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Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao

Transformers

1 Introduction

Michael Faraday propounded the principle of electro-magnetic induction in 1831. It states that a voltage appears across the terminals of an electric coil when the ﬂux linked with the same changes. The magnitude of the induced voltage is proportional to the rate of change of the ﬂux linkages. This ﬁnding forms the basis for many magneto electric machines. The earliest use of this phenomenon was in the development of induction coils. These coils were used to generate high voltage pulses to ignite the explosive charges in the mines. As the d.c. power system was in use at that time, very little of transformer principle was made use of. In the d.c. supply system the generating station and the load center have to be necessarily close to each other due to the requirement of economic transmission of power. Also the d.c. generators cannot be scaled up due to the limitations of the commutator. This made the world look for other eﬃcient methods for bulk power generation and transmission. During the second half of the 19th century the alternators, transformers and induction motors were invented. These machines work on alternating power supply. The role of the transformers became obvious. The transformer which consisted of two electric circuits linked by a common magnetic circuit helped the voltage and current levels to be changed keeping the power invariant. The eﬃciency of such conversion was extremely high. Thus one could choose a moderate voltage for the generation of a.c. power, a high voltage for the transmission of this power over long distances and ﬁnally use a small and safe operating voltage at the user end. All these are made possible by transformers. The a.c. power systems thus got well established.

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Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Electrical Machines I

Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao

Transformers can link two or more electric circuits. In its simple form two electric circuits can be linked by a magnetic circuit, one of the electric coils is used for the creation of a time varying magnetic ﬁled. The second coil which is made to link this ﬁeld has an induced voltage in the same. The magnitude of the induced emf is decided by the number of turns used in each coil. Thus the voltage level can be increased or decreased by changing the number of turns. This excitation winding is called a primary and the output winding is called a secondary. As a magnetic medium forms the link between the primary and the secondary windings there is no conductive connection between the two electric circuits. The transformer thus provides an electric isolation between the two circuits. The frequency on the two sides will be the same. As there is no change in the nature of the power, the resulting machine is called a ‘transformer’ and not a ‘converter’. The electric power at one voltage/current level is only ‘transformed’ into electric power, at the same frequency, to another voltage/current level.

Even though most of the large-power transformers can be found in the power systems, the use of the transformers is not limited to the power systems. The use of the principle of transformers is universal. Transformers can be found operating in the frequency range starting from a few hertz going up to several mega hertz. Power ratings vary from a few milliwatts to several hundreds of megawatts. The use of the transformers is so wide spread that it is virtually impossible to think of a large power system without transformers. Demand on electric power generation doubles every decade in a developing country. For every MVA of generation the installed capacity of transformers grows by about 7MVA. These ﬁgures show the indispensable nature of power transformers.

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Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Electrical Machines I

Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao

2

Basic Principles

As mentioned earlier the transformer is a static device working on the principle of

Faraday’s law of induction. Faraday’s law states that a voltage appears across the terminals of an electric coil when the ﬂux linkages associated with the same changes. This emf is proportional to the rate of change of ﬂux linkages. Putting mathematically, e= dψ dt (1)

Where, e is the induced emf in volt and ψ is the ﬂux linkages in Weber turn. Fig. 1 shows a

Figure 1: Flux linkages of a coil

coil of N turns. All these N turns link ﬂux lines of φ Weber resulting in the N φ ﬂux linkages. In such a case, ψ = Nφ and e=N dφ dt volt (3) (2)

The change in the ﬂux linkage can be brought about in a variety of ways • coil may be static and unmoving but the ﬂux linking the same may change with time. 3

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Prof. The ﬂux lines may change in time with coil moving in space. Here X is the length of overlap in meters as shown in the ﬁgure. L B X - + Figure 2: Static coil Fig. Such a condition does not yield any useful machine. with the help of a coil with a simple geometry. Sridhara Rao. of uniform ﬂux density B Tesla. The magnitude of B 4 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . • both 1 and 2 above may take place. 2 shows a region of length L m. The ﬂux φ linked by the turn is L ∗ B ∗ X Weber. A loop of one turn links part of this ﬂux. Sasidhara Rao • ﬂux lines may be constant and not changing in time but the coil may move in space linking diﬀerent value of ﬂux with time. These three cases are now elaborated in sequence below.Electrical Machines I Prof. If now B does not change with time and the loop is unmoving then no emf is induced in the coil as the ﬂux linkages do not change. the ﬂux lines being normal to the plane of the paper. Krishna Vasudevan. P. G. Prof. On the other hand if the value of B varies with time a voltage is induced in the coil linking the same coil even if the coil does not move.

Electrical Machines I Prof. Then. presented in Fig. this induced emf has a phase diﬀerence of π/2 radian with respect to the ﬂux linked by the turn.ω √ 2 volt. The peak value of the induced emf is em = N φm . 2 the ﬂux linkages are assumed to be increasing.L.X. This emf is termed as ‘transformer’ emf and this principle is used in a transformer. sin(ωt + ) dt 2 (6) (5) Here φm = Bm . Sridhara Rao. e= dψ π = N φm . and can be expressed as. In the present case. The loop also experiences a compressive force. The ﬂux density is held constant at B Tesla. Prof. Sasidhara Rao is assumed to be varying sinusoidally. 2(b) shows the same example as above but with a small diﬀerence.ω and the rms value is given by E= N φm .ω. Lenz’s law states that the reaction to the change in the ﬂux linkages would be such as to oppose the cause. B = Bm sin ωt (4) where Bm is the peak amplitude of the ﬂux density. The ﬂux linked by the coil at the current position is 5 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .ω cos ωt = N φm . P. (7) Further. G. ψ = N φ = N LXBm sin ωt The instantaneous value of the induced emf is given by. the instantaneous value of the ﬂux linkage is given by. Fig. The emf if permitted to drive a current would produce a counter mmf to oppose this changing ﬂux linkage. ω is the angular rate of change with time. Polarity of the emf is obtained by the application of Lenz’s law. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. The polarity of the emf is as indicated.

Here the changes in ﬂux linkages is produced by motion of the conductor. cos ωt. Prof.X. The uniform ﬂux density in space is assumed to be varying in magnitude in time as B = Bm sin ωt.X Weber. Sridhara Rao. The 6 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .L. Sasidhara Rao φ = B.L.L. Also the mmf of the loop aids the ﬁeld mmf to oppose change in ﬂux linkages. The induced emf is in step with the change in ψ and there is no phase shift. P.the actual ﬂux linked by the coil is immaterial. The conductor is moved with a velocity v = dx/dt normal to the ﬂux. If the ﬂux density B is distributed sinusoidally over the region in the horizontal direction. d(Bm .ω. + N. This is shown in Fig.Electrical Machines I Prof. The induced emf as per the application of Faraday’s law of induction is e = N.Bm . The current in the conductor.v volt. the emf induced also becomes sinusoidal. Prof. The third case under the application of the Faraday’s law arises when the ﬂux changes and also the conductor moves.(Here N=1) Please note. The conductor is moved with a uniform velocity of change in the ﬂux linkages and hence induced emf is given by e = N. This is how the polarity of the emf shown in ﬁg. dt dt (8) dx dt = v m/sec. V olt. This type of induced emf is termed as speed emf or rotational emf. Only the change in the ﬂux linkages is needed to be known for the calculation of the voltage. Krishna Vasudevan. cutting the ﬂux lines and changing the ﬂux linkages.2b is arrived at. 2(c).c machines and alternators.L. when the coil ends are closed. G.L. sin ωt.dx/dt = B.L. makes the conductor experience a force urging the same to the left. as it arises out of the motion of the conductor.Bm .B. sin ωt.X ) dx = N. The polarity of the induced emf is obtained by the application of the Lenz’s law as before. This principle is used in d.

At ﬁrst the common constructional features of a transformer used in electric power supply system operating at 50 Hz are examined. The ﬁrst case where there is a time varying ﬁeld and a stationary coil resulting in a transformer emf is the subject matter in the present section. G.c. Prof. machines where the ﬁeld is time varying and conductors are moving under the same.Electrical Machines I Prof. The winding which establishes the ﬁeld is called the primary. Sridhara Rao. Krishna Vasudevan. which is kept in that ﬁeld and has a voltage induced in it. Sasidhara Rao The ﬁrst term is due to the changing ﬂux and hence is a transformer emf. The case two will be revisited under the study of the d. When the terminals are closed such as to permit a current the conductor experiences a force and also the mmf of the coil opposes the change in ﬂux linkages. This principle is used in a. commutator machines. The other winding. is called a secondary. Case three will be extensively used under the study of a.c. These aspects will be examined in the later sections.c machines such as induction machines and also in a. 7 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Next in the study of the transformers comes the question of creating a time varying ﬁled. This is easily achieved by passing a time varying current through a coil. Prof. P.c machines and synchronous machines. It should not be forgotten that the primary also sees the same time varying ﬁeld set up by it linking its turns and has an induced emf in the same. The second term is due to moving conductor or is a speed emf.

Power transformers of smaller sizes could be air cooled while the larger ones are oil cooled. rectiﬁcation. These can be broadly divided into 1.Electrical Machines I Prof. furnaces. Cooling aspects 3. Silicon steel in the form of thin laminations is used for the core material. Over the years progressively better magnetic properties are obtained by going in for Hot rolled non-oriented to Hot rolled grain oriented steel. The high value of permeability helps to give a low reluctance for the path of the ﬂux and the ﬂux lines mostly conﬁne themselves to the iron. Prof. a large number of special transformers are in use in applications like electronic supplies. 8 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Hence they are ‘tailor made’ to a job. In addition to the transformers used in power systems. Relative permeability µr well over 1000 are achieved by the present day materials. Sridhara Rao. in power transmission and distribution. Prof. Here the focus is on power transformers only. traction etc. These machines are highly material intensive equipments and are designed to match the applications for best operating conditions. Core construction 2. Krishna Vasudevan. P. Winding arrangements 3.1 Core construction Transformer core for the power frequency application is made of highly permeable material. Here more common constructional aspects alone are discussed. This brings in a very large variety in their constructional features. Sasidhara Rao 3 Constructional features Transformers used in practice are of extremely large variety depending upon the end use. G. The principle of operation of these transformers also is the same but the user requirements diﬀer.

In a shell type on the other hand the iron surrounds the winding. C & I or O as shown in Fig. The thickness of the laminations progressively got reduced from over 0. G. In the case of very small transformers the conductors are very thin and round. In the case of very small transformers (from a few volt-amperes to a few kilo voltamperes) hot rolled silicon steel laminations in the form of E & I. The saturation ﬂux density of the present day steel lamination is about 2 Tesla. Prof. The eddy current itself is highly reduced by making the laminations very thin. In a core type construction the winding surrounds the core. As the rating of the transformer increases the conductor size 9 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The cross section of the core also would be square or rectangular. Above this value the steel becomes very brittle and also very hard to cut. The magnetic material is required to have a high permeability µ and a high saturation ﬂux density.5. 3 are used and the core cross section would be a square or a rectangle. If the lamination is made too thin then the production cost of steel laminations increases. The percentage of silicon in the steel is about 3.5mm to the present 0. These laminations are coated with a thin layer of insulating varnish.25mm per lamination. oxide or phosphate. Prof. Sridhara Rao. These can be easily wound on a former with rectangular or square cross section. -High B (HiB) grades became available. The steel should not have residual mechanical stresses which reduce their magnetic properties and hence must be annealed after cutting and stacking.Electrical Machines I Prof. a very low remanence Br and a small area under the B-H loop-to permit high ﬂux density of operation with low magnetizing current and low hysteresis loss. the core construction can be separated into core type and shell type. Sasidhara Rao Later better laminations in the form of cold Rolled Grain Oriented (CRGO). A few examples of single phase and three phase core type constructions are shown in Fig. The resistivity of the iron sheet itself is required to be high to reduce the eddy current losses. Krishna Vasudevan. Thus no special care is needed for the construction of the core. Broadly classifying. P. 4.

Sridhara Rao. Krishna Vasudevan.Electrical Machines I Prof. P. Prof.C and I and O Type Laminations 10 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof. Sasidhara Rao (a ) (b) (c) Figure 3: E and I. G.

phase HV LV core Single phase LV HV Three phase LV HV (a)Core type (b) Shell type Figure 4: Core and Shell Type Construction also increases. When the core size increases it becomes extremely diﬃcult to cool the same (Even though the core losses are relatively very small). Also. Sridhara Rao. at the bends. The steel laminations are grain oriented exploiting the simple geometry of the transformer to reduce the excitation losses.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof.phase 3. for a given area enclosed the length of the conductor becomes more. To wind such conductor on a rectangular former is not only diﬃcult but introduces stresses in the conductor. Krishna Vasudevan. Fig. From the short circuit force with stand capability point of view also this is not desirable. Hence it results in more load losses. Cooling ducts have to be provided in the core. when the ﬂux 11 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . P. Flat conductors are preferred to round ones. In order to avoid all these problems the coils are made cylindrical and are wound on formers on heavy duty lathes. Stepped core construction thus becomes mandatory for the core of large transformers. Prof. Thus the core construction is required to be such as to ﬁll the circular space inside the coil with steel laminations. 5 shows a few typical stepped core constructions. Sasidhara Rao 1. G. The iron losses in the lamination.

Prof. Sasidhara Rao d d duct d duct Figure 5: Stepped Core Construction 12 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Electrical Machines I Prof. Sridhara Rao. Krishna Vasudevan. G. Prof. P.

6. Some typical constructional details are shown in Fig. P. Prof. Sridhara Rao. Lap joints are used to provide alternate paths for ﬂux lines thus reducing the reluctance of the ﬂux paths.Electrical Machines I Prof. In some power transformers the core is built up by threading a long strip of steel through the coil in the form of a toroid. Hence butt joints between laminations must be avoided. Prof. Another important aspect to be carefully checked and monitored is the air gaps in Path of flux HV LV Windings Core (a) (b) Figure 6: Typical stacked Core and wound core Construction series in the path of the main ﬂux. Sasidhara Rao is oriented in the direction of grain orientation. This construction is normally followed in instrument transformers to reduce the magnetizing current and hence the errors. is about 30% of that in the normal direction. 13 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. Krishna Vasudevan. As the reluctance of air path is about 1000 times more than that of the steel. an air path of 1mm will require a mmf needed by a 1 meter path in iron.

Prof. Prof. The one which is connected to a voltage source and creates the ﬂux is called as a primary winding. 7. P.2 Windings Windings form another important part of transformers. The former are very common with core type transformers while the latter one 14 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. yoke or the body. Hence it may be more appropriate to designate the windings as High Voltage (HV) and Low Voltage (LV) windings. Sasidhara Rao Large cores made up of laminations must be rendered adequately stiﬀ by the provision of stiﬀening plates usually called as ﬂitch plates. These aspects inﬂuence the type of the winding used for the HV or LV windings. The second winding where the voltage is induced by induction is called a secondary. The whole stack is wrapped up by strong epoxy tapes to give mechanical strength to the core which can stand in upright position. HV also needs more clearance to the core. Sridhara Rao. Also the HV winding needs to be insulated more to withstand the higher voltage across it. Krishna Vasudevan. 3. Channels and angles are used for the frame and they hold the bottom yoke rigidly. Transformer coils can be broadly classiﬁed in to concentric coils and sandwiched coils Fig. The winding with more number of turns will be a HV winding. A step down transformer can be made a step up transformer by making the low voltage winding its primary. Punched through holes and bolts are progressively being avoided to reduce heating and melting of the through bolts. In a two winding trans- former two windings would be present.Electrical Machines I Prof. The current on the HV side will be lower as V-I product is a constant and given as the VA rating of the machines. If the secondary voltage is more then it is a step up transformer. If the secondary voltage is less than that of the primary the transformer is called a step down transformer.

Sridhara Rao. Sasidhara Rao HV LV Core LV HV (a)Concentric coil LV HV Core (b) Sandwich coil Figure 7: Concentric and Sandwich Coils 15 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Krishna Vasudevan.Electrical Machines I Prof. P. Prof. Prof. G.

The coil progresses as a helix. Prof. Three most common types of coils viz. This is also facilitated by having the HV winding as the outer winding. Also taps are provided on HV winding when voltage change is required. Krishna Vasudevan. 8. Sridhara Rao. Sasidhara Rao are common with shell type transformers. in view of the lower insulation and clearance requirements. helical. P. This is made up of large cross section rectangular conductor wound on its ﬂat side. G.Electrical Machines I Prof. This is commonly used for LV windings. Crossover and Helical Coil Construction Helical Windings One very common cylindrical coil arrangement is the helical winding. The HV winding is placed around the LV winding. The insulation 16 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . In concentric arrangement. the LV winding is placed close to the core which is at ground potential. cross over and disc coils are shown in Fig. Helical coils Disc coils cross over coils Figure 8: Disc. Prof. In the ﬁgure the letters L and H indicate the low voltage and high voltage windings.

Prof. Disc coils Disc coils consist of ﬂat conductors wound in a spiral form at the same place spiralling outwards. A number of such blocks can be connected in series. These turns are wound in several layers. as required by total voltage requirement. They permit easy control over the short circuit impedance of the transformer.Electrical Machines I Prof. The complexity of this type of winding rapidly increases as the current to be handled becomes more. Transpositions of the parallel paths have to be adopted to reduce unequal current distribution. Sridhara Rao. The modern practice is to use continuously transposed and bunched conductors. Alternate discs are made to spiral from outside towards the center. Sandwich coils Sandwich windings are more common with shell type core construction. The length and thickness of each block is made in line with cooling requirements. Hence two or more conductors have to be wound and connected in parallel. G. Winding of a continuous disc winding needs specialized skills. Between layers no insulation (other than conductor insulation) is needed as the voltage between layers is low. By bringing HV and LV coils close on the same magnetic axis the leakage is reduced and the mutual ﬂux is increased. These have excellent thermal properties and the behavior of the winding is highly predictable. These are made of circular conductors not exceeding 5 to 6 sq mm in cross section. By increasing the number of sandwiched coils the 17 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The parallel circuits bring in problems of current sharing between the circuits. Cross over coils The second popular winding type is the cross over coil. These are used for HV windings of relatively small transformers. P. Sectional discs or continuous discs may be used. Sasidhara Rao requirement also is not too high. Prof. The conductor cross section becomes too large and diﬃcult to handle. Krishna Vasudevan. The eddy current losses in the conductor rapidly increases. leaving cooling ducts in between the blocks.

Consider a transformer of certain rating designed with certain ﬂux density and current density. Prof. P. The oil used in the transformer tank should be free from moisture or other contamination to be of any use as an insulator. Oil ducts are also used as part of insulation between windings. The major insulation is between the windings. 3. which are proportional to the volume of the materials used.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sridhara Rao. The conductor insulation may be called the minor insulation as the voltage required to be withstood is not high. 3. Prof. The transformer oil thus has dual role. If now the linear dimensions are made larger by a factor of K keeping the current and ﬂux densities the same the core and conductor areas increase by a factor of K 2 . The porous insulation around the conductor helps the oil to reach the conductor surface and extract the heat. Annular bakelite cylinders serve this purpose. Sasidhara Rao reactance can be substantially reduced. In larger transformers to improve the heat transfer characteristics the conductors are insulated using un-impregnated paper or cloth and the whole core-winding assembly is immersed in a tank containing transformer oil.4 Cooling of transformers Scaling advantages make the design of larger and larger unit sizes of transformers economically attractive. This can be explained as below. It is an insulator and also a coolant. G.The rating of the machine increases by a factor of K 4 . Krishna Vasudevan. 18 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The losses in the machine. increase by a factor of K 3 .3 Insulation The insulation used in the case of electrical conductors in a transformer is varnish or enamel in dry type of transformers.

Substantial improvement is obtained when the transformer is immersed in an oil tank. Sridhara Rao. Hence air cooling is used in low voltage machines. Sasidhara Rao The surface area however increases by a factor of K 2 only. The rate of circulation of oil can be increased with the help of a pump. Thus the ratio of loss per surface area goes on increasing by a factor of K . radiators etc. The limit for this is reached by the time the rating is a few kVA. This is termed as ON (Oil Natural) type of cooling. Prof. In the above two cases the ﬂow of oil is by natural convective forces. A forced circulation of oil through a radiator is done with a blast of air 19 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. This method of cooling is termed as AN(Air Natural). However cooling of the transformer becomes more and more diﬃcult. The substantial increase in the output is the major attraction in going in for larger units. Air Blast(AB) method improves on the above by directing the blast of air at the core and windings.Electrical Machines I Prof. This method permits the increase in the surface available for the cooling further by the use of ducts. This is termed as OFN (Oil Forced Natural). OB(Oil Blast) method is an improvement over the ON-type and it directs a blast of air on the cooling surface. the cooling method become OFB( Oil Forced Blast). The oil reaches the conductor surface and extracts the heat and transports the same to the surface of the tank by convection. Prof. Simple air cooling of the transformers is adopted in dry type transformers. with the cooling at the surface remaining natural cooling to air. As the rating increases better cooling techniques are needed. Krishna Vasudevan. If now a forced blast of air is also employed. P. This permits some improvement in the unit sizes.

Sasidhara Rao Main tank Radiator Tubes (a) Bushing Conservator & Breather water outlet oil pump Radiator water inlet (b) Conservator& Breather Bushing Radiator Oil pump for O. G.B Fan motor (c) 20 Figure 9: Some Typical Cooling Arrangements Indian Institute of Technology Madras .F. Prof. Sridhara Rao. P. Krishna Vasudevan. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof.

1 Properties of the transformer coil Even though the basic functions of the oil used in transformers are a) heat conduc- tion and b) electrical insulation. Sridhara Rao. Sasidhara Rao over the radiator surface. Mineral oils are suitable from the point of electrical properties but tend to form sludge. This gives the ratings to be in the ratio of 1:1. Prof. there are many other properties which make a particular oil eminently suitable.5:2 3. Here the hot oil going into the radiator is cooled by a water circuit.Electrical Machines I Prof. Substantial amount of heat can be removed by employing a water cooling. Some cooling arrangements are shown in Fig. Prof. G. Due to the high speciﬁc heat of water. ON/OB Works as ON but with increased load additional air blast is adopted. Suitable cooling method can be pressed into service at that time. heat can be evacuated eﬀectively. As the load on the transformer changes the heat generated within also changes. This gives rise to the concept of mixed cooling technique. Organic oils of vegetative or animal origin are good insulators but tend to decompose giving rise to acidic by-products which attack the paper or cloth insulation around the conductors. Krishna Vasudevan. P. In many large sized transformers the cooling method is matched with the amount of heat that is required to be removed.5 ON/OB/OFB Similarly gives the ratings in the ratio of 1:1.4. The properties that are required to be looked into before selecting an oil for transformer 21 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Next in hierarchy comes OFW which is similar to OFB except that instead of blast of air a forced circulation of cool water in the radiator is used in this. 9.

corrode metal parts. A good breather can reduce the problems due to the formation of acids. Viscosity It is important as it determines the rate of ﬂow of the ﬂuid. Acidity Oxidized oil normally produces CO2 and acids. Purity The oil must not contain impurities which are corrosive. Sludge formation properties have to be considered while choosing the oil as the oil slowly forms semi-solid hydrocarbons. These impede ﬂows and due to the acidic nature. Sludge formation Thickening of oil into a semisolid form is called a sludge. Heat in the presence of oxygen is seen to accelerate sludge formation. Flash point And Fire point Flash point of an oil is the temperature at which the oil ignites spontaneously. Sridhara Rao. Sasidhara Rao application are as follows: Insulting property This is a very important property. Krishna Vasudevan. However most of the oils naturally fulﬁl this. Sulphur or its compounds as impurities cause formation of sludge and also attack metal parts. 22 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof. Highly viscous ﬂuids need much bigger clearances for adequate heat removal. These form corrosive vapors.Electrical Machines I Prof. This must be very high for the chosen oil (not less than 200◦ C ). P. Prof. Fire point is the temperature at which the oil ﬂashes and continuously burns. If the hot oil is prevented from coming into contact with atmospheric air sludge formation can be greatly reduced. The cellulose which is in the paper insulation contains good amount of moisture. This must be as high as possible (not less than 160◦ C from the point of safety). Therefore deterioration in insulating property due to moisture or contamination may be more relevant. G.

as the reluctance 23 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The medium can even be air. If one can generate a time varying magnetic ﬁeld any coil placed in the ﬁeld of inﬂuence linking the same experiences an induced emf. P. non-oxidizing. good dielectric strength. Krishna Vasudevan. The magnetizing current required to establish the ﬁeld is very large. These are considered to be outside the scope here. Even though the principle of transformer action is not changed. 1. Sasidhara Rao Inhibited oils and synthetic oils are therefore used in the transformers. Sridhara Rao. reduced risk due ﬁre and explosion. This is called mutual induction. Prof. Such an arrangement is called air cored transformer. the medium has considerable inﬂuence on the working of such devices. moisture repellant. Indeed such arrangements are used in very high frequency transformers. There are several other structural and insulating parts in a large transformer. Inhibited oils contain additives which slow down the deterioration of properties under heat and moisture and hence the degradation of oil. A time varying ﬁeld can be created by passing an alternating current through an electric coil. These eﬀects can be summarized as the followings. It is therefore necessary to check the quality of the oil periodically and take corrective steps to avoid major break downs in the transformer.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. Synthetic transformer oil like chlorinated diphenyl has excellent properties like chemical stability. G. 4 Ideal Transformer Earlier it is seen that a voltage is induced in a coil when the ﬂux linkage associated with the same changed.

It is very hard to direct the ﬂux lines as we desire. However if now a piece of magnetic material is introduced to form the magnetic circuit Fig. If the secondary winding is connected to a load then part of the power from the source is delivered to the load through the magnetic ﬁeld as a link. Substantial amount of leakage ﬂux exists. the ideal eﬃciency of a transformer approaches 100%. 3. P. as the B-H characteristic is traversed. 1. The iron also has hysteresis type of non-linearity due to which certain amount of power is lost in the iron (in the form of hysteresis loss). Krishna Vasudevan. as the whole medium is homogeneous. 4. 3. Sasidhara Rao of the medium is very high. 10(b) the situation changes dramatically.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sridhara Rao. Prof. The medium is non-lossy and hence no power is wasted in the medium. The magnetic medium is linear for low values of induction and exhibits saturation type of non-linearity at higher ﬂux densities. 2. G. There is linear relationship between the mmf created and the ﬂux produced. 5. Power is required to create the ﬁeld and not to maintain the same. These can be enumerated as below. This can also be visualized as a dramatic increase in the ﬂux produced for a given value of magnetizing current. The medium does not absorb and lose any energy. Prof. Due to the large value for the permeance ( µr of the order of 1000 as compared to air) the magnetizing current requirement decreases dramatically. 24 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . As the winding losses can be made very small by proper choice of material. 2. The large magnetizing current requirement is a major deterrent. If the secondary is not loaded the energy stored in the magnetic ﬁeld ﬁnds its way back to the source as the ﬂux collapses.

Prof. Krishna Vasudevan.Electrical Machines I Prof. P. Sridhara Rao. Sasidhara Rao Primary x Leakage flux Secondary Mutual flux (a) Leakage flux X Primary Mutual flux Secondary Iron core (b) Figure 10: Mutual Induction a) air core b) iron core 25 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. Prof.

From the above it is seen that the introduction of magnetic core to carry the ﬂux introduced two more losses. 2. The consequence is that a vanishingly small current is enough to establish the given ﬂux. These are called ‘eddy current losses’. Prof. This means that there are no copper losses. nor there is any ohmic drop in the electric circuit. As all the ﬂux generated conﬁnes itself to the iron. Windings do not have resistance. Hysteresis loss is negligible. Sridhara Rao. 26 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Also the copper losses in the winding due to magnetization current is reduced to an almost insigniﬁcant fraction of the full load losses. G. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. The ﬂux can be easily ‘directed’ as it takes the path through steel which gives great freedom for the designer in physical arrangement of the excitation and output windings. there is no leakage ﬂux. initially certain idealizations are made and the resulting ‘ideal’ transformer is studied. As the medium is made of a conducting material eddy currents are induced in the same and produce losses. Fortunately the losses due to hysteresis and eddy current for the available grades of steel is very small at power frequencies. These idealizations are as follows: 1. P. 6. Most of the ﬂux lines are conﬁned to iron path and hence the mutual ﬂux is increased very much and leakage ﬂux is greatly reduced. To minimize the eddy current losses the steel core is required to be in the form of a stack of insulated laminations.Electrical Machines I Prof. Magnetic circuit is linear and has inﬁnite permeability. 5. Hence steel core is used in power transformers. Sasidhara Rao 4. In order to have better understanding of the behavior of the transformer.

Electrical Machines I

Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao

v1=V1mcosωt

i o

0

φ T1

µ

8

~

+

+ e1 + e2 -

i1 + + e2 -

i2

T2

v1=V1sinωt e1 +

**(a)Unloaded machine form
**

v1=V1cosωt i1 N + i2 ZL e2 + e1 + T1 φ µ

(b) Circuit

8

T2

(c)Loaded machine

Figure 11: Two winding Ideal Transformer unloaded and loaded

27

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Electrical Machines I

Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao

In fact the practical transformers are very close to this model and hence no major departure is made in making these assumptions. Fig. 11 shows a two winding ideal transformer. The primary winding has T1 turns and is connected to a voltage source of V1 volts. The secondary has T2 turns. Secondary can be connected to a load impedance for loading the transformer. The primary and secondary are shown on the same limb and separately for clarity.

As a current I0 amps is passed through the primary winding of T1 turns it sets up an mmf of I0 T1 ampere which is in turn sets up a ﬂux φ through the core. Since the reluctance of the iron path given by R = l/µAis zero as µ −→ ∞, a vanishingly small value of current I0 is enough to setup a ﬂux which is ﬁnite. As I0 establishes the ﬁeld inside the transformer it is called the magnetizing current of the transformer. F lux φ = mmf I 0 T1 I0 T1 Aµ = l = . Reluctance l µA (9)

This current is the result of a sinusoidal voltage V applied to the primary. As the current through the loop is zero (or vanishingly small), at every instant of time, the sum of the voltages must be zero inside the same. Writing this in terms of instantaneous values we have, v1 − e 1 = 0 (10)

where v1 is the instantaneous value of the applied voltage and e1 is the induced emf due to Faradays principle. The negative sign is due to the application of the Lenz’s law and shows that it is in the form of a voltage drop. Kirchoﬀ’s law application to the loop will result in the same thing.

28

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Electrical Machines I

Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao

This equation results in v1 = e1 or the induced emf must be same in magnitude to the applied voltage at every instant of time. Let v1 = V1peak cos ωt where V1peak is the peak value and ω = 2πf t. f is the frequency of the supply. As v1 = e1 ; e1 = dψ1 /dt but e1 = E1peak cos ωt ∴ E1 = V1 . It can be easily seen that the variation of ﬂux linkages can be obtained as ψ1 = ψ1peak sin ωt. Here ψ1peak is the peak value of the ﬂux linkages of the primary. Thus the RMS primary induced emf is e1 = dψ1 d(ψ1peak sin ωt) = dt dt ψ1peak .ω 2πf T1 φm √ √ = = 4.44f φm T1 2 2 (11) (12) volts

= ψ1peak .ω. cos ωt or the rms value E1 =

Here ψ1peak is the peak value of the ﬂux linkages of the primary. The same mutual ﬂux links the secondary winding. However the magnitude of the ﬂux linkages will be ψ2peak = T2 .φm . The induced emf in the secondary can be similarly obtained as , e2 = dψ2 d(ψ2peak sin ωt) = dt dt = ψ2peak .ω. cos ωt or the rms value 2πf T2 φm √ = 4.44f φm T2 2 E1 T1 = E2 T2 volt (13) (14)

E2 = which yields the voltage ratio as

(15)

The voltages E1 and E2 are obtained by the same mutual ﬂux and hence they are in phase. If the winding sense is opposite i.e., if the primary is wound in clockwise sense and the secondary counter clockwise sense then if the top terminal of the ﬁrst winding is 29

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

(Fig. Prof. Hence in the circuit representation of transformers a dot convention is adopted to indicate the terminals of the windings that go high (or low) together. The demagnetizing mmf produced by the secondary is neutralized by 30 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . an unloaded ideal transformer is considered. This load current produces a demagnetizing mmf and the ﬂux tends to collapse. Similarly a current leaving the terminal with a dot demagnetizes the core. Similar problem arises even when the sense of winding is kept the same.Electrical Machines I Prof. G. Sridhara Rao. Krishna Vasudevan. The current drawn from supply increases up to a point the ﬂux in the core is restored back to its original value. At a particular instant of time if the current enters the terminal marked with a dot it magnetizes the core. 12). P. but the two windings are on opposite limbs (due to the change in the direction of ﬂux). However this is detected by the primary immediately as both E2 and E1 tend to collapse. Prof. So far. Sasidhara Rao I1 + V1 + E1 E2 - I2 V2 Figure 12: Dot Convention at maximum potential the bottom terminal of the second winding would be at the peak potential. 11(c). If now a load impedance ZL is connected across the terminals of the secondary winding a load current ﬂows as marked in Fig. This can be established experimentally by means of a polarity test on the transformers.

Thus the transformer operates under constant induced emf mode. then the above equation can be written in phasor form as. As 31 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G.Electrical Machines I Prof. Transformer thus acts as an impedance converter. Finally. Prof. ¯ ¯ I 1 T1 = I 2 T2 Also E1 E2 T2 ¯ ¯ or I . (16) (17) If the reference directions for the two currents are chosen as in the Fig. If an impedance of ZL is connected across the secondary.ZL . P. 12.Z ¯L Z ¯ ¯ T2 I T2 I 1 2 (21) 1 An impedance of ZL when viewed ‘through’ a transformer of turns ratio ( T ) is seen T2 T1 2 as ( T ) . i 1 T1 − i 2 T2 = i 0 T1 i 2 T2 = i 1 T1 but i0 → 0 and the rms value I2 T2 = I1 T1 . The transformer can be 2 interposed in between a source and a load to ‘match’ the impedance. ¯2 E ¯ I 2 = ¯ ZL ¯ ¯L = E2 or Z ¯ I 2 (20) The input impedance under such conditions is ¯ ¯ ¯i = E1 = ( T1 )2 . Prof. Thus. Sasidhara Rao additional magnetizing mmf produces by the primary leaving the mmf and ﬂux in the core as in the case of no-load. 13 in which θ1 and θ2 are power factor angles on the primary and secondary sides. Krishna Vasudevan. Sridhara Rao.I 2 1 = T1 T1 I2 = = E1 I1 = E 2 I2 T2 I1 (18) (19) Thus voltage and current transformation ratio are inverse of one another. the phasor diagram for the operation of the ideal transformer is shown in Fig. E2 = ( T1 )2 .

Thus.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sridhara Rao. 32 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof. Also. Krishna Vasudevan. G. Sasidhara Rao V1 E1 I2 E2 I1 θ1 φ θ2 φ V2 Figure 13: Phasor diagram of Operation of an Ideal Transformer the transformer itself does not absorb any active or reactive power it is easy to see that θ1 = θ 2 . In the case of an ideal transformer the eﬃciency is 100% as there are no losses inside the device. This can be used to step up or step down the voltage /current at constant volt-ampere. the transformer can be used for impedance matching. P. Prof. from the study of the ideal transformer it is seen that the transformer provides electrical isolation between two coupled electric circuits while maintaining power invariance at its two ends.

losses. Prof. H = i. B= φ A (22) where A is the area of cross section of the iron core m2 . Sasidhara Rao 5 Practical Transformer An ideal transformer is useful in understanding the working of a transformer. saturation. hysteresis and winding resistances have to be added to an ideal transformer to make it a practical transformer.A = Aµ(iT1 ) l = permeance ∗ mmf (here that of primary ) (24) The magnetizing force and the current vary linearly with the applied voltage as long as the magnetic circuit is not saturated. voltage regulation. if these eﬀects are removed from a working transformer what is left behind is an ideal transformer. Prof. m. or φ = B. In a working transformer the performance aspects like magnetizing current. The current and mmf required is proportional to the ﬂux density B that is required to be established in the core. But it cannot be used for the computation of the performance of a practical transformer due to the non-ideal nature of the practical transformer. eﬃciency etc are important. Conversely. Sridhara Rao. Finite permeability of the magnetic circuit necessitates a ﬁnite value of the current to be drawn from the mains to produce the mmf required to establish the necessary ﬂux. Krishna Vasudevan. B = µH . H is the magnetizing force which is given by. the current has to vary in 33 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . T1 l (23) where l is the length of the magnetic path. Once saturation sets in. P.Electrical Machines I Prof. Hence the eﬀects of the non-idealization like ﬁnite permeability. G.

Krishna Vasudevan. eddy current inside the magnetic core. Sridhara Rao. Sasidhara Rao a nonlinear manner to establish the ﬂux of sinusoidal shape. These losses arise out of hysteresis. The magnetic circuit being lossy absorbs and dissipates the power depending upon the ﬂux density of operation. P. G. (25) (26) For a constant voltage.Flux density of operation Tesla. The energy absorbed when the current increases is returned to the electric circuit when the current collapses to zero. Hence the current drawn from the mains is assumed to be purely sinusoidal and directly proportional to the ﬂux density of operation. An active power consumption by the no-load current can be represented in the input circuit as a resistance Rc connected in parallel to the magnetizing reactance Xm . Prof. The magnetizing current Im is given by Im = E1 /Xm where Xm is called the magnetizing reactance.Electrical Machines I Prof. Hz t . This non-linear current can be resolved into fundamental and harmonic currents.Thickness of the laminations of the core. f . This current can be represented by a current drawn by an inductive reactance in the circuit as the net energy associated with the same over a cycle is zero.Frequency of operation.6 f Pe ∝ B 2 f 2 t2 Ph -Hysteresis loss. At present the eﬀect of this non-linear behavior is neglected as a secondary eﬀect. m. Thus the no-load current I0 may be made up of Ic (loss component) and Im (magnetizing component 34 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Watts B . constant frequency operation B is constant and so are these losses. This current is called the magnetizing current of the transformer. Prof. These are given by the following expressions: Ph ∝ B 1. This is discussed to some extent under harmonics.

Reactive volt amperes consumed for establishing the mutual ﬂux. Prof. Thus these ﬂux lines do not link the secondary winding. the ﬂux linkages per ampere and the primary leakage inductance are constant (This is normally represented by ll1 Henry). Sasidhara Rao as ) ¯ ¯ ¯ I 0 = Ic − j Im 2 Ic Rc – gives the total core losses (i. Krishna Vasudevan. This is termed as the reactance due to the primary leakage ﬂux. This ﬂux produces a voltage drop opposing its cause. P. G. Thus this eﬀect of the ﬁnite permeability of the magnetic core can be represented as a series inductive element jxl1 .Electrical Machines I Prof. the primary and secondary windings are wound with copper (sometimes aluminium in small transformers) conductors. which is the current I1 .e. The secondary leakage reactance jxl2 arising out of the secondary leakage inductance ll2 is given by xl2 = 2πf ll2 (29) Finally. thus the windings have a ﬁnite resistance (though 35 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . As this leakage ﬂux varies linearly with I1 . Im (27) Finite µ of the magnetic core makes a few lines of ﬂux take to a path through the air. hysteresis + eddy current loss) 2 Xm . Sridhara Rao. It is called as leakage ﬂux. Prof. Even a large value of the current produces a small value of ﬂux. The primary leakage reactance therefore becomes xl1 = 2πf ll1 ohm (28) A similar eﬀect takes place on the secondary side when the transformer is loaded. As the path of the leakage ﬂux is mainly through the air the ﬂux produced varies linearly with the primary current I1 .

P. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan.Electrical Machines I Prof. G. Sasidhara Rao I1 V1 + r1 jxl1 Io Rc I’2 + φ E1 - ~ - jXm T1 r2 jxl2 I2 + V2 ZL E2 - T2 I1 r1 (a)Physical arrangement jXl1 I’2 V1 Rc Ic Im Io E1 r2 jXl2 I2 jXm E2 ZL V2 (b)Equivalent circuit Figure 14: A Practical Transformer 36 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof. Sridhara Rao.

These are represented by r1 and r2 respectively on primary and secondary side. The total primary current ¯ ¯ ¯ vectorially is I 1 = I2 + I0 Here I2 T1 = I2 T2 or I2 = I2 T2 T1 (30) (31) (32) ¯ ¯ T2 + I ¯ Thus I 1 = I2 0 T1 By solving this circuit for any load impedance ZL one can ﬁnd out the performance of the loaded transformer. G. Sasidhara Rao small). A practical transformer sans these imperfections (taken out and represented explicitly in the electric circuits) is an ideal transformer of turns ratio T1 : T2 (voltage ratio E1 : E2 ). Prof. a r2 = a 2 r2 . 14. However. active and reactive power associated with both the circuits must be the same. P. The equivalence implies that the ampere turns. Krishna Vasudevan. Sridhara Rao. This is represented as a series circuit element. it is not very convenient for use due to the presence of the ideal transformer of turns ratio T1 : T2 . Prof. This is seen in Fig. xl 2 = a 2 xl 2 ZL = a 2 ZL . 14(b). This is done here by replacing the secondary by a ‘hypothetical’ secondary having T1 turns which is ‘equivalent ’ to the physical secondary. as the power lost and the drop produced in the primary and secondary are proportional to the respective currents.Electrical Machines I Prof. I2 in the circuit represents the primary current component that is required to ﬂow from the mains in the primary T1 turns to neutralize the demagnetizing secondary current I2 due to the load in the secondary turns. Thus V2 = aV2 . where a -turns ratio T1 T2 I2 = I2 . If the turns ratio could be made unity by some transformation the circuit becomes very simple to use. The circuit shown in Fig. Then there is no change as far as their eﬀect on the primary is considered. 37 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

34 by ‘a’ [This makes the turns ratio unity and retains the power invariance]. It is also possible to refer all the primary parameters to secondary by making the hypothetical equivalent primary winding on the input side having the number of turns to be T2 . 16(a). aE2 = aV2 + aI2 (r2 + jxl2 ) Substituting in Eqn. analytically using the Kirchoﬀ’s equations applied to the primary and secondary. This particular equivalent circuit is as seen from the primary side. Sasidhara Rao This equivalent circuit is as shown in Fig. we have (by neglecting the shunt branch) V1 = E1 + I1 (r1 + jxl1 ) E2 = V2 + I2 (r2 + jxl2 ) T1 I 0 = T 1 I 1 + T 2 I 2 = − a = or I1 = − I2 + I0 a (33) (34) (35) I2 + Ic + Im a T1 . Prof. As the ideal transformer in this case has a turns ratio of unity the potentials on either side are the same and hence they may be conductively connected dispensing away with the ideal transformer.33 we have but aE2 = E1 (36) 38 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Referring to ﬁg. 15. G. P. The equivalent circuit can be derived. 14(a). Sridhara Rao. with equal ease. Such an equivalent circuit having all the parameters referred to the secondary side is shown in ﬁg. Krishna Vasudevan.Electrical Machines I Prof. T2 Multiply both sides of Eqn. Prof.

G.) r’1 jx’l1 I’c I’1 I’o I’m r2 jxl2 I2 V’1 R’c jX’m ZL V2 Figure 15: Equivalent Circuit Referred to the Secondary Side 6 Phasor diagrams The resulting equivalent circuit as shown in Fig. This circuit can be used for the analysis of the behavior of the transformers. As the no-load current is less than 1% of the load current a simpliﬁed circuit known as ‘approximate’ equivalent circuit (see Fig. Prof. which may be further simpliﬁed to the one 39 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 15. P. Prof. (Shown in ﬁg. Krishna Vasudevan.Electrical Machines I Prof. 16 is known as the exact equivalent circuit. Sridhara Rao. 16(b)) is usually used. Sasidhara Rao V1 = aV2 + aI2 (r2 + jxl2 ) + I1 (r1 + jxl1 ) = V2 + I1 (a2 r2 + ja2 xl2 ) + I1 (r1 + jxl1 ) = V2 + I1 (r1 + r2 + jxl1 + xl2 ) (37) A similar procedure can be used to refer all parameters to secondary side.

Electrical Machines I Prof. G. Sridhara Rao. Krishna Vasudevan. P. Prof.approximate and simpliﬁed equivalent circuits 40 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof. Sasidhara Rao I1 r1 jxl1 r’2 jx’l2 Ic V1 Rc Io Im jXm V’2 Z’L I1 Ic V1 Rc I’2 r1 Im jxm (a) jxl1 r’2 jx’l2 Io R=r1+r’2 I1 R jX I’2 Z’L V’2 x=xl1+x’l2 I1=I’2 V1 V’2 (b) (c) Figure 16: Exact.

V2 should also satisfy the Kirchoﬀ’s equation for the secondary.Electrical Machines I Prof. But the angle θ2 is deﬁned with respect to the terminal voltage V2 and not E2 . the magnetizing and loss components of the currents can be easily represented. Hence it is assumed that the phasor φ is known. The position of the E2 vector is known from the ﬂux phasor. Now. Prof. Once I0 is known. Sridhara Rao. The E1 and E2 phasor are then uniquely known. This is shown in ﬁg. Krishna Vasudevan. Rest of the construction of the phasor diagram then becomes routine. 7 Testing of Transformers The structure of the circuit equivalent of a practical transformer is developed earlier. The equivalent primary current I2 is added vectorially to I0 to yield I1 . Magnitude of I2 and the load power factor angle θ2 are assumed to be known. the drop that takes place in the primary resistance and series reactance can be obtained which when added to E1 gives uniquely the position of V1 which satisﬁes all other parameters. G. On similar lines to the ideal transformer the phasor diagram of operation can be drawn for a practical transformer also. This is represented in Fig. I1 (r1 + jxl1 )is added to E1 to yield V1 . Prof. Next we proceed to draw the phasor diagram corresponding to a loaded transformer. The performance parameters of interest can be obtained by solving that circuit for any load 41 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 16(c). Sasidhara Rao shown in Fig. P. By trial and error the position of I2 and V2 are determined. The positions of the current and induced emf phasor are not known uniquely if we start from the phasor V1 . 17(a) as phasor diagram on no-load. 17(b) as phasor diagram for a loaded transformer.

Sasidhara Rao V1 IoX l1 Ior1 E2 E1 Io Im V1 Il φ (a)No-load φ I1X l1 I1r1 E2 Il Io φ (b)On-load Figure 17: Phasor Diagram of a Practical Transformer E1 I’2 I2x2 I r 2 2 V2 I2 φ 42 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . P. G. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. Sridhara Rao. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof.

1 Winding resistance test This is nothing but the resistance measurement of the windings by applying a small d.c voltage to the winding and measuring the current through the same. then test method is the most dependable one. Both a. 7.c methods can be used for detecting the polarities of the induced emfs. 7. however a few common ones are discussed here. But if the temperature rise of the transformer is required. Prof. resistance by applying skin eﬀect corrections. Krishna Vasudevan. 18(a). There are several tests that can be done on the transformer. Sasidhara Rao conditions. The transformer is connected to a low voltage a. A supply voltage Vs is applied to the primary and the 43 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . and d. The ratio gives the winding resistance. From the d. source with the connections made as shown in the ﬁg. But for a user these are not available most of the times.c.c. G. For low voltage windings a resistance-bridge method can be used. The dot method discussed earlier is used to indicate the polarities. It is a must for poly phase connections. P. more commonly feasible with high voltage windings. From the analysis of the equivalent circuit one can determine the electrical parameters. In order to get the equivalent circuit parameters test methods are heavily depended upon. Prof. Also when a transformer is rewound with diﬀerent primary and secondary windings the equivalent circuit also changes. Sridhara Rao.2 Polarity Test This is needed for identifying the primary and secondary phasor polarities.Electrical Machines I Prof. The equivalent circuit parameters are available to the designer of the transformers from the various expressions that he uses for designing the transformers.c.c resistance one can get the a.

When the switch S is closed if the secondary voltage shows a positive reading.test Figure 18: Polarity Test readings of the voltmeters V1 . Prof. Sridhara Rao. If V3 reads V1 − V2 then assumed dot locations are correct (for the connection shown). method of testing the polarity. G. Prof.c. If the voltage rises from A1 to A2 in the primary. V2 and V3 are noted. 18(b) shows the d. Fig. V1 : V2 gives the turns ratio. If the meter kicks back the assumed polarity is wrong. It is the voltage rising from smaller number towards larger ones in each winding. a6 . The same thing holds good if more secondaries are present. the assumed polarity is correct. P. The beginning and end of the primary and secondary may then be marked by A1 − A2 and a1 − a2 respectively.Electrical Machines I Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. If more secondary terminals are present due to taps taken from the windings they can be labeled as a3 .C.C. a5 . with a moving coil meter. 44 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . a4 . at any instant it does so from a1 to a2 in the secondary. Sasidhara Rao V3 Vs A2 S ~ V1 a2 V2 A1 a1 + - A2 a2 + V A1 a1 (b)D.test (a)A.

Prof. I0 and W0 respectively. 19(a) V. Sasidhara Rao W A V1 V V2 V1 Io Im jXm Ic Rc (a)Physical Arrangement (b)Equivalent Circuit Figure 19: No Load Test 7. 45 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The no load current at rated voltage is less than 1 percent of nominal current and hence the loss and drop that take place in primary impedance r1 + jxl1 due to the no load current I0 is negligible. In Fig. the secondary is kept open circuited and nominal value of the input voltage is applied to the primary winding and the input current and power are measured.Fig. Let these meters read V1 . G. A. ammeter and wattmeter respectively. Krishna Vasudevan. Sridhara Rao.3 Open Circuit Test As the name suggests. Prof. The active component Ic of the no load current I0 represents the core losses and reactive current Im is the current needed for the magnetization. 19(b) shows the equivalent circuit of the transformer under this test. P.Electrical Machines I Prof. W are the voltmeter.

If the secondary voltage is low. Sridhara Rao. Sasidhara Rao Thus the wattmeter reading W0 = V1 Ic = Pcore ∴ Ic = ∴ Im = Rc = W0 V1 V1 Ic 2 2 I0 − Ic (38) (39) or V1 Im (40) (41) andXm = V1 Io Figure 20: Open Circuit Characteristics The parameters measured already are in terms of the primary.Electrical Machines I Prof. one can perform the test with LV side energized keeping the HV side open circuited. Krishna Vasudevan. P. G. Prof. 46 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . These have to be referred to HV side if we need the equivalent circuit referred to HV side. Prof. Sometimes the primary voltage required may be in kilo-Volts and it may not be feasible to apply nominal voltage to primary from the point of safety to personnel and equipment. In this case the parameters that are obtained are in terms of LV .

2 Wsc = Isc (r1 + r2 ) (42) (43) (44) Zsc = (xl1 + xl2 ) = Vsc Isc 2 − (r + r )2 Zsc 1 2 47 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Isc and Wsc respectively. or in doubt. 7. which is a graph showing the applied voltage as a function of the no load current. The reactive power consumed is that absorbed by the leakage reactance of the two windings. especially in a rewound transformer. in this test primary applied voltage. the current and power input are measured keeping the secondary terminals short circuited. The supply voltage required to circulate rated current through the transformer is usually very small and is of the order of a few percent of the nominal voltage. After this value is chosen as the nominal value the parameters are calculated as mentioned above. keeping the secondary open circuited. Krishna Vasudevan. P. In such cases an open circuit characteristics is ﬁrst obtained. Also I1 = I2 as I0 0. Prof. The usual operating point selected for operation lies at some standard voltage around the knee point of the characteristic. 20. This is a non linear curve as shown in Fig. Prof. This graph is obtained by noting the current drawn by transformer at diﬀerent applied voltage.Electrical Machines I Prof. G. Sasidhara Rao Sometimes the nominal value of high voltage itself may not be known. The shunt branch is thus assumed to be absent. 21(b).4 Short Circuit Test The purpose of this test is to determine the series branch parameters of the equiv- alent circuit of Fig. As the name suggests. Sridhara Rao. Therefore Wsc is the sum of the copper losses in primary and secondary put together. Let these values be Vsc . The excitation current which is only 1 percent or less even at rated voltage becomes negligibly small during this test and hence is neglected.

Prof. Sasidhara Rao A Vsc V W (a)Physical Arrangement Isc Vsc r1 jxl1 r’2 jx’l2 (b)Equivalent Circuit Figure 21: Short Circuit Test 48 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. G. P. Sridhara Rao.Electrical Machines I Prof.

Further. they are assumed to be equal. This aspect of temperature rise cannot be guessed from the electrical equivalent circuit. This is a fairly valid assumption for many types of transformer windings as the leakage ﬂux paths are through air and are similar. As for the separation of xl1 and xl2 is concerned. Rated load is determined by loading the transformer on a continuous basis and observing the steady state temperature rise. to determine the voltage regulation and eﬃciency of the transformer. Sasidhara Rao If the approximate equivalent circuit is required then there is no need to separate r1 and r2 or xl1 and xl2 . If the ﬂash point of the oil is reached the transformer goes up in ﬂames. Hence to have a reasonable life expectancy the loading of the transformer must be limited to that value which gives the maximum temperature rise tolerated by the insulation. 7. when the transformer is loaded. G. Sridhara Rao. the losses like dielectric losses and stray load losses are not modeled in the 49 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof. in the present case nominal voltage is applied across the primary and rated current is drown from the secondary.Electrical Machines I Prof. The losses that are generated inside the transformer on load appear as heat. Unlike the tests described previously. The insulation of the transformer is the one to get aﬀected by this rise in the temperature. However if the exact equivalent circuit is needed then either r1 or r2 is determined from the resistance measurement and the other separated from the total. Load test is used mainly 1. Both paper and oil which are used for insulation in the transformer start getting degenerated and get decomposed. This heats the transformer and the temperature of the transformer increases.5 Load Test Load Test helps to determine the total loss that takes place. Krishna Vasudevan. to determine the rated load of the machine and the temperature rise 2. P. Prof.

Krishna Vasudevan. As the transformers come in varied transformation ratios. This is very wasteful in terms of energy also.Electrical Machines I Prof. P. The eﬃciency of the transformer is above 99% even in modest sizes which means 1 percent of power handled by the transformer actually goes to heat up the machine. Hence the only sure way of ascertaining the rating is by conducting a load test. Sridhara Rao. If the ﬁnal steady temperature rise is lower than the maximum permissible value. Sasidhara Rao equivalent circuit and the actual loss under load condition will be in error to that extent. It is rather easy to load a transformer of small ratings. That load current which gives the maximum permissible temperature rise is declared as the nominal or rated load current and the volt amperes are computed using the same. Prof. The remaining 99% of the power has to be dissipated in a load impedance external to the machine. Many external means of removal of heat from the transformer in the form of diﬀerent cooling methods give rise to diﬀerent values for temperature rise of insulation. Hence these permit diﬀerent levels of loading for the same transformer. in many cases it becomes extremely diﬃcult to get suitable load impedance. then load can be increased else it is decreased. The load is applied and held constant till the temperature rise of transformer reaches a steady value. Prof. G. the temperature rise of the transformer is due to the losses that take place ‘inside’ the transformer. Further. 50 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . As the rating increases it becomes diﬃcult to ﬁnd a load that can absorb the requisite power and a source to feed the necessary current. ( If the load is of unity power factor) Thus the actual loading of the transformer is seldom resorted to. Equivalent loss methods of loading and ‘Phantom’ loading are commonly used in the case of transformers.

Prof. W A 2Io V1 V I’ 2 1 Io Io I2 I2 I’ 2 A Vs V W 2 Figure 22: Back to Back Test . By this method even though one can pump in equivalent loss inside the transformer. Krishna Vasudevan. Sasidhara Rao In the equivalent loss method a short circuit test is done on the transformer. The windings are connected back to back as shown in Fig.Electrical Machines I Prof. 22. full load copper losses and assumed stray load losses. G. Sridhara Rao. An equiv51 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . P. Prof. Therefore this test comes close to a load test but does not replace one. Suitable voltage is injected into the loop formed by the two secondaries such that full load current passes through them. the actual distribution of this loss vastly diﬀers from that taking place in reality. The short circuit current is so chosen that the resulting loss taking place inside the transformer is equivalent to the sum of the iron losses.Phantom Loading In Phantom loading method two identical transformers are needed.

Krishna Vasudevan. MKS. Some base parameters can be chosen 52 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The power absorbed by the second transformer which acts as a load is pushed back in to the mains. Also the comparison of these machines are made simple if all the parameters are normalized. The transformers work with full ﬂux drawing full load currents and hence are closest to the actual loading condition with a physical load.). Sasidhara Rao alent current then passes through the primary also. The ‘per unit’ system is developed keeping these aspects in mind. Prof. These units also underwent several revisions over the years. its own nominal parameters are used as base values. The parameters of the equivalent circuits of these machines also vary over a large range. The voltage source V1 supplies the magnetizing current and core losses for the two transformers. The two sources put together meet the core and copper losses of the two transformers. There is no power wasted in a load ( as a matter of fact there is no real load at all) and hence the name Phantom or virtual loading. In the case of individual equipments. The parameters of the transformer are referred to some base values and thus get scaled. The second source supplies the load component of the current and losses due to the same. Prof. ratings. However if the scaling is done on a logical basis one can have a simple representation of the parameters without the bother of the scaling factors. Expressing in percent basis is one example of scaling. If simple scaling of the parameters is done then one has to carry forward the scaling factors in the calculations. Also diﬀerent units of measurement are in use in the diﬀerent countries (FPS. CGS. Sridhara Rao. transformers of various sizes. P. In the case of power system a common base value is adopted in view of diﬀerent ratings of the equipments used. voltage ratios can be seen being used in a power system. etc. If the transformer parameter can be freed from the units then the system becomes very simple.Electrical Machines I Prof. G. 8 Per Unit Calculations As stated earlier.

short circuit impedance Zbase can be calculated from those values.u = Ip. Zbase = Gbase . 2 Zbase (ohm) Vbase Vbase Many times.old on the old base of Sbaseold and Vbaseold shall get modiﬁed on new base Sbasenew . Other base values can be derived from them. Prof. This is a common problem encountered in the case of parallel operation of two or more transformers. Thus the per unit value is a unit-less dimensionless number. Sbase = Vbase ∗ Ibase Rbase . The conversion of the base values naturally lead to change in the per unit values of their parameters. Vbase (volt) I (Amps) I (amps) = = Sbase Ibase (amps) V base (48) (49) Z (ohm) Ibase Sbase = = Z (ohm) ∗ = Z (ohm). Prof. Other base values like volt ampere Sbase . The units must be the same for both the parameters and their bases.u V (volt) .u. Let us choose nominal voltage and nominal current on the primary side of a transformer as the base values Vbase and Ibase . Krishna Vasudevan.old . Sasidhara Rao as independent base values while some others become derived base parameters. Xbase . when more transformers are involved in a circuit one is required to choose a common base value for all of them.u. Once the base values are identiﬁed the per unit values are calculated for any parameter by dividing the same by its base value.new = (Zp. G.Vbasenew as Zp. Bbase . Ybase Vbase Ibase Ibase = Vbase (45) (46) (47) Normally Sbase and Vbase are known from name plate details. Vp. An impedance Zp. Parameters of all the machines are expressed on this common base.Electrical Machines I Prof. 2 Vbase Sbase old old ) Sbase 2 Vbase new new (50) 53 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .u Zp.u. Qbase . Pbase . P. Sridhara Rao.

Krishna Vasudevan. Comparing the 54 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .impedance as seen by primary.impedance as seen by secondary.as the transformer rating is unaltered. a From the above relationships it can be seen that Zp. but Zohm = (51) Where a .is the turns ratio of primary to secondary Z . This is further illustrated by taking the equivalent circuit of a transformer derived earlier and expressing the same in per unit form. = Zohm . Prof. This becomes obvious if we realize that the mmf of the core for establishing a given ﬂux is the same whether it is supplied through primary or the secondary. Also the active power and reactive power absorbed inside the transformer are not dependant on the winding connected to supply.Electrical Machines I Prof. This can be easily seen by. Prof. Thus the per unit values help in dispensing away the scaling constants. there is no change in the per unit values. The veracity of the parameters can be readily checked.u.u.. Sbase 2 Vbase 1 . If all the equivalent circuit parameters are referred to the secondary side and per unit values of the new equivalent circuit parameters are computed with secondary voltage and current as the base values. 1 Vbase = Vbase . Sridhara Rao. P.u. Comparison of the parameters of the machines with those of similar ones throw in useful information about the machines. Sbase = Sbase . G. = Zp.Zohm a2 Zp. Sasidhara Rao The term inside the bracket is nothing but the ohmic value of the impedance and this gets converted into the new per unit value by the new Sbase and Vbase . Z .

the voltage at the load is the one which the user has to worry about. The voltage regulation can be deﬁned in two ways . A transformer is interposed in between the load and the supply terminals in such cases.Electrical Machines I Prof. P.u.resistance has higher copper losses without actually computing the same. 9 Voltage Regulation Modern power systems operate at some standard voltages. While input voltage is the responsibility of the supply provider. within certain agreed tolerance limits. This drop is termed as the voltage regulation and is expressed as a ratio of the terminal voltage (the absolute value per se is not too important). Prof. In many applications this voltage itself may not be good enough for obtaining the best operating condition for the loads. If undue voltage drop is permitted to occur inside the transformer the load voltage becomes too low and aﬀects its performance.Regulation Down and Regulation up. 55 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. Sridhara Rao. Sasidhara Rao eﬃciencies of two transformers at any load one can say that the transformer with a higher p. These two deﬁnitions diﬀer only in the reference voltage as can be seen below. It is therefore necessary to quantify the drop that takes place inside a transformer when certain load current. is drawn from its output leads. The equipments work- ing on these systems are therefore given input voltages at these standard values. eﬃciency and load sharing of parallel connected transformers will be discussed later at appropriate places. Prof. Application of per unit values for the calculation of voltage regulation. Krishna Vasudevan. at any power factor. There are additional drops inside the transformer due to the load currents.

and the on load voltage. |Vnl | − |Vl | |Vl | (53) This deﬁnition is more commonly used in the case of alternators and power systems as the user-end voltage is guaranteed by the power supply provider. Regulation = |Vnl | − |Vl | |Vnl | (52) Vnl and Vl are no-load and load terminal voltages. Expressed in symbolic form we have. Krishna Vasudevan. Prof. Sridhara Rao. only the numerical diﬀerences of the voltages are taken and not vector diﬀerences. Regulation up: Here again the regulation is expressed as the ratio of the change in the terminal voltage when a load at a given power factor is thrown oﬀ.Electrical Machines I Prof. G. Normally full load regulation is of interest as the part load regulation is going to be lower. Hence no-load voltage is taken as the reference. Prof. expressed as a fraction of the no-load terminal voltage”. This deﬁnition if expressed in symbolic form results in Regulation = Vnl is the no-load terminal voltage. 56 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Vl is load voltage. This is the deﬁnition normally used in the case of the transformers. In the expressions for the regulation. He has to generate proper no-load voltage at the generating station to provide the user the voltage he has asked for. P. the no-load voltage being the one given by the power supply provider on which the user has no say. Sasidhara Rao Regulation down: This is deﬁned as ” the change in terminal voltage when a load current at any power factor is applied.

Electrical Machines I Prof. Sasidhara Rao (a) Equivalent Circuit V1 D O A φ V’2 θ B I2’Xe I2’Re C E I2’ (b)Phasor Diagram Figure 23: Regulation of Transformer 57 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof. Sridhara Rao. P. Krishna Vasudevan. G. Prof.

Hence a convenient starting point is the load voltage. θ . Prof. Sridhara Rao. Hence regulation up has some advantage when it comes to its application. G. P.internal impedance angle=tan−1 Also. The power factor of the load is deﬁned with respect to the terminal voltage on load.(Re + jXe ) = V2 + I2 (cos φ − j sin φ)(Re + jXe ) ∴ RegulationR = (1 + v1 ) + 2 2 v2 2 Xe Re (54) [OA + AB + BC ]2 + [CD ]2 (55) [V2 + I2 Re cos φ + I2 Xe sin φ]2 + [I2 Xe cos φ − I2 Re sin φ]2 (56) |V1 | − |V2 | = |V2 | 2 (1 + v1 )2 + v2 −1 (57) 2 2 + v1 ) v2 v2 2 (1 + v1 ) + +[ ] = (1 + v1 + )2 (58) 2(1 + v1 ) 2(1 + v1 ) 2(1 + v1 ) Taking the square root (59) 2 2(1 v2 .Electrical Machines I Prof. (1 + v1 )2 + 2 v2 2 v2 = 1 + v1 + 2(1 + v1 ) (60) where v1 = er cos φ + ex sin φ and v2 = ex cos φ − er sin φ er = I2 R e =per V2 unit resistance drop 58 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Krishna Vasudevan. The no-load current I0 is neglected in view of the large magnitude of I2 . 23 shows the phasor diagram of operation of the transformer under loaded condition. V1 = I2 (Re + jXe ) + V2 OD = V1 = = φ . Fig. Sasidhara Rao In the case of transformers both deﬁnitions result in more or less the same value for the regulation as the transformer impedance is very low and the power factor of operation is quite high. Prof. Then I1 = I 2 . V1 = V2 + I2 . Also the full load output voltage is taken from the name plate.power factor angle.

24. Prof. An alternative expression for the regulation of a transformer can be derived by the method shown in Fig. It can be seen from the above expression. Sasidhara Rao ex = I 2 Xe =per V2 unit reactance drop as v1 and v2 are small. As v2 is small its second power may be neglected as a further approximation and the expression for the regulation of the transform boils down to regulation R = er cos φ ± ex sin φ The negative sign is applicable when the power factor is leading. 2 v2 v2 − 1 v1 + 2 2(1 + e1 ) 2 (ex sin φ − er cos φ)2 ∴ regulation R = er cos φ ± ex sin φ + 2 ∴R 1 + v1 + (61) (62) 2 v2 2(1 + v1 ) 2 v2 (1 − v1 ) . 59 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. Here the phasor are resolved along the current axis and normal to it. 2 2 (1 − v1 ) 2 v2 . Similarly. the full load regulation becomes zero when the power factor is leading and er cos φ = ex sin φ or tan φ = er /ex or the power factor angle φ = tan−1 (er /ex ) = tan−1 (Re /Xe ) leading.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sridhara Rao. Prof. the value of the regulation is maximum at a power factor angle φ = tan−1 (ex /er ) = tan−1 (Xe /Re ) lagging.(1 − v1 ) 2 2 v2 2 (63) Powers higher than 2 for v1 and v2 are negligible as v1 and v2 are already small. P. Krishna Vasudevan.

Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. Sridhara Rao. P. Fig. Sasidhara Rao V1 D V2 O φ I2’ θ C I2’Xe I2’Re A B Figure 24: An Alternate Method for the Calculation of Regulation We have. Prof.u )−1 2 2 OD − V2 OD = −1 V2 V2 (66) (67) (68) Thus this expression may not be as convenient as the earlier one due to the square root involved.u )2 + (sin φ + Xp. G. 25 shows the variation of full load regulation of a typical transformer as the 60 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Electrical Machines I Prof. OD 2 = (OA + AB )2 + (BC + CD )2 (64) = (V2 cos φ + I2 Re )2 + (V2 sin φ + I2 Xe )2 (65) ∴ RegulationR = (V sin φ + I2 Xe ) (V2 cos φ + I2 Re ) + 2 −1 V2 V2 = 2 (cos φ + Rp.

Prof. Only with low power factor loads the drop in the series impedance of the transformer contributes substantially to the regulation. through unity power factor. 5 0 lagging power factor Figure 25: Variation of Full Load Regulation with Power Factor It is seen from Fig. 25 that the full load regulation at unity power factor is nothing but the percentage resistance of the transformer. 5 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 1. In small transformers the designer tends to keep the Xe very low (less than 5%) so that the regulation performance of the transformer is satisfactory. Prof. Sasidhara Rao power factor is varied from zero power factor leading. Sridhara Rao. to zero power factor lagging. Krishna Vasudevan. 0 0. 61 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. P. It is therefore very small and negligible.Electrical Machines I Prof. 5 4 3 %Regulation 2 1 leading 0 0.

Except in the case of an ideal machine. Krishna Vasudevan. In the case of a. %η = ∗ 100 A typical curve for the variation of eﬃciency as a function of output is given in Fig. 10 Eﬃciency Eﬃciency of a power equipment is deﬁned at any load as the ratio of the power output to the power input. So. In other cases care has to be exercised in the selection of the short circuit impedance as it aﬀects the voltage regulation. Prof. so that the turns ratio can be changed. P. Prof. a certain fraction of the input power gets lost inside the machine while handling the power. G. 26 The losses that take place inside the machine expressed as a fraction of the input is some times termed as deﬁciency. Putting in the form of an expression. Sasidhara Rao A low value of the short circuit impedance /reactance results in a large short circuit current in case of a short circuit. This in turn results in large mechanical forces on the winding. in large transformers the short circuit impedance is made high to give better short circuit protection to the transformer which results in poorer regulation performance. Ef f iciency η = output power Input power − losses inside the machine = (69) input power Input power losses inside the machine = 1− = 1 − ef f iciency inputpower output power = output + losses inside the machine output input power power More conveniently the eﬃciency is expressed in percentage. machines the rating is expressed 62 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Electrical Machines I Prof. the voltage regulation is not a serious issue.c. Sridhara Rao. Thus the value for the eﬃciency is always less than one. In the case of transformers provided with taps on windings.

Therefore the losses that take place inside a transformer at any given load play a vital role in determining the eﬃciency. Sasidhara Rao 100 75 Efficiency% 50 25 0 0. The reactive power however increases the current handled by the machine and the losses resulting from it. Prof. P. The losses taking place inside a transformer can be enumerated as below: 1. It is nothing but the product of the applied voltage and the current drawn. 5 x 1 Figure 26: Eﬃciency in terms of apparent power.Electrical Machines I Prof. G. Iron loss 63 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sridhara Rao. As the reactive power shuttles between the source and the load and has a zero average value over a cycle of the supply wave it does not have any direct eﬀect on the eﬃciency. The actual power delivered is a function of the power factor at which this current is drawn. Krishna Vasudevan. Prof. Primary copper loss 2. Secondary copper loss 3.

This again produces a power loss Pe in the lamination. Primary and secondary copper losses take place in the respective winding resistances due to the ﬂow of the current in them. G. The eddy current loss in the core arises because of the induced emf in the steel lamination sheets and the eddies of current formed due to it. While the average temperature rise can be approximately used. Stray load loss These are explained in sequence below.c.Electrical Machines I Prof. The iron losses contain two components . the eddy current loss can be reduced by 64 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Ph = Kh B 1. Sasidhara Rao 4. The Hysteresis loss is a function of the material used for the core. values due to skin eﬀect and the temperature rise of the windings. The short circuit test gives the value of R e taking into account the skin eﬀect. Dielectric loss 5. Sridhara Rao. Prof. Pe = K e B 2 f 2 t2 where t is the thickness of the steel lamination used.Hysteresis loss and Eddy current loss. P.6 f For constant voltage and constant frequency operation this can be taken to be constant. 2 2 Pc = I 1 r1 + I 2 r2 = I22 Re (70) The primary and secondary resistances diﬀer from their d. the skin eﬀect is harder to get analytically. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. As the lamination thickness is much smaller than the depth of penetration of the ﬁeld.

Electrical Machines I Prof. The dielectric losses take place in the insulation of the transformer due to the large electric stress. It can be modeled by another resistance in the series branch in the equivalent circuit. Present day laminations are of 0. Pconst being constant 65 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .25 mm thickness and are capable of operation at 2 Tesla. Thus they take place ’all round’ the transformer instead of a deﬁnite place . Sasidhara Rao reducing the thickness of the lamination. Also the leakage ﬂux is directly proportional to the load current unlike the mutual ﬂux which is proportional to the applied voltage. Thus. the diﬀerent losses fall in to two categories Constant losses (mainly voltage dependant) and Variable losses (current dependant). Prof. The sum of hysteresis and eddy current losses can be obtained by the open circuit test. For constant voltage operation this can be assumed to be a constant. The stray load losses are very low in air-cored transformers due to the absence of the metallic tank. P. at a load power factor of θ 2 . can be written as η= xS cos θ2 xS cos θ2 + Pconst + x2 Pvar (71) Here S in the volt ampere rating of the transformer (V2 I2 at full load). These leakage ﬂuxes link the metallic structural parts. and produce eddy current losses in them. Sridhara Rao. These reduce the eddy current losses in the core. hence the name ’stray’. This loss also remains constant due to constant voltage and frequency of operation. This can also be estimated experimentally. In the case of low voltage transformers this can be neglected. G. Krishna Vasudevan. tank etc. Prof. The stray load losses arise out of the leakage ﬂuxes of the transformer. The expression for the eﬃciency of the transformer operating at a fractional load x of its rating. Hence this loss is called ’stray load’ loss.

Prof. The maximum eﬃciency of 98. xS cos θ2 xS cos θ2 = xS cos θ2 + 2Pconst xS cos θ2 + 2x2 Pvar ηmax = (73) From the expression for the maximum eﬃciency it can be easily deduced that this maximum value increases with increase in power factor and is zero at zero power factor of the load. when constant losses equal the variable losses at any fractional load x the eﬃciency reaches a maximum value. For a given power factor an expression for η in terms of the variable x is thus obtained. Thus if a transformer is on full load. Sasidhara Rao losses and Pvar the variable losses at full load. Sridhara Rao. Krishna Vasudevan. In the present case that condition comes out to be Pconst = x2 Pvar or x = Pconst Pvar (72) That is. The break up of this loss is chosen to be diﬀerent for the two transformers. the condition for maximum eﬃciency is obtained. By diﬀerentiating η with respect to x and equating the same to zero.04% 66 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . in the modern transformers the iron losses are so low that it is practically impossible to reduce the full load copper losses to that value. for most part of the time then the ηmax can be made to occur at full load by proper selection of constant and variable losses. G. However.Electrical Machines I Prof. Two 100 kVA transformers A nd B are taken. It may be considered a good practice to select the operating load point to be at the maximum eﬃciency point. The maximum value of that eﬃciency at any given power factor is given by. Both transformers have total full load losses to be 2 kW. This point is illustrated with the help of an example below. Such a design wastes lot of copper. Prof. and copper loss is 1 kW. P. Transformer A: iron loss 1 kW.

7 kW. The former variety is seen in generating stations and large substations.04%.42. Sridhara Rao. but transformer B uses lesser quantity of copper and works at higher current density. G.1764 density. At the corresponding point the transformer A has an eﬃciency of ∗ 100 = 97.0+0.7 = 0. 10.28%. Sasidhara Rao occurs at full load at unity power factor. P.6 0. Prof.3 kW and full load copper loss =1.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. The maximum eﬃciency at unity power factor being ∗ 100 = 98.1 100 All day eﬃciency 100 50 Load % of full load 50 Power Loss % s P 6 Time. Its maximum η occurs at a fractional load of 42 42+0. Transformer A uses iron of more loss per kg at a given ﬂux 42 42+1. Krishna Vasudevan.hrs 12 18 24 12 24 (a)Load factor Figure 27: Calculation of Load Factor and Loss Factor (b) Loss factor Large capacity transformers used in power systems are classiﬁed broadly into Power transformers and Distribution transformers. Distribution transformers are seen at the distribution substations.59%. Transformer B: Iron loss =0. This also has a full load η of 98.3 1. 67 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

One day is taken as a duration of time over which the load pattern repeats itself. The graph of load on the transformer. Hence the concept of energy based eﬃciency is deﬁned for such transformers. however. expressed as a fraction of the full load is plotted against time in Fig. On the other hand a distribution transformer is never switched oﬀ. is far from being true.Electrical Machines I Prof. which is given by the ratio of the average load to rated load. The all day eﬃciency is thus the ratio of the energy output of the transformer over a day to the corresponding energy input. The no-load losses or constant losses occur throughout the 24 hours. 27. In an actual situation the load on the transformer continuously changes. does not give satisfactory results. The average loss during the day is given by Pc n i=1 Average loss = Pi + x2 i ti 24 (75) This is a non-linear function. It has to remain in the circuit irrespective of the load connected. the comparison of loads on diﬀerent days becomes diﬃcult. Prof. For the same load factor diﬀerent average loss can be 68 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. The average load can be calculated by Average load over a day = n i=1 Pi 24 = Sn n i=1 xi ti cos θi 24 (74) where Pi is the load during an interval i. The calculation of the all day eﬃciency is illustrated below with an example. In such cases the constant loss of the transformer continues to be dissipated. This assumption. Thus. Sasidhara Rao The basic diﬀerence between the two types arise from the fact that the power transformers are switched in or out of the circuit depending upon the load to be handled by them. Si = xi Sn where Sn is nominal load. Even the load factor. n intervals are assumed. Krishna Vasudevan. It is called ’all day’ eﬃciency. The power output varies from zero to full load depending on the requirement of the user and the load losses vary as the square of the fractional loads. Prof. Sridhara Rao. Thus at 50% load on the station only 50% of the transformers need to be connected in the circuit. P. xi is the fractional load. This has been presented by a stepped curve for convenience.

Sasidhara Rao there depending upon the values of xi and ti . Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. The constant losses and variable losses are capitalized and added to the material cost of the transformer in order to select the most competitive one. The currents drawn by these two windings are out of phase by 180◦ . Variable losses are related to load and are associated with revenue earned. it can also be incorporated in computation of the best transformer. If the load cycle is known at this stage. P.Electrical Machines I Prof. This prompted the use of a part of the primary as secondary. This is equivalent to fusing the secondary turns into primary turns. Hence a better option would be to keep the constant losses very low to keep the all day eﬃciency high. G. The fused section need to have a cross sectional area of the conductor to carry (I2 − I1 ) ampere! This ingenious thought led to the invention of an auto transformer. which gives minimum cost taking initial cost and running cost put together. At 69 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The concept of minimizing the lost energy comes into eﬀect right from the time of procurement of the transformer. Obviously the iron losses are capitalized more in the process to give an eﬀect to the maximization of energy eﬃciency. The concept of all day eﬃciency may therefore be more useful for comparing two transformers subjected to the same load cycle. Total number of turns between A and C are T1 . 28 shows the physical arrangement of an auto transformer. Fig. The constant losses on the other hand has to be incurred to make the service available. Sridhara Rao. Prof. 11 Auto Transformer The primary and secondary windings of a two winding transformer have induced emf in them due to a common mutual ﬂux and hence are in phase.

the magnetizing current of the transformer is neglected. is the same for the whole winding. G. Thus some amount of material saving can be achieved compared to a two 70 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Krishna Vasudevan. This will be countered by a current I1 ﬂowing from the source through the T1 turns such that. Prof. Sasidhara Rao I1 C T1 V1 B I2 T2 I2 A V2 ZL I1 Figure 28: Autotransformer . When the secondary winding delivers a load current of I2 ampere the demagnetizing ampere turns is I2 T2 . Sridhara Rao. The cross section of the wire to be selected for AB is proportional to this current assuming a constant current density for the whole winding. Section AB has T2 turns.Electrical Machines I Prof. As the volts per turn. V1 : V2 = T 1 : T2 (76) For simplifying analysis. Prof.Physical Arrangement point B a connection is taken. I 1 T1 = I 2 T2 (77) A current of I1 ampere ﬂows through the winding between B and C . P. which is proportional to the ﬂux in the machine. The current in the winding between A and B is (I2 − I1 ) ampere.

copper in autotransf ormer (T1 − T2 )I1 + T2 (I2 − I1 ) = copper in two winding transf ormer T1 I 1 + T 2 I 2 2T2 I1 = 1− T1 I 1 + T 2 I 2 ButT1 I1 = T2 I2 ∴ The Ratio = 1 − 2T2 I1 T2 =1− 2T1 I1 T1 (78) (79) (80) I1+I2 I1 φ I2 V1 I2 V2 V1+V2 ZL I1+I2 I1 I2 Figure 29: Two Winding Transformer used as auto transformer This means that an auto transformer requires the use of lesser quantity of copper given by the ratio of turns. Krishna Vasudevan. Sridhara Rao. P. G. The magnetic circuit is assumed to be identical and hence there is no saving in the same. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. As the 71 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . To quantify the saving the total quantity of copper used in an auto transformer is expressed as a fraction of that used in a two winding transformer as. Sasidhara Rao winding transformer. Prof. This ratio therefore denotes the savings in copper.

The windings can be connected in series opposition fashion also. Sridhara Rao. Prof. however. at a price. The new output of this auto transformer will now be I2 (V1 + V2 ) = I2 V2 (1 + V1 V1 ) = S (1 + ) V2 V2 I2 = V1 (I1 + I2 ) = S (1 + ) I1 (81) (82) Thus an increased rating can be obtained compared to a two winding transformer with the same material content. the output voltage becomes (V1 + V2 ) volt. The savings in material is obtained. to obtain higher output. even then going in for the auto transformer type of connection can be used with advantage. smaller is the savings. 29 shows a regular two winding transformer of a voltage ratio V1 : V2 . If now the primary is connected across a supply of V1 volt and the secondary is connected in series addition manner with the primary winding. G. The electrical isolation between primary and secondary has to be sacriﬁced.Electrical Machines I Prof. If we are not looking at the savings in the material. 72 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . giving some saving in the lamination weight also. Fig. the volt ampere rating being V1 I1 = V2 I2 = S . the window space can be less for an auto transformer. Prof. Thus auto transformers become ideal choice for close ratio transformations. Then the new output rating will be I2 (V1 − V2 ) = I2 V2 ( V1 V1 − 1) = S ( − 1) V2 V2 (83) The diﬀerential connection is not used as it is not advantageous as the cumulative connection. Sasidhara Rao space for the second winding need not be there. The larger the ratio of the voltages. This can be illustrated as follows. Krishna Vasudevan. As T2 approaches T1 the savings become signiﬁcant. P.

xl2 (I2 -I1) V2 I1 I2 Figure 30: Kirchoﬀ’s Law Application to auto transformer As mentioned earlier the magnetizing current can be neglected. for simplicity. Similarly on the load side we have. Sridhara Rao. G. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. 30 we have V1 = E1 + I1 (r1 + jxl1 ) − (I2 − I1 )(r2 + jxl2 ) (84) Note that the resistance r1 and leakage reactance xl1 refer to that part of the winding where only the primary current ﬂows. Prof. Writing the Kirchoﬀ’s equation to the primary and secondary of Fig.xl1 V1 I1 I2 r2. Krishna Vasudevan. Sasidhara Rao 11. E2 = V2 + (I2 − I1 )(r2 + jxl2 ) The voltage ratio V1 : V2 of the primary. P. 73 = E 1 : E2 = T 1 : T2 = (85) a where T1 is the total turns Indian Institute of Technology Madras .1 Equivalent circuit I1 r1.

Prof. P. The magnetization branch can now be hung across the mains for completeness. Sridhara Rao.Electrical Machines I Prof. Thus in the case of an auto 74 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Krishna Vasudevan. 31 where Re = r1 + (a − 1)2 r2 and Re jXe Re=r1+(a-1)2r2 Xl=xl1+(a-1)2xl2 V1 Rc Ic Io Im jXm V’2=aV1 Figure 31: Equivalent Circuit of auto transformers Xe = xl1 + (a − 1)2 xl2 . Prof. The above equivalent circuit can now be compared with the approximate equivalent circuit of a two winding case Re = r1 + a2 r2 and Xe = xl1 + a2 xl2 . G. Sasidhara Rao Then E1 = aE2 and I2 = aI1 multiplying equation(84) by ’a’ and substituting in (83) we have V1 = aV2 + a(I2 − I1 )(r2 + jxl2 ) + I1 (r1 + jxl1 ) − (I2 − I1 )(r2 + jxl2 ) = aV2 + I1 (r1 + jxl1 + r2 + jxl2 − ar2 − ajxl 2) + I2 (ar2 + jaxl2 − r2 − jxl2 ) = aV2 + I1 (r1 + jxl1 + r2 + jxl2 + a2 r2 + ja2 xl2 − ar2 − ajxl2 − ar2 − jaxl2 ) = aV2 + I1 (r1 + r2 (1 + a2 − 2a) + jxl1 + xl2 (1 + a2 − 2a)) = aV2 + I1 (r1 + (a − 1)2 r2 + jxl1 + (a − 1)2 xl2 ) (86) Equation (85) yields the equivalent circuit of Fig.

G. Krishna Vasudevan.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. Sridhara Rao. P. Sasidhara Rao I1x1 (I2-I1)x2 V1 (I2-I1)r2 I1r1 I2 E1 I1 (I2-I1)r2 E2 (I2-I1)x2 V2 θ1 θ2 φ I2 Figure 32: Phasor Diagram of Operation of an autotransformer 75 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof.

Krishna Vasudevan.3 or more they are used with advantage. boosters or static balancers. The magnetizing current is omitted here again for simplicity. The primary conductor is bared to facilitate electrical 76 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . P.c. The voltage/current transformation and impedance conversion aspects of a two winding transformer are retained but with lesser material (and hence lesser weight) used. That is because the short circuit currents become very large in those cases. The losses are reduced increasing the eﬃciency. The phasor diagram of operation for the auto transformer drawing a load current at a lagging power factor angle of θ2 is shown in Fig. Reactance is reduced resulting in better regulation characteristics. Prof. 32.Electrical Machines I Prof. voltage from a ﬁxed a. When the ratio V2 : V1 is 0. The secondary voltage is tapped by a brush whose position and hence the output voltage is variable. Another wide spread application of auto transformer type of arrangement is in obtaining a variable a. The eﬃciency is higher in auto transformers compared to their two winding counter part at the same load. From the foregoing study it is seen that there are several advantages in going in for the autotransformer type of arrangement. voltage supply.c. G. The price that is required to be paid is loss of electrical isolation and a larger short circuit current (and larger short circuit forces on the winding). The normal applications are motor starters. Auto transformers are used in applications where electrical isolation is not a critical requirement. Here only one winding is used as in the auto transformer. Having a smaller value of short circuit impedance is sometimes considered to be a disadvantage. All these beneﬁts are enhanced as the voltage ratio approaches unity. Thus the full load regulation is lower. Prof. Sasidhara Rao transformer total value of the short circuit impedance is lower and so also the percentage resistance and reactance. Sridhara Rao.

Electrical Machines I Prof. These are used in voltage stabilizers. The conductor is selected based on the maximum secondary current that could be drawn as the output voltage varies in practically continuous manner. Krishna Vasudevan. P. arrangements (with a diode bridge) in laboratories. dimmers etc. 77 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 33. Prof. Prof.c output V in M ovi ng contact Figure 33: Variable Secondary Voltage Arrangement contact Fig. G. Sridhara Rao.c. Sasidhara Rao Vari abl e a. variable d. Such arrangement cannot exploit the savings in the copper as the output voltage is required right from zero volts upwards. motor starters.

Resonance between winding reactance and feeder capacitance. Prof. Prof. G. P. Additional copper losses due to harmonic currents 2. In the present times a greater awareness is generated by the problems of harmonic voltages and currents produced by non-linear loads like the power electronic converters. The eﬀects of the harmonic currents are 1. the harmonic behavior becomes important as the size and rating of the transformer increases. On the other hand the harmonic voltages of the transformer cause 1. Krishna Vasudevan. Sridhara Rao. 78 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Thus the study of harmonics is of great practical signiﬁcance in the operation of transformers. Increased electro magnetic interference with communication circuits. Electro static interference with communication circuits. Increased core losses 3. Increased dielectric stress on insulation 2. 3. These combine with non-linear nature of transformer core and produce severe distortions in voltages and currents and increase the power loss. Sasidhara Rao 12 Harmonics In addition to the operation of transformers on the sinusoidal supplies.Electrical Machines I Prof. The discussion here is conﬁned to the harmonics generated by transformers only.

Fig. The plot of the magnetizing current which is peaky is analyzed using Fourier analysis. The harmonic current components are obtained from this analysis.1 Single phase transformers Modern transformers operate at increasing levels of saturation in order to reduce the weight and cost of the core used in the same. the transformer core behaves as a highly non-linear element and generates harmonic voltages and currents. P.Electrical Machines I Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. The sinusoidal ﬂux density curve represents the sinusoidal applied voltage to some other scale. Prof. Relatively small value of harmonic ﬁelds generate considerable magnitude of harmonic voltages. This is explained below. Prof. At any instant of the ﬂux density wave the ampere turns required to establish the same is read out and plotted. Because of this and due to the hysteresis. These harmonic currents produce harmonic ﬁelds in the core and harmonic voltages in the windings. For example a 10% magnitude of 3rd harmonic ﬂux produces 30% 79 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sasidhara Rao ϕ e ϕ ϕ’’ ϕ’’ ϕ’ i’ϕ iϕ t’ i’’ϕ t i’ϕ ’’ iϕ ϕ’ t’’ iϕ Figure 34: Harmonics Generated by Transformers 12. traversing the hysteresis loop once per cycle. G. Sridhara Rao. 34 shows the manner in which the shape of the magnetizing current can be obtained and plotted.

Sasidhara Rao magnitude of 3rd harmonic voltage. The harmonics which are triplen (multiples of three) behave in a similar manner as they are co-phasal or in phase in the three phases. 12.Electrical Machines I Prof. The same can be told of other harmonics also. wave about the time axis only odd harmonics need to be considered. Because of the symmetry of the a. Krishna Vasudevan. The 80 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sridhara Rao. Prof. In the case of a single phase transformer the harmonics are conﬁned mostly to the primary side as the source impedance is much smaller compared to the load impedance. In this case current has to be sinusoidal and the harmonic currents cannot be supplied by the source and hence the induced emf will be peaky containing harmonic voltages. Prof. G. there are three fundamental voltages in the present case each displaced from the other by 120 electrical degrees. each transformer is magnetically decoupled from the other. The understanding of the phenomenon becomes more clear if the transformer is supplied with a sinusoidal current source. These eﬀects get even more pronounced for higher order harmonics. Normally third harmonic is the largest in its magnitude and hence the discussion is based on it. The ﬂow of harmonic currents are decided by the type of the electrical connection used on the primary and secondary sides. These currents produce eﬀects according to Lenz’s law and tend to neutralize the harmonic ﬂux and bring the ﬂux wave to a sinusoid. The harmonic currents produce losses and electro magnetic interference as already noted above. P. Also. As these harmonic voltages get short circuited through the low impedance of the supply they produce harmonic currents.2 Three phase banks of single phase transformers In the case of single phase transformers connected to form three phase bank. The harmonic voltages induce electric stress on dielectrics and increased electro static interference.c. When the load is connected on the secondary side the harmonic currents ﬂow through the load and voltage tends to become sinusoidal.

Electrical Machines I Prof. become 3 times phase value and appear in the line voltages. The harmonic behavior of poly-phase banks can be discussed now. As the triplen harmonics are always in phase. Krishna Vasudevan. G. Flux wave in each transformer will be ﬂat topped and the phase voltages remain peaked. Yy connection without neutral wires With both primary and secondary connected in star no closed path exists. Yy connection with neutral wires When a neutral wire is provided the triplen har81 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Dy and Yd connection (without neutral connection) Behavior of the bank with mesh connection on one side is similar to the one discussed under Dd connection. Third harmonics currents ﬂow both in the primary and the secondary and hence the magnitudes of these currents. Sridhara Rao. Sasidhara Rao non-triplen harmonics behave in a similar manner to the fundamental and have ±120◦ phase displacement between them. Thus the supply current is nearly sinusoidal (but for the non-triplen harmonic currents). so also the drops due to them will be lower. Non-triplen harmonics √ like fundamental. Line currents remain sinusoidal except for non-triplen harmonic currents. The harmonic currents and drops and the departure of the ﬂux density from sinusoidal are larger in the present case compared to Dd banks. The potential of the neutral is no longer steady. P. Prof. by virtue of the Y connection they get canceled in the line voltages. This is termed as ”oscillating neutral”. The star point oscillates due to the third harmonic voltages. Prof. Dd connection In three phase banks with mesh connection on both primary side and secondary side a closed path is available for the triplen harmonics to circulate currents. The secondary voltages will be nearly sinusoidal. The triplen harmonic currents inside the closed mesh winding correct the ﬂux density wave to be nearly sinusoidal.

3 Three phase transformers units As against a bank of three single phase transformers connected to three phase mains. Krishna Vasudevan. a three phase transformer generally has the three magnetic circuits that are interacting. Other polyphase connections not discussed above explicitly will fall under one type or the other of the cases discussed. It is called a tertiary. Sasidhara Rao monic current can ﬂow and the condition is similar to the single phase case (with a star connected 4 wire source or with the system earth). this winding can be used to feed some permanent station loads also. If the neutral wires are provided and also mesh connected winding is present. unbalanced fundamental mmf also). This is true for fundamental and non-triplen harmonics. This winding improves the single phase to earth fault detection also. to obtain third harmonic suppression one may provide a third winding which is connected in mesh. 12. The triplen harmonics being co-phasal cannot use other limbs for the return path (this holds good for zero sequence. In the shell type of construction. they are non-interacting. The ﬂux path is completed through the air. P. Three limb core type 3-phase transformer is the one in which the phases are magnetically also linked. Prof. then triplen harmonics are ’shared’ between them depending upon their impedances. Flux of each limb uses the other two limbs for its return path. The exception to this rule is a 3-phase shell type transformer. Sridhara Rao. Further. In a Yy connection. Unloaded secondary neutral will not be operative. So substantially large value of the mmf produces a low value of third harmonic ﬂux as the path of the ﬂux is through the air and has a very 82 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. Prof. even though the three cores are together. which can be an unloaded winding.Electrical Machines I Prof. The neutral wire carries three times the triplen harmonic current of one transformer as these currents are co-phasal. Such transformers are designated as Yyd transformers.

Apart from the characteristics and advantages of these. Other harmonics can be suppressed by connecting tuned ﬁlters at the terminals. The triplen order ﬂux. Many polyphase connections can be formed using single phase transformers. transmission and utilization polyphase power handling is very important. This happens irrespective of the type of connection used. Prof. Star and mesh connections are very commonly used. no single connection or setup is satisfactory for all applications. multi winding transformers etc. G. T connections. Thus transformers are deployed in many forms and connections. one must also know their limitations and problems. are a few of the many possibilities. develop and deploy a 83 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . so also the induced emf. Sasidhara Rao high reluctance. Sridhara Rao. 13 Poly Phase connections and Poly phase Transformers The individual transformers are connected in a variety of ways in a power system. Apart from these. Krishna Vasudevan. vee or open delta connections.Electrical Machines I Prof. P. Due to the advantages of polyphase power during generation. zig zag connections . Prof. A few of the common connections and the technical and economic considerations that govern their usage are discussed here. auto transformer connections. to facilitate proper selection of a conﬁguration for an application. As an engineering application is driven by techno-economic considerations. sometimes links the tank and produces loss in the same. Thus the ﬂux in the core remains nearly sinusoidal. Literature abounds in the description of many other. In some cases it may be preferable to design. Harmonic current compensation using special magnetic circuit design is considered to be outside the scope here.

Further there is an order in which they reach a particular voltage magnitude.c. Transformers used in all these applications must be connected properly for proper functioning. These connections are broadly classiﬁed into 4 popular vector groups. in a three phase system there are three equal voltages diﬀering in phase 120 electrical degrees. If more terminals are brought out from a winding by way of taps there are numbered in the increasing numbers in accordance to their distance from 1 (eg A1 . Similarly. P.. six phases or more may be encountered. Prof. they introduce phase shifts between input and output sides. To facilitate the manufacturer and users. to d. Sasidhara Rao polyphase transformer itself. A3 . Sridhara Rao. Out of the diﬀerent polyphase connections three phase connections are mostly encountered due to the wide spread use of three phase systems for generation. Each winding has two ends designated as 1 and 2. Krishna Vasudevan.. In a balanced two phase system we encounter two voltages that are equal in magnitude diﬀering in phase by 90◦ . In addition to giving diﬀerent voltage ratios.Electrical Machines I Prof. If the induced emf at an instant is from A1 to A2 on the HV winding it will rise from a1 to a2 on the LV winding.c. conversion. The transformers that work on the 3-phase supply have star. mesh or zig-zag connected windings on either primary secondary or both. The HV winding is indicated by capital letters and the LV winding by small letters. This is called the phase sequence. international standards are also available. transmission and utilization. The basic relationship between the primary and secondary voltages (brought about by a common mutual ﬂux and the number of turns). Three balanced 3-phase voltages can be connected in star or mesh fashion to yield a balanced 3-phase 3-wire system. the polarity of the induced emf (decided by polarity test and used with dot convention) and some understanding of the magnetic circuit are all necessary for the same. 84 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . In some applications like a. G.). A2 . Prof.

4. In a star connected 1 winding with earthed-neutral the maximum voltage to the earth is ( √ )of the line voltage. Group IV: 30◦ lead phase displacement of the secondary with respect to the primary. Group III: 30◦ lag phase displacement of the secondary with respect to the primary.Electrical Machines I Prof. P. 35 and Fig.for star. Sridhara Rao. The angular displacement of secondary with respect to the primary are shown as clock position. Group I: zero phase displacement between the primary and the secondary. Three 85 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sasidhara Rao 1. 3 The common polyphase connections are brieﬂy discussed now. 36 corresponding to each group. Yy6)connection This is the most economical one for small high voltage transformers. Krishna Vasudevan. D/d stand for mesh. Y/y . This connection produces oscillating neutral. Triplen harmonics are absent in the lines. 3 Also star connection permits mixed loading due to the presence of the neutral. unless there is a neutral wire. Star connection is normally cheaper as there are fewer turns and lesser cost of insulation. Group II: 180◦ phase displacement. Prof. A few examples of the physical connections and phasor diagrams are shown in Fig. Mesh connections are advantageous in low voltage transformers as insulation costs are insigniﬁcant 1 and the conductor size becomes ( √ ) of that of star connection and permits ease of winding. Z/z for zig-zag. Star/star (Yy0. 2. These triplen harmonic currents cannot ﬂow. The advantage becomes more with increase in voltage above 11kv. Prof. Neutral wire can permit mixed loading. G. Insulation cost is highly reduced. 0 ◦ referring to 12 o’clock position. The capital letters indicates primary and the small letters the secondary. These vector groups are especially important when two or more transformers are to be connected in parallel. 3.

Prof. M. F Vector di agram s a1 b1 c1 a1 b1 c1 N n A 2 a2 B 2 b2 C 2 c2 A 2 a2 B 2 b2 C 2 c2 A2 a2 C2 A2 B2 a2 A1 B1 C1 C2 A2 B2 n A1 B1 C1 A 2 a4 B 2 b4 C 2 c4 a1 b1 c1 C2 B2 (a) G roup2 180 0 Phase shi f t Wi ndi ngs & Term i nal s A1 B1 C1 A1 B1 C1 A1 E. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. M. Sridhara Rao. Sasidhara Rao G roup1 0 0 Phase shi f t Wi ndi ngs & Term i nal s A1 B1 C1 E. G.Electrical Machines I Prof. P. F Vector di agram s a1 b1 c1 N n A 2 a1 B 2 b1 C 2 c1 A 2a1 B 2b1 C 2c1 a2 b2 c2 A2 C2 A2 B2 a1 b1 c1 n A 2 a3 a1 b1 C2 A2 B2 B1 B 2b3 C 2 c3 C1 c1 C2 B2 (b) Figure 35: Vector Groups for 3-phase Transformer Connections 86 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

Electrical Machines I Prof. F Vector di agram s A2 a2 N A1 B1 C1 A 2 a2 B 2 b2 C 2 c2 C2 A2 B2 a2 N n A1 B1 C1 A 2 a4 B 2 b4 C 2 c4 a1 b1 c1 C2 A2 B2 C2 B2 (a) G roup4 + 30 0 Phase shi f t Wi ndi ngs & Term i nal s n A1 B1 C1 A 2 a2 B 2 b2 c2 a1 b1 c1 E. Prof. Sridhara Rao. Krishna Vasudevan. Prof. F Vector di agram s a2 A1 B1 C1 N A 2 a1 B 2 b1 C 2 c1 C2 a2 b2 c2 a1 b1 c1 a3 b3 c3 A2 B2 C2 B2 A2 C2 B2 A1 B1 C1 N A2 B2 a4 b4 n a1 b1 c1 C2 B2 C 2 c4 (b) Figure 36: Vector Groups for 3-phase Transformer Connections 87 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . P. M. M. G. Sasidhara Rao G roup3 30 0 Phase shi f t Wi ndi ngs & Term i nal s n A1 B1 C1 A 2 a2 B 2 b2 C 2 c2 a1 b1 c1 a1 b1 c1 E.

Large amount of unbalanced load can be met with ease. Generally speaking a bank of three single phase transformers cost about 15% more than their 3-phase counter part. It is possible to operate with one transformer removed in open delta or Vee connection meeting 58 percent of the balanced load. G. Mixed single phase loading is not possible due to the absence of neutral. 4-wire system is possible on both sides. Prof. Sasidhara Rao phase shell type units have large triplen harmonic phase voltage. Oscillating neutral problem is absent in this connection.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. Three phase units cannot have this facility. Zig zag/ star (ZY1 or Zy11) Zigzag connection is obtained by inter connection of phases. Also. Krishna Vasudevan. This connection requires 15% more turns for the same voltage on the zigzag side and hence costs more. 88 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . A tertiary mesh connected winding may be required to stabilize the oscillating neutral due to third harmonics in three phase banks. But the spare capacity cost will be less and single phase units are easier to transport. Sridhara Rao. Mesh/mesh (Dd0. they occupy more space. Star/mesh(Dy or Yd ) This arrangement is very common for power supply transformers. Mesh permits a circulating path for triplen harmonics thus attenuates the same. The delta winding permits triplen harmonic currents to circulate in the closed path and attenuates them. P. Unbalanced loading is also possible. Dd6) This is an economical conﬁguration for large low voltage transformers. However three phase core type transformers work satisfactorily.

The 3rd harmonic mmf of the three phases will be in phase and hence rise in all the limbs together. The 3-phase core type transformer on the other hand has a simple core arrangement. Prof. Sridhara Rao.Electrical Machines I Prof. Similarly unbalanced operation of the transformer with large zero sequence fundamental mmf content also does not aﬀect its performance. Primary and secondary of each phase are housed on the same limb. This is due to the fact that the magnetizing current itself forms a small fraction of the total phase current drawn on load. Prof. Due to the high reluctance of the air path even a substantially large value of third harmonic mmf produces negligible value of third harmonic ﬂux. Sasidhara Rao Mesh connected three phase transformers resemble 3.single phase units but kept in a common tank. Other than that there is no big diﬀerence. P. Even with Yy type of poly phase connection without neutral connection the oscillating neutral does not occur with these cores. 89 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. The 3rd harmonic ﬂux must therefore ﬁnd its path through the air. it does not adversely aﬀect the performance. three phase cores themselves cost less than three single phase units due to compactness. Krishna Vasudevan. Even though magnetically this is not a symmetrical arrangement. Finally. as the reluctance to the ﬂux setup by side limbs is diﬀerent from that of the central limb. In view of this single tank. The ﬂux setup in any limb will return through the other two limbs as the mmf of those limbs are in the proper directions so as to aid the same. The three limbs are equal in cross section. The added advantage of 3-phase core is that it can tolerate substantially large value of 3rd harmonic mmf without aﬀecting the performance. the space occupied is less.

Prof. 2. When transportation problems limit installation of large transformers at site. Sasidhara Rao 14 Parallel operation of one phase and two phase transformers By parallel operation we mean two or more transformers are connected to the same supply bus bars on the primary side and to a common bus bar/load on the secondary side. Fig. To ensure improved reliability. a spare of similar rating has to be available. Krishna Vasudevan. Even if one of the transformers gets into a fault or is taken out for maintenance/repair the load can continued to be serviced. 3. 1.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. it may be easier to transport smaller ones to site and work them in parallel. The problem of spares becomes more acute with fewer machines in service at a location. Such requirement is frequently encountered in practice. G. The power demand might have increased over a time necessitating augmentation of the capacity. 4. If many smaller size transformers are used one machine can be used as spare. The reasons that necessitate parallel operation are as follows. P. 5. More transformers connected in parallel will then be pressed into service. To reduce the spare capacity. Non-availability of a single large transformer to meet the total load requirement. 37 shows the physical arrangement of two single phase transformers working in parallel on the primary side. If only one large machine is feeding the load. Sridhara Rao. After ascertaining the polarities they are connected to output/load bus 90 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Transformer A and Transformer B are connected to input voltage bus bars.

Sridhara Rao. Prof. Prof.Physical 91 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. Krishna Vasudevan.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sasidhara Rao V1 E1 A E2 IA V2 load IB E1 E2 B supply bus Load bus Figure 37: Parallel Operation of Two Single Phase Transformers . P.

Same voltage ratio Generally the turns ratio and voltage ratio are taken to be the same.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sasidhara Rao bars. The phase sequence must be the same and no phase diﬀerence must exist between the voltages of the two transformers. 3. If the ratio is large there can be considerable error in the voltages even if the turns ratios are the same. In two identical transformers with percentage impedance of 5 percent. G. 92 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The voltage ratio must be the same. 4. They are. When the primaries are connected to same bus bars. Prof. The per unit impedance of each machine on its own base must be the same. so that there is no circulating current between the transformers. The polarity must be the same. In such cases the combined full load of the two transformers can never be met without one transformer getting overloaded. Reﬂected circulating current will be there on the primary side also. P. Thus even without connecting a load considerable current can be drawn by the transformers and they produce copper losses. 2. These conditions are examined ﬁrst with reference to single phase transformers and then the three phase cases are discussed. Certain conditions have to be met before two or more transformers are connected in parallel and share a common load satisfactorily. paralleling them would result in a circulating current between the secondaries. Prof. Sridhara Rao. This circulating current gets added to the load current when the load is connected resulting in unequal sharing of the load. if the secondaries do not show the same voltage. Krishna Vasudevan. a no-load voltage diﬀerence of one percent will result in a circulating current of 10 percent of full load current. 1.

Hence poly phase transformers belonging to the same vector group alone must be taken for paralleling. Sasidhara Rao Per unit impedance Transformers of diﬀerent ratings may be required to operate in parallel. Polarity of connection The polarity of connection in the case of single phase transformers can be either same or opposite. The voltage drop across each machine has to be the same by virtue of their connection at the input and the output ends. This way one can overcome the problem of the phase angle error. Prof. Thus we have the requirement that per unit resistance and per unit reactance of both the transformers must be the same for proper load sharing. P. Thus the larger machines have smaller impedance and smaller machines must have larger ohmic impedance. In addition if active and reactive power are required to be shared in proportion to the ratings the impedance angles also must be the same. G. The turns ratios in such groups can be adjusted to give very close voltage ratios but phase errors cannot be compensated. If they have to share the total load in proportion to their ratings the larger machine has to draw more current. Sridhara Rao. Thus the impedances must be in the inverse ratios of the ratings. 93 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Transformers having −30◦ angle can be paralleled to that having +30◦ angle by reversing the phase sequence of both primary and secondary terminals of one of the transformers. As the voltage drops must be the same the per unit impedance of each transformer on its own base. Inside the loop formed by the two secondaries the resulting voltage must be zero. In the case of polyphase banks it is possible to have permanent phase error between the phases with substantial circulating current.Electrical Machines I Prof. Phase error of 0. Krishna Vasudevan. Such transformer banks must not be connected in parallel. If wrong polarity is chosen the two voltages get added and short circuit results.6 degree gives rise to one percent diﬀerence in voltage. must be equal. Prof.

14. This may be further simpliﬁed as shown under Fig. the phase sequence is reversed for one of them both at primary and secondary terminals. These are discussed now in sequence. Neglecting the parallel branch of the equivalent circuit the above connection can be shown as in Fig. Sasidhara Rao Phase sequence The phase sequence of operation becomes relevant only in the case of poly phase systems. G. 38(a).1 CASE A: Equal voltage ratios Always two transformers of equal voltage ratios are selected for working in parallel.Electrical Machines I Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. P. The poly phase banks belonging to same vector group can be connected in parallel. Prof. In the case of poly phase banks also the approach is identical and the single phase equivalent circuit of the same can be used. The phase sequence can be found out by the use of a phase sequence indicator. Basically two cases arise in these problems. By inspection the voltage equation for the drop can be 94 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .(b). A transformer with +30◦ phase angle however can be paralleled with the one with −30◦ phase angle. Prof. This way one can avoid a circulating current between the transformers. If the phase sequences are not the same then the two transformers cannot be connected in parallel even if they belong to same vector group. Case A: when the voltage ratio of the two transformers is the same and Case B: when the voltage ratios are not the same. Sridhara Rao. Load can be switched on subsequently to these bus bars. The equivalent circuit is drawn in terms of the secondary parameters. The voltage drop across the two transformers must be the same by virtue of common connection at input as well as output ends. Performance of two or more single phase transformers working in parallel can be computed using their equivalent circuit. 38(c).

Prof. P. G. Sridhara Rao. Sasidhara Rao RA j XA IA V 2’ RA jX A V1 IA ZA V1 RB j XB IB RB jX B IB I V 2’ ZB (a) ZA IA I IB (b) ZB VL V Load V ’L ZL (c) Figure 38: Equivalent Circuit for Transformers working in Parallel -Simpliﬁed circuit and Further simpliﬁcation for identical voltage ratio 95 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. Krishna Vasudevan.

39 shows the phasor diagram of operation for these conditions. Z= ZA ZB ZA + Z B Thus IA = IB v IZ ZB = = I.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. Thus the ohmic values of the impedances must be in the inverse ratio of the ratings of the transformers. The per unit impedances must therefore be the same on their respective bases. Fig. It is seen that the total voltage drop inside the 96 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The drops are magniﬁed and shown to improve clarity. we aim at the same per unit drops at any load for the transformers. IA ZA = IB ZB ∴ IA IB = ZB . ZB ZB ZA + Z B (89) (90) (91) If the terminal voltage is V = IZL then the active and reactive power supplied by each of the two transformers is given by ∗ ∗ PA = Real(V IA )andQA = Imag (V IA )and ∗ ∗ PB = Real(V IB )andQB = Imag (V IB ) (92) (93) (94) From the above it is seen that the transformer with higher impedance supplies lesser load current and vice versa. ZA Expressing the voltage drops in p. Krishna Vasudevan. If transformers of dissimilar ratings are paralleled the transformer with larger rating shall have smaller impedance as it has to produce the same drop as the other transformer. and ZA ZA ZA + Z B v IZ ZA = = = I.u basis. G. P. at a larger current. Sasidhara Rao written as IA ZA = IB ZB = IZ = v (say ) (87) (88) HereI = IA + IB And Z is the equivalent impedance of the two transformers given by. Prof. Sridhara Rao.

u parameters or ohmic values can be used. θA = θB .u) impedances must be the same. Sridhara Rao. their percentage ( or p. This forces the active and reactive components of the currents drawn by each transformer to be diﬀerent ( even in the case when current in each transformer is the same). Prof. Sasidhara Rao E V V2 IAXA IX IBXB φB IA φ φA IB IL θA θB IARA IR IBRB Figure 39: Phasor Diagram of Operation for two Transformers working in Parallel transformers is v but the currents IA and IB are forced to have a diﬀerent phase angle due to the diﬀerence in the internal power factor angles θA and θB . Krishna Vasudevan.u reactance must be the same on their respective bases for the two transformers. 97 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . In order to avoid any divergence and to share active and reactive powers also properly. To determine the sharing of currents and power either p. G. If we want them to share the load current in proportion to their ratings.Electrical Machines I Prof.u resistances and p. P. Thus the condition for satisfactory parallel operation is that the p. Prof.

ZL is the load impedance at the secondary terminals. The load brings about a common connection at the output side. EA and EB are the no-load secondary emf. Prof. as they are diﬀerent. By inspection the voltage equation can be written as below: EA = IA ZA + (IA + IB )ZL = V + IA ZA · EB = IB ZB + (IA + IB )ZL = V + IB ZB · Solving the two equations the expression for IA and IB can be obtained as 98 (95) Indian Institute of Technology Madras . In this case the two input voltages cannot be merged to one. Sridhara Rao. Sasidhara Rao 14. In such cases the circuit representation for parallel operation will be diﬀerent as shown in Fig. even in transformers built as per the same design. Due to manufacturing diﬀerences.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan.2 Case B :unequal voltage ratios RA j XA IA I RB j XB IB EA EB ZL VL Figure 40: Equivalent Circuit for unequal Voltage Ratio One may not be able to get two transformers of identical voltage ratio in spite of ones best eﬀorts. 40. G. the voltage ratios may not be the same. P.

IA = EA ZA and IB = EB ZB (98) Instead of the value of ZL if the value of V is known . IA = −IB = (EA − EB ) (ZA + ZB ) (97) If the load impedance becomes zero as in the case of a short circuit. IL = IA + IB + IC + . ZB IC = EC − V ZC (100) 99 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The currents in that case can be obtained by putting ZL = ∞ ( after dividing the numerator and the denominator by ZL ).. the currents can be easily determined ( from Eqns. 41 is given below. When load is not connected there will be a circulating current between the transformers. ZA = IL . P.. Krishna Vasudevan. 95 ) as IA = EA − V ZA and IB = EB − V ZB (99) If more than two transformers are connected across a load then the calculation of load currents following the method suggested above involves considerable amount of computational labor.. Prof. G.Electrical Machines I Prof. A simpler and more elegant method for the case depicted in Fig. we have. Then. Sridhara Rao. But IA = V EA − V .. It is known by the name parallel generator theorem.ZL IB = EB − V .. Sasidhara Rao IA = IB EA ZB + (EA − EB )ZL ZA ZB + ZL (ZA + ZB ) EB ZA + (EB − EA )ZL = ZA ZB + ZL (ZA + ZB ) and (96) ZA and ZB are phasors and hence there can be angular diﬀerence also in addition to the diﬀerence in magnitude. Prof.

) = + + + . G. 100... Sridhara Rao... the load shared by each transformer can be computed. 100 Indian Institute of Technology Madras ... 1 1 1 1 1 + + + + . Prof. IA . Krishna Vasudevan. Substituting V in Eqn..) ( (101) (102) (103) (104) From this V can be obtained. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. IB etc can be obtained.) = ZL ZA ZB ZC Z V = Z (ISCA + ISCB + ISCC + . Knowing the individual current phasor. ZL ZA ZB ZC Grouping the terms together V( 1 1 1 1 EA EB EC + + + + ... P... Sasidhara Rao RA EA EB RC EC RB jXA jXB jXC IA IB IC ZL V I Figure 41: Parallel Generator Theorem Combining these equations V EA − V EB − V EC − V = + + + . ZL ZA ZB ZC ZA ZB ZC = ISCA + ISCB + ISCC + ....

3. In an application it may be needed 1. To counter the input supply voltage changes on load. Also the LV currents are normally too large to take out the tapping from the windings. 2. On a power system the transformers are additionally required to perform the task of regulation of active and reactive power ﬂows. P. Prof. The volts per turn available in large transformers is quite high and hence a change of even one turn on the LV side represents a large percentage change in the voltage.Electrical Machines I Prof. LV winding being the inner winding in a core type transformer adds to the 101 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . To supply a desired voltage to the load. Sasidhara Rao 15 Transformer voltage control and Tap changing Regulating the voltage of a transformer is a requirement that often arises in a power application or power system. G. Krishna Vasudevan. Prof. Sridhara Rao. To counter the voltage drops due to loads. This is done by provision of taps in the winding. Booster transformer Regulation transformer B 1 2 Booster transformer B 1 Reverser Main transformer tertiary2 Reverser Figure 42: Tap changing and Buck Boost arrangement The voltage control is performed by changing the turns ratio.

The on-load tap changer on the other hand tries to change the taps without the interruption of the load current. The Oﬀ load tap changing relatively costs less. A few schemes of on-load tap changing are now discussed.4 4.s 3.Electrical Machines I Prof. In the case of power systems. 43. Tap 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 switches closed 1. Provision of taps to control voltage is called tap changing. P. Prof. Prof. In view of this requirement it normally costs more. In addition to the magnitude.s 4.3 3. Sridhara Rao.5 5. Tap changing can be eﬀected when a) the transformers is on no. Hence irrespective of the end use for which tapping is put to. Sasidhara Rao diﬃculty of taking out of the taps. Krishna Vasudevan. These are called oﬀ load tap changing and on load tap changing. voltage levels are some times changed by injecting a suitable voltage in series with the line. G. This may be called buck-boost arrangement. This method employs 102 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The tap changing arrangement and buck boost arrangement with phase shift are shown in Fig.s 1. 42.load and b) the load is still remains connected to the transformer.s Reactor method The diagram of connections is shown in Fig. taps are provided on the HV winding.2 2. phase of the injected voltage may be varied in power systems. The tap positions are changed when the transformer is taken out of the circuit and reconnected.s 2.

Electrical Machines I

Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao

1 s 2 3 Reactor 4 5

HV

LV

Figure 43: Reactor Method of Tap Changer ( with table of switching)

103

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Electrical Machines I

Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao

an auxiliary reactor to assist tap changing. The switches for the taps and that across the reactor(S) are connected as shown. The reactor has a center tapped winding on a magnetic core. The two ends of the reactor are connected to the two bus bars to which tapping switches of odd/even numbered taps are connected. When only one tap is connected to the reactor the shorting switch S is closed minimizing the drop in the reactor. The reactor can also be worked with both ends connected to two successive taps. In that case the switch ’S’ must be kept open. The reactor limits the circulating current between the taps in such a situation. Thus a four step tapped winding can be used for getting seven step voltage on the secondary(see the table of switching). The advantage of this type of tap changer are 1. Load need not be switched oﬀ. 2. More steps than taps are obtained. 3. Switches need not interrupt load current as a alternate path is always provided. The major objection to this scheme seems to be that the reactor is in the circuit always generating extra loss. Parallel winding, transformer method In order to maintain the continuity of supply the primary winding is split into two parallel circuits each circuit having the taps as shown in Fig. 44. Two circuit breakers A and B are used in the two circuits. Initially tap 1a and 1b are closed and the transformer is energized with full primary voltage. To change the tap the circuit breaker A is opened momentarily and tap is moved from 1a to 2a. Then circuit breaker A is closed. When the circuit A is opened whole of the primary current of the transformer ﬂows through the circuit B. A small diﬀerence in the number of turns between the two circuit exists. This produces a circulating current between them. Next, circuit breaker B is opened momentarily, the tap is changed from 104

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Electrical Machines I

Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao

1b to 2b and the breaker is closed. In this position the two circuits are similar and there is no circulating current. The circulating current is controlled by careful selection of the leakage reactance. Generally, parallel circuits are needed in primary and secondary to carry the large current in a big transformer. Provision of taps switches and circuit breakers are to be additionally provided to achieve tap changing in these machines.

A B

a2 a4 a3

a1

b1

b2 b3

b4

HV

LV

Figure 44: Parallel Primary Winding Tap Changing

Series booster method In this case a separate transformer is used to buck/boost the voltage of the main transformer. The main transformer need not be having a tapped arrangement. This arrangement can be added to an existing system also. Fig. 42shows the booster arrangement for a single phase supply. The reverser switch reverses the polarity of the injected voltage and hence a boost is converted into a buck and vice 105

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

One precaution to be taken with this arrangement is that the winding must not be open circuited. The sharing of the total applied voltage thus becomes diﬀerent and also the induced emf in the secondaries a2 and b2 .Electrical Machines I Prof.c. wound in the opposite sense.86 + + 95 10. 106 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .6 respectively. Sridhara Rao. A short circuited moving coil s is wound on the same limb and is capable of being held at any desired position. Thus the ﬂux produced by each winding takes a path through the air to link the winding. By selecting proper ratios for the secondaries a2 and b2 one can get the desired voltage variation. P. 45 shows the physical arrangement of one such transformer. Applications like a.6 5 10. motor speed control.86 95 4. b are the two primary windings wound on a long core. this method of voltage control costs more mainly due to the additional ﬂoor space it needs. If it gets open circuited the core (B in ﬁg) gets highly saturated. In = 20%. The total secondary voltage in the present case varies from 10 percent to 20 percent of the input in a continuous manner.c. the bottom position it becomes 5 4. Prof. Sliding contact regulators These have two winding or auto transformer like construction. The power rating of this transformer need be a small fraction of the main transformer as it is required to handle only the power associated with the injected voltage. G. This can be obtained with the help of moving coil voltage regulators.86 and 10. Krishna Vasudevan. In spite of the small ratings and low voltages and ﬂexibility. These ﬂuxes link their secondaries a2 and b2 . and d.6 = 10% when s is in the top position. This moving coil alters the inductances of the two primaries. electro-chemistry and voltage stabilizers need continuous control of voltage. illumination control by dimmers. moving coil voltage regulators Fig. Sasidhara Rao versa. Prof. The turns ratios of a1 : a2 and b1 : b2 are 4. a. The methods of voltage regulation discussed so far basically use the principle of tap changing and hence the voltage change takes place in steps.

c voltage V1 V2 V1 sliding contact a) without electrical isolation b) with electrical isolation Figure 46: Sliding Contact Regulator 107 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sridhara Rao. P. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sasidhara Rao 5% a1 a2 V out Vi n S 95% b1 b2 Figure 45: Moving Coil Voltage Regulator Variable secondary a. G.

The two winding arrangement provides electrical isolation also. Prof. Sasidhara Rao The winding from which the output is taken is bared and a sliding contact taps the voltage. Krishna Vasudevan. Prof. G. Sridhara Rao.These are shown in Fig. P. Two winding arrangements are also possible. The conductor is chosen on the basis of the maximum load current on the output side. 46.Electrical Machines I Prof. 108 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . In smaller ratings this is highly cost eﬀective. The minimum step size of voltage change obtainable is the voltage across a single turn.

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