     Harassment:  SCE does not tolerate any form of harassment.‫التعليمية أو اإلجراءات اإلدارية‬ ‫ يجوز لك اللجوء إلى مستويات إدارية أعلى إذا لم يتم حل‬ ‫ ويكون قرار العميد المشارك للشئون التعليمية‬. learning environment.

Smoking:  Smoking is not allowed in any SCE building.‫الدراسي‬ ‫ يجب إغالق الهاتف أثناء أي محاضرة أو أثناء‬ .‫ وخارج مداخل المباني‬،‫المباني‬ :‫استخدام الهاتف المحمول‬ ‫ تمنع كلية التعليم المستمر استخدام الهواتف المحمولة في‬ ‫ واختبارات نهاية الفصل‬،‫ وأثناء اختبارات القبول‬،‫الفصل‬ . :‫التدخين‬ ‫ غير مسموح بالتدخين في أي مبنى من مباني كلية التعليم‬ ‫ واألماكن‬،‫ وقاعات االنتظار‬،‫المستمر بما في ذلك الفصول‬ ‫ وحتى المكاتب التي يشغلها موظف‬،‫المخصصة للعمل‬ ‫ والمساحات المفتوحة داخل‬،‫ وبئر السلم‬،‫ والشـُرفات‬،‫واحد‬ .  Breach of such behavior will be reported by the instructor to the Division Director.‫لجنة تأديب‬ x . and outside the entrance of buildings.‫االختبارات‬ :‫إساءة التصرف‬ ‫ يُراعى من الدارسين بكلية التعليم المستمر التحلي بسلوك‬ . workspaces. open-areas within buildings. single-occupancy offices. stairwells. Misconduct:  Acceptable adult behavior is expected of SCE learners in the classroom and on university campuses. and learners involved will be referred to the Learner Disciplinary Committee. Cellular / Mobile Phone:  SCE prohibits the use of cellular/mobile phones in the classroom and during the administration of entrance and end-of-term testing sessions.  You should turn off your phone during any class time and/or testing session. balconies.‫ناضج ومقبول في الفصول وداخل حرم الجامعة ومبانيها‬ ‫ وسيقوم مدرس الفصل بإبالغ أي سلوك مخالف لمدير‬ ‫ ويحول الدارسون المشتركون في هذا السلوك إلى‬،‫القسم‬ . lounges. including classes.

........... 37 XV Useful Links ........................................................................................................................ 29 XIII Corpora in Translation ........................................................................................................................................................... 4 III How to Google! ............................. 16 VIII Euphemisms ..... 37 XVI More Exercises ...................................... 11 VI Translating Specialized Terms ......................................................................................................................................................................Table of Contents I Basic Dictionary Usage Skill .................................................................................................. 41 xi .................................................................................................................................................. 27 XII Quote Finding........................................... 32 XIV Translation Memory Tools ................................................................................................................. 1 II American – British Dictionaries Search ........................................................................ 14 VII Translating New Words ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 25 XI Translating Cultural Allusions .............................................. 22 IX Translating Proper Nouns ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 10 V Library Use ...... 6 IV Web Evaluation (*)........ 23 X Translation versus Transliteration of Proper Names ..

find an EnglishEnglish dictionary. use an English-Arabic dictionary to help you find the suitable translation for the words in bold. www.Arabic and Translation Studies Division I Basic Dictionary Usage Skill Attempt a research-informed translation of the following sentences into Arabic paying special attention to the different senses of the words in bold. you can easily find them on www.onelook. saving both time and effort.alwaraq. Use it to find the exact shade of meaning that matches the context of the sentence.com.net. If you are looking for monolingual Arabic lexicons. First.stars21.com is among the best as well in this area of search. Then. As for bilingual dictionaries.  The ship was listing badly  We are listing the requirements         They gave a round of parties last summer They rounded the figures off to 3 million We had to turn round and fly home There is a good restaurant just round the corner I go for a run every morning The ball-player hit a home run We took the new car for a run He built a new run for his chickens One of the most useful sites for English-English dictionaries is www. It allows you to search a plethora of English dictionaries.  He kept a civil tongue  They fear Lebanon would witness civil disobedience        His salary barely keeps body and soul He entered the body of the cathedral The body was washed up on the beach There is a growing body of evidence to prove his innocence The United Nations is a respected body all over the world This conditioner shall give your hair more body The body politic called for elections  Some students of the faculty of Medicine resort to body snatchers Legal Translation 1 Page 1 . general & specialized with a single click.

to settle on the sense of the words in bold. Legal Translation 1 Page 2 . Banked clouds promised rain. The best part of the trip was the banks of the Willamette River. You can always hear her voice above everybody else's.  His plans for opening a coffee shop are completely above board.  The Collected Works of Shakespeare are amazing. For the above reasons.  These guys do the grunt work in preparing tax returns.  I went out with the girls from work last night.   He's been out of work for two years. Free medical care for pensioners aged 65 and above.  The official in charge of the engineering works is there. I put him down as shy. and then consult a bilingual dictionary if the need still persists. They put themselves down for a training course.Arabic and Translation Studies Division Now. consulting an English-English dictionary first. I put in for a pay increase. Everyone gets rejected from time to time.              I didn't think he was unfriendly. They put forward a number of suggestions.  He did his postgraduate work in Sociology. We have very little money in the bank. put it down to experience. the management has no choice but to close the factory. attempt to translate the following sentences into Arabic. He had a bruise just above his left eye. Make sure you mention the sense you have chosen from the English dictionary before you translate.

‫ اعتكر الجنود فى الحرب‬-12 .‫ضد الكتب على الرف‬ ً ‫ ن‬-14 .‫اص الفرس‬ َ ‫ن‬ . to settle on the sense of the words.‫ فى السماء نضد من السحاب‬-16 َّ ‫ الح ال‬-17 .‫ عكر الجيش على العدو‬-9 . attempt to translate the following Arabic sentences into English.‫ فاظ الرجل‬-4 .Arabic and Translation Studies Division This time.‫ عكر موت زوجتة صفو حياتة‬-13 .‫اص فالن بعد انتصاره‬ ْ ‫ ا‬-21 َ َ‫ستَن‬ . . ‫شيء‬ َ‫ت‬ َ ‫ اس‬. paying special attention to the different senses of the words in bold.‫ مرق السارق الضحية‬-8 .‫ مرق السهم من الهدف‬-6 . ‫ هذا مكان الَح‬-18 ّ ‫ الح الفتى إلى ال‬-1 9 . Consult an Arabic-Arabic dictionary first. ‫شيب فى رأسه‬ .‫ مرق الرجل من الدين‬-7 . if needed.02 . and then use an English –Arabic dictionary to help you find the suitable translation.‫ضد‬ َ َ‫ هذا رجل ن‬-15 .‫ اعتكر المطر‬-11 .‫ مرق شعر الفتاة‬-5 .‫ إن اإلحن تجد المحن‬-3 .‫ اعتكر الليل‬-11 .‫اص عنه فغضب صديقة‬ ْ ‫ ا‬-22 َ َ‫ستَن‬ Legal Translation 1 Page 3 .‫ تقامص الصبيان‬-2 .‫ وقعوا فى اللوالء‬-1 .

Mention the steps you followed to find your information. Sometimes. the same word has two different meanings in both varieties.Arabic and Translation Studies Division II American – British Dictionaries Search There are two varieties of English. American and British. and Vocabulary. However. giving the American and British equivalent for each. Modern British English is heavily influenced by American English. Spelling. American ‫الهاتف مشغول‬ ‫المصعد‬ ‫البطاطس المحمرة‬ ‫الرصيف‬ ‫مترو األنفاق‬ ‫تقاطع الطرق‬ ‫البنزين‬ ‫األجازة‬ ‫السكة الحديد‬ ‫البريد‬ ‫الخريف‬ ‫البسكويت‬ ‫الحلوى‬ ‫الفاتورة‬ ‫الطريق السريع‬ ‫القمامة‬ ‫زيادة في المرتب‬ ‫يقطن في هذا الشارع‬ ‫ينتمي إلى فريق ما‬ ‫األلومونيوم‬ ‫يحلل‬ ‫البرنامج‬ ‫المسافر‬ ‫المسرح‬ ‫الشيك‬ Legal Translation 1 British Page 4 . so some of the contrasts are disappearing Attempt to translate the following Arabic words/phrases. They are very similar except for a few differences in Grammar.

learning how to make sure whether the word/phrase you are using is British or American. try this exercise.Arabic and Translation Studies Division Now that you have tried your hands with the previous exercise.Lexical Variation British Word ‫الباذنجان‬ ‫محامي‬ ‫البوتاجاز‬ ‫الجراج‬ ‫الصيدلية‬ ‫منحنى‬ ‫سمسار عقارات‬ ‫المطافئ‬ ‫شقة‬ ‫وزير الخارجية‬ ‫الهاتف المحمول‬ ‫صنبور‬ ‫بنطالون‬ ‫الزجاج األمامي للسيارة‬ ‫سيارة أجرة‬ ‫غرفة الطوارئ‬ ‫برنامج حواري‬ American Word American Spelling Legal Translation 1 Page 5 . 1. and how to fish for its alternative. Orthographic Variation British Spelling ‫الطائرة‬ ‫علم اآلثار‬ ‫كتالوج‬ ‫الدفاع‬ ‫مناورة‬ ‫اللون الرمادي‬ ‫المتر‬ ‫محراث‬ ‫مجوهرات‬ ‫يمارس‬ ‫مالبس النوم‬ 2.

edu (Find pages that link to the Stanford University website. including the roman numeral I loan info for both the word auto and its synonyms: truck. vacation hawaii Maui OR Hawaii "To each his own" virus –computer Star Wars Episode +I ~auto loan define:computer red * blue I'm Feeling Lucky ADVANCED OPERATORS the words vacation and Hawaii .stanford. You can also try SurfWax. Google. You can even make your custom search engine using Google Custom Search at http://www. etc. Both use Boolean operators. Ask. definitions of the word computer from around the Web. Google is the most popular meta-search engine among translators. Other meta-search engines are Clusty.com and Copernic. and Dogpile. One type of search engines is called “meta-search engine”. LookSmart. Yahoo.stanford.stanford. the words red and blue separated by one or more words.. car.edu (Find websites related to the Stanford University website.) DVD player $100. which your instructor will take you through. 6 and 12-month date-restrict options also available) safesearch: sex education (Search for sex education material without returning adult sites) link:www.edu (Search Stanford Univ.stanford.com. Google Help : Cheat Sheet OPERATOR EXAMPLE FINDS PAGES CONTAINING.edu (Find information about the Stanford University website. and MSN and more. which is a search engine that uses several different search engines to scan the web before compiling the results. not Google or Yahoo. Takes you directly to first web page returned for your query.google.150 (Search for DVD players between $100 and $150) Olympics date: 3 (Search for Olympics references within past 3 months. is translators’ favorite search engine. either the word Maui or the word Hawaii the exact phrase to each his own the word virus but NOT the word computer This movie title.com which searches Google.com/cse/ Since. site for admissions info.) related:www.. The way queries are entered and the way search is narrowed down varies from one engine to another.Arabic and Translation Studies Division III How to Google! Search engines are software applications designed to seek out web pages using keywords.com. a leader in the field.) info:www. so far. A search engine returns “hits” which are titles or identification or URLs for relevant sites. MEANING WHAT TO TYPE INTO SEARCH BOX (& DESCRIPTION OF RESULTS) site: [#]…[#] date: safesearch: link: info: related: Search only one website Search within a range of numbers Search only a range of months Exclude adult-content linked pages Info about a page Related pages admission site:www. It is advisable to read the user guide before using a specific search engine..com which searches free search engines.) Legal Translation 1 Page 6 . to learn how to refine your search. the following document is Google’s Cheat Sheet.

html Legal Translation 1 Page 7 .com/help/cheatsheet.google. Read the most up-to-date news stories about your search term.Arabic and Translation Studies Division GOOGLE SERVICES URL DESCRIPTION Google Books Google News books.www.com news. (*) Adapted from Google Help: Cheat Sheet .google.google.com Find books related to your search term.

Find sites that link to the site: www. Using Google Books give full citation for a book that includes the following quotation: “Tahrir is and will remain totemic in the Arab Spring. 7. and two verbs that tend to collocate with "forces". Locate sites that help you find : (1) Titles of Egyptian Ministries in both English and Arabic. Find quick definitions of the following using Google: (1) good governance. attempt answering the following questions. a sparkling moment when crowds of millions were beautiful. (2) English/Arabic dictionaries and (3) Thesauri. Use Google to locate the latest press release on the situation in Iran. Find two adjectives. at least in this part of the world. 14.com 10. Find information on the following: (1) the long and winding road. 4. Use Google Translate to find the way ‫ ميخائيل جورباتشوف‬is spelled in English. Find sites that deal with Islamic history during the period 622-700 AD. and (2) organizational structures.onelook. Its imagery may outlive and even replace Che Guevara as the iconography of right-on revolt. Find information about the site: www. Find sites related to the site: www. 3. Locate sites that help you find information about government departments in the UK and the US.stars21. and (2) This was their finest hour. and then use Google to find articles written by Hassan Nafaa on this site alone.onelook. [Hint: Wildcard Search] 6. whatever comes next. Mention the research steps that you have followed to reach your answer. 8.” 13. Legal Translation 1 Page 8 . and (2) Names of United Nations 6 main bodies and 15 specialized agencies in both English and Arabic 2. Produce a list of sites for each of the following: (1) English-English Dictionaries. two nouns.Arabic and Translation Studies Division Now that you have studied the Google Cheat Sheet. Find the URL for Al-Ahram Weekly.com 9. 1. 5.com 11. 12.

Translate the term "good governance". c) Attempt an advanced search of Can You Hear Me Now? by Dallas Demmitt. Use Google Translate to: a) Find the correct English spelling of the educationalist ‫إيفان إيليتش‬ b) Find the Arabic translation of Cheops. 8. and then use Google to find its four specialized institutions on this site 7. b) Equality excluding gender equality. Find research based information about this quote “With malice toward none. 3. Find websites related to Boston College site. Provide a list of: a) The western philosophers from 1800 to 1850 CE. 4. b) Longman publications over the past 12 months. 9. Traditional Values and Spiritual Growth. as God gives us to see the right. 5. Give as many synonyms as possible of the word analgesic.” 6. with firmness in the right. Find the URL for the Organization of Islamic Cooperation.Arabic and Translation Studies Division Now attempt the following exercise. Mention the search steps you have followed: 1. c) Alienation as a sociological concept. with charity for all. 2. 10. to bind up the nation's wounds. Give a research-based definition of the term technical assistance. let us strive on to finish the work we are in. 2003 Legal Translation 1 Page 9 .Using Google Book Search: a) Give full citation of The Road Less Traveled: A New Psychology of Love. b) Cite the page numbers in Gerlad Corey’s Theory and Practice of Counseling Psychotherapy including Carl Rogers. Find information about: a) The history of Georgia (country).

icann.edu/lib/guides/examples. all. Examine grammar and spelling.org/registrars/accredited-list. 4.com/> ICANN-Accredited Registrars <http://www. Authors recognized as experts amongst their peers are usually cited and reviewed in the literature.S. none and most. Whois Source <http://www. Before you rely on information. Assess the writing for time-sensitive information. Look for other publications by the author or publisher.copyright.Arabic and Translation Studies Division IV Web Evaluation (*) Anyone can publish a web site.com> U.com/> 2. type the URL in one of the following source detectors to uncover ownership of Web sites using the domain of their hosting service. Determine the origin. researchers in general. Copyright Search < http://www.virtualchase. accuracy and timeliness. should evaluate the quality of information appearing online or in print based on five criteria--scope of coverage.html For more information and practical examples on web evaluation. objectivity.com <www.sc/> BetterWhois <http://www. Verify the source.html> ALLWHOIS <http://allwhois. Discover the author AND the publisher. Ascertain the author's and publisher's credentials. and examine links to and from other Web sites. (*) Adapted from Ballard Spahr Andrews & Ingersoll.loc. Read "about us" and author biographies.com/quality/index.betterwhois. authority. Find another reputable source that provides similar information. Therefore.whois. In order to determine the source of a web site. never. Stay away from undated information whether it is presented as fact or commentary.western. Be cautious about descriptive words such as always.amazon.gov/> 3.html Legal Translation 1 Page 10 . LLP (1996-2007) http://www.html  Western State College of Colorado http://www. you should: 1. Establish the Date of Publication Examine creation and revision dates.gov/records/> Library of Congress Online Catalog < http://catalog. and researchers for translation purposes in particular. Amazon.lesley.edu/library/guides/research/evaluating_web. visit:  Lesley University Guide to web evaluation http://www. Look for cited references.

Arabic and Translation Studies Division Legal Translation 1 Page 11 .

. Use within or at the end of a word. etc.gov/help/boolean. A researcher needs to enter keywords in the catalogue search box in order to locate a book whether online or on shelf. Use to indicate an unlimited number of characters within a word. wom?n finds woman as well as women. patented. * Multi-character wildcard for finding alternative spellings. * patent* retrieves patent. and so on. (The following table is extracted from http://www. Single-character wildcard for finding alternative spellings. e.loc. ? Legal Translation 1 Page 12 . e. patentable. Most library catalogues use Boolean operators. The ? represents a single character.html) Use For Truncation. patents. They are as follows: (the following table is extracted from http://catalog.g. two ?? represent two characters. three ??? represent three characters. behavi*r retrieves behaviour or behavior. Most library catalogues are now digital.g.com/help/Search_Tools/boolean_operators. and carbon fib?? finds carbon fiber or carbon fibre.csa.g.. This expands a search term to include all forms of a root word.Arabic and Translation Studies Division V Library Use A library is an integral part of a researcher’s toolbox.htm) You can also use Wildcard symbols in your search.. e.

with “Did you mean?” suggestions. The BA also has another impressive service called the Internet Archive. visit libguides. under the category Language. For instance. The BA has an online service called DAR which is short for Digital Assets Repository accessible at http://dar.aspx. to create. It also gives clear and immediate results. It is available at www.edu/content.bibalex. DAR is a system developed at the BA.bibalex. The BA Internet Archive is the first center of its kind established outside US borders.aucegypt.org/home/home.aucegypt. you can go to http://webcast. 2 Adapted from http://www. Google-like search of books. dissertations. music recordings and scores available to the AUC community. but also as a hub for Africa and the Middle East2. which is a recorded memory of the all the web pages on every website on the Internet since it started in 1996.php?pid=125839&sid=1105608 For Library One Search.org/InternetArchive/IA_en. The BA catalog is available at http://cwg. It has an online catalog that uses the abovementioned Boolean Operators.aspx. DVDs. lectures and presentations that take place in Bibliotheca Alexandrina. chapters.bibalex. For Search Query Tips.bibalex. For live and archived access to all the conferences. journals. newspapers.org/isis/frontend/archive/archive_web. It is designed not only as a backup for the mother archive in San Francisco. articles. visit http://library. and maintain the Library's digital books and collections.aspx Legal Translation 1 Page 13 . the AUC Library shall release Library One Search.org/#AdvancedSearch. It has a full-text filter.edu/one/ Bibliotheca Alexandrina Bibliotheca Alexandrina (BA) is another breakthrough. a new service that provides researchers a single. 39 of which are online copies of Dictionaries and Encyclopedias.bibalex. This can especially valuable to simultaneous interpreters who would wish to practice with live conferences. reserve.Arabic and Translation Studies Division AUC Library One Search As of Fall 2010. a researcher has online access to 5416 books related to language.org:8000/cgibin/chameleon?skin=default&lng=en.

can be of some help to a translator.‫الرضيعة لوجود التهابات مؤلمة في الضرع‬ ،‫ والدنيس‬،‫ والبلطي‬،‫ وقشر البياض‬،‫ والقراميط‬،‫ القاروس‬:‫ وتنتشر أنواع من أسماك الصيد في المياه المصرية مثل‬. Attempt a research-informed translation of the following statements paying due attention to the parts in bold. and locate a relevant website that provides an Arabic-English-Arabic glossary.‫التاجي وفيما بين الظلفين‬ ‫للموت جوعا ً عندما تمنعها االلتهابات التي تظهر في الفم من الرضاعة كما ترفض اإلناث إرضاع الحيوانات‬ . Use a reliable search engine to browse through the Web.2 ‫ ويمكن أن تكون نسبة النفوق بين الحيوانات الصغيرة والرضيعة عالية نظراً لتعرضها‬. Legal Translation 1 Page 14 . The memory on a graphics card that stores information not being displayed onscreen is called a frame buffer. 1. Fungi.‫ تنقسم األعالف إلى أعالف خشنة و أعالف خضراء و أعالف مركزة‬. Plantae and Animalia.Arabic and Translation Studies Division VI Translating Specialized Terms Availability of terminological sources is a must to guarantee high quality service. and locate a relevant website that provides an Arabic-English-Arabic glossary. However.3 .1 . Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) was a Swedish naturalist.4 5. Monolingual and bilingual dictionaries and glossaries. Protista. Attempt a research-informed translation of the following statements paying due attention to the parts in bold. It is common sense to search for a relevant organization website that might be providing an Arabic-English-Arabic glossary of IT terms. He is considered the "Father of Taxonomy" because he developed the system by which we name organisms today: the taxonomy he devised classifies living kingdoms into five main categories: Monera. sometimes the need arises when a translator has to search for a document that is translated into either English or Arabic in order to be able to find the equivalent for a certain specialized term.‫ والبربوني‬،‫ والمرجان‬،‫والبوري‬ . Use a reliable search engine to browse through the Web.‫في ذلك جميع الحيوانات المزرعية المستأنسة والحيوانات البرية ذات الحوافر‬ ‫ وعلى الشريط‬،‫ وعالمات اإلصابة الرئيسية هي ارتفاع درجة حرارة الحيوان المصاب يليها ظهور بثور في الفم‬. It is common sense to search for a relevant UN organization website that might be providing an Arabic-English-Arabic glossary of animal and agriculture terms. ‫ بما‬،‫ مرض الحمى القالعية من األمراض الفيروسية شديدة العدوى وتتعرض له جميع الحيوانات مشقوقة الظلف‬. whether paper or online.

1 ." where one router's upstream interface is considered to be another's downstream interface and vice versa.4002 ‫ عقدت لجنة المفاوضات التجارية المشكلة بموجب اتفاقية اإلطار بشأن إنشاء نظام األفضليات‬. 3. spanning-tree algorithm is required to resolve loops like this. and locate a relevant website that provides Arabic/English texts in this domain. Current methods for designing embedded systems require tospecify and design hardware and software separately. Rescorla and A. 8. Attempt a research-informed translation of the following statements paying due attention to the parts in bold. A ‫ تشرين الثاني‬/‫ نوفمبر‬42 ‫ي فيما بين الدول األعضاء بنمظمة المؤتمر اإلسالمي) يوم‬ ‫والتجار‬ ‫ة الحادية والعشرين للكومسيك (اللجنة الدائمة للتعاون االقتصادي‬ ‫ارية للدور‬ ‫ عقدت جلسة العمل الوز‬. Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) is a simple authentication protocol in which the user name and password is sent to the remote access server in a plaintext (unencrypted) form. the next frame is ready to write to the displayable portion of the buffer. Use a reliable search engine to browse through the Web. and sends unsolicited reports or leaves when the database changes. The router sends IGMP membership reports on the upstream interface when queried. 5. Note that this does not protect against an "upstream loop. This way.2 ‫ة‬ ‫ جلسة خاصة على هامش الدور‬،‫التجارية فيما بين الدول األعضاء في منظمة المؤتمر اإلسالمي‬ )4002 ‫ تشرين الثاني‬/‫ نوفمبر‬42 ‫ يوم‬،‫ تركيا‬،‫ في اسطنبول‬،‫الحادية والعشرين للكومسيك‬ ‫ انتهت لجنة المفاوضات التجارية من إعداد بروتوكول خطة التعريفة التفضيلية الخاصة بنظام‬. In graphics cards. when the present frame is finished. This programming technique uses two buffers to speed up any computer task when the hardware can process and push information around at the same time.3 ‫ ورفعته إلى‬،)‫األفضليات التجارية فيما بين الدول األعضاء في منظمة المؤتمر اإلسالمي (بريتاس‬ .Arabic and Translation Studies Division 2.‫ة الحادية والعشرين للكومسيك العتماده‬ ‫الدور‬ Legal Translation 1 Page 15 . S-HTTP (Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol) was designed by E. 6. 7. Schiffman to secure HTTP connections. Why file or disk fragmentation occurs? How does defragmentation work? 4. It is common sense to search for a relevant organization website where you can find such relevant texts. double buffering is often used to store the next frame in a video clip in an off-screen frame buffer while displaying the current frame.

They can also of course have no roots in anything. perhaps easier ways of creating words. English dramatic poets have been shakespearizing now for two hundred years. 2. Mention your search string): 1. -ism. He Xeroxed a copy for everyone in the meeting. boyish. prejudge. It is accomplished by means of a huge number of affixes as un-. I am googling at the moment.B. 2. joyful. 1. If ebooks have ejackets then I can perhaps add an ewarning about elanguage. misrepresent. -ful. pre-. then translate them into Arabic.Kleenex and Hoover. I never saw my uncle’s Ferrari. It is mandatory that a translator knows how to research new words especially that sometimes dictionaries fail to keep abreast of them. These can be based on similar sounding words . careless.Arabic and Translation Studies Division VII Translating New Words New words enter the English language all the time . 4. 7. 4. 3.'Hobbit' was based on rabbit .the exact number is uncertain but there are thousands appearing every year. Coinage Blending Clipping Abbreviations & Acronyms (1) Coinage This is the creation of entirely new words . such as the scientific terms 'googol' and 'quark'. but I could always hear it going vroom as it flew past by my house. 6. -ish. or slang terms such as to 'chug' a drink. 3. -less. -ness which appear in words like unhappy. terrorism and sadness. The Camillagate has become the talk of the hour. (N. attempt to find what these coinages mean. Looking at Michael Jackson. 5. mis-.or change from a brand or product to common usage .quite unusual given the competition from all the other. Using your research skills. Legal Translation 1 Page 16 . Another way of coining new words is Derivation. Below are some of the ways in which new words come into being. The Following are sentences with coinages. you would think you were looking at a multi-facelifted old woman.

11. The Following are sentences with blends.is such a sweeping phenomenon that it can't be dismissed as merely a joke. Agribuiness are very profitable. Today California saw its first court case brought under a 'cyberstalker' law that came into force on 1 January. He has an extensive wordrobe. 4. Using your research skills. 9. Legal Translation 1 Page 17 . The attack was carried out by a shuicide bomber.Arabic and Translation Studies Division 8. breakfast + lunch = brunch). Every researcher in the field of the US economics has to be familiar with the Reagonomics. attempt to find what these blends compose of. The Peters are good at Spanglish. The carjacking incident has left the local residents shocked. all the usual trappings.g. 6. we can spend our night in a nearby motel. (e. complete with fainting fans. 5. Mention your search string): 1. As our car broke down. 8.and so combining their meaning to create a new one. The Americans seem to be suffering from an Iranophobia. 9.B. There are also newer words such as 'dancercise' which is the outcome of blending “dancing” and “exercise”. and is an opponent of electoral reform. Straw is only a demi-Blairite. 10.of the news. 7. of the culture.normally beginning and end . Brave Heart will be telecasted next Friday. Carbon dioxide is a real hazmat. (N. 12. and of human behavior . 2. He does not like Liberal Democrats much. Oprah Winfrey has barnstormed Iowa for Barack Obama in what can only be described as "Oprahpalooza". (2) Blending Blends are words created by combining elements from two words . The tabloidification of American life . and translate them into Arabic. 3.

11. 6. 13. laboratory lab.Arabic and Translation Studies Division 10. 5. often reducing it to one syllable. This is the latest edutainment video. Producers of teen-oriented movies are accused of teensploitation. 19. 17. 12. When I registered I made a typo on my email address and now I cannot get into my account to confirm. Training to be a computer wiz may be easier than you ever imagined. 15. Legal Translation 1 Page 18 . 7. protests have sprung up all over Europe. 16. 2. Investors and netizens alike were left wondering what went wrong. 4. She plunged the house into darkness one night trying to electrocute herself. 14. In the last few months. The UK grad Program provides support. Mention your search string) 1. It is doubtful that decaf coffee is any better than regular coffee. state their origin then translate them into Arabic: (N. Many examples are very informal or slang. 3. against products they called ‘Frankenfood’. There are rules of email Netiquette that help us communicate better via email. like 'bro' from brother The following sentences have Clippings. The appointment of a large number of ex-cons as school teachers was largely due to the poor levels of education in Australian schools.B. (3) Clipping This is the shortening of a longer word. Parascending cruises are fun for all the family. The public school plus Oxbridge system has never perceived any need for vocational education. The Central Statistical Office has reduced its guesstimate of the expected monthly surplus from £300million to £100million. This new docu-soap follows day-to-day lives of hairdressers. Using your research skills. This project was concerned with an evaluation of the role of co-ops and other rural institutions. 18. advice and resources to postgraduate research students. Examination becomes exam. Wellesley College offers a co-ed summer program for college students and graduates.

find the full meaning of the following abbreviations as they appear in the contexts provided. The CPU is the main component in a computer. etc. do not depend upon them solely. CLD tries to help post-secondary students with disabilities to complete a high quality post-secondary education. CLD International provides training to legislatures.  The United Nations website has a multilingual dictionary of terms. and nongovernmental organizations. 7.com and www. 10. and check your translation in the search engine Google. An abbreviation is merely the shortened form of a word. The World Bank provides financial support to developing countries through the IDA credits and the IBRD loans. These basic abbreviations are usually followed by a period.A federal court has ruled in favor of a widely recognized researcher seeking detailed statistics from the IRS about how the agency enforces the nation's tax laws. AFESD provides development assistance only to the members of the LAS. SEATTLE. 13. Legal Translation 1 Page 19 . Use them as an initial step in your search for abbreviations. It is pronounceable as a normal word. 12. Clues:  There are search engines dedicated to the purpose of abbreviation finding. Andrews AFB is the home of Air Force One in MD. The Third TAF supported the advance of Fourteenth Army against the Japanese forces. 6. UNDP helps countries to build the institutional capacity. AFB Expanding possibilities for people with vision loss. Use your research skills to locate them. 11. 2. where all operations take place. NGO. 14. provide your proposed translation.com).g." etc.acronymfinder. IOU." is pronounced "Mister. 9. whereas the BADEA extends development financing to African countries. government agencies. So "St.thefreedictionary. An initialism is a type of abbreviation pronounced one letter at a time. CLD Program is developing civilian leaders for the future of the USMC. 8. 5. Basic abbreviations are pronounced like the full word it represents. National policies must control emissions of ODS and POPs. and IHO. For instance. An acronym is a word formed from the first (or first few) letters ofmust several words. 1." is pronounced "Street" (or "Saint") and "Ct. 4.Arabic and Translation Studies Division Abbreviations & Acronyms Acronyms and initialisms are specific types of abbreviations. UN is involved in the entire spectrum of "humanitarian assistance" including UNDRC and UNHCR. However. It is of great help when you are translating UN terms and abbreviations Using your online research skills. There are three principle types of civilian organizations which are IO. www. AARP. 3. The United States—one of Turkey’s NATO allies—lists the PKK as a foreign terrorist organization. policies and programmes needed to achieve the MDGs. PGA. 15." is pronounced Court and "Mr. 16. TAF has increased the professionalism of trade associations. (e. WA .

19. the AUC-IMD announced a comprehensive program for USAOSHA. Arabic and Translation Studies Division Upon the events of 9/11. 18.17. OWS protests against corporate greed began in Canada a month ago and moved to US. Asia and Europe In 1988 the UNEP and WMO established the IPCC to assess the human induced climate change Legal Translation 1 Page 20 .

After the Easter Rising. Legal Translation 1 Page 21 . The IRA in Italy is engaged in the development of the next generation radio telescopes. provide your proposed translation. 4. The IRA supports the government of Tanzania in the assessment of human and natural resources. find the full meaning of the following abbreviations as they appear in the contexts provided. 2. and check your translation in the search engine Google. IRA is one of the most effective ways to accumulate retirement savings.Arabic and Translation Studies Division Now. Using your online research skills. try your hands with the following abbreviations and acronyms exercise. 5. 1. 3. The IRA represents students living within the residence halls at the University of Vermont. the IRA emerged to fight for the Independence of Ireland.

He was remanded in protective custody 10. depend on your research skills. 1. and check your translation in the search engine Google. "The more the electorate expects from the politicians they elect. or offensive. They suspect he has the big C 14. Latvia's capital. It can also be the substitution of a mild or less negative word or phrase for a harsh or blunt one. Research the AUC library catalogue to locate them. 3. Solid wastes are put in sanitary landfills 16.” 6.baylorschool. Three soldiers were killed by friendly fire when a mortar bomb hit their truck. The defense department budget includes $130 billion to support overseas contingency operations. find the full meaning of the following euphemisms as they appear in the contexts provided.html> Legal Translation 1 Page 22 . for actions incompatible with diplomatic status 7. provide your proposed translation. I had no idea that she has gone to meet her maker.uk/meanings/eup hemism.(*) Clues:  There are sites that provide lists of euphemisms and their intended meaning.phrases. The Bush administration prosecuted the “few bad apples” stationed in the Abu Gharib. the more likely it is that politicians will be economical with the truth. Deputy National Security Adviser Ben Rhodes said that protecting the Libyan people “obviously involves kinetic military action.org." says Dr Newey. I have joined the long row of job-seekers 12. For instance. Use your research skills to locate them. The soldiers returned home in transfer tubes 15.proz. (*) Adapted from the University of Victoria Writer's Guide <www. 2. primarily in Iraq and Afghanistan. 13. Otherwise. 5. We received orders of executive action 18. The Latvian foreign ministry has expelled the first secretary of the Belarussian Embassy in Riga. He received orders to service the target 8. as in the use of pass away instead of die. unpleasant.com/personalglossary/46939?glossary=15369)  There are print dictionaries of Euphemism that you can resort to as well.html and http://www. Using your online research skills. and WC is a euphemism for bathroom.org/academics/english/studentwork/stover/toolbox/figlang. The recent economic crisis has led to massive rightsizing 11. 19. Doctors are calling for a debate over proposals for the "mercy killing" of severely disabled babies. (http://www.Arabic and Translation Studies Division VIII Euphemisms A Euphemism is "A mild word or phrase that substitutes for another that would be undesirable because it is too direct. the word joint is a euphemism for the word prison. Obama has pledged to wind down Operation Iraqi Freedom within 16 months. 4. The director of the plant reported a spontaneous energetic disassembly 9. The prime minister authorized a pre-emptive air strike against the rebels 17.

Clues:  Try Google Language Tools in translating proper names  Don't forget to use the clues found in the sentence you are translating.html Using your online research skills. titles. Any organization.2 . find the proper spelling of the following proper names as they appear in the contexts provided.)  Try Noodle Tools: Choosing the Best Search Strategy – "I need Facts" http://www.11 .1 ُ ‫ اف‬.11 .9 .noodletools.6 ً ‫دا‬ ً ‫ كان ماثيو أرنولد ناق‬. etc. departments.‫ ميالدية‬161 ‫ إلى‬131 ‫ امتدت فترة حكم اإلمبراطور الروماني أنطونيوس بايوس من‬.‫ يكشف إنجيل متى كثيرً ا من سِّما المجتمع اليهودي الذي عاش فيه السيد المسيح‬. etc.‫ يقع المعبد الجنائزي إلى الشرق من هرم منقرع‬.‫ تعد رواية دافيد كوبرفيلد أفضل ما سطر ديكنز من روايات‬. thus. projects. (e.‫النهضة‬ . products.12 Legal Translation 1 Page 23 . dates.7 .Arabic and Translation Studies Division IX Translating Proper Nouns A challenge that translators often face in their work comes from proper names. and check your translation in the search engine Google.1172 ‫ نشر الفيلسوف األلماني نيتشه كتابه األول (مولد المأساة من روح الموسيقى) سنة‬. Usually.1541 ‫ مارس‬9 ‫ وُ لِد المالح الشهير أمريكو فيسبوتشي في فلورنسا في‬.com/deb bie/literacies/information/5locate /adviceengine. People and places have their own names.5 . A translator.g.‫رائدا في العصر الفيكتوري‬ .1174 ‫تتِحت أوبرا كارمن لجورج بيزيه عام‬ ‫ إن التعليقات التي دوَّ نها ابن رشد على كتب أرسطو أعادت تقديم الفيلسوف اإلغريقي ألوروبا في عصر‬. institution.‫ تعد أوبرا حالق أشبيلية لروسيني من أجمل األوبرات الكوميدية‬. Translators must be very careful where they get their information. has to acquire the skill to find the way a certain proper name is spelled in English or Arabic.‫ أنهى صالح الدين الوجود الصليبي الغربي في القدس‬. as well as publication titles.3 . provide your proposed translation. this is a common problem encountered in translating into English names that are not originally Arabic. . as anyone can publish a website.4 . or agency has its own set of titles.1 .‫ كان القديس توما األكويني راعيًا للعديد من الجامعات الكاثوليكية الوسيطة‬.

‬‬ ‫‪ . which was translated into Latin in the 12th century and exerted great‬‬ ‫‪influence upon European astronomy.‬‬ ‫‪comprising the provinces of Almería.‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬في ‪ 24‬يوليو من عام ‪ 1943‬اجتمع المجلس الفاشستي األعلى ألول مرة منذ بداية الحرب وعارض بتسعة عشر‬ ‫عضوا موسوليني في حين لم يؤيده سوى سبعة فقط‪ ،‬فسقط حكمه وكلف الملك فكتور عمانوئيل الثاني الجنرال‬ ‫باروغلو بطل الحملة على الحبشة بتأليف الوزارة‪. a detailed description of‬‬ ‫‪pathological conditions and the therapies prescribed.4‬أما هذا الصديق فهو ليس شخصية حقيقية‪ ،‬وإنما شخصية نسجها قلم الروائي والشاعر الفرنسي العظيم "فيكتور‬ ‫هوجو" في رواية لم تنل شهرة باقي أعماله هي رواية "الكادحون في البحر" ففي هذه الرواية روى هوجو قصة‬ ‫طويلة عن شاب اسمه جيليات أحب فتاة جميلة اسمها دورشيت حبا صامتا بال أمل‬ ‫‪6.‬‬ ‫‪ . Córdoba. Andalusia is an autonomous region overlooking the Strait of Gibraltar. It is Spain's largest and most populous region. Alfraganus wrote Elements of Astronomy (the book on celestial motion and thorough‬‬ ‫‪science of the stars).5‬أهم رافد استقى منه نجيب محفوظ مكوناته الثقافية ورؤاه اإلبداعية هو الرافد األدبى‪ ،‬فقد قرأ التراث العربى قراءة‬ ‫واعية متأملة وتأثر بالرواد األوائل من األجيال التى سبقته أو عاصرته‪ ،‬لكنها كانت بالنسبة له فى مقام األستاذية مثل‬ ‫مصطفى لطفى المنفلوطى‪ ،‬وأحمد لطفى السيد‪ ،‬وطه حسين وغيرهم‪ ،‬وفى األدب العالمى قرأ الروائيين الكبار من‬ ‫كتاب الواقعية األوائل مثل بلزاك وديكنز‪ ،‬وإن كان قد تأثر أكثر بتالميذهم مثل جوستاف فلوبير وستندال‪ . Avenzoar made significant contributions to medicine. and the Atlantic‬‬ ‫‪Ocean.‬‬ ‫‪ . Málaga.‬‬ ‫‪and Seville (Sevilla). Document your sources.‬‬ ‫‪8.2‬يعمل البروفيسور برنارد لويس أستاذاً لدراسات الشرق األدني بجامعة برنستون االمريكية‪ ،‬وهو األب الشرعي‬ ‫لتعبير "صدام الحضارات" الذي اتخذه الكاتب األمريكي الشهير صمويل هنتنجتون عنوانا ً لكتابه األشهر‪ ،‬الذي اقتبس‬ ‫منه الكاتب األمريكي الشهير أيضا ً فرانسيس فوكوياما الكثير من األفكار في كتابه "نهاية التاريخ" الذي يشرح فيه‬ ‫فوكوياما النصر النهائي للحضارة الغربية التي تمثلها أمريكا بالرأسمالية االقتصادية والديمقراطية السياسية علي‬ ‫غيرها من الحضارات‪.3‬يعتبر فيلم "نهر الحب" لعز الدين ذو الفقار عمالً جي ً‬ ‫دا قيا ً‬ ‫سا إلى األفالم التى أخرجتها السينما المصرية عن روايات‬ ‫الكاتب ليو تولوستوى‪ ،‬وقد سعى المخرج إلى االستفادة من األجواء الرومانسية لرواية تولستوى فقام بتغيير الكثير‬ ‫من أحداثها على نحو يرضى المتفرج المصرى‪ . Famous monuments include‬‬ ‫‪the Alhambra in Granada and the Mezquita in Córdoba. 1951‬وهناك اختالفات بين فيلم ذو الفقار وكل النصوص المأخوذة من رواية تولستوى‪ ،‬فالضابط‬ ‫فرونسكى فى الرواية هو زير نساء يحاول أن يجرب حظه مع إحدى الزوجات التعيسات‪ ،‬أما الضابط عند عز الدين‬ ‫ذو الفقار فهو رجل رومانسى يمر بتجربة حبه األولى‪. Jaén. He wrote many titles including:‬‬ ‫‪Book of simplification concerning Therapeutics and Diet. therapeutics‬‬ ‫‪Legal Translation 1‬‬ ‫‪Page 24‬‬ ..‬‬ ‫‪7. it covers most of S Spain. Book of the Middle Course‬‬ ‫‪concerning the Reformation of Souls and the Bodies. Cádiz.‬‬ ‫‪ . Huelva. Granada.‬وقرأ‬ ‫لكتاب روس وتأثر بهم كثيرا‪ ،‬وباألخص تولستوى فى رائعته‪.:‬الحرب والسالم‪ ،-‬ويستويفسكى فى أعماله العظيمة‪،‬‬ ‫ولم يتوقف عند هؤالء وأولئك وإنما امتدت قراءاته إلى من أحدثوا منعطفات خطيرة فى فن الرواية مثل جويس‬ ‫وكافكا وبروست وقرأ هكسلى وملفيل ودوس باسوس‪ ،‬وهيمنجواى قراءة واعية‪.‫‪Arabic and Translation Studies Division‬‬ ‫‪Using general internet search engines or specialized websites give the proper spelling of‬‬ ‫‪the proper names in the following passages. It is known for its Islamic architecture. a summary of diseases.‬واألرجح أنَّ عز الدين ذو الفقار رجع أيضً ا إلى الفيلم الذى أخرجه‬ ‫كالرنس براون لجريتا جاربو عام ‪ ،1934‬وإلى الفيلم الذى أخرجه جوليان دوفيفيه ولعبت بطولته فيفيان لى فى‬ ‫بريطانيا عام ‪ .

2 . A translator should avoid inconsistencies in the spelling of proper names. One approach is to take Arabic words as they are pronounced and write down approximately similar sounds in the Roman alphabet. for a TL word or phrase to accommodate. Search for the symbol you are looking for in the table that appears before you. CLOSE the table. system. This is called transliteration or Romanization.‫وصار سها الشعوب لعيل حريتها واستاالهلا واحرتام إرا اا رإروابار‬ ‫ شلرع اجلهلا للر العل وا‬:‫ريا ويكل يف كتابه اجلها يف كتابه مشروعية احلرب يف اإلسالم ما نصه‬ ‫ ياول ال كتور حم‬. The ideal solution would be to have a standard.pdf  UNGEGN System of Romanization (set by the UN Group of Experts on Geographical Names) In the following sentences. and then choose SYMBOL.‫ و رء الفتعة عن املمب ني‬،‫عن الوطن واألرض والعفس والعرض والعاي ة وحرية ممارستها‬ Legal Translation 1 Page 25 . a transliteration.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/roma nization/arabic. You will find the symbol you chose on the page you are using. thus. even for those who are familiar with both languages. look up pdf the meaning of these words in online dictionaries. decide on translation/transliteration for rendering the http://www. and click on it once you find it and click INSERT.1 . There are and hygiene written specially for the benefit other reasons for employing of the layman. parts in bold. Several have been proposed but unfortunately none has been universally accepted. and Book on Foodstuffs. is used to create shortcuts. (*)  ALA-LC Romanization Tables (Adopted by the US Library of Congress and the American Library Association for cataloguing books) http://www. you need to click on INSERT.Clues:  It should be noted that certain historical and religious names of people or places should often retain Arabic and Translation Studies Division their translated forms. X Translation versus  A selection of the most frequently Transliteration of Proper Names used transliteration systems can be found in the following links: The Writing of Arabic proper names in English texts presents a number of difficulties. ‫ صار احتالل الشعوب وسلب ريااالا ومل ما بال ولا ومملدا مال رااا لاسلعم راسلتع ارار‬،‫ يف ظل أوربا وأمريكا‬. Transliteration. central to which is description of different types of food and when a concept in the SL is too big drugs and their effects on health. internationally agreed. and then browse through the Internet to see for which purpose each is used: HINT: In order to use transliteration codes in an MS Word document.eki.ee/wgrs/rom1_ar. To inform your decision.

al-bab.‫‪Arabic and Translation Studies Division‬‬ ‫‪ .1891‬‬ ‫‪ .‬‬ ‫‪(*) Adapted from al-bab (Arab Gateway) http://www.‬‬ ‫وعيمى وحم‬ ‫‪ .4‬مكانة الا س مك ن يف كوهنا مارا لبع ي من األنبياء‪ :‬إبراويم ويعاوب وموسى وإسحاق ويوسف و او وسبي ا‬ ‫عبيهم المالم‪.5‬ح ثين عيمى بن احلمن الوراق قال‪ :‬ح ثين سبي ا بن أبي شيخ قال ‪ :‬ح ثين أبو الصع اء قال ‪ :‬ملا ق م وارو بن‬ ‫سع واليا عبى واسط من قبل إبراويم ريط العاس ونعى عبى أبي سعفر أفعاله وظب ه العاس وأريذه األموال ووضعها‬ ‫يف غا مواضعها‪.com/‬‬ ‫‪Legal Translation 1‬‬ ‫‪Page 26‬‬ .3‬االنتفاضة الفبمطيعية األوىل وي انتفاضة شعبية فبمطيعية ب أت يف نوف رب عام ‪.

‫حقيقيا ً يضع حداً آلالم البشر المشردين والمحاصرين‬ . If you choose to translate the allusion semantically. mythological such as "Achilles' heel". ergo sum". This site also has books that help with Arabic proverbs such as ‫كتاب جمهرة األمثال ألبي هالل‬ ،‫ مجمع األمثال للميداني‬،‫العسكري‬ ‫المستقصى في أمثال العرب للزمخشري‬ Using your online research skills.‫ بل أنه كان اجتماعً ا عقيمًا‬،‫ كان اجتماع وزراء الخارجية العرب في بيروت بيضة الديك‬. then Reference. provide your proposed translation.‫ تمضي جماعة العرب مسوقة إلى مصير مجهول مفتقدين لزرقاء اليمامة‬. 2. an allusion can be translated either literally (or semantically) supported with a footnote that attempts to bridge the gap.2 ً‫ في حين ال يريد أحد منهم حال‬،‫ مواعيد عرقوب إذاً هي تلك التي يطلقها كل زائر إلى المنطقة العربية‬."‫من وما تفنى العناقيد‬ َ ‫ش‬ . click Insert.‫ما حدث ويحدث في سجن أبي غريب بالعراق‬ . (*)http://contemporarylit. add a brief footnote of not more than two lines. literary such as "Big Brother".htm Clues: 1. or geographical such as "Mecca". Due to the cultural gap between English and Arabic. You can use an online Thesaurus to help you find a suitable communicative translation for the allusions in Arabic after you research their meaning.4 ‫ وهو‬،‫ وال أنسى أن أذكر بثالثة األثافي‬،‫ وأفغانستان ليس ببعيد عنا‬،‫ والعراق‬،‫ ما حدث ويحدث في فلسطين‬. to understand them."(*) Allusions are either religious such as "the patience of Job". philosophic such as "cogito. or by means of paraphrase where the cultural element in the allusion is sacrificed and only the message is maintained.Arabic and Translation Studies Division XI Translating Cultural Allusions An Allusion is "a reference to a famous person. and check your translation in the search engine Google. Research them in the AUC library catalog. and to be able to translate them in light of their connotations. Choose Footnote. Al-Waraq site offers a plethora of books that can assist with Arabic allusions especially poetry.about.1 َّ ‫ضحكت من جهلها األمم" وكذا قوله "نامت نواطير مصر عن ثعالبها فقد ب‬ . place. There are several dictionaries dedicated to allusions and their meaning. In translation.3 . In order to insert a footnote on MS Word.7 Legal Translation 1 Page 27 .6 . then adjust the settings. ‫ إن في حياتنا المعاصرة الكثير مما يدعونا إلى ترديد قول المتنبي "أغاية الدين أن تحفوا شواربكم يا أمة‬.5 ‫ إيران تدق عطر منشم بين شيعة العراق‬. and press Insert 3. It is assumed that the reader understands the allusion. find the meaning of the following Arabic cultural allusions as they appear in the contexts provided. 4. thing or part of another work of literature.‫ قلت في نفسي وجنت على نفسها براقش يا حكومــة‬.com/cs/literaryterm s/g/allusion. it is essential to be able to recognize allusions.

He took no action as he found himself between Scylla and Charybdis.11 ‫ أال إني أكلت يوم اكل الثور االبيض‬:‫ واعملوا ليومكم ما يعفيكم من أن تقولوا غدا‬. It was a road to Damascus moment. It was an occasion for memento mori as the preacher waxed eloquent on the vanity of human wishes. Legal Translation 1 Page 28 . His closest friends could hardly recognize him. the process which powers the sun --.9 . add a brief footnote of not more than two lines to explain the context of the allusion.8 . find the meaning of the following English cultural allusions as they appear in the contexts provided. Rising like Lazarus. The new head of the division will have to clean the Augean stables. his enemies knew that the die was cast. When he made up his mind.‫ تحرص سوريا على صون شعرة معاوية في العالقات مع الواليات المتحدة‬. and check your translation in the search engine Google. 6. and Tony Blair is its portrait. Many third world countries put Draconian laws into effect.11 .‫ تحكيم دولي‬،‫ سلميا‬،‫ كانت منطقة طابا «مسمار جحا» االنسحاب من سيناء الى ان اقتلعه‬. They seem determined never to go to Canossa. but. 2. If you choose to translate the allusion semantically. Nuclear fusion --. 1. The extension of the Panama Canal project is much more than a mere apple of discord. the ex-prime minister nominated himself for the presidency.‫ التي ساهم في خلقها إلى حد كبير‬،"‫ رفع عباس وحزبه قميص عثمان "أزمة رواتب الموظفين‬. 4. 12. provide your proposed translation.Arabic and Translation Studies Division !! ‫ عباس غادر واشنطن فارغ اليدين حتى خفي حنين لم يحصل عليهما‬:‫ خبراء أمريكيون‬. 5. The Camilla-gate tapes remain a sword of Damocles hanging over Prince Charles's head. 10. 7. New Labour is Dorian Grey. 9. Waving the bloody shirt characterizes all speeches of the new candidates for presidency. The debate showed up the Achilles' heel of the government --. 11. on the TV screens rather than in the attic. is the Holy Grail of energy production. 14. 13.12 Using your online research skills. in true post-modern style. The Iranians are going ahead with their nuclear enterprise. 3. its excessively dictatorial tendencies. 8.

Taking you back to Ancient Egypt. for he had not slept the whole night. and with awareness of the seriousness of the demands of our great people everywhere for fundamental change. Using your online research skills. measures and arrangements. to fulfill the aspirations of our great people. the BibleGateway is a multilingual searchable database of the Bible with several versions available. Legal Translation 1 Page 29 .” Gadhafi vowed in a live audio broadcast on state television on the 7th of June 2011 that "we will not surrender. and Islamicity. The high priest of the temple of the god Sothis gazed at the expanse of sky with tired eye. We will not think about death or life." even as NATO airstrikes bombarded his compound in Tripoli. the Qura'n or the Bible. the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces issued a statement that declared that “At this historical juncture in the history of Egypt.com/. A quotation could be a statement made by a politician. try the QuranBrowser http://quranbrowser. He added:"I am now speaking as planes and bombs fall around me. and it affirms at the same time that it is not a replacement for the legitimacy that is acceptable to the people. asking the aid of God Almighty. For sites that offer several translations of the meanings of the Qur'an. attempt to locate the original quotation for the following translated quotes (using the contexts provided if available). "But my soul is in God's hand. and in light of the decision by President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak to relinquish the office of the presidency of the Republic and the tasking of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces with the administration of the affairs of the nation. We will think about the call of duty. 3. more than four thousand years ago. there are certain sites that can be resorted to in order to get the exact quote or an authentic translation.Arabic and Translation Studies Division XII Quote Finding When a translator encounters translated direct or indirect quotations. and document your source of information.” On the 11th of February 2011. the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces is examining this matter." Gadhafi said in a live audio broadcast on state television. these quotations should not be backtranslated as they have an original version which should be researched and used instead. A quotation could also be a citation from a holy book. Rhadopis of Nubia starts with: “The first light of dawn peered over the eastern horizon that morning in the month of Bashans. In this case.biblegateway. 6." 2. 1.com/> 5. or an extract from a contract or an agreement. Al-Waraq provides a searchable database of the Holy Qur'an. The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces will issue further statements that will announce forthcoming steps. Clues:  For researching biblical quotes. <http://www.

‬‬ ‫‪Furthermore.‬لقد حان الوقت النتهااج سياساة هجارة تتايح اساتقدام عماال ضايوف بصاورة‬ ‫مؤقتة لملء وظائف يحجم عن شغلها أميركيون‪ ،‬وسياسة تنبذ العفو (عن مخالفي قوانين الهجرة) وتفيادنا بمان يادخل‬ ‫بالدنا ومن يغادرها‪ ،‬وسياسة تغلق الحدود في وجه مروجي المخدرات واإلرهابيين‪"..9‬انفصام الحساسية " عبارة ابتكرها الشاعر الناقد األمريكي اإلنجليزي ت‪ .. saying "Our revolution continues and we will not rest until all‬‬ ‫‪the goals of the revolution are met and we avenge our martyrs".‬‬ ‫‪Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said at a press briefing in the Kenyan capital‬‬ ‫‪“World leaders have a unique opportunity at this critical moment to evaluate‬‬ ‫‪achievements and gaps in the global AIDS response. the African Union ..‬س‪ .‬‬ ‫‪Legal Translation 1‬‬ ‫‪Page 30‬‬ .‬وأضاف أوباما أن األمريكيون األفارقة "قد تقوقعوا على أنفسهم واصبحوا يتوقعون القليل من‬ ‫العالم ومن أنفسهم‪".‬وعليناا اال نرضاى بقاوانين‬ ‫تعاقب الناس الكادحين الذي يشاؤون مجرد توفير لقمة عيش لعائالتهم وتحرم مؤسسات األعمال من عمال مساتعدين‬ ‫للعمل وتثير الفوضى على حدود بالدنا‪ . as well as with other sub-regional‬‬ ‫‪organizations.‬‬ ‫‪5.‬‬ ‫وأوضح قائال‪ " :‬إن الخطط الحكومية لن تنقل أبناءكم إلى األرض الموعودة‪ ،‬إننا في حاجة إلى عقلية جديدة‪ ،‬وإلى‬ ‫سلوكيات جديدة‪ ".United Nations hybrid operations in Darfur‬‬ ‫‪(UNAMID) and UN support package for the AU Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) are‬‬ ‫‪other prominent examples of cooperation between the two organizations in the field‬‬ ‫”‪of peacekeeping. We must take bold decisions‬‬ ‫‪that will dramatically transform the AIDS response and help us move towards an‬‬ ‫”‪HIV-free generation.‬‬ ‫‪Arabic and Translation Studies Division‬‬ ‫‪Saad Al Katatni addressed the first parliamentary session following the 25 th of‬‬ ‫‪January Revolution.‬ومماا زاد هاذا التفكاك تاأثير اثناين مان أقاوى شاعراء القارن الساابع عشار هماا‬ ‫ملتون ودرايدان‪". adding that "We will‬‬ ‫"‪never betray the blood of our martyrs. in supporting peace and stability on the African continent.‬وأضاف أنه يتعين على أبناء األمريكيين من أصول افريقية أن يتطلعوا ألن يصبحوا علماء‬ ‫ومهندسين وقضاة في المحكمة العليا ورؤساء للجمهورية‪.‬‬ ‫‪6..8‬‬ ‫‪" .‬إليوت فى أحد مقاالتاه قاال فياه‪" :‬إن‬ ‫شااعراء القاارن السااابع عشاار‪ ،‬وهاام خلفاااء كتاااب المساارح فااى القاارن السااادس عشاار‪ ،‬كااانوا يتمتعااون بجهاااز ماان‬ ‫الحساساية يسااتطيع أن يلاتهم أي نااوع ماان التجرباة ا نسااانية‪ ".‬‬ ‫في أول خطبة ألوباما حول المسألة العرقية منذ مجيئه إلى السلطة في الواليات المتحدة‪ ،‬قال إنه يتعين على‬ ‫األمريكيين من أصول افريقية أن يأخذوا مصائرهم في أيديهم‪ ،‬وأن يتحموا مسؤولياتهم في إطار مجتمعاتهم‪.‬وفااي القارن السااابع عشاار ظهار تفكااك أو انفصااام‬ ‫للحساسية النزال نحن نعااني مناه‪" .‬‬ ‫‪ .7‬صرح الرئيس بوش في خطابه عن حال االتحاد الذي ألقاه ليل ‪ 2‬شباط‪/‬فبراير‪ 2002‬قاائالا‪" :‬كماا أن نظاام الهجارة‬ ‫االميركي نظام باال وعفاا علياه الازمن‪ ،‬وال ياتالءم ماع احتياجاات اقتصاادنا وقايم بالدناا‪ .‬‬ ‫‪Statement by Egypt’s Permanent Representative before the 65th Session of the‬‬ ‫‪General Assembly on Agenda Item 122 (a) “The recent positive developments in‬‬ ‫‪the situations in Guinea and Niger are examples of the significant impact of the‬‬ ‫‪cooperation between the two organizations.‫‪4.‬‬ ‫‪.

11 . 2. The Holy Bible reads "I tell you the truth.12 Legal Translation 1 Page 31 . Document the source of your information. The Quran addresses the issue of women giving the bai'ah to Prophet Muhammad and God tells Muhammad to accept the pledge of the women: "O Prophet! Whenever believing women come unto thee to pledge their allegiance to thee.then accept their pledge of allegiance.. the Holy Qur'an. you can say to this mountain. The Holy Bible reads "The ear tests words as the tongue tastes food". 1.7 "‫ إن هللا عليم خبير‬. judge between them justly. ) ‫مسلم ومسلمة‬ .)‫ من يشحر شفتيه فله الهالك" (اإلنجيل‬.. if you have faith as small as a mustard seed. God loves the just.‫ "من يحفظ فمه يحفظ نفسه‬.Arabic and Translation Studies Division Attempt a research-based translation of the following quotes drawn from the Bible.9 ِ ْ‫ون فِاي األَر‬ ِ ُ‫هللا‬ ْ ‫م‬ َ ‫ال‬ ُ ‫ِك‬ ." 6." 3. The Holy Bible reads "Pairs of all creatures that have the breath of life in them came to Noah and entered the ark" 4."‫ُون‬ َ ‫خاسِ ر‬ َ ‫أُولَئ‬ ُ‫ه‬ ‫ (طلب العلام فريضاة علاى كال‬: ) ‫ حث اإلسالم المرأة على طلب العلم فقال رسول هللا ( صلى هللا عليه وأله‬.‫خلقناكم من ذكر وأنثى وجعلناكم شعوبا ً وقبائل لتعارفوا‬ ‫ " يأيها الذذين ممنذوا إن جذاءكم فاسذ بنبذأ فتبينذوا أن تصذيبوا قومذا بجهالذة فتصذبحوا علذى مذا‬:‫ يقول هللا تعالى‬. The Holy Bible reads "Be not overcome with evil. but overcome evil with good" 5."‫فعلتم نادمين‬ َّ ‫ر‬ َ ‫ق‬ ْ‫ي‬ ْ ‫و َي‬ ُ ‫فسِ ا‬ ُ‫و‬ ‫ض‬ ِ‫ب‬ ِ‫ق‬ ِ ‫د مِي َثا‬ ِ ْ‫هللا مِن َبع‬ َ ‫د‬ َ ‫ل‬ َ ‫ُوص‬ َ ‫ه أَن ي‬ َ‫م‬ َ َ ‫ما أ‬ َ ‫ُون‬ َ ‫طع‬ َ ‫ه‬ ِ َّ َ‫عهْد‬ َ ‫ُون‬ َ ‫ِين َينقُض‬ َ ‫ "الَّذ‬:‫ قال تعالى‬." ‫ "ياا أيهاا النااس إناا‬،‫ أما فيما يتعلق بالخلق فإننا ال نجاد فاي القارأن أي تميياز فاي الرب تباة باين الرجال والمارأة‬. The Qur’an says about justice: "If you do judge.)‫ والكالم الموجع يهيج السخط" (اإلنجيل‬،‫ "الجواب اللين يصرف الغضب‬. "Move from here to there" and it will move.1 .‫ إن أكرمكم عند هللا أتقاكم‬. and the tradition of Prophet Muhamad (pbuh).11 .

An e-corpus is “a large collection of electronic texts that have been gathered according to explicit criteria” (Lynne Bowker.natcorp. p. politics. Among these tools is “Corpus Data” (plural Corpora).byu.” (Roumen and van der Ster. or “raw” without any.uk Legal Translation 1 Page 32 . 2002.ox. and the natural environment of words is text. or a translator can do it him/herself. context. p.edu/  Leeds Collection of Internet Corpora http://corpus. … If you want to know how words behave you must study them in their natural environment. or medicine. 215) Monolingual Corpora A monolingual corpus is a corpus which consists of texts in one language.Arabic and Translation Studies Division XIII Corpora in Translation Computer-assisted translation (CAT) tools are designed to increase the productivity of translators. 1993. 44). There are different types of corpora designed to meet the needs of translators.html www. Monolingual corpora can be general as the case is with the 100-million-word British National Corpus (BNC) and the 400-million-word Bank of English.leeds. “Putting a word in context means breathing life into it. Monolingual corpora can also be “enriched” with Part-of-Speech (POS) tagging annotations.byu.ac. They can be ready made. your instructor will take you on a tour to visit: • English Monolingual General Corpora  A raw version of the British National Corpus (BNC)  An “enriched” version of the BNC corpus.ac. or specialized corpora which are restricted to a particular genre and/or topic domain such as art.edu/bnc/ • Arabic Monolingual General Corpora  Arabic Corpus Tool arabicorpus. There are monolingual and multilingual (bilingual) corpora.uk/internet. Now.

a collection of texts where the target texts are not translations of the source texts.Arabic and Translation Studies Division Multilingual Corpora Multilingual corpora can be parallel corpora.e. • • The problem here is one of unavailability to the public of a free Arabic-English parallel corpus unlike the case is with European languages e. where the source texts are aligned with their translations.e. i. Parallel Corpora Bilingual dictionaries are repertoires of lexical equivalents (general or specialized). Europarl Another problem occurs with the option of building a Do-it-Yourself parallel corpus. as one needs a special piece of software called a Parallel Concordancer for alignment purposes. along with all the corresponding translated sentences in L2. i.e. Two widely-used parallel concordancers are ParaConc and Multiconcord. or comparable corpora.g. a collection of texts. The translator has to assess the appropriateness of the candidate to the context by referring to definitions Parallel corpora are repertoires of STRATEGIES deployed by past translators when faced with similar problems that prompted the search. Parallel corpora also offer equivalents and non-equivalents at word level i. With this software one can ask the computer to find all the examples of a word or phrase in L1. • • Legal Translation 1 Page 33 . • • • Bilingual Dictionaries vs. but are texts originally written in the target language of the same type text and on the same topic of the source texts. how lacunae have been dealt with.

the target collection. • Collocation Generators Collocation generators can produce lists where characteristic cooccurrence patterns of words are located. You will need to learn how to use certain corpus analysis tools to help you with your self-made corpus! • • • • Corpus-analysis Tools Word-frequency Lists • Word-frequency lists produce lists of words that can be sorted according to the frequency of their occurrence ascendingly or descendingly. the source collection. or their alphabetical order. and are translated into the language of the other collection.S. They can operate monolingually or bilingually. Here is a list that your instructor will take you through: Legal Translation 1 Page 34 . The translated queries are run against the target collection. the most common display format is known as KWiC or “key word in context” display. The collections can be very different in origin. The benefit of concordancing is that they reveal the context in which individual occurrences of words are found. You can build a comparable corpus from articles by an Arabic news agency and a U. Monolingually. newspaper. for instance.Arabic and Translation Studies Division • Due to the unavailability of free parallel English-Arabic corpora. Collocations can be displayed in alphabetical or frequency-ranked order • • • There are many corpus-analysis tools that you can use. you are encouraged to create a comparable text corpus from two document collections in English and Arabic. • Concordancers Concordancers are a corpus-analysis tool that retrieves all occurrences of a particular query in its immediate contexts. The keys with best resolution power are extracted from the documents of one collection.

that is it does not keep secret the political leanings of the citizens.3 (a) But this Congress has refused to fight another [ ] battle here at home: the fight against gun violence in America. and everybody knows for which candidate you will vote during the Primaries. … If you want to know how words behave you must study them in their natural environment. and the natural environment of words is text.1 . it does not support Arabic) KWIC Concordance Tool (it does not support Arabic) “Putting a word in context means breathing life into it. All the examples below originally contained the word IMPORTNANT in the gap. context.” (Roumen and van der Ster. Amsterdam & Atlanta: Rodopi Legal Translation 1 Page 35 . Exercise (2): Translate the following phrases into English. ‫أدلى بشهادة – أدلى بصوته – أدلى بحديث‬ ‫ضرب مثال – ضرب موعدا – ضرب على العود – ضرب الكرة‬ ‫قام بأعباء – قام بدور – قام بالمصاريف – قام بواجبه – قامت الحرب – قامت الصالة – قام مقامه‬ ‫أضاع حقه – أضاع الوقت – أضاع الفرصة – أضاع صوابه – أضاع نقوده‬ Exercise (3): Translate the phrases in bold into English using a negative prefix with the assistance of Mark Davies' VIEW corpus: 3 . Now. 215) Exercise (1): A. paying special attention to the way you are going to translate the word “important”. using a monolingual English corpus. Mention your steps.Arabic and Translation Studies Division • • • • Mike Scott’s Wordsmith ConCapp (it supports Arabic) Simple Concordance Program (you can upload more than one file. (b) The prosperous Disneyland Tokyo has become a(n) [ ] destination for many tourists attracted by its magic.2 . B. (d) The gap between black and white income is still very [ ] and blacks in the service industries still represent a minority.3 . (c) This system suffers from a(n) [ ] weakness. Use a monolingual Arabic corpus to choose an adjective other than "‫ "هام‬that collocates with the noun modified. 1993. choosing a suitable collocate using Mark Davies' VIEW corpus. attempt to translate the pervious sentences into Arabic. p. Try to choose a better word to use instead.5 This exercise is adapted from Applied Corpus Linguistics: a Multidimensional Perspective (2004) by Ulla Connor and Thomas Albin Upton.

oppose. murder (h) Increase. adopt. set. set up (f) Reduce. lawful. acquire.2 . Use Mark Davies’ VIEW corpus to compare the differences in their usages: (a) Achieve. disapprove of. legitimate Exercise (5): Use the World Wide Web to find articles written about the Swine Flu in English and in Arabic. cut (g) Kill.5 . Save them as Rich Text Format documents. object to (e) Create. raise (i) Legal. obtain. assume.1 The following semantic groups of verbs and adjectives are usually confused. and then try to find their equivalents in Arabic.Arabic and Translation Studies Division ‫تتسم تصرفاته بانعدام المسئولية‬ ‫لم تكن مالبسها بالالئقة‬ ‫كانت عائلة غير متدينة‬ ‫لم تكن راضية عن حياتها‬ ‫قالها في نفاد صبر‬ ‫هز رأسه في عدم تصديق‬ ‫يمكن للمحامي أن يعطيك رأيا موضوعيا‬ ‫كانت تجربة ال تنسى‬ Exercise (4): . establish.4 . gain (b) Take on. with a minimum of ten articles for each language.7 . Legal Translation 1 Page 36 . accept (c) Carry out.1 . refuse.3 . reach. Use your corpus-analysis tools to make a list of the most frequent terms used in English.6 . perform (d) Reject. undertake. Be selective in your choice. take over. commit.

Alignment is used to enable translators to do parallel concordancing of translations previously created.asp The aggressive marketing campaign launched by Trados sometimes blinds translators to other TMs. points that must be borne in mind are: . Before using a TM tool. The major difference is that in MT. Example of alignment tools are WinAlign Trados and SDL Align. Wordfast is free to download at http://www. and MuliTrans Alignment Agent. Not all TM tools support different file formats.com/en/landing/sdl-trados-studio-trial/default. go to http://sourceforge. largely identical phrases or sets of documents. Alignment is a feature provided by most translation memory systems. where the user can match previously created translations. Now. To download it. and not only are they free of charge. make sure that it supports all required file formats. The system would propose ready-made translations in the target language whenever a match is found during the translation process.wordfast. These tools work my matching terms and sentences in the database with their counterparts in the source text. TM tools support translators in their tasks. but are also as good as Trados. a computer stores translated segments for further use by the translator.translationzone. whereas in TM tools. Déjà vu. SDL Trados. The leading TM brands are MultiTrans.TM tools are useful with repetitive materials which use a large number of recursive. Don’t Confuse TM and MT Translation Memory (TM) tools should not be confused with machine translation (MT). IBM’s Translation Manager.net/projects/omegat/ Legal Translation 1 Page 37 . It is also surprising to know that so-called "only-Trados" projects can be handled by one of these free TMs known as Wordfast. . Star Transit. Wordfast. among others.TM systems are not worth the expenditure of money and time unless they have extensive memories to draw upon. You can give Trados a try before you decide to buy it by downloading its 30-day trial version available at http://www. and Trans Suite 2000. whereas MT tries to replace the translator.net/ Another free and easy-to-use TM tool is OmegaT.Arabic and Translation Studies Division XIV Translation Memory Tools Translation Memory (TM) is a technology that allows the user to store translated phrases or sentences in a special database for future re-use. a computer does the translation automatically.

net/About/key.systranbox. http://hazemazmy.net/cyberbabel. however.net 5. Good collection of dictionaries and glossaries http://www.html 2.A powerful search engine in several online general and specialized dictionoaries in English http://www.8m.expertwell. Multidisciplinary dictionary (English <>Arabic) http://www. Onelook . Like many sites of a similar nature. transliteration rules.uga.html 3.homestead. Arabic Directory. CyberBabel. compiled by Hazem Azmy.com/systran/box 10.htm 9.The best site for a huge list of Arabic e-books in all fields of life including old authentic references http://www.com 4. it is not meant to be exhaustive".mutarjim.edu/islam/Arabic. Arabic Classics . SYSTRAN – Translation Engine from and into Arabic http://www.com/ Legal Translation 1 Page 38 .onelok.arabicdictionaries.net/ 7.com/w2m14/ 11. Arabic Encyclopedia http://mawsoah. intended primarily to serve the needs of students and lovers of translation looking for websites related to the field.html 12.html 13.com/translation/Resources. A comprehensive site for Arabic sites including Arabic e-books.com/dictionaries.50webs. and links for interesting Arabic sites http://www.com/languages/arabic. is "a site in constant flux. A list of important links for glossaries and multilingual online dictionaries http://www.geocities.php 6.Arabic and Translation Studies Division XV Useful Links 1.alwaraq. Another excellent site with links to Arabic online books in all fields including ArabicArabic dictionaries and Arabic dictionary of proverbs http://www. A list of sites for the translation of the meanings of Qur'an as well as multilingual dictionaries and glossaries http://www.al-eman.iqra. The Arabic Alphabet and Its Transliteration http://www. with online Arabic dictionaries and links to Arabic newspapers from all over the Arab world http://language-directory.com/Islamlib/ 8.

Agricultural Terms from FAO (Multilingual.org/section/glossary/ 20.fao.asp 29.asp Legal Translation 1 Page 39 .Arabic included) http://translate. English <> Arabic Legal Dictionary http://muqtafi. Al Awal English <> Arabic Dictionary http://www.sakhr.com/basic/muagem.al-islam. World Bank Term Base (Multilingual.com/ 16.jo/Browse.cnie.asp?t=ARBIND 28.htm 26. Dictionary of Islamic Investment http://www. Glossary of Islamic Art (English) http://www.asp 17. Multilingual Dictionary http://www.Arabic and Translation Studies Division 14. Another English <> Arabic dictionary http://www.com/dictionary/ 21. Agricultural Terms (English<>Arabic) http://www.islamifn.org/nle/AgGlossary/AgGlossary.com/default.investopedia.org/aims/ag_intro.org/ambassador/ControlServlet?activityName=termviewer&TE RMBASEID=44 24.jsp?lang=AR 25.birzeit. Balqaa English <> Arabic Dictionary http://dictionary.aspx 19. Trading Glossary (English) http://www.edu. Dictionary of Islamic Terms (English <> Arabic) http://dictionary.org/faoterm/search/index.htm 22.microfinancegateway.Arabic included) http://www.net/Qamoos/ 18.htm 27.worldbank.it/language/translations_en.com/ 23.org/Glossary/glossary. Investment-related terms (English) http://www. Sakhr Dictionaries http://dictionary.grnaas.bau.com/alawwal.islamic-art.html 15. Accounting glossary (English >Arabic) http://arabic.al-awwal.trading-glossary. Agricultural Terms (English) http://www.edu/dictionary.logos.fao.

com/scripts/search.org. Another Medical Dictionary (English <> Arabic) http://www. High Tech and IT glossaries (English): http://www.html 40. Law Dictionary (English) http://dictionary.html 33.fao.com/script/main/hp.com/resources/dictionary/index.findlaw.asp?sid=1 35. Unified Medical Dictionary (English<>Arabic) http://www.org/dic. English <> Arabic Dictionary of Education http://www.computeruser.html 39.int/umd/ 38.com/dicta.who.emro.lp.org/fi/glossary/aquaculture/ Legal Translation 1 Page 40 . Arabic Academy Termbase (English Arabic) http://www.com/search.html 34. Psychology Terms (English<>Arabic) http://psychiatre-naboulsi.arabicacademy.pl?s=plea 31.htm#j 36.eg/search. Legal Glossaries (English) http://dictionary. English <> Arabic Psychology terms http://www.law.medterms.com/ 32.com/mojam.bdss.6abib.asp 37.filnafs.Arabic and Translation Studies Division 30. Medical Terms (English): http://www. Fishery Terms (English <> Arabic) http://www.

Amortization 2. find the following I) Quick definitions of: 1.Oncology 3.Tabula Rasa (theory) Legal Translation 1 Page 41 .Arabic and Translation Studies Division XVI More Exercises American and British English I Find the British equivalents of the following American words: American Apartment Argument Baby carriage Antenna Mad Thread Sick Peek Alumnus Zucchini Zipper Zee (z) Yard Analog Anesthesia II British Find what each of the following means in both American and British English: Word Asian Bathroom Homely Indian Mean Pissed Public school Smart Wash up Bomb American British III Using Google.

and then use Google to find articles written by: 1.com. d) When translating Cote d'Ivoire into Arabic.com. two nouns and two verbs that tend to collocate with "authority". which is more frequent ‫ كوت‬،‫ كوديفوار‬،‫كوت ديفوار‬ ‫?دى إيفوار‬ e) Who said: "Boots and Shoes are the greatest trouble of my life" And: ‫الشجاع من يخل من اليأس أمل‬ f) From Google home page. can you go directly to BBC news website. and an accepted Arabic translation.A List of Central Banks all over the world. J) The way ‫ رجب طيب أردوغان‬is spelled in English. Legal Translation 1 Page 42 . and then use Google to find articles written on Valentine's Day on this site.Ahmad Bahgat VIII) Make good use of Google to find the following: a) Verbs that collocate with "research" b) Adjectives that collocate with "memory" c) Definition of ADHD. and (3) Glossary of social studies terms.Salama Ahmad Salama 2. "referendum" and "law".No Easy Walk to Freedom Speech 2.A list of Egyptian Governorates IV) Find two adjectives. cite the page numbers in Sociological Perspectives on the New Genetics that include the words "history of genetics" h) Produce a list of 10 sites for each of the following: (1) Glossary of political terms. give full citation for a book that includes the following quotation "it is a very sad thing that nowadays there is so little useless information …" VII) Find the URL for Al.google.Arabic and Translation Studies Division II) Find information on the following: 1.Ahram Newspaper.google. I) The latest press release on US foreign policy. V) Find URL for Al-Ahram Weekly Newspaper. 2.The 9/11 address to the Nation III) Locate sites that help you find 1. VI) Using books. how? g) From books. (2) Glossary of economic terms.

9.S. CARE is a leading humanitarian organization fighting global poverty. UNESCO was founded on 16 November 1945. Legal Translation 1 Page 43 . CARE is a leading humanitarian organization f 2. ISBN 1-56563-206-0 is a standard reference for Biblical Hebrew. and standard of living for countries worldwide. 5. 11. The Forum for African Women Educationalists (FAWE) is a pan African Non Government Organization founded in 1992 to promote girls’ and women’s education in Sub-Saharan Africa in line with Education for All. ALIVE provides a formal home for the international community of educators who have been working with Living Values Education Program since it was developed in 1997.Arabic and Translation Studies Division IV Using your online research skills. agency to extend assistance to countries recovering from disaster. 7. trying to escape poverty. translate the following sentences providing the full English name and the Arabic translation of the abbreviations or acronyms: 1. According to the Law 4/1994 for the Protection of the Environment. USAID has been the principal U. REDEC works with businesses on projects that will have a positive impact on employment and broaden our communities’ tax base. The close working relationship with the MOE and the Integrated Care Society further benefits the Egyptian education system by training librarians and teachers to effectively use the new books and early reading materials. Created in 2004. the EEAA was restructured with the new mandate to substitute the institution initially established in 1982. HDI is a comparative measure of life expectancy. In conjunction with the NEAP. The ADEA prohibits employment discrimination against persons 40 years of age or older. 3. 10. 8. The BDB. 4. the year 2000/2001 has witnessed the development of a five-year action plan for MSEA and EEAA. 12. Since that time. literacy. 6. and engaging in democratic reforms. education.

‬وفةي ‪ 7‬نةوفمبر وصةل اللةورد دوفبرين إلةى القةاهر‬ ‫المسةتر الفريبد سبكاون بلنبت االيرلنةد‬ ‫ابب ورفاقب "‪ . In addition.‬‬ ‫‪Averroes wrote a series of commentaries on most of the works of‬‬ ‫‪Aristotle. al-Farabi. Galen.‬واألديب بهاء طاهر حصل على جوائز‬ ‫انشيسكو اليز‬ ‫ي تكريما لألديب اإليطالي فر‬ ‫كاليار‬ ‫ة‬ ‫‪ 4001‬عةةن مجمةةل نعمالةةه‪ ،‬كمةةا فةةازت روايتةةه “خببالتي صببفية والببدير” عةةام ‪ 4000‬بجةةائز‬ ‫جيوسبيبي تشبيربي اإليطاليةة بوصةفها نفضةل روايةة مترجمةة إلةى اإليطاليةةا ونةال عةن روايتةه‬ ‫اتها‪.‬‬ ‫‪Legal Translation 1‬‬ ‫‪Page 44‬‬ . Plato.‫‪Arabic and Translation Studies Division‬‬ ‫‪V Using general internet search engines or specialized websites give the proper spelling‬‬ ‫‪of the proper names in the following passages. Alexander of Aphrodisias.‬‬ ‫ة “الزياتور” اإليطاليةة عةن روايتةه “الحب فبي المنفب ”‬ ‫ي بهاء طاهر بجائز‬ ‫‪ -1‬فاز األديب المصر‬ ‫ة مةن نرفةج الجةوائز التةي تمنحهةا مدينةة‬ ‫بعةد نن ترجمتهةا اإليطاليةة بباوال فيفيباني‪ ،‬وتعةد الجةائز‬ ‫ة يونانيةة عةام‬ ‫ة الدولبة التقديريبة فةي مصةر عةام ‪ 1991‬وجةائز‬ ‫ة‪ ،‬منها جائز‬ ‫عربية ونجنبية كثير‬ ‫اتور‪ . in which he defended Aristotelian philosophy‬‬ ‫‪against Algazel's claims in The Incoherence of the Philosophers.‬وهنةاك نيضةا‬ ‫دافعنبا عبن عر‬ ‫اب باشا"‪. Document your sources. His‬‬ ‫‪book Decisive Treatise on the Agreement between Religious Law‬‬ ‫‪and Philosophy was and remains one of history's best defenses of the‬‬ ‫‪legitimate role of reason in a community of faith.Averroes’ most important philosophical work was The Incoherence‬‬ ‫‪of the Incoherence.‬‬ ‫‪Nicolaus of Damascus.‬‬ ‫ربيين سماه "عر‬ ‫به الع ا‬ ‫ابى ‪ ،‬وقد كتةب برودلب كتابةه الهةام‬ ‫اختار المستر" برودل "والمستر"نابير " للدفاع عن عر‬ ‫الةي يصة‬ ‫ي جون نيني اليي كتب كتابا يص‬ ‫الكاتب السويسر‬ ‫‪3. and Ptolemy.‬وكانةةت هنةةاك بعةةا العناصةةر األجنبيةةة التةةي سةةاندت الثةةور‬ ‫إلةةى جزيةر‬ ‫ار االحةت ل‬ ‫الجنسةية وهةو نحةد الةيين فضةحوا نسةر‬ ‫البريطةانى فةى كتابةه الشةهير " التباري السبر لالحبتالل البريطبان لمصبر" وهةو نيضةا الةي‬ ‫ربةى تحةت عنةوان " كيب‬ ‫محاكمةة ع ا‬ ‫ربةي بةةالنفي‬ ‫ة ليرتةب للحكةم علةى ع ا‬ ‫العباسةية‪ .‬‬ ‫ة العالمية للرواية العربية “بوكر العربية” في نولى دور‬ ‫ة “واحة الغرو ” الجائز‬ ‫األخير‬ ‫ابببي بتسةةليم نفسةةه إلةةى ثكنةةات‬ ‫ابيةةة فةةي عهةةد الخببديوي توفي ب بقيةةام أحمببد عر‬ ‫ة العر‬ ‫‪ -4‬انتهةةت الثةةور‬ ‫ابيةةة مثةةل‬ ‫ة العر‬ ‫ة سببيالن‪ .

1 "‫يبتسم‬ . add a brief footnote of not more than two lines. 1. If you choose to translate the allusion semantically. Sidon's most important deity is Eshmun. Resheph. the Phoenicians worshipped Baal-Zephon. The principal goddess of Byblos was Baalat Gebal. 5. If you choose to translate the allusion semantically. Dagon. Some believe that his Icarus-like fall was of his own doing. and Aegean religions. His mate was Astarte.4 . find the meaning of the following Arabic cultural allusions as they appear in the contexts provided. Syrian. Mesopotamian. Legal Translation 1 Page 45 . Each Phoenician city had its chief god. find the meaning of the following English cultural allusions as they appear in the contexts provided. ‫ة فببال تظبنن ان الليببة‬ ‫أيببت نيببو الليببة بببارز‬ ‫ دائمةا مةةا يةيكرنا المجتمةةج الةةدولى بقةول الشةةاعر "اذا ر‬. he seems to have learned that after hubris comes nemesis Tony Blair met his Waterloo in Iraq.All the evidence indicates that the Phoenician Religion was rooted in the ancient Canaanite cult and influenced by Egyptian. ‫ة اعتقةال بحة الةرئي‬ ‫ها مةيكر‬ ‫ة ( المحكمةة الجنائيةة الدوليةة) قبول كبل خطيب بإصةدر‬ ‫ قطعبت جهيبز‬. and check your translation in the search engine Google. In addition. and check your translation in the search engine Google. Would an enlarged Security Council help President Obama cut the Gordian knot in the Middle East? 2. The political response to climate change could be likened to "fiddling while Rome burns" In the past few years. The chief deity of Tyre was Melqart. If the international community allowed a partition of Kosovo it would open a Pandora’s Box.‫ ويكون المسئولون أفصح من سحبان عندما يتقايفون المسئولية فيما بينهم‬. 4.2 3. provide your proposed translation. provide your proposed translation.‫ة‬ ‫السوداني عمر البشير في نول سابقة وصفت بالخطير‬ VII Using your online research skills.Arabic and Translation Studies Division 4. (From The Biblical World by John Barton) VI Using your online research skills. probably a fertility goddess. and others. add a brief footnote of not more than two lines. Adonis.

‫‪6. and enter negotiations‬‬ ‫‪"If the financial crisis had to happen.‬ونشر السالم والخير بين الناس ‪.‬‬ ‫دورنا كرجال دين ان ننشر الخير على االرض وتوجيه التدين الى تحقيق الصالح العام وحل المشكالت‬ ‫االجتماعية والبيئية والتنموية‪ .‬وتكون النتيجة ان نتعاون جميعا معا‪ . It was a Sisyphean task fit for Herculean policymakers. Economists consider him a talented young businessman with the Midas touch.‬‬ ‫نص كلمة قداسة البابا شنوده الثالث في لقاء الحوار المسيحي ‪ -‬اإلسالمي في الدوحة بتاريخ األحد ‪ 27‬حزيران‬ ‫‪:2115‬‬ ‫بسم اإلله الواحد الذي نعبده جميعا‪.‬والحوار فيه التعليم االسالمي "اد ُ‬ ‫الحسنة وجادلهم بالتي هي احسن‪ ".‬وكلنا نعبد هللا‪ .‬فالتعارف هو فضيلة كبرى ان يعرف كل م ّ‬ ‫نا اآلخر‪ . Politician.‬‬ ‫‪9. now was the right time.‬‬ ‫‪VIII Attempt a research-based translation of the underlined phrases drawn from‬‬ ‫‪Qur'anic (Arabic – English) and Biblical sources (English – Arabic).‬‬ ‫احييكم جميعا‬ ‫نشكركم على كرم وحفاوة استقبالكم لنا وعلى هذه الفرصة للحوار االسالمي – المسيحي تجمعنا فيه قومية واحدة‬ ‫هي القومية العربية ولغة واحدة‪ ،‬وايمان بآله واحد وتجمعنا في هذا الحوار ايضا مصالح مشتركة ومصير واحد‬ ‫وقيم واخالقيات واحدة‪.‬بقي ان نعمل معا‪.‬‬ ‫كلنا متدينون‪ .‬‬ ‫‪8.‬المسلم متدين والمسيحي متدين‪ .‬‬ ‫‪10.‬‬ ‫‪Barack Obama is not Africa's prodigal son.‬‬ ‫بالحوار يمكن لكل منا ان يفهم اآلخر‪ ،‬وان يكتشف الخير الذي فيه‪ ،‬ويحب الخير الذي فيه‪ .‬وبالحوار يمكن‬ ‫‪Legal Translation 1‬‬ ‫‪Page 46‬‬ .‬بالحوار تلتقي العقول واالفكار ويمكن‬ ‫ع الى سبيل ربك بالحكمة والموعظة‬ ‫تصحيح اية صورة مغلوطة او خاطئة‪ .‬فلنقترب من بعضنا البعض‪ ،‬ولنذكر في كل هذا‬ ‫ما ورد في سورة الحجرات "إنا خلقناكم من ذكر وانثى وجعلناكم شعوبا وقبائل لتعارفوا ان اكرمكم عند هللا‬ ‫اتقاكم‪ ". If Armageddon was to strike.‬‬ ‫‪Now. he is an American.‬‬ ‫‪11.‬‬ ‫‪Arabic and Translation Studies Division‬‬ ‫‪Good Samaritans could be shielded from lawsuits when they come to‬‬ ‫‪someone's aid in California under a bill adopted by the state Assembly.‬واذا تعارفنا مع بعضنا البعض فسوف نتقارب‬ ‫ونتفاهم ويطمئن كل م ّ‬ ‫نا الى أخيه‪ . it could not have happened for Egypt at a‬‬ ‫"‪better time.‬الحوار ليس صراعا بين االديان والحضارات انما هو تعاون بين الكل‪.‬وكلنا نحب الفضيلة والخير‪ . the question is: Are both Iran and the United States willing to bite the‬‬ ‫?‪bullet.‬‬ ‫ليس هو مناظرات عقائدية انما هو التفات نحو القيم الروحية المشتركة‪.‬‬ ‫‪7. and document‬‬ ‫‪your source of information.

‬مرتبـطة بالقـانــون ايــضا‪ .‬وفي سفر االمثال لسليمان الحكيم "رابح النفوس حكيم"‪ .‬‬ ‫مرتبطة بالنظام العام‪ .‬مرتبطة بوصايا هللا‪.‬‬ ‫نشكركم على هذا المؤتمر‪ ،‬ونرجو ان يعيش كلنا فاي ساالم ماع بعضانا الابعض‪ .‬والدين‬ ‫النفضوا من حولك‪ ".‬فال يستطيع انسان ان يدعى‬ ‫الحرية‪ ،‬وهو يعتدي على حريات اآلخرين‪ ،‬او على حقوقهم‪ .‬والحرية الدينية هي حرية في العقيدة‪ ،‬وحرية‬ ‫ايضا في السلوكيات‪ .‬على ان المبدأ االساسي في الحوار‪ ،‬ان تحاور االنسان لكي تربحه ال‬ ‫لكي تهزمه‪ .‬ونحـــن نريد هذه الحرية الدينية المنضبطة‪ .‬فاالنسان الذي يعيش في الخطيئة ويعصى هللا يفقد سالمه مع هللا‪ ،‬ويفقد سالم ضميره‪ ،‬ويفقد راحة‬ ‫قلبه‪.‬‬ ‫‪Legal Translation 1‬‬ ‫‪Page 47‬‬ .‬لقد ترك هللا الناس احرارا‪ ،‬حتى في االوقات التي‬ ‫انحرف فيها البعض الى انكار هللا او الى رفضه‪.‬ومع الذين ال ناموس "اي بال شريعة" لكي اربح الذين بال ناموس‪ .‬فالحرية مرتبطة باالنضباط ‪.‬لذلك نرى بولس الرسول يقول‪" :‬كنت مع اليهودي كيهودي لكي اربح اليهودي‪ .‬فاختر الحياة لكي تحيا‪ ".‬يمكن ان نعمل معا في نشر الفضيلة والبر ومقاومة الرذيلة‪ .‬ومع الحرية اوجد هللا الوحي‪ ،‬واوجد‬ ‫الوصايا‪ ،‬واوجد النعمة التي تسند االنسان في جهاده الروحي‪ .‬‬ ‫فالحوار هو مفتاح تفتح به القلوب واالفهام‪ .‬هنا ترى ان هناك‬ ‫دعا الى السماحة في الحوار‪ .‬حرية يربطنا فيه الحب وااليمان‪ .‬فاهلل‬ ‫تبارك اسمه‪ ،‬خلق االنسان حرا منذ البدء‪ .‬في االسالم "لو كنت فظا غليظ القلب‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫مساحة واسعة بيننا يمكن ان نعمل فيها‪ .‬فالحرية الدينية هي عالقة بين االنسان‬ ‫وهللا‪ .‬ولكن ينبغي في السلواكيات ان تكون الحرية منضبطة‪ .‬نحب بعضنا البعض‪.‬حيث يقول الكتاب‪" :‬ال سالم قال الرب‬ ‫لالشرار" ‪ .‬نتعااون فاي نشار الخيار ونارتبط‬ ‫باستمرار مع بعضنا البعض برباط الحب والسالم‪.‬عالقة يحكمها الضمير‪ ،‬وعالقــة تتــعلق بالقلب من الداخل‪ .‫‪Arabic and Translation Studies Division‬‬ ‫التعرف على نقاط التواصل ونقاط التالقي‪ .‬وعملنا كرجال‬ ‫دين هو ان نشرح الخير للناس لمنعهم عن الشر‪ ،‬دون ان نرغم احدا‪ .‬فاهلل يريد لقلب االنسان ان يكون قلبا طاهرا‪ .‬ومع اليوناني‬ ‫كيوناني لكي اربح ا ليوناني‪ .‬وهللا يخاطب موسى النبي في "سفر التثنية" فيقول هللا "قد جعلت امامك الحياة‪،‬‬ ‫والموت امامك‪ ،‬البركة والنعمة‪ .‬‬ ‫والسالم سالم مع هللا‪ ،‬وسالم مع الناس‪ ،‬وسالم داخل النفس مع الضمير‪ .‬فالكتاب المقدس يقول "يا ابني" أعطــني‬ ‫قلبك ولتالحظ عيناك طرقي"‪ .‬‬ ‫ولكن مع الحرية الدينية‪ ،‬توجد المسؤولية‪ ،‬ويوجد الثواب والعقاب‪ .‬اننا نريد ان نعيش احرارا مع هللا‪ .‬ويمكن ان‬ ‫نعمل معا في قضايا وطنية كثيرة‪ .‬وكل خير يأتي عن طريق االرغام ال‬ ‫اجر له على االطالق‪ .‬وعن طريق الحرية امكن ان يخطىء االنسان‬ ‫وامكن ان يخطىء مالك‪ .‬ويمكن ان ندعو الى االيمان‪ ،‬اما عن حرية الدين او الحرية الدينية‪ .‬وخلق المالئكة احرارا‪ .‬كنت مع الكل‬ ‫كل شيء لكي اربح على كل حال قوم‪".

paying special attention to the translation of‬‬ ‫‪proper nouns whether names of people or committees.‬وفي الرابع عشر من فبراير عام ‪ ،2113‬رفع بلايكس‬ ‫تقرياارا لمجلااس األماان يؤكااد فيااه تعاااون العااراق مااع لجنااة المراقبااة قااائال "إن العااراق ماان واقااع التجربااة قااد قاارر‬ ‫التعاون مع اللجنة والسماح بتفتيش كل المواقع المطلوبة بما في ذلك المواقع التي لم يسبق تفتيشها وكذلك المواقاع‬ ‫الرئاسية‪ ".‬وفي اعتقاد بليكس أنه كان أمام الدول الراغبة في اتخاذ اجراء مسلح ضاد العاراق فاي ربياع ‪2113‬‬ ‫خيار أخر‪ ،‬أال وهو األخذ بعين االعتبار الطلب الذي قدمه مجلس األمن للسماح لهم بالمزيد مان الوقات للتفتايش‪".‬وأضاف أنه "لم يتم العثور على أية أسلحة دمار شامل‪ ،‬ماعدا القليال مان ذخيارة اسالحة كيمائياة خالياة‬ ‫كان ينبغي االعالن عنها والقضاء عليها‪".1997-1911‬وفاي أثنااء أزماة نازع‬ ‫سالح العراق قبيل غزو العراق عام ‪ ،2113‬قام كوفي عنان أمين عام األمام المتحادة بتعياين بلايكس رئايس لجناة‬ ‫الرصد والتحقق والتفتيش في العراق التابعة لألمم المتحدة‪ .‫‪Arabic and Translation Studies Division‬‬ ‫‪IX Translate the following into English.‬‬ ‫وكان الثمن "افتقار الحرب للمشروعية‪ ،‬وتدميرمصداقية الحكومات المشاركة في الحرب‪ ،‬وكاذلك تقاويض سالطة‬ ‫األمم المتحدة‪".‬‬ ‫في عام ‪ 2113‬قام بليكس بنشر كتابا أسماه "نزع سالح العراق" يدين فيه الحارب علاى العاراق ويؤكاد أن األدلاة‬ ‫التي أعانها كال من نائب الرئيس األمريكي ديك تشيني ووزير خارجيته كولن باول هاي أدلاة غيار كافياة‪ . as well as to direct quotes cited.‬‬ ‫‪Mention the internet sites you resorted to in order to authenticate your translation.‬‬ ‫كان هانز بلايكس رئايس الوكالاة الدولياة للطاقاة الذرياة فاي الفتارة ماا باين ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪Research the book mentioned in the AUC online catalogue and give its full citation.‬ويقاول‬ ‫فاااي كتاباااه "إن االزدراء الاااذي أباااداه كالهماااا للتفتااايش الااادولي أدى فاااي الواقاااع إلاااى حرمانهماااا مااان مصااادر قااايم‬ ‫للمعلومات"‪ .‬‬ ‫‪Legal Translation 1‬‬ ‫‪Page 48‬‬ .

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