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The ABAP Dictionary centrally describes and manages all the data definitions used in the system. The ABAP Dictionary is completely integrated in the ABAP Workbench. I.e All the other components of the Workbench can actively access the definitions stored in the ABAP Dictionary. The ABAP Dictionary supports the definition of user-defined types (data elements, structures and table types). You can also define the structure of database objects (tables, indexes and views) in the ABAP Dictionary. These objects can be automatically created in the database with this definition. 2.Explain the Domain,Data element and the Advantages ? Domain:- It is used to define the Technical Attributes (Data Type and Length) and the Value Ranges (Fixed Values and Intervals). A domain is assigned to a data element. All table fields or structure components that use this data element then have the value range defined by the domain. Data Element:- A Data Element describes either an elementary type or a reference type. An elementary type is defined by the built-in data type, length and possibly the number of decimal places. These type attributes can either be defined directly in the Data Element or copied from a domain. Advanages : 1.Reusability of Data type,length,description.
Table 3 Table1 Customer Master Data Table2 Customer Invoice Table 4
Date Ele1 Customer No No
Data Ele2 Vendor No
Page 1 of 21
Prepared By : Ganapati Adimulam eMAX Technologies,AmeerPet,Hyderabad Ph : +91 40 65976727.
Domain CHAR, 10
ABAP/Data Dictionary We Never Compromise in Quality. Would You ? _______________________________________________________________________ _ 2.To maintain the relationship between the tables. The related fields from each table should have the common domain. 3.What is Primary Key and the Rules regarding the Primary Key in table creation ? Primary key is One or than One Field Combination to Identify the record from the Corresponding Database Table Uniquely. Rules : Each Table Should have Primary Key. It Should be Data Type CHAR. It Shoul appear as the First Field(at the Beginning of the Table). 4.Can we have more than One primary key in the Same Database table ? No . But We Can Have More that One Field Combination as Promary Key but not More than One Promary Key. 5.Diffrence between INCLUDE and APPEND structures ? INCLUDE APPEND Include Structure is used to include the APPEND Structure is used to structure to a custom Table. Append to the Standard Table. The Same Structure Can be INCLUDed in The Same APPEND Structure any no of Custom Tables Cannot be APPENDed in more than One Standard Database Table. To INCLUDE it in Custom Table We Need to Create the APPEND Provide .INCLUDE as Field name and Structure By Opening the Table Structure name as Field type. in Display Mode and Click On APPENDStructure.
6.Can we use the same APPEND Structure in More than One Database Table? No. 7.Why and How to Handle the Currency and Quantity Fields Differently in table Creation ? Working with Currency(Amount) and Quantity fields: When we are working with international customers and Vendors if you provide only the Amount figure i.e. 1000, but is not enough as it is not clear whether it is 1000 INR,1000 Page 2 of 21 Prepared By : Ganapati Adimulam eMAX Technologies,AmeerPet,Hyderabad Ph : +91 40 65976727.
.USD etc). Would You ? _______________________________________________________________________ _ USD. This is must to create a table with Currency and Quantity fields Field Name AMOUNT QUANTITY Data Type CURR QUAN Reference Data type CUKY UNIT Note : CURR and CUKY Fields Should be Linked in the Database and Similarly. Now click on the tab .1000 EUR.when we are working with Amounts. Page 3 of 21 Prepared By : Ganapati Adimulam eMAX Technologies. QUAN and UNIT Fields. Provide the same table as Reference table and Ref. 1000 MYR etc. Similarly when we are working with Quantity we have to provide Units of the quantity.ABAP/Data Dictionary We Never Compromise in Quality. Then only the system expects Currency Key(CUKY) as reference for Amount and Units key(UNIT) as reference for Quantity.AmeerPet. Note : When the Amount Fields are created by using Data type CURR and the Quantity Fields by Using QUAN.Field as UNITS for QUANTITY and CURRENCY for AMOUNT. So you have to always provide the currency key(INR.Hyderabad Ph : +91 40 65976727.
AmeerPet.ABAP/Data Dictionary We Never Compromise in Quality. b. 9. for example using a binary search. This copy is always in sorted form. The Domain names of the field in the Foreign Key table and for the field in the Check table should be same. Rules to Define the Foreign Key ? Definition : It is a field in one table(Foreing key table) that is connected to another table(Check table) via Foreign key relationship and is to validate the data being entered in one table(Foreing key table) with a valid set of values from another table(Check table).Expain the Forign Key . Sorting provides faster access to the data records of the table. The field in the check table should be Primary Key. The index also contains a pointer to the corresponding record of the actual table so that the fields not contained in the index can also be read. The primary index contains the key fields of the table and a pointer to the non-key fields of the table. . An delete can be considered a copy of a database table that has been reduced to certain fields.Hyderabad Ph : +91 40 65976727. The primary index is distinguished from the secondary indexs of a table. Page 4 of 21 Prepared By : Ganapati Adimulam eMAX Technologies.Explain the INDEX in DDIC ? INDEX : We can search a table for data records that satisfy certain search criteria faster using an index. Would You ? _______________________________________________________________________ _ 8. The primary index is created automatically when the table is created in the database. Importance Of Foreign Key . Technical Requirements to create a Foreign Key:a.
Would You ? _______________________________________________________________________ _ Secondary INDEX : Secondary INDEXes are the Custom(Futher) INDEXs on a table in the ABAP Dictionary. This is necessary if the table is frequently accessed in a way that does not take advantage of the sorting of the primary index for the access.Hyderabad Ph : +91 40 65976727. Note :All the counters of carriers at a certain airport are often searched for flight bookings.AmeerPet. The airport ID is used to search for counters for such an access. Page 5 of 21 Prepared By : Ganapati Adimulam eMAX Technologies. . a secondary index on the field AIRPORT (ID of the airport) must be created to support access using the airport ID. Sorting the primary index is of no use in speeding up this access. Since table SCOUNTER has a large number of entries.ABAP/Data Dictionary We Never Compromise in Quality.
Would You ? _______________________________________________________________________ _ To Create the Secondary INDEX.What is Table Maintenance Generator ? Ans: The Table Maintenance Generator is used to create table maintenance program to add. This can be accessed using transaction SE30 or SE54 or in SE11 using the menu Utilities->Table Maintenance Generator. . Save . Choose Maintain logon language. Page 6 of 21 Prepared By : Ganapati Adimulam eMAX Technologies.Enter the database table name and press Display -> Indexes -> Create Enter index name.Hyderabad Ph : +91 40 65976727.What is One step. Single step: Only overview screen is created i.e. 12.ABAP/Data Dictionary We Never Compromise in Quality.Can we INCLUDE the Nested Structures in the Custom Table ? NO 11. the Table Maintenance Program will have only one screen where you can add.AmeerPet. two step in Table Maintenance Generator? This specifies the screens to be created in the Table Maintenance Program. delete or edit records. 10. Enter short description and index fields. Execute SE11 . Check and Activate . modify or delete records in the database table.
g.ABAP/Data Dictionary We Never Compromise in Quality. 13. Would You ? _______________________________________________________________________ _ Two step: Two screens namely the overview screen and Single screen are created. f. . e. c. k. d.Hyderabad Ph : +91 40 65976727.What are the Master Tables and the Primary Key Fields for? a. i. j. l. Currency Codes Countries Unit Of Measurements Purchasing Organizations Customer Master Vendor Master Plant Master Data Company codes Sales Organizations Profit Center Master Cost Center Purchasing inforecord and also the Transaction Codes to Create the same whereever it is Applicable ? Meaning Cost Center Transaction Code KS01 Table CSKS Primary Key(s) KOKRS KOSTL DATBI ProfitCenter Sales Organizations Company Codes Countries Unit Of Measurement Customer Master Vendor Master Page 7 of 21 XD01 MK01 KE51 CEPC TVKO T001 T005 T006 KNA1 LFA1 KOKRS PRCTR DATBI VKORG BUKRS LAND1 MSEHI KUNNR LIFNR Description CONTROLLING AREA COST CENTRE VALID TO Controlling Area Profit Center Valid To Sales Organization Company Code Country Code Unit Of Measurement Customer Account Number Vendor Account Prepared By : Ganapati Adimulam eMAX Technologies. h. b. The user can see the key fields in the first screen and can further go on to edit further details.AmeerPet.
BY Company Code.ABAP/Data Dictionary We Never Compromise in Quality. Would You ? _______________________________________________________________________ _ Purchasing Org Purchasing Info ME11 Record Currency Codes 14. . Used when we gets the data from a single table. BY City etc.What is Search Help and types Of Search Helps? Elementary search help is for f4 help and collectice search help is the collection of elementary search helps. • T024E TCURU EKORG WAERS No Purchasing Org Purchasing Info Record Currency Code The type group name in the ABAP/4 Dictionary has a maximum of 5 characters. Elementary search helps : defines a search path where we will define the table from which the data has to be read and the selection criteria. Through import and export parameters.AmeerPet.7 EE Version . The Data Type names within type group <typepool> must begin with <typepool> followed by an underscore.Hyderabad Ph : +91 40 65976727. Note : Up to 4. Each One is Elementary Search Help and the Combination is Collective Search Help. 15..0 Version we Can Still Create it through SE11 itself. Where as from ECC 5. We Can Create the TYPE Group SE80->Data Dictionary But not from SE11. Ex : Search the Customer BY General Data. • The types in a type group must be declared in ABAP/4 programs with the TYPEPOOLS command to access the Data types from the TYPE-GROUP. Ex : SLIS is Created by SAP to work with all the Datatypes required to Work with ALV. Collective search helps:.What is Type Group ? We can define data types in a type group in the ABAP/4 Dictionary instead of defining them within an ABAP/4 program.Combination of elementary search Helps. Page 8 of 21 Prepared By : Ganapati Adimulam eMAX Technologies. When we need to fetch data based on multiple selection criteria’s from More than one tables.
. Only transparent tables and pooled tables can be buffered. but it is read frequently. Data Class : The Data class determines in which tablespace (Physical area) the table is stored when it is created in the database. Page 9 of 21 Prepared By : Ganapati Adimulam eMAX Technologies. Cluster tables cannot be buffered. The table buffers reside locally on each application server in the system. This avoids the time-consuming process of accessing the database.ABAP/Data Dictionary We Never Compromise in Quality.AmeerPet. Buffering is recommended in this case. client copy and when transporting between customer systems. The data of buffered tables can thus be accessed directly from the buffer of the application server. Size Category : The Size category describes the probable space requirement of the table in the database. 17. The table data is frequently modified.Explain the below Terms a) Table Maintenance b) Data Class c) Delivery Class d) Size Category Table Maintenance : It allows the user to maintain the data manually. Delivery Class:It Defines the type of the data that is going to be stored and also it defines the owner of the Table and also the delivery class controls the transport of table data for installation.Explain the Buffering and types Of Buffering ? Buffering a table improves the performance when accessing the data records contained in the table.Hyderabad Ph : +91 40 65976727. upgrade. The following two points speak against table buffering: The data read by the application must always be up-to-date. Note : The table containing currency exchange rates is updated only once a day. Would You ? _______________________________________________________________________ _ 16.
ABAP/Data Dictionary We Never Compromise in Quality. BYPASSING BUFFER. ... Generic Area Buffering 3. Single-record buffering should be used particularly for large tables where only a few records are accessed with SELECT SINGLE. You can bypass the buffer and read the data directly from the database table with the ABAP command "SELECT SINGLE . Page 10 of 21 Prepared By : Ganapati Adimulam eMAX Technologies. Single Record Buffering 2. Buffer Types: 1. Fully Bufferring Single-record buffering should be selected when : o For large tables where there are frequent single-record accesses (using SELECT SINGLE In Single-record buffering Only the records of a table that are really accessed are loaded into the buffer. Would You ? _______________________________________________________________________ _ Note : The contents of buffered tables are not always up-to-date in a distributed system. The size of the records being accessed should be between 100 and 200 KB.Hyderabad Ph : +91 40 65976727.AmeerPet.
The generic key is a part of the primary key of the table that is left-justified. In this example. Full Buffering : With full buffering. .Hyderabad Ph : +91 40 65976727. a program reads the record highlighted in red from table SCOUNTER. all the records read whose generic key fields (MANDT and CARRID) agree are loaded into the buffer. Page 11 of 21 Prepared By : Ganapati Adimulam eMAX Technologies.ABAP/Data Dictionary We Never Compromise in Quality. All the records of the table are loaded into the buffe when one record of the table is read.AmeerPet. all the records in the buffer whose generic key fields match this record are loaded when one record of the table is accessed. In this example. Would You ? _______________________________________________________________________ _ Generic Buffering : With generic buffering. buffering either the entire table is in the buffe or the table is not in the buffe at all. the record highlighted in red is read by a program from table SCOUNTER. If the table is fully buffered. If the table is generically buffered. all the records of the table are loaded into the buffe.
AmeerPet. The data can be distributed among several tables. Page 12 of 21 Prepared By : Ganapati Adimulam eMAX Technologies.Just retrieves some fields from a single table. 18. Database View . and rarely written. A view on one or more tables i.Hyderabad Ph : +91 40 65976727. .This is used for search help. Help View .This is inner join view of one or more tables Maintenance View .What is View and Explain the types of views? A view is a logical view on one or more tables.e. A view can be used to summarize data which is distributed among several tables Types Of Views : • • • • Projection view .Helps in creating maintaining data of the application object. the data from a view is not actually physically stored instead being derived from one or more tables. Would You ? _______________________________________________________________________ _ Note : Tables best suited to full buffering are small. read frequently.ABAP/Data Dictionary We Never Compromise in Quality.
AmeerPet. program parameters. Would You ? _______________________________________________________________________ _ 19. temporary data. We always create Transparent tables only. continuous texts such as documentation).What are the Different Types Of Data Dictioanary Tables ? Transparent Transparent Table:- Pooled Cluster It is used to store application data such as Master and Transactional Data.e. This is Many to One relationship i. The data from several different pooled tables can be stored together in a table pool. There is a One to One relationship i. for the table in DDIC another table with the same structure and the same name and the same fields will be created in the original Data base. for many pooled tables in DDIC only one Data base table will be created in the Data Base. Cluster Table and Table Cluster :Page 13 of 21 Prepared By : Ganapati Adimulam eMAX Technologies.ABAP/Data Dictionary We Never Compromise in Quality. Pooled Tables and Table Pools : It should be used exclusively for storing internal control information (screen sequences.Hyderabad Ph : +91 40 65976727.e. PT1 PT2 Table Pool PT5 PT3 PT4 One Table will be created for the Table Pool Not for each Pooled Table. .
e. no. We Can add the Additional Fields to the Standard Table . Custom INCLUDE : SAP itself ADD the CI Include In the Table . where all the other Materials and Some Websites Says it is 9. Would You ? _______________________________________________________________________ _ It should be used exclusively for storing internal control information (screen sequences. Append Structure : It is to be Created for the Table for which the additional Fields should be added. This is Many to One relationship i.What is the max. CT4 Note:. But not 9. Which Can be Created by Simply Double Click on it. of structures that can be included in a table or structure? Maximum. . for many cluster tables in DDIC only one Data base table will be created in the Data Base. The data from several different cluster tables can be stored together in a table clusters. program parameters. 20. In order to create a custom(userdefined) database table there are TWO types of approaches.All the Tables in the Cluster Tables should have a common Primary Key. (Try yourself Including the Structures in the Custom Table). CT1 CT2 CT3 CT5 Table Cluster One Table will be created for the Table cluster Not for each Cluster Table. temporary data. 21.AmeerPet.ABAP/Data Dictionary We Never Compromise in Quality.Hyderabad Ph : +91 40 65976727. Only When SAP Provides CI Include in the Custom Table. continuous texts such as documentation).What are two methods of modifying SAP standard tables? Append Structures and Customizing Includes. Page 14 of 21 Prepared By : Ganapati Adimulam eMAX Technologies.
it shoud be APPENDed after the previous APPEND.Hyderabad Ph : +91 40 65976727. If a table has an append structure. i. Would You ? _______________________________________________________________________ _ Note : CI Includes are available in most of HR Tables. Table PA0021 Double Click on it to add the New Fields. if it has a Long Field . 23. we cannot use append structures why? Note : Long fields in a table must always be located in the end.If a table that is to be extended contains a long field.e we are going to add new fields after the Long Field. where we are violating the rule that the Long Field should be at the end of the Table. Make Sure that the Long Field is Last Field in the APPEND Structure . .AmeerPet. Page 15 of 21 Prepared By : Ganapati Adimulam eMAX Technologies. Note : When another APPEND structed is Created. So that we can APPEND the Structure.What are the two ways for restricting the value range for a domain? By specifying fixed values.ABAP/Data Dictionary We Never Compromise in Quality. 22.
Page 16 of 21 Prepared By : Ganapati Adimulam eMAX Technologies. .Hyderabad Ph : +91 40 65976727. Function modules that can be used in application programs are generated from the definition of a lock object in the ABAP Dictionary Note1 : Activating a lock object in the ABAP Dictionary automatically creates function modules for setting (ENQUEUE_<lock object name>) and releasing (DEQUEUE_<lock object name>) locks.ABAP/Data Dictionary We Never Compromise in Quality. Fixed Values & Intervals Value Table 24.Lock Objects and FMs? Lock Objects are used to synchronize access to the same data by more than one user. Ex : ALPHA CONVERSION_EXIT_ALPHA_INPUT Conversion exit ALPHA.AmeerPet.What is Locking.What are conversion routines? Non-standard conversions from display format to sap internal format and vice-versa are implemented with so called conversion routines. internal->external 25. Would You ? _______________________________________________________________________ _ By stipulating a value table. external->internal CONVERSION_EXIT_ALPHA_OUTPUT Conversion exit ALPHA.
What is the difference between Database tables and Views? The Table has a physical storage of data whereas views do not have physical storage of data. 28. Would You ? _______________________________________________________________________ _ Note2 : The Lock Object name Should start with ‘E’. inorder to reflect the changes in the actual Database. They are not used in the Input Help. where the entry to the field can be only from the value table. . It can also be created with table inner joins and specifying conditions for data retrieval. (OR) Page 17 of 21 Prepared By : Ganapati Adimulam eMAX Technologies.AmeerPet.Which field differentiates a table from client-dependent and client-independent? The MANDT field of the table specifies whether the table is client independent or not. Go to transaction SE14 and Choose Edit and then choose Activate and Adjust Database. 29. The Value table is the table attached to a field at the domain level.What types of objects can be created in the ABAP Dictionary? Tables Views Data Elements Structures Table Types Type Groups Domains Search Helps Lock Objects 27. You can use only projection view or database view in your ABAP program.What are the check tables and value tables? The Check Table is the dependent table to which the relationship is defined using foreign keys. 30. The contents of the check table field are shown in the input help for the referenced field.Can I use all the views in the ABAP program ? No.) How do you activate the database table after making changes to it? After making changes to the table in DDIC.ABAP/Data Dictionary We Never Compromise in Quality.Hyderabad Ph : +91 40 65976727. The view is derived from one or more tables which is created only with the required fields from the database table(s). 26. Note : Value table is the Default Check Table.
Check the Lowercase checkbox to preserve the case of your data.Hyderabad Ph : +91 40 65976727.Tables. 31.ABAP/Data Dictionary We Never Compromise in Quality. 33.AmeerPet. Would You ? _______________________________________________________________________ _ You can directly activate it from the SE11 -> Utilities ->Database Utility->Activate and Adjust Database.Development Classess are stored in? The programs are stored in the table TADIR and the development class packages in TDEVC. How do I get the data with mixed case? The reason for this is that the Domain for the field in the table might have Lowercase checkbox unchecked. . 32.What are the Important Tables to store the Definitions of DDIC ? Table DD02L DD02T DD01L DD01T DD03L DD03T DD04L DD04T DD05S Short text SAP Tables SAP Table Texts Domains Domain texts Table Fields Texts for fields dependent) Data elements Data element texts Foreign key fields (language Page 18 of 21 Prepared By : Ganapati Adimulam eMAX Technologies.When I create new entries in the table the field values are always in Uppercase.In which table are the programs. Database Tables in DD02L and DD02T(Short Texts).
10 .Add the below fields to the standard database table T001 by appending the following fields.Create the table to maintain the Vendor Master Details : Fields LIFNR Page 19 of 21 Description Vendor Number Prepared By : Ganapati Adimulam eMAX Technologies.Create a database tables using the following fields. Fields Website CEO Data Element CHAR.35 CHAR.3 4.50 Description Website for the company CEO of the company 5.Create the above table using data element and domains. 3.30 CHAR. Would You ? _______________________________________________________________________ _ EXERCISE 1.ABAP/Data Dictionary We Never Compromise in Quality.40 CHAR.Hyderabad Ph : +91 40 65976727.Create database table with the following requirements: (Using Direct Data Type ) Field Description Vendor Number Bank Country Key Bank Key Bank Acc.10 CHAR.35 CHAR. Domain Details CHAR.35 CHAR. Table 1 LIFNR (Vendor No) NAME1(Name) ORT01(City) ORT02(District) STRAS(Street) LAND1-Country Table 2 KUNNR (Customer No) NAME1(Name) ORT01(City) ORT02(District) STRAS(Street) LAND1-Country Table 3 BUKRS (Company Code) NAME1-Name ORT01-City ORT02-District STRAS-Street LAND1-Country CHAR. make use of INCLUDE structure for the common fields. No Name of the holder Data type Char Char Char Char Char Length 10 3 06 12 35 2.AmeerPet.
AmeerPet.ABAP/Data Dictionary We Never Compromise in Quality. Would You ? _______________________________________________________________________ _ NAME1 ORT01 ORT02 STRAS CHAR. 8.30 CHAR.5 QUAN. . Page 20 of 21 Prepared By : Ganapati Adimulam eMAX Technologies. 6.13 CUKY.Create a database view for the database tables KNA1.Hyderabad Ph : +91 40 65976727. Note: Maintain the foreign key relationship between the above two tables Based on the Vendor No. 7.3 Description Vendor No Purchase Order No Total Price Currency Key Quantity Unit Of Measurement Note: LIFNR and EBELN Combination is the Primary Key. KNB1.Create a projection view for the database table T001.30 Vendor Name Vendor City District Street Note: LIFNR as the Primary Key.10 CHAR.13 UNIT.35 CHAR. Create the below table to Maintain the Purchase Order Details of the Vendors: Fields LIFNR EBELN NETWR WAERS MENGE MEINS Data Element CHAR.10 CURR.35 CHAR .
.AmeerPet.Hyderabad Ph : +91 40 65976727.ABAP/Data Dictionary We Never Compromise in Quality. Would You ? _______________________________________________________________________ _ Page 21 of 21 Prepared By : Ganapati Adimulam eMAX Technologies.
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