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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS, VOL. 9, NO. 2, MAY 2013

DC/DC and DC/AC Converters Control for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Energy Management-Ultracapacitors and Fuel Cell

Abdallah Tani, Mamadou Baïlo Camara, Member, IEEE, Brayima Dakyo, Member, IEEE, and Yacine Azzouz

Abstract—This paper presents the ultracapacitors and the fuel cell (FC) connection for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) applications. An original method for the embedded energy management is proposed. This method is used to share the energetic request of the HEV between the ultracapacitors and the FC. The ultracapacitors are linked to dc-bus through the buck-boost converter, and the FC is connected to dc-bus via a boost converter. An asynchronous machine is used like traction motor or generator, and it is connected to dc-bus through an inverter. A dc-motor is used to drive the asynchronous machine during the decelerations and the braking operations. The main contribution of this paper is focused on the embedded energy management based on the new European drive cycle (NEDC), using polynomial control technique. The performances of the proposed control method are evaluated through some simulations and the experimental tests dedicated to HEVs applications. Index Terms—Asynchronous machine, current control method, dc-bus voltage control, dc/dc converters, energy management, fuel cell (FC), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), polynomial control, speed control, ultracapacitors.

Fig. 1. Electric hybrid system conﬁguration.

I. INTRODUCTION HE energy consumption and an increasing of the oil cost in the world followed by a depletion of the fuels are justiﬁable reasons to use the hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs) instead of thermal vehicles [1]. The thermal vehicles have high-exhaust emissions, low-fuel efﬁciency, and high operating noise, but they have the autonomy in the use. The HEVs are characterized by a low-exhaust emission, a low-operating noise, and the reasonable energy efﬁciency, but they don’t have the autonomy in the use [2]. Considering the energetic autonomy problem, an association of the fuel cell (FC) and the ultracapacitors is proposed to improve the HEVs energetic performances. This com-

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Manuscript received September 20, 2011; revised January 21, 2012, April 09, 2012, July 08, 2012, and September 24, 2012; accepted October 10, 2012. Date of publication October 18, 2012; date of current version January 09, 2013. Paper no. TII-11-544. A. Tani, M. B. Camara, and B. Dakyo are with GREAH Laboratory, University of Havre, 76600 Le Havre, France (e-mail: camaram@univ-lehavre.fr, brayima.dakyo@univ-lehavre.fr). Y. Azzouz is with IRSEEM Laboratory—École d’ingénieurs ESIGELEC, 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray, France. Color versions of one or more of the ﬁgures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TII.2012.2225632

bination is due to physical characteristics of the FC and the ultracapacitors ( ). Contrary to the batteries, the FCs provide the electric energy, rather than storing it, and they continue to deliver the energy, as long as the hydrogen supply is maintained [3], [4]. However, the FCs present some well-known technical limitations: they have a low efﬁciency during the low power demand, a high cost per watt, and a slow power transfer during the transient operations. For these reasons, the FCs are not generally used in the HEVs to meet the load demand during the start up, and the transient operations [1], [5]. Furthermore, an association of the FC and the ultracapacitors enables to solve these problems as proposed in [6] and [7]. The HEVs equipped with the FC and the ultracapacitors present the following advantages, due to ultracapacitors dynamic behavior [8]: the FC is less solicited during the transient operations. The life time and the size of the FC are improved. The energetic autonomy and the regenerative braking efﬁciency of the HEVs are improved. The studied system is illustrated in Fig. 1, where the hybrid sources (ultracapacitors/FC) are linked to dc-bus through the dc/dc converters. An inverter is used to drive the asynchronous machine during the traction operations. During the deceleration and the braking operations, the previous asynchronous machine is controlled by a dc-motor for the energy recovery by the ultracapacitors. The contribution of this paper is focused on the bidirectional load (motor and generator operations) power sharing between the FC and the ultracapacitors, using the new European drive cycle (NEDC) and the polynomial control technique. The proposed method consists to allocate the average power to the FC and the ﬂuctuating power (due to the acceleration, the deceleration, and the braking operations) to the ultracapacitors. For the hybrid system behavior simulations, the

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Ultracapacitors model validation. [13]. The PEMFC terminal voltage can be deﬁned as expressed in (3). presents the voltage drop due to the concentrations. 2. The estimation method of the used parameters is presented in [10] (1) Fig. the PEMFC model is used. 3. The analytical model of the module is presented in (1). a FC emulator. and [17]. and the second component is a constant capacitor [9]. To validate the model of the ultracapacitors. The FC emulator is connected to the dc-bus using a boost converter for the dc-bus voltage management. The energy is released whenever the hydrogen reacts chemically with the oxygen of the air [11]. if the ultracapacitors are in the discharge operations. Dynamic model of the ultracapacitors. To validate the proposed method for the energy management. is the cell temperature in Kelvin. 2. where deﬁnes the sign of the current. The PEMFCs technologies are the best candidate among other FC technologies. These models are generally based on the voltage and current analysis which allows to establish the model of the PEMFC. ULTRACAPACITORS AND FC MODELING A. and an equivalent capacitor . In the case of the proton exchange membrane FCs (PEMFCs). is the voltage drop due to series resistance. The control of these converters depends on the energy management method between the hybrid sources (ultracapacitors/FC) and the requested or supplied energy by the asynchronous machine. where is the thermodynamic potential of the cell. MATLAB–SIMULINK software is used.7 V. and the operations of this one is based on the following electrochemical reaction Electrical Energy+Heat (2) This model describes the dynamic behavior of the ultracapacitors during the charge and the discharge operations [8]. This module is charged into maximum voltage of 22 V. In this paper. The estimated parameters for the BOOST-CAP3000F module are presented in Table I. and the cathode are respectively given in (4) and (5). [15]. In this equation. and for the charge operations. a module of eight cells in series is realized. Ultracapacitors Modeling To use the ultracapacitors ( ) as energy storage devices in the hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). the high-power density. the lightweight. This model includes an internal resistance . B. [16]. This system includes a module of the ultracapacitors. due to the low operating temperature. and the relatively short time start-up [12]. an experimental test bench is carried out in the reduced scale. The ultracapacitors module is linked to the dc-bus via a buck-boost converter which ensures the energetic exchange between the ultracapacitors and the load. and is the cell number in series (3) The thermodynamic potential of the cell and the voltage drop due to the activation of the anode. This capacitor includes two components. The simulation and experimental results obtained for are compared in Fig. [14]. [10]. which are the focus of the most research activities today. and present the pressures in . and the electric machines (ac-motor/generator with dc-motor) as a reversible load. FC Modeling The FCs are the electrochemical devices that directly convert the chemical energy of the Fuel into electricity. In these equations. The used model of the is presented in Fig. it is necessary to associate several cells in series to obtain a high voltage level due to ultracapacitor cell voltage of 2. and discharged with a constant current. 3. is the voltage drop due to the activation of the anode and the cathode.TANI et al. the small size. the only byproduct is the water and the heat. Many models of the FC can be founded in the literature such as in [13]. II.: DC/DC AND DC/AC CONVERTERS CONTROL FOR HEVS ENERGY MANAGEMENT-ULTRACAPACITORS AND FC 687 TABLE I ULTRACAPACITORS MODULE PARAMETERS Fig. the ﬁrst component varies linearly with the ultracapacitors module voltage.

is the electron ﬂow resistance which is approximately constant. where presents the converter duty cycle [8] (12) (10) III. DC/AC Converter Modeling In this equation. Buck-Boost Converter Modeling To establish a model of the buck-boost converter illustrated Fig.688 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS. respectively. and is the equivalent value of the converter duty cycle [10]. and present respectively the boost and the buck converters duty cycles. (9) C. is the concentration of the oxygen. where currents in the stator and the rotor. is the parametric coefﬁcients [18]. DC/DC–DC/AC CONVERTERS AND ELECTRIC MACHINES MODELING A. the analytical model of the boost converter is presented in (12). where presents the membrane’s humidity ratio [18]. is the speciﬁc membrane resistivity for the ﬂow of the hydrated protons in cm. and the corresponding current is expressed in (15) (14) (15) D. In this condition. 2. These sequences are due to logical signals switching based on the following conventions: is is and is and is (13) The resulting analytical model is given in (11). B. The used parameters of the FC model are presented in Table II The dc/ac converter (inverter) presented in Fig. VOL. 4. is the thickness of the polymer membrane in centimeters. and are respectively the stator and the rotor resistances. So the ultracapacitors receives the energy from the dc-bus The resulting analytical model of the inverter is presented in (14) for the voltage. and are respectively the equivalent (16). The six transistors are in the anti-parallel conﬁguration with six diodes. [14] (7) (8) In (7). This concentration can be calculated using the following equation [18]: (6) and components are given in (7) and (8). In this equation. and (11) . During the boost operations. NO. is the FC’s current. The analytical model of the inverter must be established from the sequences analysis of the converter’s operation. where is the sign of the current. In buck mode. semiconductor is switched and is in OFF position. where The is the current density in . In this equation. it is necessary to analyze the buck and the boost operations. is switched and become inOFF position. the ultracapacitors module provides energy to the dc-bus. [14] TABLE II FC PARAMETERS (4) (5) In (5). 9. is a constant parameter extracted in [15]. Boost Converter Modeling By an analogy to the buck-boost converter. is the active cell area in . . 4 includes six bidirectional semiconductors (IGBT). and is the proton’s ﬂow equivalent resistance which is expressed in (9). Electric Machines Modeling The analytical model of the asynchronous machine is given in . . This parameter can be estimated as presented in (10). In this equation. MAY 2013 atmosphere of the hydrogen and the oxygen.

which allows improving the energetic performances and the life time of the sources. the polynomial controller presents the better performances in term of the rapidity and the robustness compared to conventional PI controller.: DC/DC AND DC/AC CONVERTERS CONTROL FOR HEVS ENERGY MANAGEMENT-ULTRACAPACITORS AND FC 689 Fig. and presents the dc-motor terminal voltage. where . is the mutual inductance (17) The pulsation in the stator number of pair of pole.TANI et al. and is the dc-motor EMF (19) In this equation. A. For more information. The polynomial control technique presents a robust algorithm with good performance in the following situations. using the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) and the polynomial control technique. . present the pulsations of the ﬂux in the stator and the rotor. In other words. present (16) and The equations of the ﬂux are given in (17). The analytical model of the dc-motor is given in (19). The estimation method of the polynomial’s coefﬁcients is based on the closed-loop analysis as illustrated in Fig. 5 for the current. is the internal inductance of the motor. and the dc-bus voltage management. and the braking operations) to the ultracapacitors. and . is the rotor ﬂux in direction of axis IV. When the system has a pure delay or presents a dynamic characteristic which changes during operations. The transfer functions of the discrete systems are presented in (20). respectively. . a dc-motor is used to drive the asynchronous machine (MG). the proposed method takes into account the dynamic characteristics of the ultracapacitors and the FC. the deceleration. In other terms. and present the dq components of the ﬂux in the stator. is the buck converter duty cycle. The polynomial controller improves the disturbance rejection. The proposed control method compared to others methods enables to allocate the average power to the FC and the ﬂuctuating power (due to the acceleration. The polynomial control technique is also interesting if the reference should not be exceeded. More details about the polynomial control technique can be found in [19]. and is given in (18). where is the internal resistance. The polynomial controller is an interesting alternative solution to the conventional PI controller. 4. a comparative study of the PI and the polynomial controller is presented in [10]. and polynomials are ﬁxed according to the degree of the discrete system transfer functions . HYBRID SYSTEM CONTROL METHOD The originality of this paper is focused on the bidirectional load (motor and generator operations) power sharing between the FC and the ultracapacitors. where are the inductances in the stator and the rotor. where is the is the mechanical speed in rad/s (18) To emulate the HEV behavior during the deceleration and the braking operations. Polynomial’s Coefﬁcients Estimation Method The degree of . Hybrid system topology for the embedded energy management.

in the case of the FC current and the dc-bus voltage control are respectively expressed in (27) and (28). is the sampling period (27) (20) The simpliﬁed closed loop transfer function for the ultracapacitor’s current control is expressed as follows: (28) The dc-bus voltage control law established from (12) is given in (29). the polynomial control method presented in Fig. In these equations is the dc-bus voltage smoothing capacitor. 2. the used method consists to choose and identical. Polynomial’s coefﬁcients estimation diagrams. is the ultracapacitors current smoothing inductance. using a simple comparison between the desired polynomial and the denominator of the transfer function in closed loop as presented in (23) (23) (24) The resulting coefﬁcients from this comparison are given in (24). where is the system control bandwidth (25) B. This last one corresponds to estimate instantaneous dc-bus capacitor’s current. is the sampling period. the cascaded control loops are necessary: an inner loop for the FC’s current control and the outer loop for the dc-bus voltage ones (29) The FC reference current estimated from electric powers balances between the boost converter input and output is presented in (30) (30) In this equation. and in (33) for the boost mode. two control loops are necessary. is the boost converter output current. is the current control bandwidth. where the and depend of the dynamic response of the system in closed loop. is the FC’s current smoothing inductance. These ones are identiﬁed. because. The ﬁrst is the current feedback (inner loop). To control the dc-bus voltage. the denominators and the numerators of the transfer functions.690 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS. the control is focused directly on the ultracapacitors current. 6. as expressed in (26) . the . 5. In goal to obtain a minimal static error with disturbance rejection. . NO. 7 is used. To obtain a minimal static error with disturbance rejection. where and estimation method is same to that presented in (27) (31) (21) The desired polynomial in the closed loop is presented in (22) (22) To reduce the number of the parameters to be identiﬁed. and the second is the voltage loop (outer loop) as illustrated in Fig. Ultracapacitors Current Control Method To control the ultracapacitors current. is the converter control frequency Fig. 9. the bidirectional converter control laws obtained from the buck-boost converter modeling are used. and present the dc-bus voltage control loop output signal. To control the ultracapacitors current. C. and are selected as expressed in (31). MAY 2013 . VOL. the following polynomials correctors: . DC-Bus Voltage Control Method To manage the dc-bus voltage. the cascaded control loop is not necessary. . These coefﬁcients can be obtained using the following desired polynomial. is the dc-bus voltage smoothing capacitor. These control laws are presented in (32) for the buck operations. These . In this case. and are selected (26) The ﬁnal coefﬁcients obtained from the closed loops analysis.

this method takes into account the conventional dynamic behavior of the ultracapacitors and the FC [20] (34) Fig. Ultracapacitors current control loop. 9. The ﬁrst is the current feedback (inner loop).: DC/DC AND DC/AC CONVERTERS CONTROL FOR HEVS ENERGY MANAGEMENT-ULTRACAPACITORS AND FC 691 Fig. and the average power to the FC. in the cases of currents. Ultracapacitors reference current estimation method. 9. 6. To estimate the rotor ﬂux in the direction of axis. In these equations.TANI et al. DC-bus voltage control method. the used method is based on indirect rotor ﬂux orientation control. The pulsation in the rotor is estimated as . Speed Control of the Electric Machine To control the asynchronous machine speed. To obtain a minimal static error with disturbance rejection for the speed control. 7. (36) is used [21] (35) (36) The used method for the speed control is illustrated in Fig. D. In other words. Speed control of the asynchronous machine. These polynomials correctors are same to that presented in (26). For this method. the . This method enables to allocate the dynamic power of the load to ultracapacitors. and the second is the speed control loop (outer loop). Fig. expressed in (35). The corresponding diagram is illustrated in Fig. where is the FC rated current. two cascaded control loops are necessary. and (39). the speed and the ﬂux control are respectively expressed in (37). (38). 8. This method is conventionally obtained from the following assumption: and . 8. control laws are compared to triangular waveform to modulate the PWM signals for the buck and the boost operations [8] (32) (33) The reference current of the ultracapacitors is estimated using (34). Fig. and are selected. The ﬁnal coefﬁcients obtained from the closed loops analysis.

The resistive torque which must be compensated by the vehicle to move forward is presented in (40). 11. VOL. Measured speed compared to its reference. is the sampling period. the dc-motor is controlled from the buck converter so that its speed become higher than . the fol- (43) The conditions for the dc-motor control are focused on the sign of as presented in the following: DC-motor is no controlled DC-motor is controlled (44) (40) In this paper. . 11 presents the control result of the electric machine speed using the NEDC. The speed control result obtained from the motor and the generator operations conditions is illustrated in Fig. is the friction coefﬁcient (37) (38) (39) The PWM signals are generated by comparing three signals (obtained from the two to three phases park transformation) to a triangular waveform. V. i.e. . MAY 2013 TABLE III PARAMETERS OF THE VEHICLE Fig. is the current control bandwidth. the asynchronous machine is controlled from the inverter as illustrated in Fig.692 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS. DC-Motor Speed Control To control the dc-motor speed. NO. These parameters are presented in Table III Fig. 13. The used parameters for the hybrid system simulations are given in Tables I–IV. DC-motor speed control during the deceleration and the braking operations. the road is assumed ﬂat. is the speed control bandwidth. The corresponding load’s current proﬁle obtained from the HEVs behavior simulation is plotted in Fig. the control strategy presented in Fig. and polynobance rejection mials are selected as expressed in the following: (42) . the measured speed is very close to its reference. is the vehicle’s speed in . This ﬁgure shows that. During the acceleration and the constant speed operations. 9. the dynamic equation can be expressed as given in (41). To obtain a minimal static error with distur. where is the electromagnetic torque (41) During the deceleration and the braking operations of the HEV. The acceleration and the constant speed situations correspond E. is the moment of inertia. i. Using (40). the dc-bus voltage reference is ﬁxed to 47 V and the used value of the in the simulation and experimental tests is ﬁxed to 5 A. Test Conditions For the hybrid system simulations. 12. 10 is used. In this equation. 9. 10. is the ﬂux control bandwidth. 2. . is the grade of the road in degree.e. Fig. SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATIONS A. and is the radius of the wheel in . To generate the reference speed lowing equation is used: for the dc-motor.

to motor operations. B. The measured current on the load during the simulation and the experimental tests are plotted in Fig. Load’s current proﬁle. The dc-motor is connected to a buck converter. Fig. This converter is controlled during the deceleration and the braking operations. C. an inverter. 16.: DC/DC AND DC/AC CONVERTERS CONTROL FOR HEVS ENERGY MANAGEMENT-ULTRACAPACITORS AND FC 693 Fig. Measured current on the load during the simulation and the experimental tests. and the asynchronous machine coupled to a dc-motor. DC-bus voltage control result. These electric machines are used as a bidirectional load (motor and generator operations). 14. This contribution has the same shape as the load’s current. Simulation and Experimental Results The dc-bus voltage control result is plotted in Fig. a programmable dc-source is used as the FC system with a maximum power of 1 kW (25 V/40 A). for the embedded energy management are implemented in two PIC18F4431 microcontrollers. The ﬁrst step presents the acceleration operations which are characterized by the load’s current increasing when the HEVs speed increase. The third step corresponds to the deceleration operations. the load’s current is constant. 14. 12. Experimental Setup An experimental test bench is carried out to validate the proposed control methods outlined above. The second step is characterized by the constant speed. the load’s current presents the negative peaks current (energy recovery operations). and its value is small. 14. The deceleration and the braking operations correspond to generator mode. the dc-bus voltage presents some variations around its reference (48 V) as illustrated between the 0 and 1000s of the Fig. the proposed dc-bus voltage control method is satisfactory. 15.TANI et al. This ﬁgure shows that. the experimental and the simulation curves are close to reference voltage regardless of the load’s demand. Speed control result obtained from the motor and the generator operations conditions. The contribution of the ultracapacitors in the dc-bus is plotted in Fig. Fig. a boost converter. The used parameters for the hybrid system control are presented in Table IV. The last step is characterized by a null speed which corresponds to zero current of the load. 15. the second operation corresponds to positive current of the . During this step. During this step. This current presents four steps. and it presents two steps during the traction operations (asynchronous machine in the motor mode): the ﬁrst operation corresponds to negative current of the due to low current of the load compared to the FC contribution. 13. TABLE IV USED PARAMETERS FOR THE HYBRID SYSTEM CONTROL Fig. During this last step. The proposed control algorithms . The developed experimental test bench includes an ultracapacitors module (18 cells in series with a maximum voltage of 49 V). In other words. a buck-boost converter.

Fig. the ultracapacitors module recovers the energy from the FC and the load. Measured current on the ultracapacitors. and the FC provides the average components. This contribution is always positive. FC terminal voltage. This current has the same shape as the current. Measured current in the dc-bus from the FC. 9. 16. During the energy recovery operations (asynchronous machine in the generator mode). the life time and the size of the FC are improved. So. Contribution of the ultracapacitors in the dc-bus. MAY 2013 Fig. NO. The measured current on the FC is plotted in Fig. This voltage presents two situations. the ultracapacitors ensures the dynamic components of the load. The second situation corresponds to ultracapacitors voltage increasing due to low current of the load compared to the FC contribution or energy recovery process (asynchronous machine in the generator operations). VOL. which enable to conclude that. Fig. 21. Fig. Fig. 15–17. 17. The simulation and the experimental results of the FC contribution in the dc-bus are plotted in Fig. In consequently. 17. 20. The ﬁrst situation is characterized by the load’s demand which corresponds to ultracapacitors module discharge operations. This current presents less variation compared to the variations of the load. 20. To conclude this section. Fig. The differences related to average value are due to used model for the hybrid system simulation which does not takes into account the losses in the semiconductors and the . The terminal voltage of the ultracapacitors is plotted in Fig. and it presents less variation compared to the load’s current variations. and the measured current on the load are negative. Ultracapacitors module terminal voltage. Measured current on the FC. 19. 21 shows the FC terminal voltage which is also constant because the measured current on this last one is constant. 18.694 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS. 18 presents the measured current on the ultracapacitors. and the FC provides the average power. the contribution of the ultracapacitors . Fig. In other words. ensures the dynamic components of the load. 2. The performances of the proposed control are illustrated in Figs. During this operation the ultracapacitors module contributes to the traction energy supply via the boost converter. the ultracapacitors Fig. 19. but they are not identical due buck-boost converter conversion ratio. the simulation and the experimental results present some differences in term of the ﬂuctuations and the average values.

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Dakyo.” IEEE Trans. Dakyo. T. Inf. 3. Salamero. 8. 2410–2419. 2011. no. Eikani. vol. Veh. T. Kazerani. vol. Buja. Jun. pp. S. J. 1633–1646. Apr. no. “DC/DC converter design for supercapacitor and battery power management in hybrid vehicle applications-polynomial control strategy. “Topological overview of power trains for battery-powered vehicles with range extenders. [10] M. pp. Y. 2.TANI et al. P.” Energy. no. vol. Tabar. 51.IEEE Trans. and the ultracapacitors ones. Thounthong. Liu. and B. pp. 2011. J. S. Li.” IEEE Trans. Wu. Hinaje. Davat. Rowshanzamir. and F. Aug. This approach enables to avoid the accelerated aging of the FC due to transient currents of the load. R. Electron. 2. Ind. 3. Finally. Jul. M. Sep.. Veh. Davat. no.. pp. no. Gilchrist. Kim.” IEEE Trans. pp. Mar. The simulation and the experimental results enable to conclude that. no. Camara. Park. no. 868–876. Martin. Electron. Serial no. no. Giral.” IEEE Trans. B. Spectrum of the FC’s current measured in the dc-bus. 59. 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Senegal. H. Saint-Etienne du Rouvray. Chae. Sep. ultracapacitors. energy management. Le Havre. and the Ph. D. 10. Algeria.-H. 8. in 1990. degree from University of Le Havre. Annaba. He is currently an Associate Professor with the IRSEEM Laboratory. VOL. no. Ahmed. Mann. Ind. 58. he has been working in power electronics and electric vehicle research projects. [20] S. S. Abdallah Tani was born in Algeria in July 1984. analytical model. Ind. in 1988 and 1997. degrees from Dakar University. [19] M. and Habilitation degrees from the University of Le Havre. FC ultracapacitors.696 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS. 3. in 1974. France. France. in 2004 and 2007.. no. “Digital current sharing method for parallel interleaved DC-DC converters using input ripple voltage. no. Dale. Power Electron. M. Conakry. Yacine Azzouz was born in Ferkane. Y. Le Havre. 778–786. vol.” IEEE Trans. dc distribution system and hybrid electric vehicle research projects. Holmes. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Aix–Marseille III. and S. Toulouse. 2010. in 2003. Park. converter fed electrical machines. pp. Bejaia. and batteries dedicated to transport applications. M. and P. B. no. Jung.S.. degrees from the University of Franche–Comté. NO. “Equivalent electric circuit modeling and performance analysis of a PEM fuel cell stack using impedance spectroscopy. N. University of Le Havre. Guinea. respectively. in 1995. pp. Electron. Algeria. the M. G. “PEM fuel cell stack model development for real-time simulation applications. 1914–1928. vol. degree in electromechanic engineering from the University of Bejaia. Guinea. 4217–4231.S. France. His current interests include power electronics. degree from the National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse. S. Dakar. Since 2009. 27. in 2000. Energy Convers. and the M. MAY 2013 [17] A. Algeria. involving converter topologies. France. and the Ph.S. Dhirde. in 1984 and 1987. Brayima Dakyo (M’06) received the B. Mar. Aug 2012. Camara. Oct.D. degree from the Institute of Annaba. 2011. and H. Salehfar.” IEEE Trans. respectively. respectively. he has been working in power electronics. Sep. 3. He received the B.Eng. Electron.. degree in electrical engineering from the Polytechnic Institute of Conakry (IPC). B. no. “Current regulation strategies for vector-controlled induction motor drives.S. McGrath. Parker. wind and solar energy systems.. 2012.IEEE Trans. 2. France. “Polynomial control method of DC/DC converters for DC-bus voltage and currents management—Battery and supercapacitors. [21] D. He is a full Professor of Electrical Engineering. batteries. and Head of the GREAH Laboratory. 59. V. 9. He received the B.S. Dakyo. Since 2004. Gualous. and H.” .D. . Ind.” IEEE Trans. G. and system design with storage. University of Le Havre. He received the B. 25. and Dr. and the M. Han.S. vol. 2012. 536–544. He is currently an Associate Professor with the Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Automatique du Havre Laboratory (GREAH). B. France. pp. in 2008. Jeong.” IEEE Trans. [18] J. and Ph. 9. Song. France. pp. P. and electrical energy management for hybrid vehicle applications. École d’ingénieurs ESIGELEC. Belfort.. Inf. vol.D. in 2009. Enjeti.S. H. and T. vol. Mamadou Baïlo Camara (M’12) was born in Mamou. involving static converter topologies. Marseille. 3.

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