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tem*gwu

f kd vk,zl suq
f ;D jcif;

&k&Sm;EdkifiHrS yHhydk;xm;onfh owWKrdkif;pDrHudef;rsm;u &Srf;jynfe,f&Sd
ytdk0f;jynfolrsm; &yfwnf&Sifoefa&;udk +cdrf;ajcmufaejcif;?

ytkd0f;vli,ftpnf;t&Hk; rS
2009 ckEpS /f ZGevf wGif xkwaf 0onf?
qufo, G &f ef? pyohq@yahoo.com
ytdk0f;vli,ftpnf;t&Hk; (PYO)
ytd0k ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k (PYO) onf 1998 ckEpS /f 'DZifbmv 4 &ufae@wiG f jrefrmEdik if /H ytd0k ;f a'o toD;oD;&Sd
&[ef; oHCmrsm;/ trsK;d orD;rsm;/ vli,frsm;ESihf zG@J pnf;cJyh gonf? ytd0k ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k (PYO)onf jrefrmEdik if H
ausmif;om;vli,frsm; uGe*f &uf (SYCB) ESihf wdik ;f &if;om; vli,frsm;qH&k yftzG@J (NY Forum) wd@k . tzG@J 0if
tzGJ@tpnf; wckvnf; jzpfygonf? ‚if;onf t=urf;rzufa&;vrf;pOfudk udkifpGJonfh oD;jcm;vGwfvyfaom
vli,ftzGJ@tpnf;wck jzpf+yD;/ jrefrmEdkifiHwGif +idrf;csrf;a&;/ w&m;r#wa&;/ 'Drdkua&pD tcGifhta&;rsm;twGuf
v_yf&Sm;aqmif&Gufaeyg onf?

ytdk0f;vli,ftpnf;t&Hk; (PYO) . OD;wnfcsufrsm;rSm-
(1) +idr;f csr;f a&;ESihf w&m;r#wa&;rlrsm;udk tajccHonfh vlabmifopfw&yf ay:xGe;f vmap&ef?
(2) ytdk0f;vli,frsm;udk t&nftaoG;pGrf;tm;jr‡ifhwifay;&ef/ ytdk0f;jynfolrsm;t=um; ydkI pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfr_
&Sv
d map&efEiS hf vli,frsK;d qufrsm;udk tem*wfacgi;f aqmifrsm; jzpfvmapa&;twGuf ysK;d axmifay;&ef?

ytdk0f;vli,ftpnf;t&Hk; (PYO) . t"du &nf&G,fcsufrsm;rSm-
(1) ytd0k ;f vlrsK;d rsm;. pmayESihf ,Ofaus;r_ukd jr‡iw
hf if&ef?
(2) ytdk0f;a'o&Sd vli,fxkrsm;onf udk,fydkift&nftaoG;jzifh zefwD;Edkifr_pGrf;tm; ydkrdkjr‡ifhrm;vmap&ef?
(3) ytd0k ;f a'o&Sd jynforl sm;onf vl@tcGit
hf a&;/ obm0ywf0ef;usif xde;f odr;f apmifah &Smufa&; ynm&yfrsm;udk
ydkrdkod&Sdvmap&ef?
(4) wef;wlnDr#I udk,fydkifjyXmef;cGifh&Sdaom zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpkudk jrefrmEdkifiHwGif wnfaqmufEdkif&ef
wdk@jzpfygonf?

,ck tpD&ifcpH mtwGuf &efyakH iGyyhH ;kd =uolrsm;
• ',fe&D ,f uvmhcf trSww
f & &efyakH iGtzG@J (Daniel Clark Memorial Fund-- DCMF)
• jrefrmEdik if H ulnaD xmufyahH &;tzG@J (Burma Relief Center --BRC)
• rJacgif oifwef;qif;rsm;. tpDtpOf (ERI- Mekong Alumni Program)

a&S@rsuEf mS zH;k ? ? (txuf) yif;yufawmifEiS hf ywf0ef;usiaf 'o&_cif; (2007 ckEpS /f 'DZifbmv)
(atmuf) aqmufvyk q
f J yif;yufo&H nfóudpuf&kH (2009 ckEpS /f azaz:0g&v
D )

aemufausmzH;k ? ? pyg;&dwo
f rd ;f +yD; v,form;rsm; pyg;avS@ae=upOf? (2007 ckEpS /f 'DZifbmvwGif &du
k u
f ;l onf?)

tmem*gwf u d k vk , l z suf q D ; jcif ;
rmwd u m
jrefrmEdik if H ajryHEk iS hf pDru
H ed ;f a'o ajryHk
tpD&ifcpH m tusO;f csKyf ----------------------------------------------- 1
ed'ge;f ----------------------------------------------------------- 4
aqmif&u
G af om enf;pepf --------------------------------------------- 6

tydkif; (1)? pDrHudef;rsm;ta=umif;
taxGaxG aemufco H rdik ;f ------------------------------------ 7
owWKwGi;f wl;azmfjcif;qdik &f m ordik ;f ----------------------------- 8
a'ocH jynforl sm; tajctaeESihf toufarG;0rf;a=umif;vkyif ef;rsm; ------ 9
pDruH ed ;f . ajryHk ------------------------------------------- 11
pDru
H ed ;f . u¾rsm; ---------------------------------------- 12
yif;yuf owWKrdik ;f -------------------------------------- 12
yif;yuf oH&ikd ;f puf&kH ------------------------------------ 13
yif;yuf bdvyfajrpuf&kH ---------------------------------- 18
,la&eD,H xkw, f rl nf[k oHo,&Szd ,G f tajctaersm; ------------- 19
pDru H ed ;f a'oY jrefrmppfwyfw;kd cs@J csxm;r_rsm; ---------------------- 20
yg0ifywfoufaom ukr% ` rD sm; -------------------------------- 21

tydkif; (2)? a'ocHjynfolrsm;tay: qdk;usKd;oufa&mufr_rsm;
T"rRajymif;a&$@ae&mcsxm;jcif;ESihf td;k tdrrf &hJ r_rsm; ------------------ 25
ajr,mrsm; odr;f qnf;jcif;ESihf ydik q f ikd rf _ ypPn;f rsm; zsuq
f ;D cH&jcif; --------- 27
oufarG;0rf;a=umif; vkyif ef;rsm; qH;k &_;H &jcif; ----------------------- 32
c&D;oGm;vmcGihf uef@owfrr_ sm; -------------------------------- 34
trsK;d orD;rsm; tE &W m,fruif; jzpfvm&jcif; ----------------------- 35
pm;eyf&u d mQ vHòk cHa&;ESihf avmifpm rvHak vmufrr_ sm; ------------------ 36
,Ofaus;r_rsm; zsuq f ;D cH&jcif; --------------------------------- 38
obm0ywf0ef;usif xdcu kd yf supf ;D &r_rsm; -------------------------- 40
&yf&mG rS wifjycsurf sm;udk vspv f sL&_xm;jcif; ----------------------- 44
ed*;kH ESihf t}uHðycsurf sm; ------------------------------------------------ 46
aemufqufwGJrsm; --------------------------------------------- 52
jrefrmEdkifiH ajryHk

tmem*gwf u d k vk , l z suf q D ; jcif ;
tpD&ifcHpm tusOf;csKyf
yif;yufawmif ac: xif;&_;awmifonf jynfwGif;ppfrD;a=umifh twd'kuQcHpm;ae=u&onhf
jrefrmEdkifiH/ &Srf;jynfe,fawmifydkif;wGif wnf&Sd+yD;/ ,cktcg jrefrmEdkifiH. 'kwd,t}uD;qHk;
oH&dkif;odkuf}uD;udk wl;azmfxkwfvkyf&ef jyifqifaqmif&Gufaeonfh ae&mjzpf&m/ ‚if;a'o&Sd
vltrsm;. b0rsm;udk vHk;0ajymif;vJoGm;apawmhrnf jzpfonf? tu,fI TpDrHudef;udk
r&yfqikd ;f bJ qufvufvyk af qmifrnfqykd gu ytd0k ;f jynfot
l rsm;pk aexdik af om vlaygi;f 7˜000
ausmf tajccsaexdkif&m tdk;tdrfrsm;vnf; xm0& zsufqD;cH&awmhrnf jzpfygonf?

2004 ckEpS rf S pwifI &k&mS ;ESihf jrefrmukr%` rD sm;onf ‚if;owWKodu k u
f kd wl;azmf&ef jyifqifaecJh
=uygonf? ,cktcg oH&ikd ;f oef@pifpuf&w kH ckEiS hf bdvyfajrpuf&w
kH ckukd pkpak ygi;f ajr{u 11˜000
ay:wGif pwifwnfaqmufae=u+yD jzpfonf? ,if;pDrHudef;wGif tDwvDEkdifiHrS ukr`%Drsm;vnf;
yg0ifywfoufr_&Sdonf[kvnf; ,lq&ygonf?

1991 ckESpfrS pwifI Ta'owGif wdkif;&if;om;vufeufudkif tiftm;pkrsm;ESifh typftcwf
&yfpJa&; oabmwlnDcsuf &,lEdkifchJ=uaomfvnf; jrefrmppfwyfu wyf&if; 3-ckudk xyfrHwnf
aqmuf csxm;cJ+h yD;/ awmif}uD;ESihf [dyk ek ;f òrd@ teD;w0du k w
f iG f ppfwyfEiS hf oufqikd o f nfh wuUov
kd f
2-ckuv kd nf; wnfaqmufcyhJ gonf? r=umao;cifY owWKwl;az:rnfph rD u H ed ;f a'o. awmifbuf
wGif wku d yf jJG zpfymG ;cJrh a_ =umifh jrefrmppfwyfrS rsm;pGmaom&Gmom;rsm;udk zrf;qD;ESyd pf uf owfjzwf
cJhonf?

TpDrHudef;rsm;a=umifh vlaygif; 7˜000 ausmfaexdkifonfh aus;&Gm 25-ckonfvnf; ‚if;wdk@.
aetdrfrsm;ESihf v,f,majrrS xm0&z,f&Sm;ay;&vdrfhrnfjzpfonf? aemufxyf awmif.ta&S@
zufjcrf;&Sd wzufacsmif; a&xGuaf 'orsm;udk rScD akd exdik =f uonfh jynfoal ygi;f 35˜000 cef@&o
dS nf?

vlaygif; 50 cef@udk twif;t"rR a&$@ajymif;jcif;cHcJh&+yD;/ vHkavmufaom avsmfa=u;rsm;vnf;
ay;aqmifcjhJ cif; r&Syd g? oufarG;0rf;a=umif;r_twGuf ta&;ygvaS om pdu k yf sK;d ajrrsm;udk odr;f ,ljcif;
rsm;vnf; jzpfay:ae+yD jzpfonf? tdraf xmifpak ygi;f 100 cef@rmS olw@kd t"du &Sio f efa&;twGuf
rScD akd e=u&onfh vkyif ef;rsm;vnf; r&Sb d J jzpfuek =f uonf? t"duvrf;rrsm;udk ydwq f @kd vu
kd af om
a=umifh c&D;oGm;vma&; tuef@towfrsm; &Sv k nf; awmxJY xif;&Sm&ef/
d m+yD;/ &Gmom;rsm;udv
tpm;tpm &SmazG&ef/ tdrftrdk;twGuf zufrsm; &SmazG&efudpPrsm; csKyfcs,fuef@owfcHae&+yD
jzpfonf?

1
,ckprD u H ed ;f t& yif;yufawmif wckv;kH udk wl;azmfxw k v
f yk =f urnf jzpfonf? od@k jzpf&m ajrrsuEf mS
oGijf yifEiS hf Ta'o. obm0ywf0ef;usiv f nf; vH;k 0ajymif;vJomG ;&awmhrnf jzpfygonf? rdik ;f rS
pGef@ypfvmonfh tnpfta=u;rsm;/ ajrwl;&mrS jzpfvmonfh ajrqDwdkufpm;r_rsm;a=umifh
[kyd ek ;f vGijf yifao'rS a&t&if;tjrpfrsm;twGuv f nf; +cdr;f ajcmufr_ óuH&zG,f &Syd gonf? rdik ;f rsm;
cGJ&mrS jzpfvmaom wkefcgr_a=umifh a&S;a[mif;bk&m;apwDrsm;vnf; uGJtufcJh&+yD;/ aemufydkif;
qufvufwnfaqmufrnfh vkyif ef;rsm;ESihf owWKwGi;f wl;azmfa&;vkyif ef;rsm;a=umifh òzdzsucf &H zG,f
vnf; &Sad eygonf?

TpDru H ed ;f tpDtpOfEiS hf ywfoufI a'ocHjynforl sm;ESihf wdik yf ift}uH^m%f &,lcjhJ cif;/ oabm
qENawmif;cHcJhjcif; tvsOf;r&Sdyg? ajr,mrsm; odrf;qnf;cH&r_a=umifh &yf&Gmtm%mydkifrsm;xH
wdkif=um;r_rsm;/ avsmfa=u;r&aoma=umifh wdkif=um;r_rsm;udkvnf; ta&;w,l ajz&Sif;ay;jcif;
r&Syd g? jzpfvmEdik o
f nfh tusK;d qufrsm;tay: tuJjzwfppfaq;jcif; r&So d uJo h @kd tpd;k &ESihf owWKwGi;f
tm%mydkifrsm;u vufeufudkif wyfzGJ@rsm;/ a'o&Sd vufeufudkifjynfol@ppf wyfzGJ@rsm;udkoHk;I
rdom;pkrsm;udk t"rRajymif;a&$@ae&mcsxm;jcif;/ ajr,modr;f ydu k jf cif;/ c&D;oGm;vmcGirhf sm; uef@owf
jcif;wd@k ukd twif;tusyf vkyaf qmifae+yD;/ a'ocHjynforl sm;udv k nf; +cdr;f ajcmufv#uf &Sad eygonf?

owif;tcsut f vufrsm; rod=u&onft h jyif ,ckowWKrkid ;f onf oH&ikd ;f odu
k Ef iS hf xH;k ausmufrsm;
wl;azmfxkwf,l&efom r[kwf/ ,la&eD,Hj'Afpif wl;azmf&efESifh xkwfvkyf&eftwGuf[lI cef@rSef;
ajymqdrk r_ sm;vnf; jzpfay:aeygonf? 2007 ckEpS uf jrefrmppftpd;k &u &k&mS ;Edik if H tultnDjzifh
t%kjrLoef@pifpuf&Hkwck EdkifiHtwGif; wnfaqmufrnf[laom owif;rsm;vnf; xGufay:cJh&m
jynfolrsm;rSm ydkI pdk;&drfpdwf}uD;ae=u&ygonf?

TpDrHudef;rsm;wGif yg0ifywfouf=uaom ukr`%Drsm;u vkyfief;rsm; csufcsif;&yfqdkif;I TpDrH
ude;f . obm0ywf0ef;usiq f ikd &f m xdcu kd ef pfemysupf ;D zG,f ta=umif;rsm;/ vlra_ &; qd;k usK;d ouf
a&mufEdkifr_rsm;udk pepfwusESifh yGifhvif;jrifomr_&SdpGm tuJjzwf ppfaq;csufrsm; yxrOD;qHk;
ðyvkyo f ifyh gonf? td;k tdr/f ajr,mrsm; qH;k &_;H cJ=h u&onfh rdom;pkrsm; twGuv f nf; vHak vmufonfh
avsmaf =u;rsm; ay;aqmif&ef vdt k yf+yD;/ vltrsm; pd;k &drpf w d rf sm; yaysmufap&eftwGuf ,la&eD,H
owWK wl;azmfrnfqdkv#if/ t%kjrLESifh ywfoufonfhpuf&Hkrsm; wnfaqmufrnfqdkv#if vlod
&Si=f um; xkwjf yefa=unmI aqmif&u G o f ifyh gonf? TuJo h @dk aom vkyif ef;rsm;udk ppftm%mjzifh
t"rRaqmif&Gufjcif;rsKd; rjzpfapoifhyg?

2 tem*wfudk vk,lzsufqD;jcif;
ytd0k ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k (PYO) onf &yf&mG jynforl sm;ESit hf wl olw@kd . toufarG;0rf;a=umif;
udpPrsm;udk umuG,fay;&ef/ ajr,mydkifqdkifr_/ ,Ofaus;r_ tarGtESpfrsm; umuG,fay;Edkif&ef
H um tiftm;pkrsm;od@k yif;yufprD u
&yfwnf+yD;/ a'oqdik &f mESihf Edik if w H ed ;f ESihf ywfoufI jyefvnf
ppfaq;r_ðy&ef awmif;qdkygonf? olwdk@. tiftm;/ =oZmudkoHk;I xdcdkufepfem cHpm;&rnfh
jynforl sm;. tcGithf a&;udk av;pm;vm=uap&ef wwfEikd o f nfzh ufrS 0dik ;f 0ef;aqmif&u
G =f uyg&ef
awmif;qdkygonf?

yif;yufawmifta-umif;
yif;yufawmifonf rlvu ytd0k ;f bmomjzifh “yifi”kd [k ac:ygonf? t"dyg` ,rf mS xif;&_;yifrsm;.
t&dyftm0go[k qdkvdkygonf? c&D;oGm;rsm;twGuf avmif;&dyfem;cdk&may;rnfh xif;&_;yifrsm;
[kvnf; qdkEdkifygonf? “yif;yuf”rSm ,cktcg awmifudk ac:qdkae=uonfh trnfjzpfygonf?
&Sr;f bmomjzifh “yefygu”f [k toHxu G +f yD; xif;&_;awm[k t"dyg` ,f &ygonf? yif;yuf[o l nfh
ae&mudk (Pengpek, Pangpet, Pinngo) pojzifv h nf; a&;om;azmfjy=u onfukd awG@Eikd yf gonf?
od@k aomfvnf; ,ck tpD&ifcpH mwGif yif;yuf (Pinpet) [kom oH;k pGaJ zmfjyoGm;rnf jzpfygonf?

3
ed'gef;

2004 ckEpS w f iG f ytd0k ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k (PYO) u rdrw d @kd a'ocHjynforl sm;xHrS oHowWK&dik ;f
wl;azmfrnfh vkyfief;rsm;/ yif;yufawmifY puf&Hkrsm; wnfaqmufrnfhta&;ESifh ywfoufI
pdk;&drfylyef azmfjyoHrsm;udk =um;vmcJh&ygonf? Tawmifonf ytdk0f;vlrsKd;rsm; txGÉftjrwf
xm;&m awmifjzpf+yD;/ &Sr;f jynfe,f. òrd@awmf awmif}uD;ESihf 7 rdik rf #om a0;uGmaomae&mwGif
wnf&ydS gonf? aemufyikd ;f ESprf sm;wGif &Gmom;rsm;u ydI k xl;jcm;csurf sm;udk jrifawG@vm&ygonf?
jrefrmEdkifiH tv,fydkif;rS tvkyform;rsm; 0ifa&muftajccsvmjcif;/ xdyfydkif; ppfAdkvfcsKyfrsm;ESifh
twl &k&mS ;vlrsK;d rsm; a&muf&v dS mjcif;/ ,ckawmifwiG f ,la&eD,o H u kd f &Sad eonf[al om aumvm
[vrsm;/ ponfwdk@udk =um;od awG@&SdcJh&ygonf? ppfwyfu tkyfcsKyfxm;aom jrefrmEdkifiHwGif
tjcm;aom udprP sm;enf;wl ,ckprD u H ed ;f ESihf ywfoufI vlo&d iS =f um; owif;rsm;rSmvnf; &&S&d ef
vGefpGmcufcJygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh ytdk0f;vli,ftpnf;t&Hk; (PYO) u ,ckpDrHudef;ESifh
eD;pyfonfha'orsm;wGif 3-ESpf=um okawoevkyfief;rsm; aqmif&GufcJhygonf? ytkd0f;vli,f
tpnf;t&H;k (PYO) rS awG@&&dS onfh ywf0ef;usi&f dS tusK;d qufjy\emrsm;/ jzpfay:vmEdik o f nfh
tE &W m,frsm;udk pkaqmif;cJo h nf? ,cktpD&ifcpH monf Tod@k okawoeðy aqmif&u G x
f m;csurf S
ay:xGufvmonfh &v'fyif jzpfygonf?

puf&kH 2-ck wnfaqmufv#uf &S+d yD;/ wckrmS oH&ikd ;f udk oef@pifrnfh puf&jkH zpfonf? tjcm; puf&w kH ck
rSm bdvyfajr xkwv f yk rf nfh puf&jkH zpfygonf? puf&rkH sm;+yD;oGm;ygu wl;azmfa&;vkyif ef;rsm;vnf;
pwifvrd rhf nfjzpf+yD;/ awmifwckv;kH ukeo f mG ;onftxd wl;azmfxw k v
f yk =f urnf jzpfonf? awmif
ajcwGif aexdik =f uol jynfol 7˜000 ausmrf mS Ta'orS xm0&xGucf mG ajymif;a&$@omG ;=u&rnfh
ta&; &Sdae+yD;/ usefa&xGufa'orsm;wGif aexdkifol 35˜000 rSm obm0ywf0ef;usif ysufpD;r_
qd;k usK;d rsm;ESihf &ifqikd óf uHawG@=u&zG,f &Syd gonf? pwifaqmif&u G af e+yDjzpfaom vkyif ef;rsm;a=umifh
a&$@ajymif;ae&mcsxm;r_rsm;/ ajr,modr;f ydu k rf r_ sm;/ toufarG;0rf;a=umif; vkyif ef;rsm; qH;k &_;H &jcif;/
obm0t&if;tjrpfrsm; qH;k &_;H &jcif;wd@k ukd &mESichf saD om rdom;pkrsm; pwifóuHawG@ae&+yD jzpfygonf?
tu,fI pDru H ed ;f udo
k m a&S@qufaqmif&u G yf gu ydIk qd;k &Gm;aom jy\emrsm;jzpfonfh ywf0ef;
usin f pfnrf;r_rsm;/ tpm;taomuf rzlvjkH zpf&r_rsm;/ ajr,mrsm; wd;k I qH;k &_;H ysupf ;D &jcif;/ tdrrf sm;
qH;k &_;H &jcif;/ ,Ofaus;r_ tarGtESprf sm; qH;k &_;H &jcif;rsm; óuHawG@cHpm;=u&rnf jzpfonf? odk@aomf
vnf; ,ckwdkif a'ocHjynfolrsm;udk wav;wpm; today;ta=umif;=um;jcif; r&Sdao;ovdk/
pDrHudef;ESifh ywfoufI qHk;jzwfcsufrsm; csrSwf&mwGifvnf; jynfolrsm;udk,fwdkifudk,fus yg0if

4 tem*wfudk vk,lzsufqD;jcif;
aqmif&GufcGifh r&Sdao;yg? aus;&Gmvlxkrsm;u oifhavsmfonfh avsmfa=u;rsm; jyefvnf&&Sd&ef/
wef;wlnDr#aom tcGifhta&;ay;&ef awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udkvnf; tm%mydkifrsm;u vspfvsL&_
xm;=uygonf?

Tjzpf&yfrsm;rSm 1962 ckESpfrSpI ppftpdk;&tqufquf tkyfcsKyfvmcJhaom jrefrmEdkifiH1wGif
xl;qef;onfh jzpf&yfrsm; r[kwfyg? jrefrmEdkifiHonfvnf; qif;&JrGJawcJh&+yD; tpOfojzifh urBmh
tqif;&Jq;kH Edik if w
H cktjzpf owfrw S xf nfo h iG ;f cHc&hJ ygonf? 2 jrefrmEdik if o
H nf tm%m&Sipf epfEiS hf
tkycf sKyfonfh '%f/ q,fpEk pS rf sm;pGm jzpfymG ;aeonfh jynfwiG ;f ppfr;D '%fukd cHpm;cJ&h onf? wdik ;f &if;
om; vufeufudkiftzGJ@tcsKd@u ppftpdk;&ESifh typftcwf&yfpJa&; oabmwlnDcJh=uaomfvnf;
wdik ;f &if;om;trsm;pk aexdik &f m jrefrmEdik if H e,fpyfa'orsm;wGif vufeufuikd f wdu k yf rJG sm; quf
vuf&adS eqJ jzpfygonf?

vuf&SdtkyfcsKyfaeom EdkifiHawmfat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifh zGH@òzd;a&;aumifpD (etz) tpdk;&onf
1988 ckESpfu tm%modrf;wufvmaom ppftpdk;& jzpfygonf? xdktcsdefrSpI ppftpdk;&onf
'D r d k u a&pD t a&; awmif ; qk d q EN j yonf h o l r sm;ud k t+rJ w rf ; aoG ; xG u f o H , d k acsr_ e f ; cJ h r _ /
a':atmifqef;pk=unf/ OD;cGex f eG ;f OD;ESihf tjcm;aom 'Dru kd a&pDta&; v_y&f mS ;olrsm;ESihf wdik ;f &if;om;
acgi;f aqmifrsm;udk zrf;qD;axmifcsaer_rsm;a=umifh Edik if w H um. apmif=h unfah 0zefr/_ jypfwifa0zefr_
cHae&ygonf? 3

1990 ckESpfrsm; tqef;ydkif;rSaeI EdkifiHjcm;&if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_rsm; ðyvkyfvmap&ef ppftpdk;&u wHcg;
zGifhay;cJh+yD;/ aqmif&Gufvm=uaom obm0t&if;tjrpfxkwfvkyfa&; t}uD;pm;pDrHudef;rsm;/
zGH@òzd;a&;pDrHudef;rsm;a=umifh jrefrmppfwyf. vl@tcGifhta&; csKd;azmufr_rsm;udkyg wdk;I cHpm;cJh
=u&ygonf? txl;ojzifh t"rRvkyftm; cdkif;apjcif;/ rk'drf;usifhjcif;/ t"rRajymif;a&$@ae&mcs
xm;jcif;/ ajr,modr;f ydu k jf cif;/ owfjzwfjcif;/ ESyd pf ufnO‡ ;f yrf;jcif; ponfh vl@tcGit
hf a&; csK;d azmuf
r_rsm;omru obm0ywf0ef;usif ysufpD;r_rsm;udkvnf; óuHawG@cHpm;cJh=u&ygonf? Tjzpf&yf
trsm;pkrSm wkdif;&if;om; vlrsKd;rsm;aexdkif&m a'orsm;wGif ydkI epfemcHpm;cJh=u&ygonf? 4

2007 ckESpf/ pufwifbmvwGif &[ef;oHCmrsm; OD;aqmifonfh vlxktHkºuG qENjyyGJrsm;wGif
ppftpd;k &u t=urf;zuf òzdccJG jhJ yef&m ukvor*~/ ta&S@awmiftm&S Edik if rH sm;toif; (tmqD,)H ESifh
rsm;pGmaom EdkifiHwumtpdk;&rsm;u jypfwifa0zefr_rsm; ðycJh=uygonf?5 2008 ckESpf/ arv
em*pfqdkufuvkef; rkefwdkif;wdkufcdkuf+yD;aemuf ppftpdk;&. pDrHcef@cGJr_ vGJacsmfr_rsm;/ xdkESpfwGifyif
rkew
f ikd ;f pJ+yD;r=umrD usi;f yaom zG@J pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya' qENc,
H yl YJG ppftpd;k &u zdEydS o
f nfeh nf;emrsm;
toHk;ðyr_a=umifh xdkuJhodk@ jypfwifa0zefr_rsm;vnf; xyfI=um;cJh&ygonf? 6

5
ytd0k ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k (PYO) u ar#mv f ifo h nfrmS jrefrmEdik if . H owif;rsm;wGif a&S@wef;u
azmfjycH&jcif; enf;yg;onfh a'owckrS ,ckuo hJ @kd tpD&ifcpH m xGu&f w dS ifjyEdik jf cif;tm;jzif/h aemufq;kH
yif;yufawmif a'ow0dkufrS pDrHudef;rsm;a=umifh jzpfay:&aom vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufr_rsm;/
pDrHudef;rsm;. qdk;usKd;rsm;udk vlod&Sif=um; xkwfazmfwifjyEdkifrnf[k ,lqygonf? yxrOD;qHk;
taeESihf rdrw d @kd onf &yf&mG jynforl sm;ESithf wl olw@kd . oufarG;0rf;a=umif; udprP sm;udk umuG,f
ay;&ef/ ajr,mydik q f ikd rf /_ ,Ofaus;r_ tarGtESprf sm; umuG,af y;Edik &f ef &yfwnf+yD;/ a'oqdik &f mESihf
EdkifiHwum tiftm;pkrsm;odk@ yif;yufpDrHudef;ESifh ywfoufI apmifh=unfhppfaq;r_rsm; teD;uyf
ðyvkyfay;yg&ef awmif;qdkygonf? txl;ojzifh ,la&eD,H owWKwl;azmfxkwfvkyfaeonf[laom
owif ; ES i f h y wf o uf I apmif h = unf h ppf a q;ay;apvd k y gonf ? aemuf q H k ; taeES i f h rd r d w d k @
awmif;qdkvdkonfrSm yg0ifywfoufae=uonfh ukr`%Drsm;tm;vHk;/ tzGJ@tpnf; rsm;tm;vHk;
‚if;wd@k . vkyif ef;rsm; &yfqikd ;f +yD;/ TpDru
H ed ;f . obm0ywf0ef;usiq f ikd &f m xdcukd ef pfem ysupf ;D zG,f
ta=umif;rsm;/ vlr_a&; qdk;usKd;oufa&mufEdkifr_rsm;udk pepfwusESifh yGifhvif;jrifomr_&SdpGm
tuJjzwf ppfaq;csufrsm; yxrOD;qHk; ðyvkyfoifhygonf? tdk;tdrf/ ajr,mrsm; qHk;&_H;cJh=u&onfh
rdom;pkrsm; twGuv f nf; vHak vmufonfh avsmaf =u;rsm; jyefvnfay;aqmif&ef vdt k yfyga=umif;
wifjyvdkuf&ygonf?

aqmif&Gufaom enf;pepf
ytdk0f;vli,ftpnf;t&Hk; (PYO) u aus;&Gmae vlOD;a&/ pDrHudef;qdkif&m tao;pdwf tcsuf
tvufrsm;/ &kyfyHkum;csyfrsm;/ "gwfyHkrsm;/ aus;&Gmvlxkrsm; ajymjyonfh jzpf&yfrsm;udk yif;yuf
awmif a'ow0dkufY 2006 ckESpfrS 2009 ckESpf twGif; aumuf,lpkaqmif;cJhygonf? y%mr
okawoevkyif ef;twGuf tcsut f vufrsm;udk [dyk ek ;f ESihf awmif}uD;òrd@ a'ow0du k &f dS vlxrk sm;
xHrS &,lygonf? pDru H ed ;f wGif vkyuf ikd cf ohJ /l vuf&v dS yk u
f ikd af eqJ tvkyo f rm;rsm;xHrv S nf; &,l
pkaqmif;ygonf? tao;pdwf awG@qakH r;jref;r_rsm;udk yif;yufawmifajc&Sd aus;&Gm 10-ckrS &Gmom;
36-OD;ESihf ðyvkycf +hJ yD; olw@kd u pDru H ed ;f ESihf ywfoufI xdcu kd ef pfemcJ&h olrsm; jzpfonf? xd@k tjyif
owif;tcsut f vufrsm;udk tkypf t k vdu k af qG;aEG;yGrJ sm;/ tkypf v k udk f awG@qakH r;jref;r_rsm;/ a'ocH
jynfolrsm;ESifh aqmif&Gufonfh tvkyf&Hk aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;rSvnf; &&SdcJhygonf? 'kwd,tqifh
okawoevkyif ef;udk tifwmeuf tGev f ikd ;f t&if;tjrpfrsm; jzpfonfh owif;rsm;/ owif;a0zef
csufrsm;rS pkaqmif;cJhygonf? awG@qHkar;jref;r_tm;vHk;udk ytdk0f;vli,ftpnf;t&Hk; (PYO) u
rSwfwrf;wif odrf;qnf;xm;ygonf?

6 tem*wfudk vk,lzsufqD;jcif;
tydik ;f (1)
pDrHudef;rsm;ta-umif;

taxGaxGaemufcHordkif;
yif;yufawmifonf jrefrmEdik if .
H t}uD;qH;k jynfe,fwck jzpfonfh &Sr;f jynfe,fwiG f wnf&o dS nf?
&Sr;f jynfe,fonf {&d,mpwk&ef;rdik f 60˜155 &S+d yD;/ ppftpd;k &. w&m;0ifcef@reS ;f csut f & vlO;D a&
5 oef;ausmf aexdik yf gonf?7 xd@k tjyif wdik ;f &if;om; vlrsK;d tpHk pkpnf;aexdik af om jynfe,fvnf;
jzpfonf? &Srf;jynfe,fwGif &Srf;/ ytdk0f;/ tif;om;/ "Ek/ yavmif/ 0/ vm;[l/ awmif&dk;ESifh
u,ef;tygt0if tjcm;wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd; w'gZifausmf tajccsaexdkifv#uf &Sdygonf?

yif;yufawmifajc a'ow0du k w f iG f aexdik =f uonfh vlO;D a& 7˜000 rSm ytd0k ;f wdik ;f &if;om; vlrsK;d
trsm;pkjzpfygonf? ytd0k ;f trsKd ;om; vlO;D a&rSm woef;ausm&f rdS nf[k cef@reS ;f &+yD;/ &Sr;f jynfe,fwiG f
'kwd,trsm;qHk; wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pk wpkjzpfygonf?8 ytdk0f;vlrsKd; trsm;pkrSm &Srf;jynfe,f
awmifyikd ;f a'owGif aexdik =f u+yD;/ tjcm;aom ytd0k ;f trsm;pkrmS u&ifejD ynfe,f/ u&ifjynfe,f/
rGejf ynfe,fEiS hf yJc;l wdik ;f wd@k wiG v
f nf; aexdik =f uygonf? ytd0k ;f vlrsK;d trsm;pkrmS v,f,mpdu k yf sK;d I
toufarG;=u+yD;/ qefpyg;/ oeyfzuf/ =uufoeG jf zL/ vufzuf/ ajymif;ESihf ajryJrsm; pdu k yf sK;d =uygonf?
ytdk0f;vlrsKd;trsm;pkrSm Ak'<bmomudk udk;uG,f,Hk=unfolrsm; jzpf=u+yD;/ udk,fydkifxl;jcm;onfh
bmompum;/ pmayESifh 0wfpm;qif,ifr_rsm; ydkifqdkif=uygonf?

q,fpEk pS af ygi;f rsm;pGm jzpfay:aeaom jynfwiG ;f ppfa=umifh &Sr;f jynfe,fwiG f xdcu kd ef pfem qH;k &_;H r_
trsm;tjym; &Scd yhJ gonf? tcsK@d aom a'orsm;&Sd vufeufuikd f wdik ;f &if;om;tzG@J rsm;onf typf
tcwf&yfpaJ &; ðyvkyI f e,fajrxde;f csKyfciG hf wpHw k &m&&S=d uaomfvnf;/ tcsK@d aom &Sr;f jynfa'o
rsm;wGirf l vufeufuikd w f u kd yf rJG sm; qufvufjzpfymG ;v#uyf if &Sad eygao;onf? ytd0k ;f vlrsK;d rsm;.
t"du typftcwf&yfpaJ &;tzG@J rmS ytd0k ;f trsK;d om;tzG@J csKyf (PNO) jzpf+yD;/ (etz) ppftpd;k &ESihf
1991 ckESpfwGif typftcwf&yfpJa&; oabmwlnDcsuf &&SdcJh=uygonf? awmif}uD;ESifh [dkykef;
vGijf yifa'o tygt0if &Sr;f jynfe,fawmifyikd ;f . e,fajrtrsm;pkonf ytd0k ;f trsK;d om;tzG@J csKyf
(PNO) u xde;f csKyfci G hf &&Sod nfah 'orsm;yif jzpfygonf? od@k aomfvnf; 1991 ckEpS rf pS I ,cif
ytd0k ;f trsK;d om;tzG@J csKyf (PNO) u xde;f csKyfco hJ nfh ae&mtrsm;pkukd (etz) ppftpd;k &u wd;k cs@J I
csKyfudkifvmcJhygonf?

7
vuf&Sd 2009 ckESpfwdkif qufvufwdkufyGJ0ifaeqJjzpfaom ytdk0f;wdkif;&if;om;tzGJ@rSm ytdk0f;
trsK;d om;vGwaf jrmufa&;tzG@J (PNLO) jzpf+yD;/ &Sr;f jynfe,fawmifyikd ;f ESihf u&ifejD ynfe,f e,fpyf
wGif wnf&adS eygonf?9 &Sr;f jynfwyfrawmf (awmifyikd ;f ) (SSA-South) onfvnf; qufvufI
vufeufudkif wdkufcdkufaeqJ jzpfygonf? 2009 ckESpf/ arvY owWKwl;az:rnfhpDrHudef;a'o.
awmifbufwiG f wku d yf jJG zpfymG ;cJrh a_ =umifh jrefrmppfwyfrS rsm;pGmaom &Gmom;rsm;udk zrf;qD;ESyd pf uf
owfjzwfcJhonf? 10

owWKwGif; wl;azmfjcif;qdkif&m ordkif;
&Sr;f jynfe,f. òrd@awmf/ awmif}uD;òrd@. ta&S@awmifzuf 7-rdik f tuGmwGif wnf&o dS nfh yif;yuf
awmifonf ysr;f r#{&d,m 8-pwk&ef;rdik rf #ukd v$r;f òcHwnf&adS e+yD;/ yifv,fa&rsuEf mS jyifxuf tjrifh
1˜400 rDwmwGif &Sdygonf? Tawmifwef;rS obm0o,HZmwrsm; xkwf,lEdkif&ef óud;yrf;r_
t}udrf}udrf &SdcJhzl;ygonf? od&Sd&oavmuf jrefrmEdkifiHwGif 'kwd,t}uD;qHk; oH&dkif;odkuf wnf&Sd
aeaom ae&mvnf ; jzpf o nf ? yxrtrsm;qH k ; ae&mrS m ucsif j ynf e ,f / zm;uef @ a'o[k
qdkygonf?11 yif;yufawmifonf tjcm;obm0wGif;xGufrsm; jzpfonfh a=u;eD/ xHk;ausmuf/
0lz&efEiS hf oGyjf zL rsm;vnf; xGu&f +dS yD;/ ,la&eD,H xGu&f adS eonf[vk nf; umv=um&Snpf mG uyif
oHo, &Sdae=uygonf? odk@aomfvlod&Sif=um; xkwfjyefa=unmr_rsm; r&SdcJhyg?12

jrefrmEdik if H vGwvf yfa&;&+yD;cgp umvwGiyf if owWKwl;azmf xkwv f yk rf r_ sm; &Scd yhJ gonf? oH&ikd ;f odu k f
wnf&adS eonfukd 1951 ckEpS w f iG f &SmazGawG@&cdS yhJ gonf? taxGaxGtºkH uGrr_ sm;/ rwnf+idrrf r_ sm;
13

a=umifh q,fpw k ckpmr# rnfo@kd r# owWKwl;azmfxw k v f yk jf cif; raqmif&u G Ef ikd b
f J &Sad ecJ&h mrS 1961
ckEpS w
f iG f wl;azmfxwk v f yk af &; vkyif ef;rsm; jyefvnfpwifcyhJ g onf? a'ocH jynfow l OD;. tqdt k &
“tJ't D csed uf *smr%D/ &k&mS ;/ tDwvD Edik if aH wGu blrad A'ynm&Siaf wG/ tjcm; u|r;f usio f al wG
awmif}uD;a'orSm wESpaf vmuf vmtajccs+yD; aecJ=h uw,f? tJ't D csed w f ek ;f u *syefu ynm&Sif
awGvnf; yif;yufawmifa'oudv k m+yD; avhvmcJ=h uw,f” [k ajymjyonf?14 awmif. taemuf
zufEiS hf ta&S@ajrmufzuftjcrf;wGif ajratmufOrifrsm; wl;cJ=h uonf? od@k aomfvnf; wnfaqmuf
a&;vkyif ef;rsm; +yD;qH;k atmif qufvufvyk u f ikd Ef ikd jf cif; r&Scd ahJ y? 15 1962 ckEpS w f iG f jrefrmEdik if wH iG f
ppftm%modrf;+yD;aemufydkif; ‚if;avhvma&; vkyfief;rsm;vnf; &yfqdkif;cJh=u&onf?

yif;yufawmif&Sd oH&dkif;odkufudk wl;azmf&ef 'kwd,t}udrf óud;yrf;tm;xkwfr_udk 1991 ckESpf/
ytd0k ;f wdik ;f &if;om; vufeufuikd t
f zG@J (PNO) u typftcwf&yfpaJ &; oabmwln+D yD;aemufyikd ;f
jyefvnfpwifvm=uonf? 1992 ckEpS w f iG f Ta'ovHòk cHa&;twGuf jrefrmppfwyf wyf&if;rsm;udk
apv$wt f ajccsapcJo h nf? qufo, G af &; wyf&if;trSwf (212) u yif;yufawmifEiS hf awmif}uD;òrd@
t=um;&Sd rJkif;awmifaus;&GmwGif ajr,mrsm;odrf;ydkufI tajccsvmcJhonf? yif;yufawmif.
ta&S@ajrmufzufa'o [dyk ek ;f teD;wGif wdik ;f A[dt k rSw(f 3) avhusiahf &;wyfu ajr{u 25˜ 402

8 tem*wfudk vk,lzsufqD;jcif;
udk odrf;ydkufI XmecsKyfwnfaxmifcJhonf?16 ppfom;rsm;ESifh a'oudk vHkòcHa&;&,lI wl;azmf
xkwfvkyfa&;vkyfief;rsm; pwifcJhaomfvnf; r=umrDyif tpDtpOfrsm; &yfqdkif;cJh&onf? ,ck
wcgwGif &yfqdkif;&jcif;rSmrl &efyHkaiGr&Sdaoma=umifh jzpfonf?

2003 ckESpfrS pwifI yif;yufawmifrS wwd,t}udrf owWKwl;azmfxkwfvkyfa&; vkyfief;rsm;
pwifvm+yD; a&S@wdk;vkyfaqmifvmjyefonf? (pDrHudef;. u¾rsm; tcef;udk =unfhyg?) tpdk;&
w&m;0iftqdt k & ,ckprD u
H ed ;f onf oH&ikd ;f wl;azmfxw
k v
f yk &f ef[k qdak omfvnf;/ a'ocH&mG om;
rsm;t=um;wGif yif;yufawmifrS ,la&eD,Hvnf; wl;azmfxkwfvkyfrnf[k oHo,&Sdae=uonf?
ta=umif;rSm jrefrmppftpdk;&u r=umao;rDu &k&Sm;EdkifiHESifh yl;wGJI t%kjrLtpDtpOfrsm;
pwifrnf[k a=unmcJhcsdefESifh wdkufqdkifaeaoma=umifhvnf; jzpfygonf?

a'ocH jynfolrsm; tajctaeESifh toufarG;0rf;a-umif;vkyfief;rsm;
yif;yufawmif teD;w0dkufa'oudk [dkykef;vGifjyifa'o[k vlodrsm;ygonf? Ta'oonf
awmif}uD;. ta&S@EiS hf ta&S@awmifzufrS qDqikd /f [dyk ek ;f / awmif}uD;òrd@e,frsm;ESihf yif;yufawmif
ajrmufzuf&dS [dyk ek ;f òrd@e,ftxd yg0ifygonf? wzufacsmif; (ytd0k ;f bmomjzifh “prf;zufca&mif”
(Jamphak Kroung) [k ac:onf) onf [dy k ek ;f vGijf yifa'oudk tv,frS jzwfI pD;qif;ae+yD;/
aus;&Gmaygi;f 100 ausmEf iS hf vlO;D a& 35˜000 cef@ tajccsaexdik &f m a'ovnf; jzpfygonf?

wzufacsmif;onf yif;yufawmifuu kd yfI awmifzufo@kd pD;qif;+yD;/ yGeaf csmif;twGi;f od@k rpD;0ifrD
rdik f 100 cef@ &Snv
f sm;ygonf? yGeaf csmif;onf &Sr;f jynfe,fEiS hf u&ifejD ynfe,f awmifzufa'oY
oHvGifjrpfodk@ pD;0ifygonf?

yif;yufawmifajca'owGif t"duaexdik o f rl sm;rSm ytd0k ;f wdik ;f &if;om; trsm;pkjzpf+yD;/ &Sr;f vlrsK;d ESihf
tdENd,EG,fzGm; vlrsKd;tcsKd@vnf; aexdkif=uygonf? yif;yufawmifajcwGif aus;&Gm 25 &Gm&Sd+yD;/
cef@reS ;f vlO;D a& 7˜000 cef@ aexdik yf gonf? ‚if;aus;&Gmrsm;wGif aexdik =f uaom vlxo k nf oD;ESH
trsKd;rsKd;ESifh [if;oD;[if;&Gufrsm; pdkufysKd;I toufarG; 0rf;ausmif;r_ ðy=uonf? qefpyg;/
=uufoeG jf zL/ ESr;f / *sKH / yJtrsK;d rsK;d / ajymif;/ tmvl;/ pawmfb,f&/D ajryJ/ }uH ponfw@kd ukd pdu k yf sK;d
=uovdk u|JEGm;ESifh =uufrsm;vnf; arG;jrL=uonf? a'oxGufukefrsm;udk awmif}uD;ESifh
[dkykef;òrd@rsm;wGif a&mif;cs=uonf? aus;&Gmvlxkonf yif;yufawmawmifrsm;rSaeI r#pf/ rd_ESifh
tjcm;opfawmxGuf ypPn;f rsm;vnf; rScD &kd mS azG pm;aomuf=uovd/k wzufacsmif;wGif ig;zrf;I
&SmazGpm;aomuf=uygonf?

9
awmif}uD;òrd@
vrf;r}uD;ay:wGif
trsKd;orD;rsm; ytdk0f;
trsKd;om;ae@
tcrf;tem;twGuf
2008 ckESpf/
rwfvwGif
csDwufvrf;
av#mufvmpOf/

v,fuGif;rsm;ab;&Sd
wzufacsmif;wGif
v,form;wOD; ol.
EGm;rsm;udk a&csK;d ay;
aepOf

yif;yufawmifajc
O,smOf+cHrsm;rS
xkwfvkyfonfh
vwfqwfaom
pawmfb,f&DoD;rsm;

10 tem*wfudk vk,lzsufqD;jcif;
yif;yufowWKwGif;pDrHudef; ae&mjyajryHk

11
pDrHudef;. u¾rsm;
yif;yuf owWKwGif;
yif;yufoH&dkif;odkufwGif cef@rSef;ajctm;jzifh oH&dkif; 56² 4 µ yg0ifaom a[rwdkuf (hematite)
owWK&dik ;f wef 10 oef; cef@EiS hf (oH&ikd ;f 42² 6 µ yg0ifaom) xH;k ausmuf (limonite) wefcsed f
oef; 70 cef@ &Sad eygonf? (urBmay:&Sd oH&ikd ;f yg0ifr_ tjrifq
h ;kH pHcsed rf mS 60 µ jzpfygonf?) xd@k tjyif
Tyif;yufawmifwiG f xH;k ausmufoufouf wefcsed f oef; 30 cef@ &Sad eao;+yD;/ bdvyfajrzkw&f ef
twGuf toHk;ðyEdkifygonf? tpdk;&owif;Xmersm; azmfjycsuft& ToH&dkif;rsm;udk tyGifhwGif;
wl;enf; (open-pit mine) jzifh xkwaf zmfrnf[k qdyk gonf?

awmifay: taemufzufwGif vrf;rsm;azmufvkyfjcif;udk 2006 ckESpfwGif pwifcJh+yD;/ ,cktcg
+yD;pD;oGm;+yD jzpfonf? Tvrf;rsm;u 1960 ckESpfrsm;u wl;azmfr_ óud;yrf;+yD; pGef@ypfxm;cJhaom
ajratmufOrif 2-ckqDodk@ qufoG,fxm;ygonf? bl'dkZmpufrsm;jzifh owWKwGif;a[mif;ESpfckrS
opfyifrsm;/ òcHE, G rf sm;udk &Si;f vif;cJ=h u+yD;/ TowWKwGi;f a[mif; ae&mrsm;onfyif tyGio hf wWKwGi;f
rsm;tjzpf wl;azmfrnf[k ,lq&ygonf? TwGif;0rsm;teD; awmifay:wGifvnf; ppfom;rsm;u
vHòk cHa&;twGuf wJrsm;xd;k I ae&m,lc=hJ uygonf? TowW KwGi;f a[mif;rsm;teD;wGif a&S;a[mif;
apwDwqlvnf; &Sad eygonf? (ajryHu k kd =unfyh g?) ppfom;rsm;u awmif.ajrmufzufEiS hf ta&S@zuf
jcrf;wGif wdik rf sm; pduk xf =l u+yD;/ Tae&mudk “wyfyikd af jr” tjzpf owfrw S cf =hJ uygonf? od@k twGuf
a=umifhvnf; ,cifuawmifay:wGif xif;&Sm/ tpm;taomuf&SmazG aexdkifcJh=uonfh aus;&Gm
vlxkrsm; trsufa'go jzpfcJh=u&ygonf?

awmifay:wGif xif;ESifh tjcm;tpm;taomufrsm; &SmazGavh&Sd=uonfh &Gmom;rsm;onf
awmifay:wGif tajccspcef; csaeonfh ppfom;rsm;ESifh 2006 ckESpfrSpI jy\emrsm; wufcJh&
ygonf? olw@kd u [if;oD;[if;&Gu/f xif;rsm; awmifay:wGif oGm;a&muf&mS vdyk gu vmbfx;kd &jcif;/
t"rR aiGa=u;awmif;cHjcif;rsm; &SdvmcJhonf? tcsdef&vmonfESifhtr# &Gmom;rsm;uvnf;
rnfonfo h wWKrsK;d wl;azmfrnfukd ar;cGe;f xkwv
f mcJ=h uonf? ta=umif;rSm ppfom;trsm;tjym;ESihf
vHkòcHa&;wif;wif;usyfusyf csxm;aoma=umifh jzpfygonf? Todk@ trsKd;rsKd;xifjrifcsufrsm;
jzpfay:aepOf 2007 ckESpfwGif awmifay:wGif apmifh=uyfaeaom ppfom;rsm;ESifh puf&Hkvkyfom;
rsm;u olwdk@ppf,leDazmifrsm;udk ajymif;I t&yf0wfom 0wfqif=uonfudk awG@&Sd&onf?

,ck od&xdS m;&oavmuf oH&ikd ;f puf&wkH nfaqmufr_ r+yD;rcsi;f / oH&ikd ;f wl;azmfxw
k v
f yk af &; vkyif ef;
rsm;rSmvnf; pwifEdkifzG,fr&Sd[k cef@rSef;&ygonf?

12 tem*wfudk vk,lzsufqD;jcif;
oH&dkif;udk oef hpifóudcsufjcif;
a[rwdu k f (hematite) ESihf vdik rf Ekd u
kd f xH;k ausmuf (limonite) wd@k rmS oH&ikd ;f xkwv f yk Ef ikd af om
owWK 2- rsK;d jzpfygonf? ‚if;wd@k ukd a,bk,stm;jzifh tyGio hf wWKwGi;f jzifh wl;azmfxw k , f +l yD;
aemuf ausmufw;kH rsm;udk acsI cGjJ cm;ygonf? t&nftaoG;edrahf om trsK;d tpm;rsm;onf
tnpfta=u;rsm; oef@pif&ef (benificiation) [laom vkyif ef;aqmif&u G o
f nfh ae&mod@k
oGm;ygonf? TonfrmS oef@pifjcif;vkyif ef; wrsK;d jzpf+yD; aq;a=umjcif;/ oHvu kd "f gwt f oH;k
ðyI pkaqmif;jcif;/ tjcm;aomenf;rsm;jzifh oef@pifjcif; jzpfonf? xd@k aemuf owWK&dik ;f rsm;udk
avSmaf om ',ft;kd ay:wifI oH owWKpif tjzpf xkwv f yk yf gonf? xd@k aemufToH owWKpif
udkyif oHr%d&&Sdap&ef qufvufpDrH=u&onf?

(Benificiation) oef@pifjcif; vkyfief;pOfwGif a&tajrmuftrsm; vdktyf+yD;/ ta&mrsm;
od@k r[kwf ajrausmufom; twH;k tcJrsm;rSm te,ftESpt f jzpf use&f pfygonf? Tt&nf
yspfudk yHkrSeftm;jzifh te,fppfuefrSwqifh jzpfEdkifygu jyefI oef@pif,lygonf? &Hzef&Hcg
Tte,fppfuefrSt&nfrsm;udk eD;pyf&macsmif;rsm;/ a&vrf;a=umif;rsm;odk@ pGef@xkwf
onfvnf;&Sd&m ajray:a&udk a&ap;rsm;/ (heavy metal contaminants) tnpfta=u;
rsm;ESifh npfnrf;apygonf? jrpfta=uzufwGifvnf; oGm;a&mufpkyHkapygonf? 17

yif;yufoH&dkif;puf&Hk
yxrydik ;f wGif vGaJ csmrf _ trsK;d rsK;d jzpf+yD;aemuf yif;yufo&H ikd ;f puf&u kH kd yif;yufawmif. ta&S@zufjcrf;
wGif wnfaqmuf&ef a&G;cs,af e&mcscyhJ gonf? 2004 ckEpS w f iG f wnfaqmufrr_ sm; pwifco hJ nf?
tcsKd@aom owif;rsm;t& 2009 ckESpfwGif t+yD;wnfaqmuf&ef vsmxm;onf[k qdk+yD;/
twdtus azmfjyEdkif=ujcif; r&Sdyg?18 xGuf&Sdvmaom oH&dkif;rsm;udk Tpuf&HkwGif "gwfcGJoef@pif
rnfjzpf+yD;/ aemufydkif;wGif oHr%dtjzpf qufvufóudcsuf=urnf jzpfonf? odk@aomfvnf;
a'ocHrsm;u ,ckpuf&Hkae&mwGifyif oHr%dtxd t+yD;óudcsufrnf[k ,lqae=uygonf?
ta=umif ; rS m ,ck a qmuf v k y f a &;vk y f i ef ; twG i f ; oG m ;vmae=uonf h x&yf u m;rsm;wG i f
“yif;yufoEH iS hf oHr%dpuf&”kH (Pinpet Iron and Steel) [k a&;om;xm;aoma=umifh jzpfonf?
odk@aomfvnf; tcsKd@owif;rsm;tqdkt& qufvufI oHr%dcsufvkyf&ef rE Wav;wdkif;twGif;&Sd
oHr%dpuf&o kH @kd yd@k aqmifrnf jzpfonf[k qdyk gonf? ToHr%dpuf&u kH v
kd nf; wnfaqmufv#uf
&S+d yD;/ Tpuf&rkH aS eI cef@reS ;f wESpv f #if (cast iron) oHºuGyw f efcsed f 2 ode;f ausmf xkwv
f yk Ef ikd rf nf[k
od&onf? 19

13
yif;yuf oHowWKwGif;pDrHudef;ESifh puf&Hk{&d,mrsm; ajryHk

14 tem*wfudk vk,lzsufqD;jcif;
jrefrmEdik if &H dS owif;pmrsm;azmfjycsut
f & 2009 ckEpS /f Zefe0g&v
D wGif Tpuf&t
kH wGuf bdKG ifvmtd;k
wvH;k &&Scd o hJ nf[k qdo k nf? 2009 ckEpS /f rwfvwGif ytd0k ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k rS &du
20
k u
f ;l Edik cf ahJ om
"gwyf t
kH & a&xde;f uef 2 ck/ ajratmuf befumrsm;/ ppfwyf0efxrf;rsm; rdom;pkrsm; aexdik &f m
wef;vsm;rsm;/ &k&mS ;vlrsK;d 0efxrf;rsm;twGuf tdrrf sm;/ tvkyo f rm;rsm;twGuf wef;vsm;rsm;rSm
wnfaqmuf+yD;pD;ae+yD jzpfonf? ar#mfpifuJhodk@ taqmuftODrSm aqmufvkyfaeqJ jzpfygonf?
("gwfyHkrsm;ESifh ajryHkudk =unfhyg?) wzufacsmif;udk qnfzdk@I qnfa&udk puf&Hk0if;twGif;&Sd uef
2-ckodk@ v$Jajymif;odkavSmif aeonf?21

puf&u kH kd 10-aytjrifh eH&H 2-xyfjzifh txl;vHòk cHpmG um&Hxm;ygonf? eH&H wckEiS w hf ckrmS udu k f
50 uGmjcm;ygonf? ("gwyf akH zmfjyxm;onf?) eH&H 2-ckt=um;wGif aemufxyf+cHpnf;&d;k wxyfum&H
xm;ygonf? [dyk ek ;f tajcpdu k f ppfajrjyif tif*sief ,D mwyf&if; trSwf (903)/ awmif}uD; tajcpdu k f
ta&S@ydkif;wdkif; ppfXmecsKyf (&yc)/ [dkykef; tajcpdkuf wdkif;A[dktrSwf (3) avhusifha&;wyf&if;
wd@k u puf&. kH vHòk cHa&;udptP 00udk wm0ef,x l m;=uygonf? tajctaeay: rlwnfI apmif=h uyf
onfh ppfom;tiftm; ta&twGuf twdk;tav#mh&Sdonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh- ppfAdkvfcsKyfwOD;u
vma&muf ppfaq;=unfh&_rnf/ odk@r[kwf wdkufyGJrsm; jzpfyGm;aeonfqdkygu ppfom;rsm; ydkI
csxm;apmifh=uyfapygonf? 2009 ckESpf/ arvu tvm;wl wdkufyGJrsm;jzpfaepOf ppfom;rsm;
wdk;I csxm;cJhonf? puf&Hk0if;. eH&H 2-ck twGif;wGif vHkòcHa&;wJrsm; &Sd+yD;/ puf&Hkab;wGif
ppfwyfro d m;pkrsm; tajccsaexdik &f m +cH0if;&Sad eygonf? (ajryHuk kd =unfyh g?) 2007 ckEpS rf pS wifI
puf&HkvHkòcHa&; apmifh=uyf=uol ppfom;rsm;u t&yf0wfudkom 0wfqif=uygawmhonf?

“yxrOD;qHk; olwdk@puf&Hkvm tajccscgpuawmh olwdk@u puf&Hkywf0ef;usifrSm eH&HwxyfyJ
um=uw,f? aemufydkif;awmh puf&Hkae&mudk wdk;csJ@vmw,f? aemifumu,faus;&GmrSm tdrf
11 vH k ; / aemuf oeyf z uf e J @ ajymif ; pd k u f c if ; awG v nf ; +cH p nf ; &d k ; xyf c sJ @ umzd k @ zsuf q D ; cH
vdkuf&w,f?” [k &Gmom;wOD;u ajymjyonf?22

tpD&ifcHpmrsm;t& puf&HktwGuf avmifpmudk ae&mrsKd;pHkrS &,lrnf[k od&onf? jrefrmEdkifiH
tv,fydkif;/ rauG;wdkif;rS obm0"gwfaiG@ydkufvdkif;udk yif;yufawmiftxd oG,fwef;+yD;pD;+yD[k
qdkonf? odk@jzpf&m obm0"gwfaiG@ 8 oef; ukAwefudk ydk@v$wfEdkifrnfjzpf+yD;/ v#yfppf"gwftm;
20 r*~g0yfukd xkwv f w k nf?23 od@k aomfvnf; tpd;k &xkwf jrefrmhtvif; owif;pm
$ Ef ikd rf nf[k qdo
t& yif;yufowWKwGif;udk usKdif;awmif;a&wHcGef a&tm;v#yfppfpDrHudef;rS xkwfvkyfrnfh 54
r*~g0yf a&tm;v#ypf pfpuf&rkH S axmufyrhH nf[v k nf; qdo k nf? Ta&tm;v#ypf pf puf&rkH mS 2009
ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dvu w&m;0ifzGifhvSpfcJh+yD; jzpfonf?24 awmif}uD;rS yif;yufodk@ v#yfppf"gwftm;
o,fy@kd óud;vdik ;f rsm;udk 2009 ckEpS /f arvwGif wyfqif+yD; jzpfonf? xdrk #ru wDuspaf usmufr;D aoG;
"gwt f m;puf&rkH S "gwt f m; 65- r*~g0yf udv k nf; toH;k ðyrnf[k qdo k nf? wDuspaf usmufr;D aoG;

15
"gwftm;ay;puf&Hkonf &Srf;jynfe,f awmifydkif;/ uavmòrd@teD; 22-rdkif tuGm&Sd jrefrmEdkifiH.
t}uD;qHk;ausmufrD;aoG;"gwftm;ay;puf&Hk jzpfonf?25

2006 ckESpfwGif/ &k&Sm;tpdk;&ydkif (Tyazhpromexport) ukr`%Du xkwfjyefa=unmcJh&mwGif
tar&duefa':vm 150 oef;wef pDru H ed ;f qdik &f m ypPn;f rsm; axmufyahH y;rnf[k oabmwlncD hJ
onf[k qdo k nf?26 aus;&Gmvlxrk sm;. tajymt& 2006 ckEpS rf S pwifI &k&mS ;vlrsK;d 0efxrf;rsm;
udk puf&Hkwnfaqmufonfhae&mwGif pwifawG@&Sd=u&onf[k qdkonf?27 ,cktcg &k&Sm;vlrsKd;
4-OD;rSm puf&v kH al e0if;twGi;f aexdik v f #uf &So d nf? (tjcm;0efxrf;rsm;rSm 0ifvu kd -f xGuv
f u kd f
oGm;vmv#uf &Sdygonf?) &k&Sm;vlrsKd;rsm; aexdkif&m+cH0if;rS wzufjcrf;wGifrl &Gmom;rsm;u
“tDwvD&;kH ” [k ac:qdak e=uonfh ae&m&So d nf? tDwvDvrl sK;d rsm;u ,ckumvwdik f puf&w kH iG f
tajccsaexdkifvmjcif; r&Sdao;aomfvnf; ytdk0f;vli,ftpnf;t&Hk;url ‚if;tDwvDukr`%DrSm
tD w vD E d k i f i H r S ',f e D & ,f v D u k r ` % D (Danieli Company) jzpf r nf [ k ,H k = unf a eygonf ?
(yg0ifywfoufaeonfhukr`%Drsm;wGif =unfhyg?)

yif;yufawmifajc&Sd &k&mS ;ESihf
jrefrmppft&m&Sd rsm;.
aetdrfrsm;?
("gwyf -kH 2007 'DZifbmv)

oHpuf&HktwGif;
wnfaqmufa&;vkyfief;cGif
wck? ‚if;vkyif ef;cGiu
f kd
um&Hxm;aomeH&Honf
(aemufwiG f jrifae&onf)
pwif wnfaqmufv#uyf if
&Sdao;onf?
("gwyf -kH 2007 'DZifbmv)

16 tem*wfudk vk,lzsufqD;jcif;
oHowWKpuf&HkteD;&SD
apwD/ ,if;apwDonf
puf&HkeH&H ESpfxyf.
jyifbufwGif
wnf&Sdonf? ("mwfyHk
azaz:0g&Dv 2009)

2009 ckESpf/
azaz:0g&DvwGif
jrifawG@&aom
wnfaqmufqJ
yif;yuf oHpuf&H

usKid ;f awmif;a&tm;
v#yfppfpDrHudef;rS
yif;yufawmifodk@
vmaom "gwftm;
óud;vdkif;rsm;?
("gwfyHk-2009 arv)

17
Tpuf & H k o nf jref r mEd k i f i H w G i f oH u d k oef @ pif o nf h 'k w d , puf & H k jzpf y gvd r f h r nf ? ,ck t cg
wckwnf;aom oHóudpuf&rkH mS jyifO;D vGiòf rd@/ teD;pcef;&Sd tpd;k &ydik f trSw-f 1 oHEiS hf oHr%dpuf&kH
jzpfygonf? teD;pcef;wGif óudcsufaeonfh oH&dkif;rsm;udk &Srf;jynfe,f e,fpyfuyfv#uf&Sdaom
teD;pcef;. ta&S@awmifzuf 40 uDvdkrDwm tuGm&Sd usyf0if;a&; oHrdkif;rSwqifh &&Sdygonf?
teD;pcef; oHpuf&u kH kd tDwvDurk % ` D ',fe&D ,fvu D rk %
` D (Daieli) u 1980 ckEpS rf sm; tapmydik ;f
wGif wnfaqmufay;cJ+h yD;/ ,cktcg a'oynm&Sirf sm;ESiyhf if jyefvnfrrG ;f rH jyifqifrr_ sm; ðyvkyaf e
ygonf? owif;rsm;t& wESpfv#if oHºuGyfwefcsdef 50˜000 txd/ ESpfqwdk;I xkwfvkyfEdkif&ef
vsmxm;onf[k od&ygonf?28

yif;yuf bdvyfajrpuf&Hk
2007 ckEpS w f iG f yif;yufbv d yfajrpuf&kH
wnfaqmuf&ef wdik ;f xGmprf;oyfa&;&Hk
ud k pwif x m;&S d c J h y gonf ? T&H k ; ud k
yif ; yuf a wmif . ta&S @ awmif z uf /
aemifcsKdESifh azmifawmfqdGKufaus;&Gm
t=um;wGi/f oHpuf&EkH iS hf 3 rdik f tuGmY
T&H k ; ud k xm;&S d p rf ; oyf a pcJ h o nf ?
2009 ckESpfwGif uGif;qif;avhvmcsuf
bdvyfajrpuf&akH e&m&Sd uarBmZpDruH ed ;f &H;k
rsm;t& puf & H k w nf a qmuf a &;ES i f h
ywfoufI wdk;wufr_ tenf;i,fom&Sda=umif; od&ygonf? odk@aomfvnf; qdkif;bkwfwckESifh
tvHrsm;om puf&w kH nfaqmufrnfah e&m[k owfrw S af =unmxm;onfukd awG@&onf? Tpuf&kH
wnfaqmufrnfh ajrtus,t f nf?29 a'ocHvx
f 0ef;onf {u 4˜000 cef@ &SEd ikd o l rk sm;. tqdt k &
‚if;ukr`%Donf b¾ma&;t& tusyftwnf;awG@v#uf &Sd+yD;/ aqmufvkyfa&; vkyfief;rsm;
&yfqikd ;f aeonf[k qdyk gonf? tu,fI aqmufvyk +f yD;pD;ygu cef@reS ;f wae@v#if bdvyf ajr 56˜000
tdwfudk xkwfvkyfEdkifvdrfhrnf[k od&onf?

yif;yuf bdvyfajrpuf&Hkonf uarBmZaqmufvkyfa&;ukr`%D vDrdwuf. pDrHudef; jzpfygonf?
‚if;u tar&duefa':vm oef; 60 cef@ &if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHxm;onf[k od&ygonf?30 puf&Hkudk 2010
ckESpf/ =o*kwfvwGif t+yD;wnfaqmuf&ef vsmxm;+yD;/ a'ocHjynfolrsm;u owfrSwfvsmxm;
onfh umvtwGi;f +yD;pD;Edik rf nfr[kw[
f k oHo, &Sad e=uygonf?31

18 tem*wfudk vk,lzsufqD;jcif;
yif;yuf bdvyfajrpuf&Hk ajryHk

,la&eD,H xkwf,lrnf[k oHo,&SdzG,f tajctaersm;
jrefrmEdkifiH pGrf;tif0ef}uD;Xmeu jrefrmEdkifiHwGif ,la&eD,HawG@&SdEdkifonfh odkuf 5- ck &Sdonf[k
w&m;0ifa=unmxm; ygonf? odk@aomfvnf; TowWKodkufrsm;rS wl;azmfxkwfvkyfaejcif; &Sd-
r&Sdudkrl w&m;0if vlod&Sif=um; xkwfjyefa=unmjcif; r&Sdyg? TowWKodkuf ae&m 5- ckwGif
yif;yufa'o ryg0ifaomfvnf;/ tjcm;owif;Xmersm; tqdkt& awmif}uD;òrd@ teD;w0dkufY
,la&eD,H wnf&adS eonf[k qd=k u+yD;/ yif;yufawmif pDru H ed ;f onf ,la&eD,H wl;azmfrnf[k cef@reS ;f
wGucf suf ajymqdak e=uygonf? a'ocHvx
32
l rk sm; tqdtk & vdik ;f aigu&f mG . taemufawmifzuf
awmifay:wGif ,la&eD,x H uG o
f nf[k qd=k uonf? Tae&mudk a'ocHrsm;u “aumifusL” wenf;
“awmifc|e”f [k ac:=u+yD;/ cef@reS ;f ajryH! k e$ ;f 20°42’13.33"N 97° 6’12.13"E ESihf 20°42’43.
27" N 97° 7’40.24"E. wGif wnf&Sdygonf?33 awmifay:wGif ppfpcef; aqmufvkyfxm;+yD;/
aus;&Gmvlxrk sm;udk xdak e&mod@k r0if&eftwGuf wm;jrpfxm;ygonf? xif;aumuf&eftwGuyf if
vma&mufcGifh ray;yg?

tcsKd@aom &Gmom;rsm; tqdkt& yif;yufowWKwGif; pDrHudef;rS 0efxrf;rsm;u Tae&mwGif
,la&eD,H &Sdaeonf[k olwdk@udk ajymjy=ua=umif;/ ,ckpuf&Hkrsm;rSm oH&dkif;a&m/ ,la&eD,Hudkyg
&SmazGxwk v
f yk =f urnfjzpfa=umif; ajymjyonf[k qdo k nf?34 &Gmom;wOD;u ajym&mwGif “usaemf
odoavmufawmh yif;yufpDrHudef;rSm ,la&eD,Hxkwfzdk@udpPyg yg0ifaew,f? usaemfu pDrHudef;
0efxrf;awGqu D ud, k w f ikd =f um;cJw
h m” [k qdo
k nf?35 ‚if;&Gmom;uyif ,ckprD u
H ed ;f wGif vkyuf ikd f
aeol &k&Sm;vlrsKd;wOD;rSm ,la&eD,Hj'AfpifESifh ywfoufI txl;u|rf;usifol[k qdkygonf? 36

19
2007 ckEpS /f arv 15 &ufae@/ &k&mS ;Edik if aH wmfyikd f (Tyazhpromexport) ukr% ` u
D yif;yufowWKwGi;f
udk ulnaD xmufyahH y;rnf[k a=unmcJ+h yD; wESpt f =umwGif &k&mS ;Edik if .
H t%kjrLpGr;f tif at*sipf D
k mwGr)f (Rosatom) u jrefrmEdik if w
(&dq H iG f t%kjrL"gwaf ygi;f zdk wcktygt0if t%kjrLokawoe
vkyif ef;rsm;twGuf yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G &f efEiS hf wnfaqmufay;&ef oabmwlncD su&f +yD[k xkwjf yef
a=unmcJhonf? Ty%mr a=unmcsuf ðycJhaomfvnf; aemufydkif;wGif t%kjrL"gwfaygif;zdk
37

wnfaqmufrnhfae&m/ wdk;wufr_tajctaersm;udk vlod&Sif=um; qufvufxkwfjyefay;cJhjcif;
r&Sdyg?

,la&eD,H owWKrdik ;f wlazmfrnf[k vlo&d iS =f um; xkwjf yefa=unmr_ r&Sod vd/k ,la&eD,u H kd jynfyrS
wifoiG ;f rnf/ t%kjrL"gwaf ygi;f zdk rnfonft h ajctae qdu k af eonfukd vlo&d iS =f um; w&m;0if
rod&aoma=umifh yif;yufprD u H ed ;f rsm;tay: vltrsm;u ydI k oHo,wd;k vmae=uygonf? oHpuf
&HkESifh bdvyfajrpuf&Hkom r[kwf/ tjcm;udpPvnf; jzpfrnf[k xifae=uygonf? &Gmom;rsm;u
txl;pdk;&drf a=umuf&GH@ae=uygonf?

“usrxifwmuawmh puf&rkH mS usr tvkyv f yk cf iG &hf rSm r[kwyf gb;l ? ta=umif;u usr=um;wm
olw@kd u t%kjrLpuf&kH wnfaqmufr,f ajymaewmud;k ? usr=um;wm tpd;k &u wjcm;Edik if aH wGrmS
ausmif;om;awGudk t%kjrLynm avhvmzdk@ apv$wfxm;w,f ajymw,f? usrpuf&HkrSm bmrS
vk y f v d k @ &r,f rxif y gbl ; ? usru v,f y J vk y f w wf w m? ol w d k @ u ,l a &eD , H x k w f z d k @
vkyaf ew,fq&kd ifawmh usrwd@k awmh jy\emyJ? usrwd@k &Gmvnf; vHòk cH&mudk ajymif;a&$@&vdrrhf ,f?”
[k ajymonf?38

ytdk0f;vli,ftpnf;t&Hk;u yif;yufawmifwGif ,la&eD,H wl;azmfaeonf[k twnfðyEdkifjcif;
r&Syd g? tjcm; aemufxyf avhvmr_rsm; vdt
k yfrnf jzpfygonf?

pDrHudef;a'oY jrefrmppfwyfwdk;csJ hcsxm;r+rsm;
1991 ckESpfrS pwifI yif;yufawmifteD;w0dkuf&Sd awmif}uD;ESifh [dkykef;òrd@rsm;wGif ppfwyfrsm;
wdk;csJ@csxm;cJhygonf? ,cifu ppfwyfrsm; r&Sdaomae&mwGif ppftajcpdkufpcef; 5-ckudk
wnfaqmufcJhonf? awmif}uD;òrd@onf jrefrmppfwyf. ta&S@ydkif;wdkif;ppfXmecsKyf tajcpdkuf&m
ae&m jzpfygonf?

1992 ckEpS w
f iG f awmif}uD;ESihf yif;yufawmift=um;wGif rJik ;f awmifaus;&GmY qufo, G af &;wyf&if;
trSwf (212) udk tajccsco hJ nf? xdEk pS w
f iG yf if wdik ;f A[dt
k rSwf (3) avhusiahf &;wyfukd [dyk ek ;f òrd@
ta&S@ajrmufzufwiG f wnfaqmufco hJ nf? 2004 ckEpS w f iG f ppfajrjyiftif*sief ,
D mwyf&if; trSwf
(903) udk ‚if;a'oYyif wnfaqmufcJhonf?

20 tem*wfudk vk,lzsufqD;jcif;
[dyk ek ;f teD;&Sd wyfrawmf uGejf yLwmESihf odyeH` nf; ynmaumvdyf
ppfwyfqdkif&m wuUodkvf 2-ckjzpfonfh uGefjyLwmESifh enf;ynmodyH`wuUodkvfudk rJkif;awmif
aus;&GmYvnf;aumif;/ wyfrawmf uGejf yLwmESihf enf;ynmodyaH` umvdyu f kd [dyk ek ;f òrd@ teD;wGif
vnf;aumif; 2004 ckESpfwGif wnfaxmifcJh=uygonf? xdkaumvdyfrS tcsKd@aomt&m&Sdrsm;u
yif;yufprD u
H ed ;f wGif tvkyv f yk af e=uygonf? wyfrawmf uGejf yL wmESihf enf;ynmodyaH` umvdyrf S
ppfwyft&m&Sd tcsK@d onf &k&mS ;Edik if w H iG f ynmavhvmcJ=h uolrsm;jzpf+yD;/ &Hzef&cH g puf&w kH iG v
f nf;
tvkyv f yk af ea=umif; od&ygonf? aus;&Gmom;wOD;u ajymjy&mwGif “tcsK@d &k&mS ;rSm ausmif;+yD;
vmcJwh ohJ al wGu enf;ynmaumvdyrf mS vnf; tvkyv f yk w
f ,f? ajym&r,fq&kd if Adv k af tmifxeG ;f
av; wd@k / Advk Zf menfrif;ydik f wd@k qd&k if ycH;k rSm 3- yGiw
hf ifxm;wJh Adv k af wGy?J ” [k ajymjyonf?39

Tppfpcef;rsm; tm;vH;k onf 1991 ckEpS u f ytd0k ;f trsK;d om;tzG@J csKyf (PNO) ESihf typftcwf&yfpJ
pOfu olw@kd tyk cf sKyfap&ef tyfEiS ;f xm;aom a'orsm;jzpf=uonf? wdik ;f &if;om; typf&yftzG@J rsm;
udk typf&yfoabmwlnDcsuft& tyfESif;xm;aom tkyfcsKyfcGifhudk oa&mfapmfum;onfhozG,f
jzpfaeouJhodk@/ 2007 ckESpf trsKd;om;nDvmcH oabmwlnDcsufrsm;ESifhvnf; vGJacsmfqef@usif
aeygonf?

yg0ifywfoufaom ukr`%Drsm;
(etz) ppftpdk;&. v#Kd@0SufodkodyfvGef;r_ESifh owif;rsm; uef@owfcsKyfcs,fxm;r_/ &if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_
rsm;ESihf ywfoufI tm;ud;k &onfh tcsut f vuf owif;rsm;&&S&d ef cufcaJ oma=umifh yif;yuf
pDrHudef;rsm;ta=umif; azmfjy&mwGif vGefpGmtcuftcJ &Sdygonf? jrefrmowif;pmrsm;ESifh
Edik if w
H um owif;rsm;t&/ a'ocHjynforl sm;. owif;rsm;t& ytd0k ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k (PYO)
u ,ckpDrHudef;wGif yg0ifywfoufaeonfh ukr`%Drsm;udk &Edkifor# azmfxkwfEdkifcJhygonf?

21
&k&Sm;EdkifiHrS (Tyazhpromexport) ukr`%D/ jrefrmEdkifiHrS ausmfomukr`%DESifh uarBmZ
wnfaqmufa&; ukr% ` v
D rD w
d uf/ 0if;em; plyg 'dik ;f rGe;f (Winner Super Diamond Co. Ltd.)
ukr%` D vDrw d ufEiS hf jrefrmhp;D yGm;a&; aumfyakd &;&Si;f (MEC) rsm; yg0ifywfoufae=uonf[k
qdkonf? tDwvDEdkifiHrS ',feD&,fvDukr`%D (Danieli) onfvnf; ,ckpDrHudef;rsm;wGif
yg0if y wf o uf a eonf [ k ytd k 0 f ; vl i ,f t pnf ; t&H k ; u ,l q ygonf ? Tuk r ` % D r sm;.
&if;ES;D jr‡KyfErHS E_ iS hf olw@kd . tcef;u¾ twdtus/ olw@kd . vkyyf ikd cf iG rhf sm; ta=umif; odEikd af &;rSm
tuef@towf&Sdygonf? (atmufwGif =unfhyg?)

yif;yufoHrdkif;pDrHudef; {&d,mrsm; (ukr`%Du a&;qGJazmfjyaomajryHk)

22 tem*wfudk vk,lzsufqD;jcif;
(Tyazhpromexport) ukr%
` D
&k&mS ; tpd;k &ydik f ukr% ` jD zpfonf? yif;yuf oHpuf&t kH wGuf yHyh ;kd r_rsm;ay;ae+yD;/ tar&duefa':vm
oef; 150 ESihf nDr#aom &if;ES;D jrK‡ yEf rHS _ ðyxm;ygonf? 1957 ckEpS w
40
f iG f ‚if;ukr%
` u
D kd wnfaxmifc+hJ y;D /
armfpudkòrd@wGif &Hk;csKyftajcpdkuf ygonf? (Tyazhpromexport) ukr`%Donf EdkifiH&yfjcm;txd
vkyfudkifaom zuf'&,f-jynfe,f wOD;wnf;ydkif pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief; jzpf+yD;/ EdkifiH 20 ausmfwGif
&H;k zGiI
hf vkyif ef;rsm; aqmif&u G af eygonf? Tukr% ` u D oH r[kwaf om owWKodu k rf sm; wl;azmf
xkwv f yk af &;ESihf ywfoufI txl;u|r;f usirf _ &S+d yD;/ oHEiS hf oH r[kwaf om owWKrsm; xkwv f yk f
jcif;twGuf pufypPn;f rsm; wifoiG ;f jcif;/ wify@kd a&mif;csjcif; ðyaeygonf? (Tyazhpromexport)
ukr% ` u D tdE, dN / ygupPwef/ tD*sp/f w&kwf Edik if EH iS hf usL;bm;Edik if rH sm;wGif oHEiS hf oHr%dpuf&rkH sm;
wnfxm; ygonf?41

jrefrmhp;D yGm;a&; aumfyakd &;&Si;f (Myanmar Economic Corporation--MEC)
jrefrmhp;D yGm;a&; aumfyakd &;&Si;f (MEC) onf yif;yufoo H wWKwGi;f rS yd@k vw
$ xf w
k vf yk af prnfh oHr%d
puf&w kH iG f yg0ifywfoufaeonf[k od&&dS onf? ppfwyfrS t+idr;f pm,lxm;aom Adv
42
k rf LS ; (+idr;f )
oef;xGe;f u oHr%dpuf&t kH wGuf wm0ef&o dS nfh t&m&S}d uD;wOD; jzpfonf? ‚if;u jrefrmhp;D yGm;a&;
aumfyakd &;&Si;f (MEC) wGiv f nf; tvkyv
f yk u f ikd cf o
hJ nf? ,ck pDru
H ed ;f wGif yg0ifywfoufae=uonfh
ukr`%Drsm;ESifh jrefrmhpD;yGm;a&; aumfydka&;&Sif; (MEC) u zufpyfpmcsKyfrsm; csKyfqdkcJhjcif; &Sd-r&Sd
udrk l aocsm rod&ydS g?

jrefrmhp;D yGm;a&; aumfyakd &;&Si;f (MEC) onf umuG,af &;0ef}uD;Xme vufatmuf&dS pD;yGm;a&;
ukr% ` D 2-ck teufrS wck jzpf+yD;/ jrefrmEdik if . H t"dupD;yGm;a&; vkyif ef;rsm;udk vuf0g;}uD;tkyf
cs,v f ,
S v f r$ ;f rd;k xm;ygonf? pD;yGm;-ukeo f , G f vkyif ef;tm;vH;k wGif jrefrmhp;D yGm;a&; aumfyakd &;&Si;f
(MEC) u vkyy f ikd cf iG hf &Sad e+yD;/ jrefrmEdik if &H dS tjcm;aom pD;yGm;a&; Oya'rsm;/ xde;f csKyfrr_ sm;ESihf
uif;vGwI f aqmif&u G yf ikd cf iG hf &aeygonf? jrefrmhp;D yGm;a&; aumfyakd &;&Si;f (MEC) u yk*~vdu
pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;rS &&Sdvmonfh 0ifaiGrsm;udk ppftoHk;p&dwfrsm;twGuf v$Jajymif;toHk;ðy
ae+yD;/ ppfwyftwGuf t&if;tjrpfrsm; &SmazGEikd af tmif wnfaqmufxm;onfh ukr% ` w
D ck jzpfyg
onf? ppfwyft&m&Sd }uD;rsm;ESifh ‚if;wdk@. rdom;pk0ifrsm;twGuf pD;yGm;a&; tusKd;tjrwf
tcGifhxl;cH &&Sdavatmif aqmif&Gufxm;onfhukr`%D jzpfygonf?43 2008 ckESpf/ ZlvdkifvwGif
tar&duefjynfaxmifpk tpd;k &/ b¾ma&;0ef}uD;Xmeu jrefrmhp;D yGm;a&; aumfyakd &;&Si;f (MEC)
udk ppftpd;k &udk axmufcyH yhH ;kd aeaoma=umifh '%fcwfta&;,l&rnfh ukr% ` pD m&if;wGif xnfo h iG ;f
azmfjycJhygonf? ppftpdk;&u “jrefrmjynfolrsm;udk pepfwus zdESdyftkyfcsKyfaeaoma=umifh” [k
ta=umif;jy azmfjyxm;ygonf?44

23
ausmfom ukr`%D vDrdwuf
ausmfom ukr`%DvDrdwufonf jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd yk*~vduukr`%Dwckjzpf+yD;/ yif;yufoHpuf&Hk
wnfaqmufr_wGif yg0ifvkyfudkifaeygonf? Tukr`%Dudk 1992 ckESpfwGif pwifwnfaxmifcJh+yD;/
&efukefwGif vuf&Sd &Hk;pdkufygonf? Tukr`%Donf tif*sifeD,mvkyfief;rsm;ESifh aqmufvkyfa&;
vkyfief;rsm; vkyfudkifae+yD;/ aq;0g;ypPnf;rsm;/ qyfjymESifh tpGef;c|wfaq;rsm;udkvnf; trSwf
(1) pufr0_ ef}uD;XmeESihf yl;wGI
J xkwv f yk yf gonf? Tukr%
` u D pdu
k yf sK;d a&;xGuu
f ek rf sm;/ u|e;f opf
udk EdkifiHjcm;odk@ wifydk@onfhvkyfief;rsm;vnf; vkyfudkif+yD;/ aq;0g;ypPnf;rsm;ESifh "gwkypPnf;rsm;
jyefI wifoGif;ygonf?45

uarBmZ aqmufvkyfa&;ukr`%D vDrdwuf
uarBmZ aqmufvyk af &;ukr% ` D vDrw d uf (KDC) onf jrefrmEdik if &H dS yk*v ~ u d ukr%` w D ckjzpf+yD;/
yif;yufbv d yfajrpuf&w kH nfaqmufrw _ iG f tar&duefa':vmoef; 60 cef@ &if;ES;D jr‡KyfEx HS m;ygonf?46
Tukr`%Donf uarBmZb%f. &if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_ pDrHudef;wckvnf; jzpfygonf? uarBmZb%fudk
q&mausmif;[k vlord sm;onfh OD;atmifu0kd if;u awmif}uD;wGif 1994 ckEpS u f pwifwnfaxmif
cJjh cif; jzpfonf? olu =oZm}uD;aom pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;&Siw
47
f OD; jzpf+yD; (etz) tzG@J . 'k-OuÏ
U 'kw, d - Advk cf sKyfrLS ;}uD;armifat;ESiv hf nf; eD;pyfo[ l k tqd&k =dS uonf?48 uarBmZb%fu vkyif ef;
u¾trsm;wGif &if;ES;D jr‡KyfEx HS m;+yD;/ ausmufjruf&wemvkyif ef;rsm;/ owWKwGi;f wl;azmfa&;vkyif ef;
rsm;/ ukeo f ,G af &;ESihf jzef@a0a&;/ pdu k yf sK;d a&;vkyif ef; zG@H òzd;wd;k wufr_ pDru H ed ;f rsm; pojzifh wGiv f nf;
yg0ifvkyfudkif aeygonf? 49

',fe&D ,fvD ESihf pD/ pyg ukr% ` D (Danieli & C. Spa)
',fe&D ,fvD ukr% ` o D nf yif;yuf oH&nfóupd uf&kH vkyif ef;wGif yg0ifywfoufaeonf[k ,lqyg onf?
&k&SmvlrsKd;rsm; aexdkif&m wzufjcrf;&Sd taqmuftOD;}uD;onf a'ocHjynfolrsm;. tqdkt&
“tDwvDvrl sK;d rsm;. &yfuu G ”f [k qdyk gonf? tDwvDvrl sK;d rsm;u Tae&mod@k vma&muf=unf&h _
cJzh ;l ygonf? Tukr% ` o D nf jrefrmEdik if wH iG f oHEiS hf oHr%dvyk if ef;u¾wGif umv=um&Snpf mG uyif
vma&mufvyk u f ikd af ecJah om tDwvDurk % ` D wckjzpfygonf? 1979 ckEpS w f iG f ',fe&D ,fvD ukr% ` u D
aròr@d &dS oHEiS hf oHr%dpuf&kH trSwf (3) oabmwlpmcsKyt f wGuf aomhay;tyf vufrw S af &;xd;k onfph mcsKyf
csKyq f vkd yk uf ikd cf o
hJ nfukd awG@&ygonf? v#yu f ;l tylay; oH&nfóurd ;D zdEk iS hf oHr%dcsuo f nfh pufypPn;f rsm;
tygt0if yHyh ;kd vkyu f ikd cf yhJ gonf? 2007 ckEpS w
50
f iG f Tukr% ` uD jrefrmEdik if w H iG f oHr%dóucd suo f nfh
vkyif ef;Y yg0ifvyk u f ikd af ea=umif; a=unmcsux f w k jf yef twnfðycJah omfvnf;/ ppfvufeufypPn;f
xkwv f yk o f nfh vkyif ef;rsm;wGif yg0ifywfoufr_ r&Sad ea=umif;/ vufeufxw k o
f nfh vkyif ef;rsm;twGuf
axmufyahH y;jcif; r&Sad =umif;vnf; jiif;qdck o hJ nf? ',fe&D ,fvD ukr% ` rD mS urBmay:&Sd owWKóucd suf
vkyfief;rsm;twGuf puf,E W,m;rsm;ESifh puf&Hkrsm; yHhydk;ay;aeonfh t}uD;qHk;ukr`%D (3) ckwGif
wcktygt0ifjzpf+y;D / Edik if t H rsm;tjym;wGif &H;k cGrJ sm;zGivhf pS x
f m;ygonf? ta&S@zsm; ',fe&D ,fvD ukr% ` D
(Danieli Far East)onf befaumufwiG f tajcpdu k yf gonf?

24 tem*wfudk vk,lzsufqD;jcif;
tydik ;f (2)?
a'ocHjynfolrsm;tay: qdk;usKd;oufa&mufr+rsm;

yif;yufawmif teD;w0du k &f dS a'ocHjynforl sm;udk ,ckowWKpDru H ed ;f / oHpuf&EkH iS hf bdvyfajrpuf&kH
wnfaqmufr_ESifhywfoufI today; ta=umif;=um;jcif; r&Sdovdk/ qHk;jzwfcsufrsm; csrSwf&m
wGiv f nf; yg0ifciG hf rðycJyh g? ,ae@umvwdik f pDru H ed ;f rsm;ESihf ywfoufonfh tpDtpOfrsm;/ xdcu kd f
qdk;usKd;oufa&mufEdkifr_rsm; owif;udk teD;tem;wGif aexdkif=uonfh aus;&Gmvlxkrsm;xHodk@
aomfvnf;aumif;/ jynfolvlxkw&yfvHk;xHodk@ aomfvnf;aumif; xkwfjyefay;jcif; r&Sdao;yg?
qd;k usK;d rsm; jzpfay:vmEdik rf E_ iS hf ywfoufI aus;&Gmvlxrk sm;. wifjycsurf sm;udv k nf; vspv f sL&_
xm;cJhygonf? a'ocHjynfolrsm;xHrS oufa&mufcHpm;ae&onfh qdk;usKd;rsm;ESifh ywfoufI
wifjycsufrsm;udkvnf; tm%mydkifrsm;u vspfvsL&_xm;cJhygonf?

yif;yuf oH&nfóudpuf&Hk pwifwnfaqmufonfhtcsdef 2004 ckESpfrSpI yif;yufawmifajca'o
w0du k w
f iG f aexdik =f uol jynforl sm;onf t"rRa&$@ajymif;ae&mcsxm;jcif;/ ajr,mrsm; odr;f qnf;
cH&jcif;/ ydkifqdkifr_ypPnf;OpPmrsm; zsufqD;cH&jcif;/ oufarG;0rf;a=umif;r_ vkyfief;rsm; qHk;&_H;&jcif;/
c&D;oGm;vmcGifh uef@owfcH&jcif;/ ,Ofaus;r_ tarGtESpfrsm; zsufqD;cH&jcif;/ tpm;tpmESifh
avmifpmrsm; rzlvHkjzpf&jcif; ponfh'kuQtzHkzHkudk óuHawG@cJh&ygonf? tu,fI ,ckpDrHudef;rsm;
onf a&S@qufvnfywfrnfqdkygu tjcm;aemufxyfjy\emrsm;vnf; qufvuf óuHawG@&&ef
&Sad eygonf? a&ESihf avxknpfnrf;r_rsm;vnf; óuHawG@cpH m;=u&rnf jzpfygonf? a'ocHjynforl sm;
onf ,ckpDrHudef;rsm;rSaeI rnfonfhtusKd;tjrwfr# cHpm;cGifhr&Sdao;yg? tem*wfwGifvnf;
cHpm;cGifh&&ef rar#mfrSef;Edkif=uaom tajctaeyif jzpfygonf?

t"rRajymif;a&$ hae&mcsxm;jcif;ESifh tdk;tdrfrJh&r+rsm;
awmifESifh eD;pyfonfh aus;&Gm 14 &Gm (pkpkaygif; vlOD;a& 3˜000) onf olwdk@. tdrfrsm;ESifh
v,f,mrsm;udk xm0&pGef@cGmI ajymif;a&$@&rnfh tE W&m,fESifh óuHawG@ae=u&ygonf? vlOD;a&
(50) rSm ajymif;a&$@ap&ef twif;tusyf ESix f w k cf cH =hJ u&+yD;/ olw@kd ukd vHak vmufonfh avsmaf =u;
rsm;vnf; ay;aqmifjcif; r&Syd g? (atmufwiG f azmfjyxm;onf?) awmif0ef;usi&f dS use&f adS eonf&h mG
(11)&Gm/ (cef@rSef; vlOD;a& 4˜000) rSmvnf; wl;azmfxkwfvkyfa&; vkyfief;rsm;pwifonfESifh
wòydief uf ajymif;a&$@ay;=u&zG,f &Sad eygonf? cef@reS ;f aus;&Gm (100) (cef@reS ;f vlO;D a& 35˜000)

25
rSmvnf; olwdk@. &Sifoef&yfwnfa&;ESifh v,f,mvkyfief;rsm;twGuf wbufacsmif;a&udk rSDcdk
tm;xm;ae=u&&m/ ywf0ef;usifnpfnrf;rnfhtE W&m,fa=umifh txl;ab;'kuQ a&muf&zG,f
&Sdaeygonf? wbufacsmif;a&onf olwdk@twGuf yifra&&
&S&d m ae&mjzpfaoma=umifh wcsK@d u ajymif;a&$@aexdik =f u&rnfh
tajctae &Sad eygonf? “v,f o rm;awG t aeeJ @
ajr0,fz@kd yduk q f rH &Sw
d t
hJ cg
2006 ckEpS /f Zefe0g&vD rS 2008 ckEpS /f rwfvtwGi;f aus;&Gm usaemf w d k @ bmoG m ;vk y f
3 &GmrS rdom;pk 16 pkonf yif;yufawmifajcrS twif;tusyf pm;=urvJ ? b,f a e&m
ajymif;a&$@ ay;cJ&h onf? pkpak ygi;f vl (50) rSm vHak vmufaom rSmyJjzpfjzpf/ b,fa'orSm
avsmfa=u;rsm; r&&SdbJ tdrf,mrsm; qHk;&_H;cJh=u&ygonf? a&$@ yJjzpfjzpf usaemfw@kd ajr}uD;
ajymif;cH&aom rdom;pkrsm;rSm aemifumu,faus;&Gm (2006 vdkcsifw,fqdk&if 0,f=u&
ckEpS /f Zefe0g&v
D )/ urfaumfaus;&Gm (2006 ckEpS /f Zefe0g&v D )/ wmyJ? b,folurS tv
yH;k pifaus;&Gm (2008 ckEpS /f rwfv) wd@k rS jzpfonf? yH;k pifaus;&Gm um; r&bl;? olw@ku d usaemf
rS vlxrk sm;rSm avsmaf =u;vH;k 0 r&&Sad omfvnf;/ aemifumu,f wdk@udk avsmfa=u; ray;bJ
ESihf urfaumfaus;&Gmrsm;rSm tdraf xmifpw k ckv#if ysr;f r# usyf ESix f wk v
f ukd wf h J tcgusawmh
2 ode;f cef@ (tar&duef a':vm 200 cef@) ESihf usyw f ode;f cGcJ ef@ bmoGm; vky=f urSmvJ?”
(tar&duefa':vm 150 cef@) toD;oD; avsmaf =u; &&Scd =hJ uyg
onf? Tyrm%onf rdom;pkrsm;twGuf tdk;tdrfjyefvnf
aqmufvyk &f ef vHak vmufonfah iGa=u;r[kwb
f J tdr,
f mopf.

v,f,majrrsm;wGif tvHerD sm;axmifxm;jcif;onf odr;f qnfrnf[k azmfjyxm;jcif; jzpfonf? v,fyikd &f iS rf mS
Tv,fuu
G w
f iG f qufvufvyk yf ikd f cGihf r&Sad wmhay?(2008 azazmf0g7)d

26 tem*wfudk vk,lzsufqD;jcif;
wefz;kd onf ,ckavsmaf =u;aiG yrm%. 10 qr# (ysr;f r#tm;jzifh usyf 2-3 oef;r#) ukeu
f sro
S m
jyefvnf&&SdEdkifygonf?

“v,f o rm;awG t aeeJ @ ajr0,f z d k @ yd k u f q H r &S d w J h t cg usaemf w d k @ bmoG m ;vk y f p m;=urvJ ?
b,fae&mrSmyJjzpfjzpf/ b,fa'orSmyJjzpfjzpf usaemfwdk@ajr}uD;vdkcsifw,fqdk&if 0,f=u&wmyJ?
b,folurS tvum;r&bl;? olwdk@u usaemfwdk@udk avsmfa=u;ray;bJ ESifxkwfvdkufwJh
tcgusawmh bmoGm;pm;=urSmvJ?” &Gmom;wOD;u ajymonf?51

yH;k pifaus;&Gmae vltrsm;pkrmS rJik ;f awmifaus;&Gma[mif;rS vGecf o hJ nfh 15-ESpuf twif;tusyf
ajymif;a&$@c=H u&olrsm;jzpf+yD;/ qufo, G af &;wyf&if; (212) aqmufvyk pf Ofu ESix f w
k cf cH =hJ u&jcif;
jzpfygonf? ,cktcg ESpfxyfuGrf; ESifxkwfajymif;a&$@cdkif;onfESifh óuHóuduf&jyefonf? aus;&Gm
vlxkrsm;rSm ,ckjzpf&yfa=umifh vGefpGma'go jzpf=u&ygonf? tcsKd@aomolrsm;u aus;&Gm
wckvHk;yif ajymif;a&$@=u&vdrfhrnf[k ,Hk=unfae=uygonf? odk@aomfvnf; tm%mydkifrsm;u
wcgv#if vltenf;i,fpo D m ajymif;a&$@apjcif;jzifh aus;&Gmvlx. k a'gor}uD;xGm;ap&ef AsL[m
cs vkyfaqmifae=uygonf? Taus;&Gmonf puf&Hkodk@oGm;aom yifrvrf;/ obm0"gwfaiG@
ydu
k v f ikd ;f wd@k tay:wGif wnf&adS eaoma=umifh ajymif;a&$@cikd ;f jcif; jzpf[efwo l nf? (ajryHu
k kd =unfyh g?)

ajr,mrsm; odrf;qnf;jcif;ESifh ydkifqdkifr+ ypPnf;rsm; zsufqD;cH&jcif;
“tckawmh &Gmab;u ,mcif;wdik ;f rSm tpd;k &u tvHawGvmxlxm;w,f? usaemfxifwmuawmh
ol w d k @ tJ ' D a jrawG tm;vH k ; od r f ; ,l v d r f h r ,f ? usaemf v nf ; bmvk y f & rS e f ; rod b l ; ?
b,fomG ;&rSe;f vnf; rodb;l ? usaemfrh mS vnf; 'DajruGuyf J &Sw d ,f?” 52

yif;yufawmifajc&Sd ,mcif;wcif;udk bl'Zkd mjzifh &Si;f vif;cHae&yH?k (2007 'DZifbm)

27
rdom;pk wpf&mausmfonf olwdk@twGuf ta&;ygvSonfh ajr{u 11˜000 ausmf oH&nfóud
puf&HkESifh bdvyfajrpuf&Hk wnfaqmufr_a=umifh qHk;&_H;cJh=u&+yD; jzpfonf? oH&nfóudpuf&HkteD;
awmifajcteD;&Sd ajrrsm;tm;vH;k . tus,t f 0ef; rSm {u 7˜000 r# &Syd gonf?53 2004 ckEpS Ef iS hf
2008 ckEpS t f =um;wGif aus;&Gm 11 &GmESihf òrd@e,frsm;rS ajrydik &f iS f 124 OD;onf ,ckazmfjyonfh
pDrHudef; 2 ckteuf wckcktwGuf olwdk@. ajrrsm;odrf;qnf;cHcJh=u&ygonf? (aemufqufwGJ 3
udk =unfyh g?) tcsK@d aom ajrydik &f iS rf sm;onf vGecf o
hJ nfh 15 ESp/f rJik ;f awmifaus;&GmwGif v,f,mrsm;
odrf;qnf;cH&+yD;jzpfI ajymif;a&$@tajccs aevm=uolrsm;vnf; jzpfygonf? vltrsm;pkrSm
rnfonfhavsmfa=u;aiGr# &&Sdjcif; r&Sd=uyg?

puf&Hk (2) ckt=um;&Sd ajrrsm;udkvnf; ppfwyfpcef; aqmufvkyf&eftwGuf odrf;,lcJhygonf?
&Gmom; trsm;pkrmS rlvu w{uv#if usyf (2˜000) (tar&duef 2 a':vmr#) avsmaf =u;ay;
rnf[k =um;odcJh&aomfvnf; rnfonfh avsmfa=u;aiGr# &&SdcJhjcif; r&Sdyg?54 “t&l;pum;yJ?
usaemfw@kd u ajrw{uudk 2˜000 usyef @J 0,fv@kd &r,fq&kd if jrefrm wEdik if v
H ;kH u ajrawGuakd wmif
0,fypfvdkufOD;r,f” &Gmom;wOD;u rausreyfajymjyonf? 55

ajr,mrsm;tjyif yHkpifaus;&Gm okomefajrudkvnf; awmif}uD;òrd@e,f at;csrf;om,ma&;ESifh
zGH@òzd;a&;aumifpD (r,u) OuÏ OD;ausmfpGmESifh yif;yufowWKwGif;t&m&Sd OD;atmifatmifwdk@u
odrf;,lcJh=uygonf?

“olwdk@uvm+yD; usaemfwdk@aus;&Gm okomefudk ydwfypfzdk@ trdef@ay;w,f? aemufxyf quf+yD;
vlaorjrKyfawmhz@kd wm;jrpfw,f? usaemfw@kd u wjcm;ae&m oGm;jrKyf&r,fv@kd vnf; ajymw,f?
'Dae@ (2008 ckESpf/ azaz:0g&Dv 15) u aemufqHk;vdk@ ajymxm;wJh ae@yJ?” &Gmom;wOD;u
&Sif;jyonf? 56

od r f ; qnf ; xm;aom ajrrsm;ud k trS w f t om;ðy&ef t wG u f tm%myd k i f r sm;u tvH r sm;
xlxm;ygonf? tu,fI ajruGufay:wGif t0ga&mif tvHxlxm;onfqdkygu Tajrudk
odrf;qnf;rnfjzpfaomfvnf;/ ajrydkif&SiftaeESifh Tajray:wGif qufvufvkyfydkifcGifh &Sdaeao;
a=umif; azmfjyygonf? tu,fI ajray:wGif teDa&miftvHxx l m;ygu ajrudo k rd ;f ydu
k +f yD;jzpf+yD;/
qufvuf pdkufysKd;vkyfydkifcGifh r&Sdawmh[k qdkygonf? ajrydkif&Sifrsm;udk ,ckajrodrf;onfh qHk;jzwf
csuEf iS hf ywfoufI vlu, kd wf ikd f rnfonft
h cgr# vma&mufta=umif;=um;jcif; r&Sad oma=umif/h
rnfonft h csed w
f iG f ajrodr;f qnf;cH&rnfukd cef@reS ;f wGucf su&f efvnf; cufcv
J yS gonf? v,form;
wOD;u atmufygtwdkif; &Sif;jyygonf?

28 tem*wfudk vk,lzsufqD;jcif;
uarBmZ yif;yufbv
d yfajr pDru
H ed ;f &H;k

&[wf,mOfqif;wuf&ef uGi;f ESpu
f iG ;f

yif;yuf bdvyfajrpuf&kH pDru
H ed ;f u ajr{u 4000 ausmu
f kd yif;yufawmifajc&Sd aemifcsK&d mG ESihf
azmifawmfqKGd ufaus;&Gm t=um;Y odr;f ,lco
hJ nf?

yif;yufawmifrS
awmif}uD;òrd@odk@oGm;&m
,ckum; vrf;udk
azmufvkyfaoma=umifh
v,f,majrrsm;
odrf;qnf;cHcJh=u&onf?
teDa&mif obm0
"gwaf iG@ ydu
k v
f ikd ;f onf
vrf;. nmzuf wGif
wnf&Sdonf?

owWKwiG ;f wl;azmf&eftwGuf
ajrudk jyifqif&iS ;f vif;pOf
atmufajc&Sd aus;&Gmonf
ausmuf rsm; vdru
hf srnfh
tE W&m,f/ ajròydrnfh
tE W&m,frsm; udkyg
&ifqdkifae=u&onf?
(2009- arv)

29
“ajrod r f ; zd k @ trS w f t om;vk y f x m;wJ h a e&mawG u rS w f w rf ; rS w f & m r&S d b J / ajryd k i f & S i f u d k
vmta=umif;=um;wm r&Sb d J ydv
k @kd us,u
f s,cf s@J vmw,f? olw@kd u tvH 2-rsK;d vmxlvu kd w f myJ?
wcku t0ga&mif/ wcku teDa&miftvH? tJ'D tcgusryS J usaemfw@kd vnf; ajrodr;f r,fqw kd m
od&awmhwmyJ?” [k qdo k nf? 57

&Gmrsm;taeESifh olwdk@. ajr,mrsm;ESifh oD;ESHrsm;udk puf&Hkwnfaqmufa&;a=umifh zsufqD;cH&
onfudkvnf; awG@&SdcJh&ygonf? 2004 ckESpfwGif aemifvHaus;&GmESifh yif;yufawmift=um;&Sd
v,f c if ; tuG u f 20 rS m zsuf q D ; cH c J h & ygonf ? Tv,f u G i f ; rsm;ud k vrf ; azmuf v k y f & ef /
tvkyo f rm;rsm;twGuf tdrw f ef;vsm;rsm; aqmufvyk &f ef/ &H;k taqmuftODrsm; aqmufvyk &f ef
zsufqD;cJhjcif; jzpfonf? 2006 ckESpf/ azaz:0g&DvwGif xDtkef;pdrf;ESifh aemifumu,faus;&Gm
58

t=um;&S d oD ; ES H c if ; rsm;ES i f h ,mcif ; rsm;ud k v nf ; r&d y f o d r f ; &rD w G i f y if bl ' d k Z mjzif h xd k ; I
&Sif;vif;cHcJh&ygonf? &Gmom;rsm;rSm rnfodk@aom avsmfa=u;r# r&&SdcJhyg?

“usru ausmif;q&mrvky+f yD; aiGp+k yD;awmh tJ',
D mcif;awG 0,fxm;wm? usr 'D,mcif;ay:rSm
tvkyfvkyf&wm 3- ESpfyJ &Sdao;w,f? tckrS ajru aumif;vm&Hk/ tyifpvdk@ pdkufEdkifiH&HkyJ
&Sad o;w,f? olw@kd u vm+yD; odr;f oGm;ygava&m?” [k &GmolwOD;u qdok nf?59

vkyfom;rsm;u azmifawmfqdGKufaus;&GmteD;&Sd awmifay:rS awmifapmif;rsm;udk vrf;azmuf
vkyf&eftwGuf rdkif;azmufcJG &Sif;vif;=uonf? &Gmom;rsm;u olwdk@ydkifqdkif&m ypPnf;rsm;
odrf;qnf;I r+yD;cifyif awmifay:rS ausmufwHk;rsm;/ cJrsm;u ,mcif;/ oD;ESHcif;twGif;
vdrq
hf if;vm=uonf? tyifrsm;udv k nf; ydI ysupf ;D aponf? v,form;wOD;u ajymjy&mwGi-f

“awmifapmif;eJ@e;D wJh ,cif;awGu vH;k 0ysupf ;D ukew
f ,f? ausmufw;kH awG/ cJawGu oD;EScH if;awGay:
usvmw,f? wcsdefwnf;rSmyJ rdkif;cGJwJhvkyfom;awGuvnf; v,fuGufawGxJ tyifawGay:udk
eif;=uw,f? bmrS ruseaf wmhb;l ” [k qdo k nf? 60

yk*~vdu ydkifqdkifr_tcGifhta&;rsm;udk vHk;0vspfvsL&_jcif;udk awmif}uD;òrd@ òrd@e,fat;csrf;om,m
a&;ESihf zG@H òzd;a&;aumifpD (r,u) OuUÏ u 2008 ckEpS /f rwfvwGif usi;f yonfh tpnf;ta0;wGif
xifxif&mS ;&Sm; jyocJo h nf? olu &Gmom;awGukd ajymqd&k mY “tpd;k &u ajrawGtm;vH;k / a&xk/
avxkudk ydkifw,f? cifAsm;wdk@ &Gmom;awGu 6-ay ywfvnf ajr}uD; yJydkifcGifh &Sdw,f” [k
ajym=um;cJhonf? 61

&Gmom;rsm;u ajymjy=u&mwGif &yfa0;rS puf&HkESifh vrf;azmufvkyfa&;wGif vma&muf=uol
vkyo
f m;rsm;uvnf; nydik ;f wGif olw@kd o;D ESrH sm;udk cd;k ,l=ua=umif;/ Tudpt
P wGuv
f nf; rnfo@kd r#
ta&;,lraqmif&GufEdkifa=umif; qdkonf?

30 tem*wfudk vk,lzsufqD;jcif;
yif;yufawmifajcY
tpm;tpm pdkufysKd;=uI?
wzufacsmif;ab;&Sd
opfawmuav;uvnf;
[dkykef;&Sd ,ckaps;uJhodk@yif
eD;pyf&maps;uGufrsm;udk
axmufyHhay;aeonf?

yif;yufawmifteD;&Sd
awmwGi;f rS aus;&Gm
om;rsm;u rd_rsm;vnf;
&SmazGpm; aomufEikd o
f nf?

yif;yufawmifteD;
aus;&Gm&Sd trsKd;orD;
}uD;wOD;ESihf ol.ajr;
rsm;u olwdk@ajryJESifh
ajymif;cif;udk ðypkae=uyH?k

31
toufarG;0rf;a-umif; vkyfief;rsm; qHk;&H+;&jcif;
“olwdk@u vm+yD; ajrodrf;+yD;wJhaemufydkif;rSm usrb0u vHk;vHk;vsm;vsm; ajymif;vJoGm;w,f?
t&ifu usrrSm taºuG;qdv k @kd r&Sb
d ;l ? taºuG;twGuv k ;l ? t&ifu usrrSm
f nf; ylyefaep&mrvdb
udk,fhuH=urRm udk,fzefwD;EdkifcJhw,f?” 62

yif;yufawmif teD;w0dkufY aexdkif=uol a'ocH&Gmom;rsm;onf olwdk@&Sifoef &yfwnfa&;
twGuf v,f,mvkyif ef;wGif rScD akd exdik =f u&ygonf? olw@kd . t"du0ifaiGrmS vnf; v,f,mxGuf
oD;ESrH sm;udk a&mif;csjcif;tm;jzifh &&Sjd cif; jzpfygonf? ajrodr;f ydu
k cf &H +yD;aemuf olw@dk . v,f,m
ajrrsm; qHk;&_H;&+yD;aemufwGif &mESifhcsDaom v,form;rsm;wGif pdkufysKd;&ef ajrr&Sdawmhyg? 0ifaiG
vnf; r&Sb d J jzpfuek =f u&onf? wcsed w f nf;rSmyif pm;aomufuek yf pPn;f rsm;uvnf; aps;E_e;f jrifh
wuf v m=uonf ? ol w k d @ b0wav#muf v H k ; wG i f v,f , mpd k u f y sKd ; a&; vk y f i ef ; wG i f o m
wpdkufrwfrwf vkyfudkif&yfwnfcJhaoma=umifhvnf; tjcm;vkyfief;topfrsm;ESifh aeom;rus
&Sdaeonf? tvkyf&Sm&ef cufcJaoma=umifh tcuftcJ }uD;rm;pGm óuHawG@=u&onf? jy\em
'kuQrsm; óuH&ol v,form;rsm;u -

“v,f,mawG qHk;&_H;ukefwJhtcgusawmh rJkif;awmifaus;&Gmu tcsKd@&Gmom;awGu xif;&_;qD
&S m wm/ xif ; &l ; om; a&mif ; wmvk y f + yD ; 0if a iG &S m =uw,f ? tck a wmh 'D v l a wG v nf ;
awmifav;vH;k axmifrmS xif;&l;yif/ xif;&l;qD a&mif; vd@k q+kd yD; axmifusae=uw,f? &Gmom;awGu
vkyzf @kd v,f,majr r&Sad wmhb;l ? tJonfawmh olw@kd u xif;&l;qDpw k m/ xif;&l;om;aumufwm
vkyw f mayg?h tJ'gvnf; tzrf;cH&jyefw,f?” [k qdo k nf? 63

tu,fI pDru H ed ;f rsm; a&S@qufaqmif&u
G v
f mrnf qdyk gu vltrsm; ydI
k a&$@ajymif;/ xGucf mG &zG,f
&Sdae+yD;/ tvkyftopf&SmazGjcif;/ v,f,majrtopf&&Sd&ef jyefvnf&SmazGjcif; udpPrsm;wGif ydkI
cufcJ tusyftwnf;rsm;ESifh óuH=u&rnfrSm rvGJay?

a'ocHrsm;twGuf tvkyrf &Sjd zpf&jcif;? a&$ ah jymif;tajccs tvkyo
f rm;rsm;twGuf tEW&m,frsm; jcif;?

“olwdk@u a'ocH&Gmu vl 2-a,mufyJ tvkyfac:w,f? wa,mufu &k&Sm;t&m&SdtdrfrSm
xrif;csuvf yk &f w,f? wa,mufu tJonfrmS yJ tdro f ef@&iS ;f a&; vky&f w,f? tJ'D ESpaf ,muf
pvHk;uvnf; wuUodkvfu bGJ@&+yD;om; awGcsnf;yJ? olwdk@u &Gmom;awGudk tvkyf&r,f
ajymwmyJ? 'gayr,fh cifAsm;tjrify?J olw@kd vdrn
f mwmyJav?” 64

32 tem*wfudk vk,lzsufqD;jcif;
2006 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmvESifh 'DZifbmvwGif oH&nfóudpuf&Hk0if;rS tajcpdkufonfh ppfwyf
t&m&Sdrsm;onf tvkyfav#mufxm;&ef yHkpHrsm;udk jzef@a0cJhygonf? [dkykef;ESifh qDqdkifòrd@ae
vlxrk sm;udk tvkycf ef@xm;&mwGif OD;pm;ay;rnf[k qdyk gonf? tvkyaf v#mufxm;&ef pdw0f ifpm;
olrsm;u tvkyaf v#mufvm$ yHpk t H wGuf vlu, kd w
f ikd f oGm;a&mufygu 500 usyf ay;=u&ygonf?
tu,fI vlu, kd w
f ikd rf oGm;a&mufEikd yf gu av#mufvm$ &,lEikd &f ef 1˜000 usyf ay;=u&ygonf?
vltrsm;u tvkyfav#mufxm;=u&m/ tm%mydkifrsm;u yHkpHa&mif;&aiGjzifhyif aiGusyfaxmif
aygif;rsm;pGm &&SdcJh=uygonf? odk@aomfvnf; aemufqHk;wGif qDqdkifòrd@e,frS trsKd;orD;wOD;om
tvkyv f ufccH yhJ gonf? ta=umif;rSm ol ru wuUov kd w
f iG f &k&mS ;bmompum; txl;ðyavhvmI
bGJ@&vmaoma=umifh jzpfygonf? odk@aomfvnf; ‚if;trsKd;orD;u tvkyfvufcH&ef jiif;y,fcJhyg
onf?65 ,ae@umvtxd &Gmom; 2-OD;udo k m wOD;udk xrif;csut f jzpf/ tjcm;wOD;udk tdraf zmf
tultjzpf tvkyv f ufcrH _ &Syd gonf?

xdtk csed w
f iG yf if jrefrmEdik if H tjcm;a'orsm;rS tvkyo
f rm;rsm;udk puf&w
kH nfaqmufa&;twGuf
ac:,lwifoGif; vm=uygonf? a'ocHjynfolrsm;. ajymjycsuft& aqmufvkyfa&; vkyfief;cGif
rsm;wGif xdcdkuf'%f&m&r_ tcsKd@&SdcJhygonf? puf&Hkwnfaqmufa&; vkyfief;cGifrsm;rS aomfvnf;
aumif;/ vrf;azmufvkyfa&; vkyfief;rsm;wGif vnf;aumif; xdcdkuf'%f&m &&SdcJhjcif; jzpfygonf?

“2007 ckESpfrSm ausmuf}udwfwJh pufwvHk;a=umifh vl 7 OD; wòydifwnf; aoqHk;oGm;&w,f?
ol w d k @ u puf a y:rS m ae=uwm/ aemuf a wmh puf x J u d k vd r f h u s+yD ; / puf } ud w f c H = u&+yD ;
tukeaf o=uw,f? pufatmufrmS aewJo h al wGu rod=ubl;? aemufawmh teH@raumif;wm
&ygw,fqdk+yD;/ oGm;=unfhawmhrS od&w,f? ” &Gmom;wOD;u ajymjyonf?66

“rdkif;vkyfom;awGeJ@ aqmufvkyfa&;vkyfom;awG trsm;tjym; jrefrmjynfatmufydkif;uae
vm=uw,f? olwdk@u wcgwav ausmufpGef;rSm cg;udkóud;eJ@csdwf+yD;awmh ausmufwl;=uw,f?
'Dvekd @J rawmfwqvdr=hf u+yD; vlawmfawmf ao=uw,f? olw@kd ausmufwek ;f awGe@J aqmifrh =d uw,f?
'Dvyk o f m;awGukd aemufxyfvo l pf tokwaf wGe@J r=umc% qdok vdk vJv,
S af vh&w
dS ,f? olw@kd
tvkyform;awGao&if 'DrSm jrKyfavhr&Sdbl;? jrefrmjynfatmufydkif;u olwdk@tdrf,mtxd
jyefo,foGm;=uw,f? yif;yuf puf&Hkae&mrSmawmh tvkyform;awG trsm;}uD;ao=u+yD;awmh
ol w d k @ urR Ï mef ; &G w f o H a wG v nf ; avmf p yD u muae =um;=u&w,f ? wcgwavrS m vnf ;
bke;f }uD;awG yifzh w d +f yD; w&m;emwmawG vky=f uw,f” [k ajymjyonf?67

33
[dyk ek ;f ESihf awmif}uD;udk qufo,
G x
f m;onfh aus;vufvx
l o
k ;kH vrf;udk
puf&Hk. eH&HtkwfwHwdkif;u ydwfypfvdkufonf? (2008-rwfv)

c&D;oGm;vmcGifh uef howfr+rsm;
yif;yufawmifteD;&Sd aus;&Gmvlxrk sm;onf c&D;oGm;vmcGihf uef@owfrr_ sm;a=umifh xdcu kd ef pfemr_
jzpf&ygonf? r=umao;rDu oH&nfóudpuf&kH t0if0wGif *dww hf pS I
f ckziG v f uef@owfrr_ sm; ðyvmcJh
onf? T*dwfonf yifrvrf;r}uD;udk ydwfI ðyvkyfxm;jcif; jzpfonf? tjcm;wzuf&Sd aus;&Gm
6-&GmrS aus;&Gmvlxrk sm;rSm jzwfomG ;jzwfvmvky&f ef tcuftcJawG@=u&+yD;/ vHòk cHa&;tapmifrh sm;
xHrS cGifhðycsuf&,l&ef vdktyfygonf? T*dwfrsm;udk eHeuf 6 em&DrS nae 6 em&D txdom
zGi&hf m/ nydik ;f wGif vkyif ef;cGio
f mG ;&ef jzwfoef;oGm;vmae=uonfh vlxrk sm;twGuf tcuftcJjzpf
&ygonf? aps;wGif oD;ESrH sm;oGm;a&mif;&ef/ q&m0efxH ta&;ay: aq;ukor_c&H ef oGm;vm=u&m
wGif tcuftcJ jzpf=u&onf[k &Gmom;wOD;u ajymjyygonf?

“tckawmh awmif}uD;udk oGm;zd@k tcuftcJawG@ae=u&w,f? bmjzpfv@kd vq J akd wmh yif;yufpuf&u
kH
vrf;udk ydwx
f m;w,f? nydik ;f awGrmS jzwfomG ;jzwfvmvkyzf @kd vH;k 0rjzpfEikd af wmhb;l ” [kqo kd nf?68

TvHkòcHa&;*dwfrsm;udk ydwfxm;aomtcsdefY jzwfoef;&ef óud;pm;=uol &Gmom;rsm;/ cGifhðycsuf
r&&SdbJ jzwfoef;=uolrsm;rSm vHkòcHa&;tapmifhrsm;xHrS ajymqdk[def;a[mufr_rsm;/ zdESdyfr_rsm;
cH=u&ygonf? 2008 ckEpS /f ZGev
f wGif jzpfymG ;cJo
h nfh jzpf&yfwckwiG f yGiahf eaom*dwu
f kd cGiðhf ycsurf &Sb
d J
um;jzwfarmif;rdonfth wGuf &du k Ef u
S cf &H ygonf? aemufw}udrw f iG f tjcm;vli,fwOD;udk *dwo f @kd
nydkif;csnf;uyfvmonf[kqdkum wnvHk; *dwfwdkifwGif óud;ESifh csnfaESmifxm;cJhygonf? 69

34 tem*wfudk vk,lzsufqD;jcif;
“ppfwyfu t&m&Sd}uD;wcsKd@vmwJhtwGufa=umifh vHkòcHa&;*dwfu yGifhaew,f? vli,fuvnf;
*dwfuyGifhaeawmh armif;0ifoGm;w,f? aemufawmh tapmifhu ol@udkwm;+yD;/ um;ay:u
qG J c sw,f ? *d w f u d k jzwf o G m ;vd k @ qd k + yD ; xd k ; }ud w f a wmh w myJ ? tJ ' D v l u wc%awmif
owdvpfoGm;w,f? aemufawmh ol@udk[dkykef;&Jpcef;udk ydk@vdkufw,f? 'Dvli,fu aemufawmh
rdkif;puf&Hku tm%mydkifawGudk apm'uwufw,f? wdkifw,f? 'gayr,fh olwdk@u bmrSta&;
w,l vkyaf y;wm r&Syd gb;l ?” [k &Gmom;wOD;u ajymjyygonf?70

xdrk #ru aemifumu,fEiS hf yifiakd us;&Gmt=um; qufo, G x
f m;aomvrf;rSmvnf; puf&jkH yifywGif
a&uefwnfaqmufonft h cg zsuq
f ;D cHvu
kd &f ygonf? a'ocHjynforl sm;rSm xdvk rf;udk qufvuf
toH;k ðyEdik jf cif; r&Sad wmhb/J ,cktcg ta0;vrf;r}uD;rS auG@ywfI ydrk akd 0;vHpmG oGm;vmae=u&
ygonf? xd@k tjyif u|EJ mG ;vSn;f rsm;jzifh c&D;oGm;vm=u&mwGiv f nf; ydI
k tE &W m,fruif; jzpfvm
&onf?

trsKd;orD;rsm;twGuf rvHkòcHonfhtajctae/ tEW&m,fwdk;I jzpfvm&jcif;
a,mufsm;om; a&$@ajymif;tvkyo f rm;rsm;ESihf ppfom;rsm; pDru
H ed ;f ae&mwGif rsm;jym;pGm 0ifa&muf
vmaoma=umifh yif;yufa'o&Sd trsK;d orD;rsm;rSm olw@kd u,kd of wl @kd pd;k &draf =umuf&@HG vm=uygonf?

“pDrHudef;vkyfom;awGu trsm;}uD;a&mufvmw,f? a'ocH trsKd;orD;awGudkvnf; xduyg;
&duyg; vkywf mawG &Sv d mw,f? usaemfw h rl u rdik ;f em;u&Sw
d hJ &GmrSm qdik if ,fuav;zGix
hf m;w,f?
aumifrav; oGm;wJah e&maemufukd a,mufsm;awGu vdu k af e=uw,f? tckawmh usaemfw@kd vnf;
&ifwrreJ@ aeae=u&w,f? olw@kd u usaemfw@kd ukd bmvkyrf ,f rSe;f vnf; rodb;l ? usaemfw@kd u
awmh wcsed vf ;kH a=umuf&@HG p;kd &dr+f yD; ae&wmyJ? txl;ojzifah wmh rde;f rysKad wGq&kd if wcsed v f ;kH pd;k &drf
ae=u&w,f? ” &Gmom;wOD;u ajymonf? 71

ucsifjynfe,f a&$rdkif;wl;aomae&mrsm;wGif avhvmcJhaom tpD&ifcHpm awG@&Sdcsufwckt&
owWKwGif;a'orsm;wGif ,m,D tajccsvm=uonfh a,mufsm;om; vkyfom;rsm;jym;vmr_ESifh
twl/ a'owGif;wGif trsKd;orD;rsm;twGuf tvkyf&Sm;yg;r_a=umifh trsKd;orD;rsm; vdifvkyfief;
twGi;f 0ifa&mufvyk uf ikd =f uonfh tajctae jzpfvmaponfukd awG@&ygonf? rsm;aomtm;jzifh
tE &W m,fruif;aom vdiaf &mif;0,fonfh vkyif ef;wGif yg0ifywfouf=u&ygawmhonf?72 yif;yuf
awmifa'owGif v,fajrrsm;qHk;&_H;&jcif;/ toufarG;0rf;a=umif;r_ enf;vrf;rsm; qHk;&_H;=u&jcif;
wd@k twGuaf =umifh trsK;d orD;rsm;twGuf &wufrat;zG,f tE &W m,fukd óudwifjrifae&ygawmh
onf?

35
pm;eyf&duQm rvHkòcHr+ESifh avmifpm rvHkavmufr+rsm;
yif;yufawmifajc&Sd aus;&Gmaygi;f 25 &GmrS vlxrk sm;onf ‚if;awmifay:&Sd opfawmrsm;udk olw@kd .
jznfhpGuf&duQm &SmazGpm;aomuf&ef rSDcdkae=u&ygonf? TawmawmifrSaeI olwdk@twGuf
tpm;tpm/ wdkif;&if;aq; opfOopfzkrsm;/ tdrftrdk;tumESifh xif;wdk@ &&Sd=uygonf? r#pf/ rd_/
wdik ;f &if;aq;rsm; awmwGi;f rS &moDtvdu k f &SmazGEikd +f yD;/ a'ocHjynforl sm;. ^m%f&o
dS avmuf
&dk;&mtpOftvmrsm;twdkif; toHk;cs=uygonf? xdk@tjyif awmawmifrsm;twGif;Y trJvdkufI
[if;pm &Smavhvnf; &S=d uygonf? opf/ 0g;/ zufw@kd ukd awmifay:rS &SmazG+yD; tdrjf yifaqmufonfh
tcgY oHk;Edkif=uonfhtjyif csufðywf&eftwGufvnf; xif;zlvHkpGm &&SdcJh=uygonf?

oH&nfóudpuf&kH wnfaqmuf&ef jyifqifrr_ sm; 2004 ckEpS w f iG f pwifI ðyvm=uonft h cg/ ppfom;
rsm;u &Gmom;rsm;udk yif;yufawmif opfawmtcsKd@twGif; xif;&SmcGifhudk ydwfyifcJh=uygonf?
awmifay:rS tdrfodk@ xif;o,fvmolrsm;xHrSvnf; aiGa=u;awmif;cHr_rsm; &Sdvmygonf?73
aqmufvyk af &; vkyif ef;rsm; vkyaf omtcg tcsK@d ae&mrsm; ysupf ;D oGm;&onft
h wGuaf =umifv
h nf;
awmxJwGif [if;oD;[if;&Guf&Sm&ef ydkI cufcJvmcJhygonf?

2007 ckESpfwGif/ yif;yufawmif teD;w0dkufwGif aexdkif=uonfh aus;&Gmrsm;rS &Gmvl}uD;rsmudk
&Gmom;rsm; yif;yufawmifay:wGif xif;&SmEdkifawmhrnf r[kwfa=umif;/ [if;oD;[if;&Gufrsm;
&SmazGcGifh r&Sdawmha=umif; trdef@xkwfjyefcJhygonf? Todk@ wm;jrpfrdef@ xkwfjyefcJhaoma=umifh
opfawmESifh eD;pyf&Sifoefae&onfh &Gmom;rsm;. b0udk opfawmESifh jzwfawmufvdkufonfh
ES,f &Syd gonf? &Gmom;trsm;udk xif;&Sm/ [if;&Gu&f mS &ef ae&mi,fwckuo kd m cGiðhf yxm;ygawmh
onf? od@k jzpf&m &dumQ tpm;taomufEiS hf xif;&Sm;yg;r_EiS hf óuHawG@vm&ygonf? awmifwckv;kH udk
jyefjyifI r&atmif qufvufzsuq f ;D aer_rsm;a=umifh yif;yufawmifEiS hf jynfowl @kd a0;uGm&um/
olwkd@&&SdcJhonfh opfawm t&if;tjrpfrsm;onfvnf; qHk;&_H;=u&awmhrnf jzpfygonf?

“[d k y k e f ; u avh u sif h a &;wyf & if ; trS w f - 3 u &G m om;awG u d k xif ; aumuf c G i f h ray;bl ; ?
olwdk@udk,fwdkif xif;aumuf=uw,f? tu,fI &Gmom;awGu xif;vdkcsifw,fqdk&if olwdk@udk
3˜000 usyf ay;=u&w,f? tu,fI &Gmom;awGu aiG 3 axmifusyf ray;bl;qdk&if olwdk@
(ppfom;rsm;) u &Gmom;awG pkxm;+yD;om; xif;awGudk odrf;,l a&mif;pm;=uw,f?” 74

olwdk@. awmwGif; “aps;}uD;” aysmufqHk;oGm;=u&onfhtjyif/ puf&Hkvkyfom;rsm;ESifh ppfom;
rsm;u aus;&Gmvlxkrsm;xHrS oD;ESHrsm;udkvnf; cdk;,l=uao;onf? =uufrsm;/ =uufOrsm;/
[if;oD;[if;&Gufrsm;/ aemufqHk; zdeyfrsm;txdyif cdk;,lcH=u&onf?75 2008 ckESpf/ {+yDvwGif
Ad k v f c sKyf } uD ; armif a t;u puf & H k o d k @ vma&muf v nf y wf r nf h wntvd k w G i f ppf o m;rsm;u
azmifawmfqdGKufaus;&GmteD;odk@ a&mufvm=uonf?

36 tem*wfudk vk,lzsufqD;jcif;
puf&HktwGuf a&uef
wnfaqmufr_u
wzufacsmif;udk ydwq f @kd I
acsmif;a&udk oHpuf&o kH @kd
ajymif;vJo,fydk@rnf
jzpfonf?
(2008 - rwfv)

yif;yufawmifteD;&Sd
wzufacsmif;wGi;f aus;&Gm
om;rsm; a&csK;d ae=upOf
(2007 ckEpS /f rwfv)

wzufacsmif;rS
zrf;qD;&rdaom ig;rsm;udk
aus;&Gmom;rsm;u
a&mif;csaepOf? a&xk/
avxk npfnrf;r_
rsm;a=umifh acsmif;wGif;wGif
ig;rsm;ESifh trsKd;uGJjym;
wnf&Sdr_udkvnf;
qdk;usKd;oufa&muf
apvdrfhrnf?

37
“{+yDv 24 &ufae@rmS awmif}uD;rSm&Sw d hJ (ta&S@yikd ;f wdik ;f ppfXmecsKyf) (&yc) u ppfom; 30 udk
Adv
k cf sKyfarmifat; rvmcif vHòk cHa&;taeeJ@ yd@k vm=uw,f? tJ'rD mS olw@kd u &Gmudv k m+yD; [if;oD;
[if;&Guaf wmif;w,f? usaemfw@kd &Gmom;awGuvnf; wcsK@d awmh ay;pm;wmayg?h aemufwae@rmS
awmh olw@kd u cGirhf awmif;aeawmhb;l ? olw@kd bmom cd;k ,l=uawmhwmyJ? usaemft h rd af tmufu
=uufoGefjzL 15 uDvdk*&rfavmufvnf; aysmufoGm;w,f? tjcm;&Gmom;awG&J@ =uufoGefjzL
awGvnf; aysmufwmyJ? olw@kd u =uuf 10 aumifuv kd nf; cd;k ,l=uao;w,f? olw@kd u &Gmu
vli,fawG&J@ zdeyfawmif csrf;omray;bl;?” 76

aemufydkif;wGif &Gmom;rsm;u cdk;,lcH=u&onfh ypPnf;rsm;udk p&if;ðypkI avsmfa=u;awmif;cHcJh
aomfvnf;/ wjym; wcsyfrS jyefvnf&&SdcJhjcif; r&Sdyg?

tu,fI puf&EkH iS hf owWKwGi;f om vnfywfEikd o f nfh tajctae&Syd gu puf&rkH t S npfta=u;rsm;
a=umifh wbufacsmif;a& npfnrf;+yD;/ ig;rsm;tqdyo f ifrh nf/ oD;ESrH sm;vnf; ysupf ;D &rnfukd pd;k &drf
ae=uygonf? oD;ESrH sm;rSmvnf; acsmif;a&udk tm;xm;pdu k yf sK;d ae=u&onfjzpf&m a&npfnrf;ygu
'kuaQ wG@&Edik o
f nf? od@k jzpfvmygu &Gmom;rsm;taeESihf tpm;taomuf&mS ;yg;r_ ydI k óuHawG@&zG,f
&Sdaeygonf?

,Ofaus;r+rsm; zsufqD;cH&jcif;
aus;&Gmvlxkrsm;rSm a&$@ajymif;aexdkif=u&jcif;a=umifh &yf&Gmttkyftoif;uGJ&jcif;/ &dk;&mtpm;
taomufrsm;/ wdik ;f &if;aq;rsm; &&S&d ef uef@owfrr_ sm; óuHvmjcif;/ v,f,majrrsm; qH;k &_;H =u&
jcif;a=umifh yif;yufawmifa'oae ytd0k ;f jynforl sm;. “&Sio f efaexdik =f uonfh ,Ofaus;r_rsm;”/
ordik ;f 0if,Ofaus;r_t& wefz;kd xm;&rnfah e&mrsm; ysupf ;D aysmufu, G =f u&rnfukd pd;k &draf eygonf?
xdk@tjyif ,Ofaus;r_qdkif&m &kyf0wˆKrsm;onfvnf; zsufqD;cH&zG,f &Sdaeygonf? 2008 ckESpf/
rwfvESihf {+yDvrsm;wGif azmifawmfqKGd ufaus;&GmrS Ak'b < mom bke;f awmf}uD;ausmif;ESihf yif;yuf
awmifajc awmifay:&Sd a&S;a[mif;apwDrmS rdik ;f rsm;cGo J nfth &Sed f &du
k cf wfra_ =umifh uGt
J ufc&hJ ygonf?
puf&HktwGuf ausmufpGef;udk òzdcsjcif;ESifh vrf;azmufvkyf&eftwGuf rdkif;rsm;cGJ&mrS jzpfvmonfh
t&Sed jf zpfonf? rdik ;f cG&J mrS vGiphf ifvmonfh ausmufprsm;onf bke;f awmf}uD;ausmif;ESihf apwDukd
xdrSef=u+yD;/ teD;w0dkuf&Sd ,mcif;rsm;txJ odk@vnf; vGifhpifusa&muf=uygonf?

puf & H k 0 if ; twG i f ; wG i f usa&muf a eaoma=umif h 0g;awmif c rf t rnf & S d a&S ; a[mif ; apwD
ysupf ;D oGm;rnfukd &Gmom;rsm;u pd;k &draf e=uygonf? xd@k tjyif teD;tem;&Sd tjcm;apwD q,fql
ausmrf mS vnf; tvm;wl ysupf ;D qH;k &_;H &zG,f &Sad eyg onf?

38 tem*wfudk vk,lzsufqD;jcif;
owWKwGi;f wl;azmfonfah e&mrS azmufcrJG r_ sm;a=umifh bk&m;eH&w
H iG f tufa=umif;rsm; jzpfay:vmonfukd
&[ef;wyg;u jyoaepOf? (2008-rwfv)

yif;yufowWKrdik ;f ae&m&Sd 0g;awmifcrf a&S;a[mif;apwD?
(2008-Zefe0g&Dv)

39
obm0ywf0ef;usif xdcdkufysufpD;&r+rsm;
“owW K wG i f ; wl ; azmf & mwG i f ajr}uD ; ud k t}uD ; tus,f zsuf q D ; jcif ; a=umif h vl t rsm;.
vHkòcHa&;twGuf pdk;&drfzG,f ta=umif; &Sdaeovdk/ avESifh a&wdkufpm;r_rsm;a=umifhvnf;
obm0ywf0ef;usif jy\emrsm; trsm;tjym; &SdvmEdkifonf?” 77

awmifwckvHk;rSm tyGifhowWKwGif;rsm; jzpfusef&pfEdkifjcif;? jyefjyifI r&Edkifaom ajrrsufESmoGifjyif
qHk;&+H;r+óuH&Edkifjcif;?
tyGifhowWKwGif;rsm;onf ajrrsufESmoGifjyifESifh a*[aA'pepfudk vHk;vHk;vsm;vsm; ajymif;vJ
apygonf? xdk@tjyif opfawmrsm; ðyef;wD;&jcif;/ awmaumifwd&p>mefrsm;twGuf rSDcdkp&m
ae&mrsm; qHk;yg;&jcif;/ rvdktyfaom ajrom;rsm; awmifvdkyHkvmjcif;ESifh ajrwdkufpm;r_ jzpfjcif;/
ajròydusEdkifonfh tE W&m,f óuH&Edkifjcif;ESifh a&xGufaygufrsm;/ a&t&if;tjrpfrsm;wGifvnf;
tenfusjcif;rsm; jzpfay:vmEdkifygonf? jrefrmEdkifiHwGif w&m;0ifxkwfjyefa=unmxm;onfh
owWKwGi;f Oya't& vdt k yfcsujf zpfaom ajrrsm;jyefvnfjyifqif&ef/ opfyifrsm; jyefvnfpu kd yf sK;d
ysKd ; axmif & ef ponf h pD r H c suf r sm;vnf ; yif ; yuf p D r H u d e f ; twG u f r&S d y g? ucsif j ynf e ,f /
zm;uef@a'orS owWKwGi;f vkyo f m;rsm;. ajymqdck surf sm;udk ud;k um;I tyGio hf wWKwGi;f rsm;a=umifh
ywf0ef;usif rnfr#ysufpD;&onfudk udk;um;azmfjyvdkygonf?

ucsijf ynfe,f/ zm;uef@a'o&Sd tyGiw
hf ;l xm;aom rdik ;f rsm;? tu,fI ,ckprD u
H ed ;f udo
k m r&yfqikd ;f ygu
wcsed w
f iG f yif;yufawmifonf ,ckuo
hJ @kd tusn;f wefaeayawmhrnf?

40 tem*wfudk vk,lzsufqD;jcif;
bl'dkZmrsm;u
+cHajrrsm;udk &Sif;ypf+yD;/
a'ocH pm;usuaf jr
rsm;wGif ajrrsm;
yHkaepOf
(2009-zaz:0g&Dv)

opfawm/ a&xGuf
rsm;udk umuG,f
apmifha&Smufay;&ef
a'ocHvlxk.
ewfuGef;? Todk@
udk;uG,f ,Hk=unfr_
qdik &f m taqmuftOD
rsm;rSmvnf; aqmuf
vkyfa&;vkyfief;a=umifh
ysufpD;&awmhrnf?

a'ocHjynfolrsm;u
umuG,fapmifha&Smuf
xm;onfh opfawmudk
qdik ;f bkwaf &;
azmfjyxm;pOf?
(aqmufvyk af &;vkyif ef;
rsm;a=umifh ysufpD;&
awmhrnf jzpfonf?)

41
“zm;uef@a'ou t&ifu opfyif/ 0g;yifawGe@J pde;f vrf;pdak jycJw
h hJ ae&myJ? tJ'gawGtm;vH;k oGm;+yD?
wckrS r&Sdawmhbl;? tckawmh zm;uef@u trd_ufyHk}uD;vdk jzpfae+yD? O&kjrpfuvnf; tckawmh
t+rJwrf; aemufusdnpfywfae+yD? t&ifu awmifay:rSm&SdcJhwJh zm;uef@òrd@uvnf; tckawmh
rd;k &moDrmS ESpw
f ikd ;f a&}uD;w,f? owWKwGi;f a[mif;awGu usew
f hJ ajr}uD;awGu wòrd@v;kH tES@H y?J ”
[k ajymygonf? 78

“zm;uef@rSm t}uD;rm;qHk; jy\emwckuawmh rdkif;wl;&mu xGufvmwJh ajr}uD;awGudk
b,fae&moGm;ypf&rSef; rod=ubl;? olwdk@u O&kjrpfxJudk ypfcs=uw,f? jrpfxJrSm atmufu
jrifhwufvm+yD;awmh jrpfa=umif;u usOf;vmw,f? ESpfwdkif; a&}uD;awmhw,f? rdk;wGif;rSm
ajr}uD;yHkawGu &Gmxuf ydkjrifhaeavawmh &GmudkaemufqHk; a&v$rf;awmhwmyJ? tdrfawGvnf;
ysupf ;D uke=f uw,f? ” [k ajymonf?79

ywf0ef;usif npfnrf;r+rsm;
wbufacsmif;rSa&udk oG,, f +l yD;/ oH&nfóudpuf&t kH wGi;f &Sd uef 2- cko@kd v$aJ jymif;yd@k aqmifonf?
wwd,ajrmuf uef}uD;wckukd puf&0kH if;. jyifywGiyf if wnfaqmufv#uf &So d nf? cef@reS ;f &onfrmS
Ta&udkyif owWKoef@pifonfh vkyfief;wGif toHk;ðyvdrfhrnf[k ,lq&onf? (oH&dkif;udk oef@pif
óudcsufjcif; Box uGif;twGif;=unfhyg?) xdk@aemuf yspfESpfaeaom tenfrsm;udk uefrsm;twGif;
odkavSmifxm;vdrfhrnf jzpfonf? odk@aomfvnf; a&rsm;udk rnfodk@ toHk;csrnfudk wdusaocsm
rod&ao;yg? ydI k ta&;}uD;onfrmS oef@pifonfv h yk if ef; vkyaf qmifyjkH zpf+yD;/ a&udjk yefI toH;k cs
Edik af tmif ðyjcif;/ a&udk oGex
f w k jf cif; ponfw@kd EiS hf ywfoufI wduspmG rod&ao;yg? tu,fI
roef@pifonfh a&rsm;ESihf tenftESprf sm;udk wbufacsmif;twGi;f od@k jyefvnfpeG @f ypfygu a&vrf;
a=umif;wav#mufvHk;udk npfnrf;aprnfjzpf+yD;/ "gwfºuGaeonfh owWKtenfrsm;/ tqdyfoifh
apaom qmvzdk'f owWKrsm;a=umifh a&xGufrsm; wav#muf npfnrf;ap+yD;/ jrpfta=uwGif
oGm;a&mufpkyHk=urnf jzpfygonf?

oH&dkif;wl;azmfxkwfvkyfjcif;r#ESifhyif wbufacsmif;twGuf pdk;&drfzG,f tE W&m,f&Sdaeygonf?
tm%mydik rf sm;. tqdt k & owWKwGi;f onf tyGiohf wWKwGi;f jzpfrnf[k qdak e=uygonf? od@k jzpf&m
rvdktyfonfh ajrom;rsm;udk pkyHkxm;jcif;a=umifh ‚if;ajr}uD;yHkrSwqifh awmifapmif;wav#muf
ajròydpD;qif;jcif;rsm; jzpfEdkifygonf? òydusaomajr}uD;rsm;onf vrf;a=umif;ozG,f jzpfum
aemufqHk; ajrom;pD;qif;jcif;rsm;onf acsmif;rsm;/ jrpfrsm;twGif; usa&mufEdkif+yD;/ obm0ESifh
rnDaom EHk;wiftenfusjcif;rsm; jzpfay:Edkifygonf?

wbufacsmif;wGif npfnrf;vmjcif;/ EHk;wiftenfusjcif;rsm; jzpfygu ‚if;yif;yufawmif teD;
w0duk &f dS [dyk ek ;f vGijf yifae aus;&Gm 100 ausmrf S vlxrk sm; 'kuaQ wG@=u&rnf jzpfygonf? xdv
k x
l k
rsm;rSm wbufacsmif;rSa&udkyif olwdk@. &Sifoef&yfwnfa&;twGuf rSDcdkaexdkif=u&ygonf?

42 tem*wfudk vk,lzsufqD;jcif;
aus;&Gmvlxkrsm;u wbufacsmif;udk rSDcdkI ig;zrf;jcif;/ aomufoHk;a&o,fjcif;/ oD;ESHa&ay;jcif;
ae@pOfEiS t hf r# ðyae=uygonf? owWKwGi;f a=umifh tnpfta=u;rsm; jzpfvmygu ig;rsm; aoqH;k
&ap+yD;/ aus;&Gmvlxkrsm;. usef;rma&;vnf; xdcdkufvmEdkifygonf? oD;ESHrsm;vnf; tqdyfoifh
apEdik yf gonf? tenfus EH;k wifjcif;a=umifh jrpfa=umif;. a*[aA'pepfukd ajymif;vJap+yD; pduk yf sK;d
a&;vkyfief;rsm;twGuf a&ay;aer_udk xdcdkufapEdkifygonf? obm0ywf0ef;usif npfnrf;aprnfh
tE &W m,ftjyif/ wbufacsmif;rS a&udv k I
J$ puf&tkH wGuf a&,ljcif;a=umifh jynforl sm;. ae@pOf
a&toH;k jyK&eftwGuf a&&&SEd ikd rf _ yrm%vnf; avsmeh nf;oGm;Edik yf gonf? jrpfa=umif;ajymif;jcif;/
a&ay;pepf wl;ajrmif;rsm;tay: ajymif;vJjcif;rsm;vnf; jzpfvmEdkifygonf?

yif;yufawmifajc teD;w0dkuf&Sd aus;&Gmvlxkrsm;taeESifh owWKwl;azmfxkwfvkyfr_rsm;ESifh
x&yfum;}uD;rsm; armif;ESio f mG ;vmaer_a=umifh qlno H /H avxknpf nrf;r_rsm;ESihf ydI
k óuHawG@
cHpm;&zG,f &Sad eygonf? oH&ikd ;f ygonfh ajrrsm;/ bdvyfajrrsm;udo k ,f,&l ef um;rsm;vnf; O'[dk
oGm;vm jzwfoef;ae=uvdrrhf nf jzpfygonf? a'ocHjynforl sm;. om,m0ajyma&;udk r=unfb h /J
(etz) ppftpd;k &udk pdwóf uduaf qmif&u G cf iG hf &aeaoma=umifh yif;yufawmifteD; w0du k &f dS aus;&Gm
vlxrk sm;rSm Tpuf&w kH iG f obm0ab;jzpfapaom tnpfta=u;rsm; pepfwus xde;f odr;f pGe@f ypfap
onfh pepfxm;rnf r[kwf[kvnf; ,Hk=unfae=uonf?

opfawmrsm; ðyef;wD;jcif;ESifh a&xGufpepfrsm; ysufpD;&jcif;
tpdk;&owif;Xmersm;. tqdkt& yif;yufowWKwGif;onf tyGifhowWKwGif; jzpfonf? vkyfom;
tcsK@d u bl'Zkd mjzifh ,cifowWKwGi;f a[mif; Orifae&mrsm;&Sd opfawmrsm;udk pwifI &Si;f vif;ae
=u+yD jzpfonft h wGuaf =umif/h yxrOD;qH;k tyGio hf wWKwGi;f wl;azmf rnfah e&mrSm ,ckOrifae&myif
jzpfz,G f &S+d yD;/ wl;azmfxw
k v
f yk af &;twGuf jyifqifae=ujcif; jzpfEikd yf gonf? ,mawmrsm;udk jzwfI
vrf;azmufjcif;rsm; ðyae=u+yD;/ tcsK@d prd ahf wm v#Kad jrmifrsm;udk ajrzd@k jcif;/ ajrndj‡ cif; ðyvkyaf e=u+yD
jzpfygonf? tu,fI pDrHudef;om wdk;wufaqmif&Gufvmrnf qdkygu ajrtrsm;tjym;udk ydkI
&Si;f xkwrf nfjzpf+yD;/ opfyifrsm;vnf; ckwv f yJS pfrnf rvGrJ aoG jzpfonf? od@k twGuaf =umifh [dyk ek ;f
vGijf yif. a&a0a&vJpepfukd xdcu kd af prnf jzpfygonf?

a'ocHjynforl sm;u opfawmrsm;ESihf a&xGuaf e&mrsm;udk apmifah &Smufxed ;f odr;f &ef ewfueG ;f rsm;/
odk@r[kwf a'ocH pum;jzifh “vla[mf” rsm; aqmufvkyfum wefcdk;}uD;aom/ wefzdk;&Sdaom
ae&mtjzpf xde;f odr;f cJ=h uygonf? opfcw k jf cif;/ trJvu
kd jf cif;/ ig;zrf;jcif; ðyrnfqykd gu/ tenf;qH;k
t0wfav#mrf nf/ a&csK;d rnf/ trdu _ yf pfrnfqykd gu Tae&mrsm;wGif raqmif&u G af p&ef &d;k &mt&
wm;jrpfxm;=uygonf?

vGecf o
hJ nfEh pS rf sm;u aemifumu,faus;&GmteD;&Sd &Gmom;rsm;onf olw@kd . a&xGuaf e&mrsm;ESihf
obm0ywf0ef;usit f wGuf pd;k &dryf yl efc=hJ uonft
h avsmuf/ &yf&mG opfawma'oudk xlaxmif+yD;

43
opfckwfI opfxkwfvkyfjcif; rðyap&ef umuG,fxdef;odrf;cJh=uygonf? olwdk@u ewfuGef;rsm;
aqmufvkyfcJh=u+yD;/ txl;umuG,fxm;onfhae&mtjzpf yHhydk;vkyfaqmifchJ=uygonf? puf&Hk
wnfaqmufa&; vkyfief;rsm; pwifvm+yD;onfhaemufwGif ewfuGef;rsm;onfvnf; zsufqD;cHcJh
=u&+yD;/ &yf&Gmydkifopfawmvnf; ðywfðywfðyef;oGm;&ygawmhonf?

“olw@kd (pDru H ed ;f tm%mydik rf sm;) vmawmh tukev f ;kH zsuq
f ;D ypfawmhwmyJ? olw@kd u enf;enf;rS
ud,
k u f siw hf &m; r&S=d ubl;? olw@kd u ywf0ef;usit f a=umif; ajymw,f? 'gayr,fh olw@kd ajymovdk
vkywf m r[kwb f ;l ? a&S;ytd0k ;f vl}uD;awGu obm0ywf0ef;usiw f @kd bmwd@k pwhJ pum;vH;k awGukd
em;vnf=uwm r[kwfbl;? 'gayr,fh olwdk@u opfyifawG 0g;yifawG pdkufw,f? apmifha&Smuf
xde;f odr;f w,f? olw@kd u ajrwGi;f a&xGuaf wGukd xde;f +yD; om;aumifw&d pd m> efawG em;cd&k mae&m
awGrmS a&rcrf;oGm;atmifvnf; vkyaf y;=uw,f? aemifumu,faus;&Gmtem;rSm a'ocHjynfol
awGu awmifab;rSm opfawmawGudk xdef;odrf;xm;=uwm &Sdw,f? opfyifawGu }uD;vm+yD?
awmvnf; ydkxlvmw,f? 'gayr,fh tm%mydkifawGuvm+yD;wJhtcg tukefzsufqD;ypfawmh
wmyJ?” &Gmom;wOD;u rausreyf ajymonf?80

a'ocHjynforl sm;. om,m0ajyma&;udk r=unfb h /J (etz) ppftpd;k &udk pdwóf uduaf qmif&uG cf iG hf
&aeaoma=umifh yif;yufawmifteD;w0dkuf&Sd aus;&Gmvlxkrsm;rSm Tpuf&HkwGif obm0ab;
jzpfapaom tnpfta=u;rsm; pepfwus xde;f odr;f pGe@f ypfaponfh pepfxm;rnf r[kw[ f vk nf;
,Hk=unfae=uonf?

puf&HkteD;w0dkuf&Sd tcsKd@aom ae&mrsm;rSm obm0tav#muf a&xGufa'orsm; jzpf=u+yD;/
ajratmufa&a=umifh wESpfywfvHk; pdkpGwfpdrf;pdk ae=uygonf? vGefcJhonfh rsKd;qufrsm;pGmu
Tae&monf a&uef}uD;jzpfcJhzl;onf[k qdkygonf? ,ae@umvwGif a&uef}uD; aysmufuG,f
oGm;+yD jzpfaomfvnf; Tae&m&Sd ajrrsm;rSm txl;ajrqD=oZm ºuG,f0I [if;oD;[if;&GufESifh
oD;ESHrsm;pdkufysKd;&ef vltrsm;u oabmusESpfouf=uygonf? oH&nfóudpuf&Hkawmifzuf&Sd
a&xGufa'orSm opfyifrsm; ckwfvSJjcif;/ ausmufpGef;rsm;udk rdkif;jzifh òzdcsjcif;wdk@a=umifh ,cktcg
a&crf ; ajcmuf o G m ;+yD [ k od & ygonf ? wcsd e f w nf ; rS m yif awmif . taemuf a jrmuf z uf & S d
a&xGuaf e&mrSmvnf; bl'Zkd mpuf}uD;rsm;jzifh xd;k aumfypfum vrf;azmufvyk af &;twGu/f puf&kH
0efxrf;rsm; tdrf,mtwGuf ajrom;rsm; zdk@vdkuf=uygonf? rJkif[Jkif aus;&GmrS yHkpifaus;&Gmodk@
ajray:rS pD;aoma&acsmif;i,fuv kd nf; ydwq
f @kd I ,cktcg puf&t kH wGuf a&udk v$aJ jymif;ay;yd@k ae=u
+yD jzpfygonf?

&yf&GmrS wifjycsufrsm;udk vspfvsL&+xm;jcif;
ajr,mrsm;udk odr;f ,ljcif;/ ta&;ygaom vrf;rsm;udk toH;k rðyEdik af wmhjcif;/ ewfueG ;f rsm; zsuq
f ;D
cH&jcif;wd@k a=umifh a'ocHjynforl sm;twGi;f wGif trsuaf 'go}uD;pGm jzpfay:ae=uygonf? od@k aomf

44 tem*wfudk vk,lzsufqD;jcif;
vnf; tm%mydkifrsm;udk tvGeftrif; a=umuf&GH@ae&+yD;/ Armpum;udk vnfvnfywfywf
ajymqd&k ef tcuftcJ&adS omfvnf; aus;&Gmvlxrk sm;u olw@kd . pd;k &dryf yl efrr_ sm;/ cHpm;csurf sm;udk
xkwfazmfwifjycJh=uygonf? 2008 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&DvwGif ykHpifaus;&GmrS udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u
awmif}uD;òrd@&Sd ytdk0f;trsKd;om;tzGJ@csKyf (PNO) . &Hk;/ &Jpcef;/ òrd@e,f (r,u) tkyfcsKyfa&;&Hk;/
&Srf;jynfe,f jynfe,ftkyfcsKyfa&;&Hk;wdk@odk@ oGm;I olwdk@udk a&$@ajymif;&ef apcdkif;onfh trdef@rsm;/
aus;&Gm okomefudk a&$@ajymif;aponfh trdef@rsm;ESifh ywfoufI apm'u wufcJh=uygonf?
olwkd@u tm%mydkifrsm;udk =um;0ifaqmif&Gufay;&efESifh ajr,modrf;qnf;aer_rsm; &yfqdkif;&ef
awmif;qdkcJh=uonf? òrd@e,f (r,u) tkyfcsKyfa&;&Hk;rS t&m&SdwOD;u olwdk@udk ulnDay;rnf[k
ajymqdkcJhygonf? odk@aomfvnf; aemufydkif;wGif aus;&Gmvlxkrsm;udk olwdk@onf tpdk;&ydkifajrudk
usL;ausmaf exdik af e=ua=umif;/ od@k twGuaf =umifh xGuaf y;&rnfjzpfonf[o k m ajymqdck jhJ yefonf?

2008 ckESpf/ {+yDvwGif aus;&Gmvl}uD; 5 OD;u awmif}uD;&Sd òrd@e,f (r,u) tkyfcsKyfa&;&Hk;odk@
puf&w kH nfaqmufrE_ iS hf puf&kH eH&aH =umifh vrf;rsm;ydwq
f @kd c&H jcif;ta=umif;udk wifjy+yD;/ vrf;rsm;
jyefziG ahf y;yg&ef awmif;qdck yhJ gonf? aemufq;kH aus;&Gmvlxrk sm;twGuf jzwfvrf;wckukd azmufvyk f
ay;cJah omfvnf;/ aus;&Gmvlxrk sm;rSm vrf;topfxyfrH wnfaqmufra_ =umifh olw@kd . v,f,m
ajrrsm; qHk;&_H;=u&jyefonf?

aus;&Gmom;wOD;u olwdk@awG@óuHcHpm;ae&onfh pdwfysuftm;i,fr_/ rauseyfcsuf/ vuf&Sd
pDru
H ed ;f wGif yg0ifywfouf ae=uoltm;vH;k . wm0efEiS hf tajctaersm; ydrk qkd ;kd &Gm;rvmrD vuf&dS
pDrHudef;rsm; &yfqdkif;ypf&ef vdktyfa=umif; òcHiHkI a0zefajymqdkcJhygonf?

“usaemfu pDru H ed ;f u t&m&Sud kd ajymw,f? usaemfw@kd &Gmom;awGu pDruH ed ;f udk taESmifth ,Suf
ray;ygbl;? usaemfwdk@u olwkd@udkawmif tpm;tpmawG/ [if;oD;[if;&GufawG pm;&atmif
ulnDay;ao;w,f? 'gayr,fh olwdk@u bmjzpfvdk@ usaemfwdk@&Gmom;awGudk 'kuQay;ae&wmvJ?
usaemfajymw,f? cifAsm;wdk@rSm aoewfvnf; &Sdw,f? AHk;awGvnf; &Sdw,f? usaemfwdk@rSmu
bmvufeufrS r&Sb d ;l ? tJonfawmh olw@kd zsuq
f ;D oavmuf usaemfw@kd c&H zd@k yJ &Sw
d ,f? usaemfu
tJ'gudk ajym+yD;wJhtcgusawmh olwdk@u usaemfwdk@udk jyefavsmfa=u; ay;ygr,fvdk@ ajymw,f?
'gayr,fh tJonfavsmfa=u;qdkwm tcktcsdefwdkif rjrif&ao;bl;? t&m&Sdu ajymwmuawmh
‘tu,fI (uarBmZ) ukr`%Du ydkufqHay;vmwJhtcgusrSom avsmfa=u;aiG jyefay;Edkifr,f’
ajymwmyJ? ”81

“tck puf&Hkraqmuf&ao;wmawmif tajctaeawGu b,favmuftxd qdk;&Gm;ae+yD
qdkwm cifAsm; jrifwJhtwdkif;bJ? tu,fI puf&Hkomwnfaqmuf+yD;+yD qdkygu b,fvdk
jzpfrvJqdkwm pOf;pm;om =unfhayawmh? ydkqdk;vmzdk@yJ &Sdygawmhw,f?” 81

45
ed*Hk;ESifh t}uHðycsufrsm;
obm0t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk xkwfvkyfoHk;pGJjcif;jzifh a'ocHjynfolrsm;udk tusKd;jzpfxGef;ap&rnfh
tpm; yif;yufawmif teD;w0dkufwGif aexdkif=uaom jynfolrsm;onf t"rRajymif;a&$@ae&m
csxm;cH&jcif;/ ajr,mrsm; odrf;qnf;cH=u&jcif;/ toufarG;0rf;a=umif;vkyfief;rsm; qHk;&_H;&jcif;/
c&D o G m ;vmcG i f h r sm; uef @ owf c H & jcif ; / avmif p mES i f h tpm;tpmrsm; rzl v H k j zpf v mjcif ; /
,Ofaus;r_qikd &f mudprP sm; ysupf ;D qH;k &_;H jcif;rsm; óuHawG@ae&ygonf? tu,fI ,ckprD u H ed ;f udo
k m
a&S@wdk;aqmif&Gufrnfqdkygu awmif. obm0ywf0ef;usif ododomom ajymif;vJysufpD;&rnf
jzpf+yD;/ ajrqDv$mwdkufpm;jcif;/ ajròydusjcif;/ a&xGufrsm; npfnrf;&jcif;/ avxk npfnrf;&jcif;
rsm;udk a'ocHjynfolrsm; óuHawG@cHpm; =u&rnf jzpfonf? yif;yufawmifudk tajcðyI b0
&Sio
f ef&yfwnfae=u&aom jynforl sm;. b0rsm;onfvnf; zsuq f ;D cH=u&awmhrnf jzpfygonf?

odk@aomfvnf; uHaumif;axmufrpGmyif ,ck pDrHudef;udk &yfqdkif;ypf&ef/ yif;yufawmifESifh
a'ovlxrk sm;udk u,fwif&ef tcsed &f adS eygao;onf? od@k twGuaf =umifh ytd0k ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k
taeESifh atmufazmfjyyg t}uHðycsufrsm;ukd wifjyvdkygonf?

a'ocH jynfolrsm;odk h
· &yf&mG vlxt k zG@J tpnf;rsm;twGuf tusK;d ,kwaf pEdik af om rl0g'rsm;ESihf vkyif ef;taumif
txnfazmfrr_ sm;udk nD!w G pf mG qef@usi=f u&ef vdt
k yfygonf? rdrw
d @kd . pd;k &dryf yl efrr_ sm;udk
òrd@e,f/ jynfe,f/ A[dktpdk;& tm%mydkifrsm;xHodk@ qufoG,fwifjy&ef vdktyfygonf?
· ajr,mrsm;/ O,smOf+cHrsm;udk v$aJ jymif;ay;tyfonfh pmcsKyfpmwef;rsm;udk oifah vsmaf om
avsmaf =u; r&&Sb d /J pmom;rsm;/ ta=umif;t&mrsm;tay: aocsm &Si;f vif;em;vnfjcif;
r&SdbJ vufrSwfa&;xdk;ay;jcif; rðy=u&ef wdkufwGef;ygonf?

EdkifiHawmf at;csrf;om,ma&;ESifh zGH hòzd;a&;tzGJ hodk h
· a'ocHjynfolrsm;udk t"rRae&m a&$@ajymif;&ef apcdkif;jcif;/ ajrESifh v,f,mrsm;udk
t"rRodrf;ydkufjcif; rl0g'usifhoHk;aeonfhtay: &yfqdkif;yg&ef?
· a'ocHjynfolrsm;. &dk;&mt& wnf&Sdvmaom ajr,mydkifqdkifcGifh tcGifhta&;ESifh
"avhxHk;wrf;rsm;udk av;pm;vdkufem todtrSwfðyyg&ef?

46 tem*wfudk vk,lzsufqD;jcif;
· vuf & S d t aumif t xnf a zmf a eaom vk y f i ef ; rsm;ud k &yf q d k i f ; oif h y gonf ? a'ocH
jynfolrsm; yg0ifaqmif&GufcGifh&Sd+yD; oifhav#mfr#wpGmESifh tjynfht0 wdkifyift}uH^m%f
&,l+yD;rSom/ obm0ywf0ef;usif ysufpD;apEdkifr_ESifh vlr_a&;qdkif&m qdk;usKd;oufa&muf
Edkifr_rsm;tay: pepfwusESifh tjynfht0 tuJjzwfppfaq;+yD;rSom vkyfief;rsm;udk
jyefvnfpwif vkyu f ikd o f ifyh gonf? vufeufrsm;ESihf +cdr;f ajcmufr_ ryg0ifbJ vkyif ef;rsm;
qufvuftaumiftxnfazmf&efvnf; tmrcHcsufay;oifhygonf?
· t"rR ae&ma&$@ajymif;cH=u&olrsm;/ ajr,modrf;qnf;cHxm;=u&olrsm;/ ydkifqdkifr_
ypPn;f OpPm qH;k &_;H ysupf ;D =u&olrsm;udk vHak vmufaom avsmaf =u;rsm; ay;aqmif&ef vdt k yf
ygonf?
· ,la&eD,H owWKwl;azmfrnfqdkygu/ t%kjrL tpDtpOfrsm; aqmif&Gufrnfqdkygu
jynfolrsm;xHodk@ tpDtpOfrsm; tm;vHk;udk zGifh[ today;oifhygonf?

a'oqdkif&mESifh EdkifiHwum jynfolrsm;odk h
· EdkifiHwumESifh a'oqdkif&m&Sd tpdk;&r[kwfaom tzGJ@tpnf; (tJef*sDtdk) rsm;u
a'ocHjynforl sm;. tajctaeudk qufvuf apmif=h unfh ppfaq;oifyh gonf? yif;yuf
pDrHudef;rsm;ESifh ywfoufI ywf0ef;usif xdcdkufr_qdkif&mESifh vlr_a&;qdk;usKd;rsm;qdkif&m
tuJjzwfcsurf sm; vkyaf qmif&ef (etz) ppftpd;k &tay: zdtm;rsm;ay;I aqmif&u G o
f ifh
ygonf?
· ta&S@awmiftm&S Edik if rH sm;toif; (tmqD,)H / tdref ;D csi;f Edik if rH sm;ESihf Edik if w
H umtpd;k &
tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;onf olwdk@. tcef;u¾/ tm%mudk toHk;ðyI jrefrmEdkifiHwGif
vl@tcGifhta&;rsm; av;pm;vdkufem vmap&ef/ Xmaewdkif;&if;om; jynfolrsm;.
tcGifhta&;rsm; av;pm;vdkufemvmap&ef zdtm;ay;oifhygonf?
· EdkifiHwum t%kjrLpGrf;tif at*sifpD (tdkifattD;at) taeESifh (etz) ppftpdk;&.
,la&eD,H wl;azmfxw k v
f yk &f ef óud;yrf;aer_rsm;ESihf t%kjrL "gwaf ygi;f zdk aqmufvyk &f ef
jyifqifóud;yrf;aer_rsm;udk teD;uyfapmifh=unfh avhvmaeoifhygonf?

&k&Sm;EdkifiH tpdk;&xHodk h
· &k&mS ;Edik if .
H tpd;k &ydik f ukr%
` rD sm;ESihf &k&mS ;&if;ES;D jr‡KyfErHS r_ sm;u a'ocHjynforl sm;twGuf
vltcGifhta&; csKd;azmufcH&jcif;rsm;udpPwGif tvdkwltvdkyg rjzpfay:ap&eftwGuf
pnf;=uyfaqmif&Gufay;yg&ef?

47
oufqdkifywfoufae-uaom ukr`%Drsm;odk h
· rdrdwdk@taeESifh wdkufwGef;vdkonfrSm yif;yufpDrHudef;wGif yg0ifywfoufae=uonfh
ukr%` rD sm;tm;vH;k tao;pdwf owif;tcsut f vufrsm;udk jynfov l x l xk oH @kd csucf si;f
xkwfazmfwifjy&ef vdktyfygonf?
· jzpfay:vmaom vl@tcGit hf a&; csK;d azmufrr_ sm;ESihf ywfoufI wm0ef&adS =umif; ukr% ` D
rsm;u todtrSwf ðyoifyh gonf? epfem&ol um,uH&iS rf sm;udk tjynft h 0 avsmaf =u;
ay;jcif; ðy&ef vdt
k yf+yD;/ aemufxyf tvm;wl vl@tcGit hf a&;csK;d azmufrr_ sm; rjzpfap&yg[k
aocsm=uyfrwf&efvnf; vdktyfygonf?
· ukr`%Drsm;u vuf&Sdtaumiftxnfazmfaeaom vkyfief;rsm;udk &yfqdkif;oifhygonf?
a'ocHjynforl sm; yg0ifaqmif&u G cf iG &hf +dS yD; oifah v#mrf #wpGmESihf tjynft h 0 wdik yf ift}uH
^m%f&,l+yD;rSom/ obm0ywf0ef;usif ysufpD;apEdkifr_ESifh vlr_a&;qdkif&m qdk;usKd;
oufa&mufEikd rf r_ sm;tay: pepfwusEiS hf tjynft h 0tuJjzwf ppfaq;+yD;rSom vkyif ef;
rsm;udk jyefvnfpwif vkyfudkifoifhygonf?

48 tem*wfudk vk,lzsufqD;jcif;
usrf ; ud k ;
1
ppftpd;k &u Edik if .
H t*Fvyd t
f rnfukd w&m;r0if (Burma) rS (Myanmar) [k 1989 ckEpS w f iG f ajymif;vJ
ac:a0:oHk;E_ef;cJhygonf? Todk@ oHk;E_ef;ac:a0:r_udk jrefrmppftpdk;&udk qef@usifwdkufyGJ0ifaeonfh
tiftm;pkrsm;u todtrSwf rjyKcJh=uyg?
2
ukvor*~u jrefrmEdik if u H kd “zG@H òzd;r_ tenf;qH;k Edik if ”H wck tjzpf owfrw
S cf yhJ gonf?
http://www.un.org/special-rep/ohrlls/ldc/ldc%20criteria.htm.
3
jrefrmEdik if H vl@tcGit
hf a&; tajctae tpD&ifcpH m?
Situation of Human Rights in Myanmar: Report of the Special Rapporteur, Paulo Sergio Pinheiro
(December 2004).
4
ajrurBmtcGithf a&; qdik &f m Edik if w
H umtzG@J Earthrights International (ERI) rS xkwaf 0onfh
“pGr;f tiftwGuf ay;qyfvu kd &f onfh vlrsm;. wefz;kd ”/ “o,HZmw tarGrsm;u rsu&f nfjzpf=u&jcif;”
ponfh tpD&ifcpH mrsm;/ &cdik f a&eHw;l azmfa&; apmif=h unfah vhvma&; tzG@J Arakan Oil Watch (AOW) .
“vGwv f yfru
_ kd wm;jrpfyw
d q
f @kd jcif;”/ ucsif zG@H òzd;a&;uGe&f uftzG@J (Kachin Development Networking
Group) . “tarSmifvr$ ;f aomvGijf yif” tpD&ifcpH mrsm;udk om”u tjzpf=unfyh g? www.earthrights.org/
burma, www.arakanoilwatch.org, and www.burmariversnetwork.org.
5
“Asean assails Myanmar crackdown,” International Herald Tribune (28 Sep. 2007); “Human
Rights Council Strongly Deplores Continued Violent Repression of Peaceful Demonstrations in
Myanmar,” United Nations Press Release (2 Oct. 2007).
6
“Myanmar Seizes UN Food for Cyclone Victims and Blocks Foreign Experts,”
New York Times (10 May 2008); “UN says much of Myanmar cyclone aid is lost,” The Guardian
(25 Jul 2008).
7
See http://www.mrtv3.net.mm/open2/010407for.html (Accessed April 13, 2009)
8
jrefrmbmomjzifh xkwaf 0aom pmtky?f Pa-O Among The Union [Burma], Pa-O Literature Press
(2007), in Burmese.
9
ytd0k ;f vlrsK;d rsm;ta=umif;ESihf ywfoufI ydrk o
kd &d &dS ef atmufygpmtkyrf sm;udk zwf&a_ pvdyk gonf? see Russ
Christensen & Sann Kyaw, The Pa-O: Rebels and Refugees, Silkworm Books (2006); Pa-O
Among the Union [Burma], Pa-O Literature Press (2007), in Burmese.
10
“Burmese Soldiers Torture Civilians in Shan State”, The Irrawaddy (May 22, 2009).
11
“Burma Update: Russians eye cast iron plant for Shan State,” Mines and Communities (March
6, 2006).
12
See www.myanmar.gov.mm/Perspective/persp/1995/9-95/mya.htm (Accessed October 15,
2008); see also http://shanrelieffoundation.org/modules/tinyd3/index.php?id=4 (Accessed
October 15, 2008); “Work continues on gas pipeline,” Myanmar Times (October 15-21, 2007);
“Burma Update: Russian eye cast iron plant for Shan State,” Mines and Communities (March
6, 2006); “Myanmar to extract iron ore on commercial scale,” Xinhua (May2, 1997).
13
“Myanmar to extract iron ore on commercial scale,” Xinhua (May 2, 1997).
14
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (4)?
15
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (4)?
16
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (5)? (puc-3) rS odr;f ,lxm;aom ajrrsm;.
ajryHkudk ytkd0f;vli,ftpnf;t&Hk;u rSwfwrf;tjzpf odrf;qnf;xm;ygonf?
17
“Status of the surface water pollution due to iron ore tailing pond effluent in India,” Dr M K
Ghose

49
and P K Sen, Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, Volume 53, No 4-5, (August-
October 2000).
18
“Burma Update: Russians eye cast iron plant for Shan State,” Mines and Communities
(March 6, 2006), “Russian business presence becoming stronger in Burma,” Mizzima
(December 10, 2008).
19
“Russian business presence becoming stronger in Burma,” Mizzima (December 10, 2008).
20
“Mineral Boiler for Pinpet Mining Factory Project Arrived in Taunggyi,” Weekly Eleven
News Journal (January 28, 2009).
21
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (1)?
22
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (11)?
23
“Work continues on gas pipeline,” Myanmar Times (October 15-21, 2007).
24
“Thai and Russian companies make new grabs in Burma,” Mines and Communities
(December 30, 2008).
25
“Russian business presence becoming stronger in Burma,” Mizzima (December 10, 2008).
26
“Russian-Myanmar relations growing stronger,” Myanmar Times (February 13-19, 2006).
27
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (9) ESihf (3)?
28
“Burma Update: Russians eye cast iron plant for Shan State,” Mines and Communities
(March 6, 2006).
29
“The cement factory is built in Taunggyi,” Snap Shot News Journal (March 7, 2009),
translated from original Burmese by PYO.
30
Ibid.
31
Ibid.; “General Than Shwe and Cement Factory,” Khit Pyaing News (March 3, 2009),
translated from the original Burmese by PYO.
32
See www.myanmar.gov.mm/Perspective/persp/1995/9-95/mya.htm (Accessed October 15,
2008) “Analysis of Burma’s nuclear program,” Dictator Watch (January 2007).
33
PYO estimate using Google Earth software.
34
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (3) ESihf (9)/ (16) ESihf (17)?
35
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (3)?
36
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (3)?
37
“Russia says to build nuclear reactor in Myanmar” Reuters (May 15, 2007), Russia to build
atomic plant for Burmese junta,” The Guardian (May 17, 2007).
38
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (3)?
39
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (8)?
40
“Russian-Myanmar relations growing stronger,” Myanmar Times (February 13-19, 2006).
41
http://enc.ex.ru/cgi-bin/n1firm.pl?lang=2&f=995
42
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (20)?
43
Andrew Selth. 2002. Burma’s Armed Forces: Power Without Glory. Norwalk: EastBridge,
p.147, http://www.burmacampaign.org.uk/aboutburma/economy.html#5, http://
www.altsean.org/Key%20Issues/KeyIssuesEconomy.htm
44
“US Treasury imposes new sanctions on Burma firms,” Reuters (July 29, 2008)
45
See http://www.kyawtha.com

50 tem*wfudk vk,lzsufqD;jcif;
46
http://snapshot-news.commodules.php? name=News&file= article&sid= 15643
47
See http://www.kbzbank.com/aboutkbz.html (Accessed on April 10, 2009)
48
See http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=2128 (“Above It All” by Maung Maung
Oo, February, 2001- Volume 9 No 2) (Accessed on April 13, 2009)
49
See http://www.kbzbank.com/investments.html (Assessed on April 10, 2009)
50
Bureau of Mines Minerals Yearbook Area Reports: International 1978-1979", Kinney, Gordon
(1979).
51
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (5)?
52
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (13)?
53
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (1)/ (2)/ (3)/ (5)/ (6) ESihf (7)?
54
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (2)/ (3)/ (6) ESihf (7)?
55
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (3)/
56
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (6)/
57
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (3)/
58
ytd@k 0v f il ,ftzG@J rS &&Scd ahJ om puf&pkH rD u
H ed ;f tpDtpOf rSww
f rf;t&?
59
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (8)/
60
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (13)/
61
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (18)/
62
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (8)/
63
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (5)/
64
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (8)/
65
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (23)/
66
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (2)/
67
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (13)/
68
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (12)/
69
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (12)/
70
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (12)/
71
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (7)/
72
Valley of Darkness, Kachin Development Networking Group (2007).
73
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (2)/ (11)?
74
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (2)/
75
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (9)/ (10)/ (11)/ (12)?
76
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (10)/
77
“Iron Ore And Taconite Mine Reclamation And Revegetation Practices On The Mesabi
Range In Northeastern Minnesota,” David A. Felleson (1999).
78
“Blood Jade: Burmese Gemstones and the Beijing Games,” All Kachin Students and Youth
Union and 8-8-08 for Burma (August 2008).
79
Ibid.
80
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (8)/
81
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&H;k . awG@qakH r;jref;jcif; trSwf (12)/

51
aemufqufwGJ (1)
yif ; yuf a wmif teD ; wG i f aexd k i f o nf h vl O D ; a&p&if ;

S2I DXV *PWUQI UGRPSN YO2'D 
 \LILGN  
 U-NLI>-NLI  
 SOU-NLIK  
 >UIFD PXI  
 \+NSLI  
 ] PKLZITO  
 ['WNHISGUI  
 DHPLIXPXI  
 X*HIDXVPLI  
 DWPLIU*/  
 YGNLIDLJXI  
 DHPLIFV.G  
 RPPX*.HI  
 D]PLIDZPITG*.XI  
 Z*HIZ'  
 HUIX*G.HI  
 Y+NZHI  
 Z[PZHI  
 DHPLI\J\*.UI  
 \NY-ZLIK  
 DHPLIDXPI  
 Y*IZHI  
 [UI[VP  
 ]YG*.LI  
 >UI(VP  
   
 SNSND\JLI  

52 tem*wfudk vk,lzsufqD;jcif;
aemufqufwGJ (2)
t"rR a &$ @ ajymif ; cH & onf h rd o m;pk r sm;p&if ;

S2I WUQI WRXI UGRPSNLI DXV *PWUQI D *#DM\PLI XIS-* 
UOUG*.L-   DHPLIXPXI =HIHPJ ' 
M]PYGN   DHPLIXPXI =HIHPJ ' 
LIDUPLI   DHPLIXPXI =HIHPJ ' 
ZY6   DHPLIXPXI =HIHPJ ' 
Z2'   DHPLIXPXI =HIHPJ ' 
ZFO   DHPLIXPXI =HIHPJ ' 
ZDFVPLI   DHPLIXPXI =HIHPJ ' 
HHIDSPI   DHPLIXPXI =HIHPJ ' 
ZE-   DHPLIXPXI =HIHPJ ' 
UO]JZG   XUIDXPI =HIHPJ ' 
]GNFGNLI   XUIDXPI =HIHPJ ' 
YNZIUG*.*.HI   XUIDXPI =HIHPJ ' 
TP2Z:    XUIDXPI =HIHPJ ' 
ZY*P   XUIDXPI =HIHPJ ' 
Y6DUPLI   \+NSLI UZI 
DWPLI(N   \+NSLI UZI 
     
SNSND\JLI    *P 

53
aemufqufwGJ (3)
od r f ; qnf ; cH & aom ajrrsm;p&if ;

DXV *PWUQI F+\GNLI 6LI2'D  RGUIORQIKFN(6SI RGUIORO
\LILGN   \LI\XIR+SXI +N
U-NLI>-NLI   \LI\XIR+SXI +N
\+NSLI   \LI\XIR+SXI +N
DHPLIXPXI   \LI\XIR+SXI +N
D]PLIDZPITG*.XI   \LI\XIEGY\IDMUSXI +N
DHPLIFV.G   \LI\XIEGY\IDMUSXI +N
['WNHISGUI   \LI\XIR+SXI +N
DZPLI`X'   \LI\XIR+SXI +N
U-NLIDZPLI   TXIR*ID Z\I
SOU-NLIK   \LI\XIR+SXI +N
QG. -2I   \LI\XIEGY\IDMUSXI +N
YGNLIDLJXI   \LI\XIEGY\IDMUSXI +N
   
 *P   

54 tem*wfudk vk,lzsufqD;jcif;