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FOUR QUADRANT DC MOTOR CONTROL WITHOUT MICROCONTROLLER

Project CO-coordinator:Anil Naik

Presented By:Sayed Afzal Ali Shivashish Bharduaj Shivangi Gupta Vikas Singh Nikhil Lovish Bansal

ABSTRACT
The project is designed to develop a four quadrant control system for a DC motor. The motor is operated in four quadrants i.e. clockwise; counter clock-wise, forward brake and reverse brake. The four quadrant operation of the dc motor is best suited for industries where motors are used and as per requirement as they can rotate in clockwise, counter-clockwise and also apply brakes immediately in both the directions. In case of a specific operation in industrial environment, the motor needs to be stopped immediately. In such scenario, this proposed system is very apt as forward brake and reverse brake are its integral features.

This project can be enhanced by using higher power electronic devices to operate high capacity DC motors.

BRIEF DETAILS OF THE PROJECT:The project is designed to develop a four quadrant control system for a DC motor. The motor is operated in four quadrants i.e. clockwise; counter clock-wise, forward brake and reverse brake. In case of a specific operation in industrial environment, the motor needs to be stopped immediately. In such scenario, this proposed system is very apt as forward brake and reverse brake are its integral features. Instantaneous brake in both the directions happens as a result of applying a reverse voltage across the running motor for a brief period. 555 timer used in the project develops required pulses. Push buttons are provided for the operation of the motor which are interfaced to the circuit that provides an input signal to it and in turn controls the motor through a driver IC.

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:
Diodes, 555Timer, Relays, Transistors, Motor Driver IC, DC motor, Inverter IC, Push Buttons, Voltage Regulator, and Transformer.

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Future Aspects
SPEED SYNCHRONISATION OF MULTIPLE MOTORS IN USING MICROCONTROLLER: The aim of this project is synchronization of multiple motors using wireless technology. This project uses radio frequency to synchronize motor speeds This is applicable to many industries like textile mills, steel plants, and paper plants wherein all the motors used on conveyor are desired to be synchronized. For example, in textile mills where multiple motors work simultaneously on a conveyor belt to draw clothes, it is essential that all the motors there should run at same speed, so that balanced tension is achieved to avoid clothes getting damaged In this project motors are wirelessly synchronized to make the differential speed error among multiple motors to zero. One motor acts as transmitter and all the rest as receive

ADVANTAGES
The duty cycle of the circuit can be changed by changing the resistance between pin-7 and pin-6. If we increase the duty cycle, the speed of the motor increases and if we decrease the duty cycle, the speed of the motor decreases. One of the best things about this circuit is that we can make it work as an astable multivibrator with little hardware and by little cost which can save both the cost involved in making it as well as the space on the printed circuit board is saved. If we want a sophisticated pulse width modulator which works more accurately and which can have more adjusting capabilities, then it is better to use a microcontroller based pulse width modulator than the one which we are using now. However, the circuit or the application for which we are using a pulse width modulator is not so sensitive and hence does not demand so much of accuracy. In such a case, the circuit which we are using with a bare IC 555 is better as it saves our monetary as well as space resources in building the circuit.

APPLICATIONS
In industries to control the motor at cheaper cost. Synchronized motors can be used where various motors are employed and there same speed of motors are required like textile industries.