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by Don McCabe Research Director
This edition is dedicated to the students of the Basic Typing Class Hewlett High School Hewlett, New York who have helped us learn from our mistakes
Copyright © 2007, 2006, 1990, 1984, 1981, 1976 AVKO Educational Research Foundation, Inc. 3084 W. Willard Road, Clio, MI 48420-7801
Level One — Lesson 1
Introduces: a d l
Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: all — ad — la- — daDirections: 1) Always follow your teacher’s directions. 2) If you don’t have a teacher and if you are using a typewriter, a) Place this book to the right of your typewriter on a bookholder. If you don’t have a bookholder, place something underneath it so that it is in a good reading position. b) Insert paper. If you don’t know how, don’t be afraid to ask someone how it’s done properly. c) Locate the home keys and place your hands very, very lightly on the proper keys, as per illustration. LEFT hand a — little finger s — ring finger d — middle finger f — index finger RIGHT hand ; — little finger l — ring finger k — middle finger j — index finger
3) If you are right-handed keep your right thumb above the space bar and space automatically after every word or letter grouping. If you are left-handed keep your left thumb above the space bar and space with your left thumb. 4) Say each word — not just letters — to yourself as you type it. 5) Each line is to be typed three times before going to the next line: aaa lll aaa lll all all all all all all aaa lll aaa lll all all all all all all aaa lll aaa lll all all all all all all 6) Don’t worry about mistakes. Mistakes are opportunities to learn. If you don’t know how to pronounce a word or if you don’t know what it means, underline it on your paper (not the book) with your pencil. Learning is what counts in this class. Let your teacher help you. If you don’t have a regular teacher — the underlining is a signal to your computer brain that it has something to solve. And it will, if you will let it.
Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation
aaa lll aaa lll aaa lll all all all all ddd aaa ddd dad dad dad dad aaa lll ddd lad lad dad dad add Exercise B all add all add all lad lad all add lll aaa ddd lad lad ddd dad add aaa ddd add dad lll lad lll all dad Exercise C aaa lll all all lll aaa ddd lad lad aaa ddd ddd add add lll lad dad lll aaa ddd lad lad add aaa lll all Exercise D all all add add dad dad lad lad add dad lad all add dad lad all all dad all dad dad all dad lad all
Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation
“I’m sorry. If you don’t believe that how you sit affects your feelings. up. You can’t say. “a lad. you can read. Throw your shoulders back and put your hands on your hips. when you get to Exercise D. try this: a. c. 2) Don’t worry about mistakes. Stand tall with your feet wide—WIDE—apart.” Close your eyes and type. Don’t look at your fingers! Don’t look at the keys. The reason for sitting up straight is that how you sit affects how your computer brain operates and how you feel. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 4 . 4) Try some of the exercises with your eyes closed. up. “I’m sorry. 3) Type each line three times. If you lean back in your chair.Level One — Lesson 2 Introduces: s .” Look at a couple more words. Now say. Say the words to yourself—not just the letters.” You can’t help but smile. 5) Sit in the ATTENTION position. The reason for sitting up straight has nothing to do with looking pretty or having good posture.” without it sounding funny. Cock your head with your chin up. Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: ss (sass. b. You must learn to feel the letters in your fingers. For example. “a lad. your body position is telling your computer brain to shut off and get ready for sleep. d. lass) all ad ads Directions: 1) Keep your eyes on your book. Close your eyes and then type them.
. all sad dads. sss aaa ddd lll ... Exercise C a lass.... sss .. . alas. sad dad. dad dads. . a lad adds dads. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 5 . a dad. sss aaa sass. sass. as dads add. sass. lass. sss aaa lass sass. ddd dad.. Exercise D a lad. as a lad. all lads. all. a dad. a lass. a lad. lad lads. all lass. sad. lass. a lass adds. sass.. sass.. sass.. as a lass adds. all sad dads. as sad as a sad dad. as a lad adds. Exercise B . add sad lads.. sss adds dads lads. a lad. all sad dads add. sss lll aaa lass sass. as a lass. as a dad adds lads. as a lad. ddd . a lass.. all lads add lass.Level One Exercise A Lesson Two sss . all all. as a dad..
at. slat. flat flats. Remember: Mistakes are Opportunities to Learn.Level One — Lesson 3 Introduces: f t Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations Taught: at fa fla sa ast ats asts alls Directions: 1) The letter t is struck by the f finger. flat flats. 3rd time: Type it a little faster still but with rhythm. slat slats. slat. fl fl flat flats. sat fat. ffttf ffttf fat. 4) Don’t backspace and then type it over. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 6 . fl fl flat flats. fl fl flat flats. 2nd time: Type it a little faster but with rhythm. slat. fl fl flat flats. Your time is precious. slat slats. at. sat fat. 2) Don’t get upset just because you make a few mistakes. at fat fats. flat flats. 5) Remember: You must type EACH line THREE times. slat. 6) Type each line in each exercise in each lesson THREE TIMES. ffttf ffttf fat. at. On your paper it should look this: fff fttf fttf aaa ttt at at at ffttf ffttf fat fff fttf fttf aaa ttt at at at ffttf ffttf fat fff fttf fttf aaa ttt at at at ffttf ffttf fat at fat fats. slat slats. Exercise A on the next page looks like this: fff fttf fttf aaa ttt at at at ffttf ffttf fat at fat fats. sat fat. ffttf ffttf fat. ffttf ffttf fat. 3) Don’t erase your mistakes. at. Don’t waste it making corrections. slat slats. at fat fats. Use your time learning. 1st time: Type it slow and steady. sat fat. flat flats.
as tall as a dad. sat at fat. fl fl flat flats. all a tall stall.. fast fast fast. slat slats. ttt at fat fats. slat. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 7 . at. fast last. lll lad lads. Exercise B fff fttf all fall falls. sat fat. . all fall falls.. all a fall falls. a fat dad sat. at flat at. as fast as a lass. as sad as a dad. all tall stall. at last a fast lad.Level One Exercise A Lesson Three fff fttf fttf aaa ttt at at at ffttf ffttf fat at fat fats. ddd dad dads. flat flats. Exercise C fff fad fads. flat flats. all tall stall stalls all tall. alas. fast last. ffttf ffttf fat. fttf. Exercise D as fast as a lad. all tall. alas. last fast.
Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 8 . 9) Don’t just type letters.Level One — Lesson 4 Introduces: j r Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: ar art ja ra Directions: 1) The letter r is struck by the f finger. 5) A line with mistakes in it is nothing to be ashamed of. your grade does not depend upon hiding from the teacher what you don’t know. you should be able to read and spell correctly all of the following words: Pattern: Words: ar far tar star ad ad fad tad sad lad ars tars stars ads ads fads tads lads art art tart start at at fat tat sat arts arts tarts starts ats fats tats sass lass all fall tall stall ass alls falls stalls ast fast Pattern: Words: last 3) If there is a word that you don’t know (or are unsure of) underline the word on your paper with pencil before you hand it in. 4) Mistakes are Opportunities to Learn. But your teacher can’t help you learn a word if you don’t let your teacher know that you don’t know it. 2) By the time you have finished this lesson. 7) Try for speed and accuracy through RHYTHM. The emphasis in this class is on learning. TYPE WORDS. 6) A perfect line is something to be proud of. 8) Say all the words to yourself as you type each line THREE TIMES. In this class.
fff. fff. jjj. tar tars. start starts. far jar. far. jjj jar jars. as far as a star. jjj. fff. jjj jar jars. far. jjj jar jars. jjj jars. fff far. stars start. art arts. star start starts. jjj jar. a star starts fast at last. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 9 . Exercise C fff. jar jars. . star stars. as fast as a fast lad. jar jars. tar tars. tar tart tarts. all as tall as a tall dad falls. star stars.. tart tarts. jjj jars. start as fast as a tall star starts. art art. jar jars jar. jar jar jar. jjj jar jar. Exercise D at last a tall lad starts as a star starts.Level One Exercise A Lesson Four jjj frrf jjj frrf. jar.. star stars. far. a sad dad. Exercise B tar tars.
Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 10 . and 3 key. underline it with your pencil before you hand in your paper. 4) Don’t watch your fingers. teachers love to teach. Believe it or not. 2) Do not use the f finger to strike the c unless your teacher gives you permission. 3) The d finger hits only the d key. e key. Let your teacher teach you what the word is. 6) If you don’t know what a word is. 5) Keep your eyes on this book. Don’t look at the keys. c key.Level One — Lesson 5 Introduces: f t Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: ack acks act acts ca Directions: 1) The letter c is struck by the d finger.
task tasks. crack cracks. act acts. act acts. a star stars. scar scars. a car starts. lad clad. stack stacks. rack racks. talk talks. cask casks. jjj. start a car. car card cards. jjj jar. jjj. a scar scars. jjj. slack slacks. tack tacks. jjj jar. Exercise C cad cads. a cask. fff far. talk talks. stalk stalks. Exercise D car cart carts. track tracks. sack sacks. ck ck.Level One Exercise A Lesson Five cccd cccd aaa ccc kkk ttt tack tack tacks. art cart carts. lack lacks. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 11 . Exercise B jjj jack jacks. jjj jar jars. car. fact facts. tact tract attract attracts. fff. car card cards. jar jars car cars. at last a lass starts a car. fff far far. tract at attract attracts. ck. a sad dad adds class. fact facts. jjj jar jars. lads talk. ask asks. ckj.
underline it with your pencil before you hand in your paper.Level One — Lesson 6 Introduces: i Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: ick it ift id ill ir Directions: 1) The letter i is struck by the k finger. 3) Practice typing some of the lines with your eyes closed. teachers love to teach. Let your teacher teach you what the word is. Don’t look at the keys. 4) Don’t watch your fingers. Believe it or not. 7) Say the words as you type. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 12 . Don’t just type letters. 6) If you don’t know what a word is. 2) Always hit the right key with the right finger. 5) Keep your eyes on this book.
ccc kick. ccc jack. Exercise C ill rill drill. dick is ill. dick is sick. jjj jack. Exercise B rick trick tricks. fff lick flick flicks. it fits. ccc kick. at first. sick. if a lift lifts. trick tricks. a drill. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 13 . fir firs first. is jill ill. sills. ill kill skill fff ill fill a skill drill. kicks. is rick ill. it did it. kill a skill drill. did a kid lift it. it did fir. jill fits jar lids. kids lift jar lids. tick sticks. jjj jill jar. stick sticks. it sits. lick licks. a jar lid slid. kids did it. rick ricks. it slits. jjj jack jacks. fir first. jjj jar jars. lick slick slicks. jar lids fit jill. rick is sick. a kid did it. Exercise D if a kid did it. jjj jars. jjj jill. ick tick ticks. did a lid fir it. a lid slid. lit flit flits. a fir firs first. if a ill kill skill drill kills. jjj jar jars. a kid lifts a jar lid.Level One Exercise A Lesson Six iii kkk iii ccc kkk kick kicks iii ccc kkk ick kick kick kick. it fits.
rick dick is sick. sick tick stick sticks. call calls. art tart start. racks cracks. cars scars. talk stalk. kid skid. rack crack track. sass lass class. jars tars stars.Level One — Lesson 7 Introduces: h Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: itch atch ash ish ch sh Directions: 1) The letter h is struck by the j finger. lad lads. if lift sift tiff stiff jiff. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 14 . car scar. flat slat rat cat cats rats slats jar far. tar star. at fat sat. jack. tracks. kick lick click. fir firs first. attack sacks tacks stacks. dad dads. acts facts tacts tracts attracts. clock flick. asks tasks casks. fad fads. ask task cask. arts tarts starts. lack slack. fast last cast. cad cads. 2) Type the following review sounds and underline any that you are not 100% sure of: all fall. had clad sad. hall halls. tall stall stalls. carts. sack tack stack. jacks. did. cart. lid slid. talks stalks. act fact tact tract attract. lacks slacks. fasts lasts.
chalk talks chill jill. ash rash trash. char chart charts. itch stitch. hit hits. tch. chat chats. ash lash flash. char chars. latch hatch. sash. hatch. itch ditch. hilt hilts. fat fish. itch ditch. hill hills. cash ash rash. Exercise D char chart charts. flash. ash hash. chair chairs. Exercise B hatch catch. latch catch. itch. hall halls. hills. ash dash. hash lash flash. chick chicks.Level One Exercise A Lesson Seven jhhhj hjjjh jhhhj jhhhj jhhhj jhhhj jhhhj jhhhj jhhhj jjj. hitch. talk chalk. itch hitch. jill has a chill. hair hairs. hash. jhhhj. Exercise C ash rash crash. catch hatch. hat hats. chair chairs. ash lash. ash lash slash. stitch. chill chills. tch. hit a hat. air chair. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 15 . ash lash clash. ch ch ch. hit hits. ash cash rash crash. hjjhj dish fish. ditch hitch. ill chill chills jill. tch. air stair stairs. hitch. halt halts.
. . the lines will end in different spots. . . . Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 16 . for example. . . . . . . . . . . .) is struck by the l finger. . If you don’t double space after a period. there will be no space and the words will run together. . .On this paragraph I deliberately failed to space or double space at the end of a line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . try typing one of the exercises with your eyes closed. . . Watch this. . . . 4) If necessary. . and then you change the font size. . . . . Don’t! Instead. . . . . 3) Space TWICE after you strike a period. . . . . . . 3) Space TWICE after you strike a period. 5) Don’t hit the right key with the wrong finger! That comes from looking at your fingers or at the keys. . . . . . . . instead of having the blank space that is at the end of a line following the period. . . . . . . (period) Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: eed ed ake ate ead eat eater eck are Directions: 1) The letter e is struck by the d finger. . . . instead of having the blank space that is at the end of a line following the period. If you don’t double space after a period.Now. . for example. . . . . . . . . . On this paragraph I deliberately failed to space or double space at the end of a line. . . . type a line of periods and then underneath the line type the characters period SPACE SPACE period SPACE SPACE as it is below. . . . .See what happens when I eliminate the forced returns and have a different font size. . . and then you change the font size. . Watch this. . . . there will be no space and the words will run together. . See what happens when I eliminate the forced returns and have a different font size. . . . . . . . . . . . .Level One — Lesson 8 Introduces: e . the lines will end in different spots. Space twice after each period even if the period is at the end of a line! The reason for this has to do with what happens when you change formatting on your document. . . . . . 2) The period (. . . . . . Now. .Space twice after each period even if the period is at the end of a line!The reason for this has to do with what happens when you change formatting on your document. . . . .
the itch itches. dare dares dared. take fake jake a rake. heater heaters.Level One Exercise A Lesson Eight deed deeds. deed deeds. Exercise D eat eats. she feeds all her chicks. he fled. like likes liked. jake hates a cheat. jack likes jill. jack likes lakes. al led. care cared. jake takes the cake. shake shakes. a stitch itches. jill likes lakes. hike. jake rakes. sal led. clash clashes clashed. jed led ted. feed feeds. scare scares scared. she led. red led. rash rashes. red fled. heed heeds. Exercise B she hates late dates. here. ted fed red. deck heck reckless. deed deeds. heaters heat. he hates late dates. the stitches itch. cheat jake. heat heats. shade shades shaded. ted fled. cheat cheats. Exercise C eat eats. lash lashes lashed. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 17 . he feeds all his chicks here.
8) Do yourself a favor and learn to make capital letters the right way. the little finger on the right hand (the “. you let up with your little finger on your right hand and return it to its home key. 3) Don’t take your right hand off the keyboard.” key. 6) If you can’t understand these directions.” finger) must push down on the shift key and hold it down while the finger on the left hand hits the letter key.) 5) Learning to make capital letters is not an easy task. (The f key also has a raised dot for your pointer finger. but your parents sure can remember some of the messes that you made. the j key will have a tiny raised dot to help you find it without looking. So DON’T give up. You probably can’t remember all the mistakes you made learning to eat. but neither was learning to eat. still ASK your teacher for help.Level One — Lesson 9 Introduces: Capital letters LEFT HAND ONLY Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: ick icks icked icker ickers ack acks acked acker ackers eck ecks ecker eckers addle addles addled ift ifts ifted ifter ade ades added ader aders ide ides Directions: ASK YOUR TEACHER FOR HELP! 1) In order for a capital letter to be made by the left hand. 7) If you think you understand these directions. On most keyboards. Don’t go using the Caps Lock key. It takes time to learn to do anything the right way. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 18 . 2) The moment you hit the letter key with your left hand finger. ASK your teacher for help. the “. 4) The j finger is the pivot finger that allows the right hand to return to its normal position on the home keys.
Tide tides. Tracker trackers. A sifter sifts. Drift drifts drifted. Sick. Stack stacks stacked. Decker. Red left. Ed left. Sick. Rick ricks. Dick is sick. Crack cracks. Sack sacks. Check checks checked. Sticker stickers. Sticker stickers. Cracker crackers. Dick is ill. Slack slacks slacked. Reckless. Checker checkers. Trade trades traded. Exercise B Tack tacks tacked. Ticker tickers. She hides. Rack racks racked. A drifter drifted. Trick tricks. Stick sticks. Shade shaded. Sick. Track tracks. Flick flicks. Exercise D Rift rifts.Level One Exercise A Lesson Nine Tick ticks ticked. Fade fades faded. She left. Dick has a chill. Sad saddle saddles. Shift shifts. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 19 . She hides. A sad dad fiddles. She hid it. Flicker flickers. Exercise C Deck decks decked. Tide tides.
Star. stirs. 3) Don’t look at the keyboard. firs. Etch. scars. tarred. Then close your eyes again and try to finish typing the line. Fir. cars. Retch. Tar. harder. stretcher.Level One — Lesson 10 Introduces: . try to type it from memory. but try to type it just a little faster. catcher. 4) Try typing parts of the exercises with your eyes closed. stars. Stir. Scar. Car. Stretch. thirst. If you can’t remember the whole line. etched. Jar. retched. 2) Only ONE space after a COMMA. Type it one more time with your eyes on the copy. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 20 . first. 5) Remember that all capital letters that are struck with the left hand are helped by the little finger on the right hand holding down the shift key. open your eyes and take a quick peek. Hatch. stirred. starred. 6) When you have finished the exercises.) is struck by the k finger. catchers. scarred. retches. type the following review and underline any words that you don’t know or are not 100% sure of: Catch. An easy way is to first type the line slowly with your eyes on the copy. Hard. Don’t look at your fingers. etches. tars. catches. The third time through the line. but TWO spaces after a PERIOD. jars. hatches. hatchet. (comma) Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: atch atches atcher atchers etch etches etcher etchers itch itches itcher itchers ark arks arker arkest ir irs irred irring aid aids aided aider aiders Directions: 1) The comma (.
Sketch. catchers catch. started. stars. ditches. fetches. starts. Etch.. The car jerks. Stitch. The lad is afraid. stars. raider. Stir. She started. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 21 . Catch. stirs.. raided. Shark. tarts. catchers. sharks. etched. stitches. sketched.. k. Cars jerk. She starred.. darkest.. Star. k.. starred. raiders. laid. Ditch. first. Thirst.k. Fir. etches.k. Start. larks.k. k. stirred.k.. ditched.k.. The lass is afraid. fetched.Level One Exercise A Lesson Ten k. arts. darker. first. Dad is afraid.. k. catches. jars. The jar is here.. A catcher catches. Artists sketch sketches. sketches. Tart. Exercise B That is far fetched. raids. Exercise D Aid. carts. ditches. aided. aids. catcher. stitched. Clark. Art. Ditch. Exercise C Dark. ditched. She likes darts. Fetch. Raid.
Be nice to your teacher. “Here is…” and we say.” You hear with your ear. ask your teacher for help. 4) Learn the difference between the words here and hear. “Over here” and “Over there.Level One — Lesson 11 Introduces: ? CAPITAL LETTERS for the Right Hand Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: ere ear ears all ill Directions: Don’t be afraid to ask your teacher for help! 1) The question mark (?) is struck by the “. ear is in hear. it is the f finger that keeps its position on the keyboard so that the other fingers can easily return to their proper positions in the home row. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 22 . Space TWICE after you hit a question mark. We say. Teachers love to teach.” finger while the little finger on the left hand is holding down the shift key. 2) Question marks (?) are just like periods (. If you are having trouble making capital letters. 3) All right hand capital letters are made with the little finger on the left hand holding down the shift key. In this case. They take TWO spaces. “There is…” We say.). He hears with both his ears. Ask your teacher to teach you. here is in there.
dears. Skill skills.?. . Is she a dear? Is he a dear? Are deer? Exercise C Did dad hear her? Dad heard her. kills.?. fears. Did she fear it? Did he fear it? Dear.? . . Did Jill? Is that Jill? Is Jill the tallest lass? Is this her class? Exercise D Is that Jack? Is Jack the tallest lad? Is this his class? Kill.Level One Exercise A Lesson Eleven . Is Jill skilled? Is Jack thrilled? Is Jill thrilled? Is Jack skilled? Is this a skill drill? Is Jill ill? Is Jill still ill? Is this still a skill drill? Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 23 .?. Is this hard? I see. feared.?. Did he see all the cards? He sees all the cards. ears. Is Jack here? Is Jill here? Is he? Is she? Is Jill here? Is Jill there? Is Jack here? Is Jack here? Is she here? Is she there? Is he here? Is he there? Exercise B Ear. Did she hear her dad call? Did he hear her? Fear.
2) There are two main uses for the apostrophe. 5) Be sure to space twice after periods and question marks. Tom’s hat.Level One — Lesson 12 Introduces: Apostrophes (’) Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: ere ear ears all ill Directions: 1) The apostrophe is struck by the little finger right hand on almost all electric typewriters and computer keyboards. Don’t give up. So don’t worry about it. The 1st is to show possession as in Jack’s car. The 2nd is to form a contraction such as don’t can’t won’t wouldn’t it’s let’s that’s they’re you’re we’re which means which means which means which means which means which means which means which means which means which means do not can not will not would not it is let us that is they are you are we are 3) This is not an easy lesson. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 24 . Mary’s car. and Helen’s hat. 4) Remember: Mistakes are Opportunities to Learn.
.’’’. It’s all here. Is Fred’s cat fat? Fred’s cat is fat.’’’. Is that Jack’s car? Is that Jill’s car? Did Jill see Jack’s card? Did Jack see Jill’s card? Is that Dick’s car? That’s Jack’s car. Exercise D Is that a fact? That is a fact. Is Red a racer? Red’s a racer. Is that Red’s fat cat? That is Red’s cat. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 25 . Exercise B Are all these cards Dick’s cards? The cards are Jack’s. Is Fred’s face red? Fred’s face’s red. That’s Dick’s car. It’s a fact. That’s Fred’s. Is Red’s car a racer? Did Red race Fred’s car? Did Fred race Ed’s car? Is it a fact? It’s a fact. Fred’s cat’s fat. That’s a fact. Exercise C Is that Jake’s cake? That’s Jake’s cake. Is that Jill? Is this class Ted’s class? It’s Ted’s class.’’’. Is that lass Jill? She’s Jill. It’s Ed’s class.Level One Exercise A Lesson Twelve . .
remember to call out the punctuation marks after each word. When you are reading to your partner.” Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 26 . “add comma adds comma added semi-colon dad comma dads comma fad comma. or if your teacher approves 3) Read the line to your partner while he types it with his eyes closed. such as. 2) Have someone test you on the spelling of these words after you have finished typing them.Level One — Spelling Review Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Reviewed: ere ear ears all ill Directions: 1) Underline all words that you are not 100% sure of. etc. Then let your partner read the next line to you while you type it with your eyes closed.
Hill. stalls. Jitter. Cattle. racks. filler. Thrill. slicked. hitters. cat. letters. chatted. frittered. Hack. sicker. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 27 . tacklers. fiddled. Fill. led. kids. hacks. kills. Shell. Killer. Flat. thicker. skilled. calls. cats. litters. shells. tickled. Chatter. cracked. Reckless. scattered. slacks. kit. flattered. scatter. chilled. shacks. Tall. sleds. littered. stalled. fillers. Tackle. slickest. fled. fiddles. ills. lets. saddles. Crack. tackler. skit. Deck. riddles. Fit. Skill. Scat. kidded. checked. chats. tacks. Shatter. sad. call. slid. flatters. hitter. At. teller. Sits. cracker. falls. Jill. hats. crackers. Fall. sitters. skids. Clack. chatters. checks. All. Ill. tellers. rattled. Fat fats. sitter. Rat. Slick. added. sits. Jet. Track. saddled. Chick. Fret. shattered. racked. Rack. clacked. Skid. dad. Dick is sick. Kid. cracks. ladders. red. callers. Let. had. tackles. hills. sellers. letter. shed. fritters. Dick’s sick. seller. licks. chattered. riddle. adds. fads. Fiddle. fits. Hit. tattles. sled. sickest. Jack. hacked. shredded. Sick. tells. filled. hits. slats. jacks. lids. sells. Litter. saddle. Lack. thrills. Lit. He hid. Stall. fitted. sell. till. clacks. shreds. decks. fed. ladder. chill. Thick. decked. tacked. taller. shelled. lads. Hall. tracks. caller. jets. slicks. skits. Check. Tattle. scatters. Tickle. halls. slicker. lad. fad. Tack. Chat. Led. thickest. Lid. Slat. Lick. kill. checkers. shatters. Ed. frets. red. tattled.Level One Spelling Review One add. still. flats. licked. slacked. Fritter. kits. Slack. skills. Hat. tackled. lacks. thriller. rids. called. slit. It. Rattle. Ted. tallest. Fred. lacked. Rid. checker. fretted. tickles. fills. jitters. chicks. hatters. flit. dads. sheds. Tell. rattles. Shack. Hatter. fitter. killers. let’s. shred. Flatter. Fell. trackers. chills. skidded. tracker.
scratches. rashes. Dish. kissed. Itch. Lash. classes. hatched. refreshed. freshest. caskets. catchers. fetched. risks. chests. dishes. freckles. Rash. rackets. ticketed. hatches. Chester’s chest. A tisket. trashed. Scratch. faster. Tactic. Craft. flasks. Fetch. crackled. Catch. sifter. Caster. slashed. crashed. freckled. flashed. fastest. Raft. Fresh. asked. cackles. lists. crafts. crashes. Crash. sifted. Slash. trickles. catcher. Cast. asks. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 28 . drafts. Stash. drafted. arrested. lashed. scratcher. clashed. Casket. heckler. Chester. Clash. clashed. Rest. Trickle. Lift.Level One Spelling Review Two Cackle. Fickle. slashes. lasts. lasses. sisters. fished. Hash. cackled. flash. kisses. tasks. drifter. trickled. sashed. Draft. hecklers. Clash. Fast. List. lasted. fasted. Jacket. Fist. fists. listed. arrests. trashes. rifts. tickets. lifted. Chess. dressers. dresser. Fish. Lass. Less. Act. tests. Sash. dresses. List. fishes. ditched. Freckle. classed. facts. jackets. Dress. shafts. hashes. Trash. rafts. Ask. fresher. lashes. casket. stashed. Kiss. A tasket. Heckle. casks. Latch. Racket. Last. Sift. Thrash. latched. lifts. sifters. Sister. His sister’s hat. flasher. hashed. stashes. itched. flashes. Sickle cell. fetches. crackles. casts. Rift. thrashes. Refresh. Ash. Tact. scratched. Task. drifted. Drift. Shaft. tactics. itches. lists. fasts. refreshes. clashes. flashers. dashes. Hatch. casters. Crackle. Cask. thickets. Flask. drifters. dressed. tested. ashes. Fast. dished. Ditch. Ticket. ditches. heckles. Fact. Thicket. catches. thrashed. rested. latches. clashes. Chest. Test. Flesh. tactical. listed. acts. Cash. crafted. lesser. Dash. rests. drifts. Class. heckled. Arrest. acted. sifts. cashes. risked. Risk.
shakes. takes. staked. heard. liked. starred. heads. flirts. Stare. Sir. shirts. jelled. lakes. clearer. Rate. Halt. seared. cheater. shaker. tears. reared. scarred. Dearest. skirts. stared. Crate. Jake’s cake. feelers. fears. Heel. fired. Date. rears. shakers. halted. Dear. Tear. steaks. felt. jells. Jell. hired. healers. jeers. Stake. feared. Ear. skirt. scared. Rake. Scar. Fate. Fir. later. skaters. Jack’s jacks. stairs. Flirt. craters. Take. sheared. Hate. Head. sears. eels.Level One Spelling Review Three Hitch. skater. Fire. steals. leafed. Dike. State. Seal. Shake. fishes. Star. cakes. cleared. cheats. jeered. Kate’s skates. latest. hitches. reeled. hiked. stitched. halts. strikers. rated. seals. Eat. firs. Tire. tired. Rear. Steal. Care. fished. Stair. eats. Fear. Heal. dealer. fakes. fires. heats. tarred. Shear. ears. hikes. Salt. Stitch. Skate. hitched. rakes. Sear. Jill’s jacks. Steak. healer. eater. a head ahead. flakes. Kate. raked. headed. stitches. dealers. feels. tars. salted. slates. Crater. skates. sealed. dealt. Lake. flaked. dikes. fates. Late. heals. Chair. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 29 . dishes. Dirt. Fake. heeled. stirred. cars. Steel. Clear. hears. Rare. stares. chairs. Hear. crates. heels. Hike. flirted. strikes. cheated. shirt. first. Striker. dished. Reel. shears. Hire. Strike. scares. Scare. crated. scars. hates. fish. Car. stars. slated. stakes. Like. heated. dated. cheaters. healed. Flake. Leaf. sirs. faked. leafs. stir. hires. reels. dears. Cheat. stirs. Dish. Deal. Jake. clears. likes. Eel. Cake. Tar. heaters. heater. states. skated. stated. tires. Jeer. clearest. rates. dates. deals. salts. feeler. thirsted. thirsts. Thirst. cared. hated. Feel. cares. Heat. eaters. Slate.
Class. ills. I see tears. Kill. classed. reeks. Dial. sassed. Ill. faltered. Lass. darker. J. he is little. Stiff. tiffs. Lark. tears. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 30 . Shiek. Dark. Jill’s jars. The elf can see the shelf. stiffed. Shelf. altered. I see the sea. Tear. killed. She is classed as a lass. Chest. creeks. shelters. Shift. The lass sassed the lad’s dad. Cheek. She is all ears. altars. Lift. lasses. She sees the sea. larks. if.Level One Spelling Review Four Tile. Lester is a lad. He has tears. I see thee. Jack’s jars. Falter. lifts. falters. sasses. fields. Shield. Helter skelter. J. Chester is a lad. seeks. Jicker. cheeks. Clark’s larks. She can see the shelf. I faltered. shieks. dials. filters. She altered it. if. He is clear. fielders. ie ie ie field. sheltered. He sees thee. Ear. She is little. filth. Clear. He faltered. filed. She lifted the dish. tears. Tiff. classes. alters. The lad tested the lass. Kilt. Jell jars. Did she tear it? Did he tear it? Did it tear itself? Elf. She tested the lad. shifts. shields. The lad tested her. She arrested the lad. Esther is a lass. if. Tear. She has tears. He rested. Reek. If. A jell jar. kilts. Clark. That lass has class. She sees thee. fielded. tests. darkest. She shifted. filtered. J. tested. It is little. Jicker is a kicker. little. He is ill. Creek. silted. files. shifted. Sass. Jicker kicked Jill’s jell jars. tiles. A rest. Silt. filter. She faltered. J. ears. clears. J. cleared. J. Altar. Seek. dialed. Lit. kills. lifted. Test. File. Fill. He is classed as a lad. He stiffed thee. Alter. chests. stiffs. silts. She is sheltered. Shelter. Field. tiled.
4) Everything takes practice. “That’s it.” key. And in practice we expect to make mistakes. Learn to type. Have someone test you on the spelling of these words after you have finished typing them. Did you ever hear of a baby who learned to walk without ever falling down? You learned to walk because you were determined to walk.. . In other words. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 31 . ““. 2) See and type this way.” Jill said comma space quote That’s it period unquote space space 3) This is NOT an easy lesson—but don’t worry about mistakes. Do the same in this class.. Mistakes are Opportunities to Learn.Level Two — Lesson 1 Introduces: Quotation Marks (“xx”) Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: ask acket ed ar ish ash all ill Directions: 1) Quotation marks are made by holding down the shift key with the little finger on the left hand while the little finger on the right hand strikes the key directly to the right of the “. 5) Learning to walk is not easy. make a capital out of the apostrophe key.”” Say it this way: semicolon semicolon space quote quote semicolon semicolon unquote unquote Jill said. Be determined to do better and don’t worry about the mistakes that you might make along the way.
“Did Ted’s teacher teach his class a trick. is that jacket Jack’s jacket? Ted’s jacket?” Exercise B Jed asked Ted.”. Jill asked. “Did she cash in his check? Did he cash her check?” Exercise C Jed said. all lads like lasses. It flashes. Lester is a lad. “Are these dishes Red’s dishes? Are these Ted’s dishes?” Red asked Fred. “Did Jill take Jack’s car? Sarah’s car?” Red asked her. Is he sick?” Exercise D Jed asked Fred. “Did Fred cash his check? Is that Red’s check?” She asked Ed. . “Is that cash Jill’s cash? Did she cash her check?” Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 32 . “It’s a flash. Lester likes lasses. It flashed. “Ted. I like chess. “Jill.”. “Did Jack take Fred’s car? Sarah’s car?” Jed asked.” She asked Jack.Level Two Exercise A Lesson One . “Did Jill like all her dresses?” Ed asked Ted.”. “Is a lad like Lester a lad that likes lasses?” Fred said. .” Red asked. “Is this fish the freshest fish?” He asked Jill.
sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a. 4) Do the line a second time a little faster but with very solid rhythm.sldkfj a. In this rhythm drill you will be hitting all the home keys. The Home Key Rhythm Drill a. going back and forth from one hand to the other.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 33 .sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a. the first time.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a. practice The Home Key Rhythm Drill below.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.Level Two — Lesson 2 Introduces: g G Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: ag ags aged age ages aged ight ights ighted ig igs igged igger iggers Directions: 1) The letter g is struck by the f finger.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a. but very steadily.sldkfj a.sldkfj a. 5) Keep doing this line just a tiny bit faster each time but making sure you are keeping a good solid beat.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a. 2) Before you start your exercise.sldkfj a. 3) Do the line very slowly.sldkfj a.
Did Jed see the dagger? Did he see the stag stagger? Did he stagger it? Exercise C Age. Drag. stagger. “is that a dagger?” The stag staggered. The digger asked. shags. stags. The hag asked. lighted. “Did all these diggers dig all this?” Fight. rags. lights. Stag. tagged. Exercise D Age. GggG. stages. aged. If she tags Jack. Tight. ggg ggg ggg ggg. drags. If he tags her. Tag. flags. rigged. If all fighters fight. fights. Rag. ages. a fighter fights. Tighter. fighters. gagged. Rags are ragged. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 34 . Jed likes the stage. rages. staggers. Lighter. Light. Jack likes the stage. tags. rags. he is it. staggered. flag. she is it. ages. Shag. it fell. He tagged it. Diggers dig. Gag. Exercise B After the stag staggered. staged. ragged. Is that Jack’s real age? Is that Jill’s real age? Is that their real age? Has she aged at all? Has he aged at all? Stage. tightest. Lag. lighters. Rage. lags.Level Two Exercise A Lesson Two fggf fggf ggg. rigs. Rag. Fighter. tights. gags. Rig. raged.
sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a. going back and forth from one hand to the other.sldkfj a. 4) Do the line a second time a little faster but with very solid rhythm. practice The Home Key Rhythm Drill below.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 35 .sldkfj a. 2) Before you start your exercise.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a. 3) Do the line very slowly.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a. but very steadily.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a. In this rhythm drill you will be hitting all the home keys.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj 6) Underline any word that you are not 100% sure of.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a. the first time.Level Two — Lesson 3 Introduces: m M Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: am ams ammed ammer ammers ame ames amed ime imes imed im ims immed immer immers aim aims aimed eam eams eamed Directions: 1) The letter m is struck by the j finger.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a. The Home Key Rhythm Drill a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a. 7) Remember: Underlining words alerts your computer brain as well as your teacher that there is something you need to learn.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a. 5) Keep doing this line just a tiny bit faster each time but making sure you are keeping a good solid beat.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.
slams. mashed. It’s dim in here. stammers. dames. Exercise C Grim. rams. Is James ashamed? Dame. “Is Jim mad at me?” Jim said. She screams. aimed. hams. jams. shame. hammer. Slam. flames. Him. “Is Sam mad at me?” Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 36 . Aim. tame. James claimed the dime. It’s time. She is tired. trim. rim. Ice cream? I scream? Exercise D Mash. dams. tires. She dreamed his dream. hammered. Tire. smashed. trims. Did Jim see me? Did Sam see Jim? Did I see Sam? Did Sam see Jess? Did Jim make Sam miss all the games? Is that it? Is Sam mad at him? Sam said. Exercise B Game. flame. aims. Ham. Ram. Jim trimmed his hair. mashes. Mile. Did he dream her dream? Cream. smash smashes.Level Two Exercise A Lesson Three jmmmj Jam. shames. tames. claims. Dream. scream. It’s a dime. He is tired. Dam. trimmed. Stammer. stammered. Tim is slim. claimed. He screams. I am tired. Sam slammed a hammer. Claim. That’s Sam’s hammer. jammed. Clam. clams. games. smiles. grim. hammers. dreams. slammed.
Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 37 .sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a. very slowly.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a. Do the Home Key Rhythm Drill by starting out very.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.Level Two — Lesson 4 Introduces: n N Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: an ans anned anner anners ane anes aned in ins inned inner inners ind inds end ends ank anks anked ink inks inked and ands anded andle andles andled Directions: 1) The letter n is struck by the j finger.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a. The Home Key Rhythm Drill a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj 3) Underline any word that you are not 100% sure of.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a. 2) Speed can be developed only with GOOD RHYTHM.sldkfj a. Then pretend like you are a freight train pulling a hundred cars and very slowly but surely pick up the tempo.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a.sldkfj a. 4) Remember: Underlining words alerts your computer brain as well as your teacher that there is something you need to learn.
Find. grandstand. ending. Exercise B And. cranks. mending. lands. thanks. And. land. ranking. Link. tender. can. ranks. Jan hit a single. handle. tending. Mind. handles. mended. tends. tended. candle. Thanks. ranked. Stand. standing. thanking. Lank. handed. Think. findings. Hand. candles. linking. stands. Drink drinking. handling. finders. minds. ends. finding. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 38 . hand. inks. In the last inning. minded. landed. Can Jan find Dan? Can Nan find Stan? Dan can’t find Jan and Stan. minding. inking. Rank. hands. Sank. handing. Can Jan find a tender steak? Exercise D Ink. inning.Level Two Exercise A Lesson 4 jnnj jnnj jnnj Jan and Nan and Dan and Stan all can stand here. finds. links. cranking. An. Grand. He is grandstanding. cranked. inked. “Did the man in the tan hat find Dan?” Thank. Frank thanks Hank. End. Mend. linked. and Jan. Crank. innings. Can that man handle that candle? Jan can handle that candle. Jan asked Stan. Dan. thanked. thinking. Exercise C In. Tend. mends. Thanks again. landing. ended.
4) Remember: Underlining words alerts your computer brain as well as your teacher that there is something you need to learn. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 39 .Level Two — Lesson 5 Introduces: b B Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: ab abs abed abber abbers ib ibbs ibbed ibber ibbers ible able ibble able Directions: 1) The letter b is struck by the f finger. ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg 3) Close your eyes and do the drill one more time. 2) Before you start with the regular exercise do this left hand only rhythm drill.
It’s right that right is in bright. “Did Bess get that red dress?” asked Jess. crabs. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 40 . cabins. Is his cab in the cabin? Dab. fibbing. in. tablets. Ball. Babs. fibbed. I think Ben is fibbing. Race and let are in bracelet.Level Two Exercise A Lesson Five fbbf. Cab. Crab.” Babies babble. “I like baskets. and a rick in brick. Babs talks all the time. fbbf. fbbf. bibs. fbbf. Jab. Lab. A mat is in mattress. There is lad and ladder in bladder. Bib. She and he gab all the time. ribs. scab. Ben talks all the time. Bill. ribbed. Grab. grabbed. Slab. cabs. and Bess all like bees. Exercise B Cab. dabbed. Exercise C I said. “Michigan and Maine are great states. There is a last in blast. cabin. Fib. Rib. dabs. Tab. She and he babble.” said Babs. jabs. tabs. “Is Jack back?” Mike said. Barbara likes ribs. Ben. She is ribbing him. Right? Exercise D There is a rag in brag. There is ink and link in blink and a racket in bracket and lake in Blake. Ben tells fibs. “Can Jess beat Bess in chess?” Jess asked Bess. Then there is lend in blend and each is in beach. fibs. A race is in brace. A ring is in bring. scabs. slabs. Tablet. labs. grabbing. There are rakes in brakes. balls. jabbed. Fibber McGee tells fibs.
ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg 3) Close your eyes and do the drill one more time. 4) Remember: Underlining words alerts your computer brain as well as your teacher that there is something you need to learn. 2) Before you start with the regular exercise.Level Two — Lesson 6 Reinforces: b B Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: ere ear ears all ill Directions: 1) The letter b is struck by the f finger. do this left hand only rhythm drill. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 41 .
Lame is in flame. blackens. teaches. It’s his cat that bit its tail. Bleach. Big bad brains. Bill Blamer blames me. Abe is in Cabe as in McCabe. “Did each teacher teach a teacher?” That’s a fact. Exercise B Ring is in bring. Rain. It’s a fact. Rats are in brats. Black is in blacken. blamed. That’s a fact. That’s a fact. fbbf. bleached. It’s a big fib. brained. Let’s grab its ears. Barbara blames Bill Blamer. Let’s grab it. Blame the flames. Each is in beach and beaches. That’s a fact. it’s a fact. teachings. and blaming. blackened. It bit its tail. Babe has McCabe as her last name. Let’s grab its head. It’s a fact. That’s a fact. teacher. Exercise D Lame is in blame. teaching. blames. Bill Blamer blames Barbara. Let’s grab its tail.Level Two Exercise A Lesson 6 fbbf. Each is in teach. James blames Bill McCabe. It’s a fact that the big fat cat bit its tail. Rags are in brags. Lack is in black. brains. Teach. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 42 . That’s a fact. Let’s grab it. blackening. Rag is in brag. Exercise C List is in blister. Each is in leach. Big Bad Bill asked. teachers. Let’s grab its legs. brain. fbbf. Blister is in blisters and in blistering. and leach is in bleach. bleaches. Rat is in brat.
a. a. a. 2) Before you start with the regular exercise do this left hand only rhythm drill. a. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 43 .sldkfjghfjdksla. a. a.sldkfjghfjdksla. a.sldkfjghfjdksla. a.sldkfjghfjdksla. a. a.sldkfjghfjdksla. ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg 3) Do the homerow drill once with your eyes open and once with your eyes closed.sldkfjghfjdksla. 4) Remember: Underlining words alerts your computer brain as well as your teacher that there is something you need to learn. a.Level Two — Lesson 7 Introduces: o O Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: oot oots ooted ot ots otted ock ocks ocked ob obs obbed obber obbers oil oils oiled Directions: 1) The letter o is struck by the l finger.sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla. a.sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla.
Hoot. Is Bob Rob? Exercise D Oil is in boil. Oil is in toil. it isn’t so hot. Oil is in coil. locked.Level Two Exercise A Lesson Seven Lool. blocked. Lock is in block. clocking. rooted. shocks. hoots. knocks. blocks. it’s not too hot. Jock is a stock name. boots. docks. rooting. Floor. It’s too hot. mocked. Toot. clocks. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 44 . Oil is in soil. and mocking. lool. Rob’s real name is Robert. tooting. Mock is in mocks. No. Bob likes his job. Lock. and broil. hooted. locking. Dot is not a bad girl’s name. soil. knocked. Clock. toots. Boot. shocked. Bob cooks Joan’s dinner. Do slobs slobber? Slobs slobber on floors and on doors. Exercise C Shock. loots. Knock. I like to eat broiled steak. Shoot. It’s a lock. Boats dock. Bob. Exercise B Cotton isn’t rotten. No. Root. shocking. Is Bob a lad? Bob’s real name is Robert. docking. lool. Bob lobs the ball. shoots. Dot is a girl’s name. locks. Janet Mott and Jane Moore make cots. docked. Don’t cook rocks in crocks. It is so hot. Birds flock together. and blocking. tooted. Loot. Does Bob bob in? The doors and door knobs are not Bob’s. clocked. Broilers broil and boilers boil. roots. knocking. floors. Dock. hooting. Bob’s car.
a.sldkfjghfjdksla. a. a. a.Level Two — Lesson 8 Introduces: p P Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: op ops opped opping / ope opes oped oping ap aps apped aping / ape apes aped aping ip ips ipped ipping / ipe ipes iped iping Directions: 1) The letter p is struck by the . a. a.sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 45 . a.sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla. 2) Before you start with the regular exercise do this left hand only rhythm drill.sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla. a.sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla. finger (the little finger right hand). a. 4) Remember: Underlining words alerts your computer brain as well as your teacher that there is something that you need to learn. ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg 3) Do the homerow drill once with your eyes open and once with your eyes closed. a. a. a.sldkfjghfjdksla.
trapping. Pop. Top is in stop. Exercise C Rabbits hop. scraps. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 46 . flipped. Get a rope. Hope. dropping. So he mopes. poppers. Mop is in mopped and in mopping. Pete can’t cope. Hop is in hopper. popped. happens. capped. hoping. Chop is in chops. Lip is in clips. droppers. gapped. and in shoppers. tripe is in stripe. flap. shopper.ppp. Ripe is in tripe. clapping. Is he a dope? I hope he is not a dope. Cope. Tap is in tapping. scrapped. popping. popper. shopped. roping. Rap is in scrap. stopping. A cap is in caps. and in trappers. stopped. claps.Level Two Exercise A Lesson 8 . dips. hoped. shopping. coping. and in scrapping. Rope. and gapping. coped. dipping. Rip is in trip. Cop is in copper. Drop is in drops. It’s too hot. chopped. and flapping. Pop pops. and slip. Is this still happening to me? Lap is in clap. A chopper chops. hips. and chopper. Pop mops floors. Dip. . Exercise D Rap is in trap. Gap is in gaps. flapped. stops. stopper. I hope. roped. Hip. trip is in strip. flaps. dipped. dropper. dropped. and in stoppers. chopping. pops. trapped.ppp. happened. Exercise B Shop is in shops. I hope she can cope. clapped. Happen. capping. trapper. happening.
Level Two — Lesson 9
Introduces: Exclamation Point (!)
Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: eep eeps eeper eepest eap eaps eaped eaping elp elps elped elping elpers
Directions: 1) The exclamation point (!) is found on most keyboards by capitalizing the number 1, which is struck with the little finger left hand. 2) Before you start with the regular exercise do this left hand only rhythm drill. ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf abcdefh abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf abcdefh abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf abcdefh abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf abcdefh abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf ffbbf abcdefh abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg 3) Then do the right hand only rhythm drill. hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop 4) Do the homerow drill once with your eyes open and once with your eyes closed. a;sldkfjghfjdksla; a;sldkfjghfjdksla; a;sldkfjghfjdksla; a;sldkfjghfjdksla; a;sldkfjghfjdksla; a;sldkfjghfjdksla; a;sldkfjghfjdksla; a;sldkfjghfjdksla; a;sldkfjghfjdksla; a;sldkfjghfjdksla; a;sldkfjghfjdksla; a;sldkfjghfjdksla; 5) Remember: Underlining words alerts your computer brain as well as your teacher that there is something you need to learn.
Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation
a!!!a a!!!a Ape, apes! The ape escaped! An ape in a cape escaped! I said, “Don’t call draperies, drapes!” It’s too cold for an ape to escape! That ape scrapes his plate! Ape is in tape, crape, and in scrape! Pipe, pipes, piped, piping. Does that ape smoke a pipe? That’s tripe!
Ripe is in gripe! All she does is gripe! All he does is gripe! Cripes! Mark likes to eat tripe! Type is not in tripe. Ripe is in tripe and in stripe! Beep, beeps, beeping! Stop beeping the horn! I can’t stand it! Stop it! Deep, deeper, deepest. That’s the deepest lake in all Canada!
Jeep, jeeps! Peep, peeps. Steep. Don’t let that ape take the jeep! Cope! If he can’t cope, he’s a dope! If she can’t cope, she’s a dope! She has learned to cope! He has learned to cope. Rope is in grope. The dope lost his rope! That hill has three good slopes for skiing!
Let’s hope the rope is good and strong! It’s too cold to drink pop! Lope is in antelope; antelopes can lope but can’t elope like Jack and Jill. Cope is in scope; scope is in telescope and microscope! I hope, I hope! Mope and mop aren’t the same. Moping and mopping aren’t the same.
Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation
Level Two — Lesson 10
Introduces: u U
Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: ub ubs ubbed ubbing ubber ubble ubbles ubbled ubbling up ups upped upping upper ug ugs ugged ugging uck ucks ucked ucking ucker uckle uckles uckled uckling ut uts utted utting utter Directions:
ASK YOUR TEACHER FOR HELP!
1) The letter u is struck by the j finger. 2) Ask your teacher how to set the margin at 1.5 inches from the edge of the paper and the first tab stop to be in another 1.5 inches. Be nice to your teacher. Teachers love to teach. So ask your teacher to help you even if you think you know how to do it. 3) Ask your teacher about the Caps Lock. Notice that the first column in your exercise is done all in caps by pressing down on the Caps Lock key which is just to the left of the letter A. This key is an on/off switch. Touch it once and it is on. Touch it again and it is off. 4) Do this partial alphabet rhythm drill:
abcdefg hijklmnop ABCDEFG HIJKLMNOP abcdefg hijklmnop abcdefg hijklmnop ABCDEFG HIJKLMNOP abcdefg hijklmnop abcdefg hijklmnop ABCDEFG HIJKLMNOP abcdefg hijklmnop
Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation
lugging. Ugh! Don’t bug me! I hate bugs! Stop bugging me! If a bear hugs a bear. jugs. Please. bad. rubbed. tugs. is that a bear hug? Ugh! Rub.25 JUUJ SLUG BUG HUG RUB SCRUB SUB SUBS BUBBLE TROUBLE UP CUP SUP SUPPER LUG SNUG DUG TUG CUT JUT BUT RUT Tab Stop 1.5 Lesson Ten ug. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 50 . To sip means to drink. or buts about it.” Did Don see the ditch that Doug dug? Does a tub boat tug? Tug boats do tug other boats. Subs can be substitutes or submarines. It’s almost time for supper. He said. I lugged her luggage into the room. Paper cuts are bad. “I like to be just as snug as a bug in a rug. no ifs. He subs a lot! Does Mr. rubbing. Let’s drink up! Let’s straighten up! Let’s sit up! Did Jack drink up Tom’s cup of coffee! Did Nan? To sup means to eat. Rubble like to take bubble baths? Here comes double trouble! He just doubled to left. She either subs or she substitutes. Tug. Can a chin jut out? His chin juts out. Sup is in supper. He keeps rubbing it in! Is rub in scrub? Go scrub out the tub! Scrub it! Sub is in substitute. I hate a paper cut. rubs. Sluggers such as Sluggo like to slug the ball. bad. It’s no fun to be in a rut. tugged. Lug is in lugged. Lug. ands.Level Two Margin 1. tugging.
sldkfjghfjdksla. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 51 .sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla. a. a. a.sldkfjghfjdksla. a. a. a.sldkfjghfjdksla. a. 5) Remember: Underlining words alerts your computer brain as well as your teacher that there is something you need to learn. a.sldkfjghfjdksla. 2) Before you start with the regular exercise do this left hand only rhythm drill. hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop 4) Do the homerow drill once with your eyes open and once with your eyes closed.sldkfjghfjdksla. a. a.sldkfjghfjdksla. abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg 3) Then do the right hand only rhythm drill.sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla.Level Two — Lesson 11 Introduces: w W Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: aw aws awed awing ew ews ewed ewing ow ows owed owing Directions: 1) The letter w is struck by the s finger. a. a.sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla.
That was a low blow. What is it about salt that it will thaw ice? I knew he wrote the new book. Weak. blow. I would be careful chopping wood. if I were him. row our boat faster up the stream! I don’t know what I’m going to be when I grow up. Low. elbows. Elbow. plows. sawing. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 52 . would. bow. Wood. Rainbow. bows. whether. Hee. Bow. Whoever goes without food for a week will be weak. rainbows. Row. Jaw. Did Tom know? No! We drew a picture. Craw is in crawl. wound. She drew pictures of a pitcher. Who sawed that wood? Who was the star in the show “Jaws?” Haw is in hawk and hawking. wow! Wound.5 Lesson Eleven Saw. saws. Bow and arrow. sawed. Wow. grow. Slow down. drew. raw. I don’t care whether or not the weather is hot or cold. Weather. thaws. I don’t know which witch ate his sandwich. how can a cow take a bow? I wound up my watch.25 swwws swws. haw! Raw. below. Crew. row. Bow. week. What’s Hee Haw? Raw is also in craw and draw. Blow me down. Thaw. Can he plow a field? Can she plow a field? Do crows crow? Did slow Joe Crow blow his nose? Look out below! Wow! Below the belt is a low blow. Grow. How can a cow bow? He bows down low. I was wounded in the war. There’s a crew in screws and in corkscrews. Low. knew. Row. jaws.Level Two Margin 1. crews. which. Tab Stop 1. Witch. Crow. crows. New. Ow! Pow! Wow! Now. Drew. row. Plow.
Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 53 . NEVER DROP the letter Y. we drop the silent e when we add –ing. you never. two things happen: First. Drop the Y — NEVER! 3) In the words die and lie when we add –ing. If you don’t know a word. the letter I changes to the letter Y. 2) Notice carefully that in spelling. underline it on your paper before you hand it in. die becomes dying lie becomes lying 4) We change the Y to an I before we add –es or –ed but keep the Y when adding –ing. Second.Level Two — Lesson 12 Introduces: y Y Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: ay ays ayed aying oy oys oyed oying ly lies lied lying rry rries rried rrying Directions: 1) The letter y is struck by the j finger. never. You may CHANGE the letter Y to an I — YES. Y study cry fly dry ies studies cries flies dries ied studied cried dried Ying studying crying flying drying 5) Type words — not just letters.
and playing. Pray. rays. It pays to play. dried. buy. It’s no secret that the word secret is in secretary. Dry. Joy. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 54 . will girls be girls? Boys like toys. tying. plays. Larry. The score was all tied up. Why not fly? I like flying. Dry the dishes. Tab Stop 1. Why fly? Ply. marry. Toy. Will Mary marry Larry? Both Mary and Larry can carry a tune. Pray is in spray. They lied. Will young girls like toys or boys? We all enjoy the joys of being young and so does Joy. Jay scored the tying goal. Don’t be coy! Go out and buy a duck decoy. And we relied on them! Boys will be boys. Roy. Boy. Larry wants to marry Mary. comply. Play. Boy. Larry. Coy. Both Mary and Larry want Harry as their secretary. boys. played. but don’t destroy Roy’s toys. sprayed. and spraying. Joy is not a boy. Secretary.25 jyyyj jyyyj jyyyj jyyyj Ray. You. but I don’t like flies! Ply is in reply. lying. plies. joys. You are your own best friend. Plies is in supplies.Level Two Margin 1. where do you buy your clothes? If boys will be boys. Roy is a boy. Lied. decoy. By. Secret. Tied. Ray says his prayers at night. Should stray dogs be spayed? Roy has lots of toys. and supply. Kay is a girl’s name. prays. Roy’s. You’re growing older.5 Lesson Twelve Jay is a boy’s name. tray. boys. They were lying. By the way. Ray is in tray and stray. toys. Ray. your. Carry. Ray knows how to pray. sprays. Ray and Jay dried the dishes.
5) Remember: Underlining words alerts your computer brain as well as your teach that there is something you need to learn. a.sldkfjghfjdksla. a. a.sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla. a. a. a.sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla. a.sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla. a. abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg abcdefg 3) Then do the right hand only rhythm drill. a. a.sldkfjghfjdksla. a.sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla. a.Level Three — Lesson 1 Introduces: v V Reviews: Tabulation Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: ave aves aved aving aver ive ives ived iving iver ove oves oved oving over eave eaves eaved eavings ieve ieves ieved ieving cei ceive ceives ceived ceiving Directions: 1) The letter v is struck by the f finger.sldkfjghfjdksla. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 55 .sldkfjghfjdksla. 2) Before you start with the regular exercise do this left hand only rhythm drill. hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop hijklmnop 4) Do the homerow drill once with your eyes open and once with your eyes closed.
Believe. what gives? Givers give. behaving. Steve. View. Can you save money by saving time? Dave’s dad shaves every day with shaving cream. Eve and Steve are in the words even and Steven. I hate liver. Why doesn’t Dave behave? Dave is behaving. Ever. braves. Leave. The word lie is in believes! Believe it or not! Seeing is believing. All five survivors survived by melting snow to drink. believes. Five more are arriving. I like to view previews of coming attractions. She believes. Leave me alone! Eve is leaving Steven alone. very good for you. Love. Eve and I love to receive lots and lots of letters. Will we ever get to the end of this lesson? Never! Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 56 . Behave. livers. belief. reviews. relieves. deceives. I believe.25 fvvvf fvvvf. Dave loves his new gloves. never. previews. Did Vic deceive Victoria or Victoria deceive Vic? A pitcher who relieves another pitcher is a reliever. Deceive. review. believes. Brave. It is my view that a review is very. Preview. receives. VvvvV. Love is in glove. Receive. Will all five arrive? Alive? All five arrived after five.Level Three Margin 1. Indian men are called braves because they’re brave. Relieve. Say. survivor. leaving. glove. Survive. We’re giving a lot. I would like to review the writers of reviews. Save. Tab Stop 1. Give. Believe. It is my belief that relief is not spelled Rolaids. shaving. V is for victory.5 Lesson One All five men were alive. Chicken livers aren’t good for my liver. arriving. Five drive arrive. Arrive. giving. Review. Eve. Liver. saving. Shave. All five will drive. Relief.
qua.quee Directions: 1) The letter q is struck by the a finger. 3) Learn the difference between the –it. and quiet. and –iet patterns that follow qu and make the words quit. 2) The letter Q is always followed by the letter U. it sit hit kit skit quit quits quitting quitter quitters ite bite kite cite incite recite quite iet diet diets quiet quietly quieter quietest 4) Before doing your exercise do the following rhythm exercise. –ite. quite.Level Three — Lesson 2 Introduces: q Q Reviews: Tabulation Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: qui. abcdefghijklmnop abcdefghijklmnop abcdefghijklmnop abcdefghijklmnop abcdefghijklmnop abcdefghijklmnop abcdefghijklmnop abcdefghijklmnop abcdefghijklmnop abcdefghijklmnop abcdefghijklmnop abcdefghijklmnop Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 57 .
Quit. Losers quit. quite. quits. Jack will have a fit if you quit. it. please! Will you quit it? I quit. I quit. but let’s go quite quietly. Let’s try to be even quieter. quits. You quit. Quitters quit. That kite flies quite high. it. If she quits. Quit. Let’s quit quite soon. Quiet. quiet diet. Quit. Quiet! Let’s leave quite quietly. quiet. Winners never quit. Quitters. That’s quite a bite. that is) and my wife quit it too. Quitters quit. That diet is a riot. so keep quiet about that diet. it. It is quite quiet in here. We needed the bleach to get the shirt quite white. It’s quiet. Quit. He quits. A quitter quits.5 Lesson Two qu qu qu qu. quiet. It’s quite quiet. Be quiet. Quite a kite. It takes a lot to quit it. Quit it. lit. slit. I wish I could quit. That’s quite a bite. She quits. I am on a diet. We’re quitters. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 58 . Quite. I quit. Quit ends just like bit. It’s quite quiet. and flit. Quite white. Quit. Quiet diet. quite. Quiet diet. Jack is quitting smoking. We quit. Quit it. Tab Stop 1. kit. Quite a bite. Quit it! It is in quit.Level Three Margin 1. quiet. Quit. sit. Quit. Winners never quit. It’s quite a kite. Quite. Be quiet! It’s nice to be quiet about your diet. Will you quit taking quite so big a bite? Be quiet!!! She keeps quite quiet about her diet. Quit it. That is quite a kite. Write quite. I quit it (smoking. Quit it.1 aqqqa aqqa Quit it! Quitter. I wish I could call it quits. I wish I could quit being quite so quiet in here. It is quite hard to quit it. She won’t quit. Let’s not quit quite so soon. We write quite a lot of letters to quite a lot of people. quietly. quiet. Quitting. it.
2) Before doing your exercise. abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvw abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvw abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvw abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvw abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvw abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvw abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvw abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvw abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvw abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvw Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 59 .Level Three — Lesson 3 Introduces: x X Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: ax ex ox oxes ix ixes axes exes oxed ixed axed exed oxing ixing axing exing oxer oxers ixer ixers Directions: 1) The letter x is struck by the s finger. do the following rhythm exercise.
Level Three Margin 1. Expect. Ox. fixes. Mexican.4 sxxxs sxxxs. Tax a taxi. I excelled in math. Coaxes. Explorers explore and exporters export.5 Lesson Three Ax sax ax tax taxes taxed taxing. Mix. Coax. Relax. excelled. Rex said. Except is in exception and exceptional. waxes. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 60 . Except. coaxing. Can a fox in sox named Knox box a Gox in a box? One ox. Except is also in excepting and exceptionally. “The word excellent comes for excel. sxxxs. Texas. I’m in a fix. Max and Maxine relax by listening to music. You were expected to be here on time. Fox in Sox. excellent. Texan. and expect. Tab Stop 1. exhaust. Except. sxxs. oxen. exist. except. I coax for Cokes? Tex coaxed Max while Maxine was coaxing Rex. Expected. Fix. Don’t ask Knox to box an ox. Excel. exactly. cokes. If Knox fixes it. Rex likes to mix with people. Explore. Exact. Two oxen. He even waxes my car. Coax sounds just like Cokes. Are you expecting anybody? A person from Texas is called a Texan. exam. Rex mixes very well. I expect you to have great expectations. Max likes to wax cars. Expecting. lax.” Exercise. Mexico. Do you have the exact change? It’s exactly right! I love to excel. I won’t have to fix it. A person from Mexico is called a Mexican. Max and Maxine are not lax about waxing cars. Excel. Wax. Exercise. mixes. I am excellent.
Level Three — Lesson 4 Introduces: z Z Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: azz izz izzle uzzle eeze azy ize Directions: 1) The letter Z is struck by the A finger.sldkfjghfjdksla. abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxy abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxy abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxy abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxy abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxy abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxy abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxy abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxy abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxy abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxy a. a. a.sldkfjghfjdksla. a. a. a. a.sldkfjghfjdksla. a.sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 61 .sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla. 2) Before doing your exercise.sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla. a. do the following rhythm exercises. a.sldkfjghfjdksla. a. a.
Drizzle.Level Three Margin 1. Jazz. Realize. Prize. Dizziness isn’t funny. Fizz. I hate drizzle. Organize. It’s drizzling outside right now. Don’t razz Zeke about his razzle-dazzle jazz. It just fizzled out. size. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 62 . Dizzy. equalize. Fizz. azza. zipper. Puzzles are puzzling. razzle. zoos. Muzzle. dizziness. prizes. fizzle. Why do I look so puzzled? My dog needs a muzzle—maybe even two muzzles. Sneeze. Sizzle. We had to organize to equalize opportunity. Freeze. fizzes. drizzling. little z. Who won first prize? How many prizes are there? I realize memorize ends the same way as size. Gas hogs guzzle gas. When someone sneezes. freezing. I say. Big Z. “God bless you!” You should never call people crazy or lazy. azza. Crazy. It fizzes in the glass.5 Lesson Four Z is for Zebra. It’s freezing in here too. zooms. What is to specialize? Does Kalamazoo have a Kal or a ma in its zoo? I like to have a lens that zooms up really close. Don’t forget to zip up your zipper. I felt dizzy this morning. Zoo. craziest. Max’s taxi really guzzles gas. Puzzle. It’s really cold outside. Tab Stop 1. Razz. zoom. To legalize is to make legal. What begins with z? Do you like to listen to jazz? Can you play jazz? I like to hear soda pop fizz. muzzles. Guzzle. The party was a big fizzle.0 azza. puzzling. zip. guzzles. sizzles. Legalize. Can you hear the bacon sizzle? It’s sizzling hot. sneezing.
thirty. seventy. forty. a.sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla. forty-three. a. and ninety. a. fifty-four.sldkfjghfjdksla. eighty. sixty.enty irty orty ifty ixty Directions: 1) The hyphen (-) is struck by the little finger right hand (semi-colon finger) on almost all electric typewriters and computer keyboards. 3) Remember: When we add numbers one through nine to numbers twenty. a. acdefg hijklmnop qrst u vwx y z acdefg hijklmnop qrst u vwx y z acdefg hijklmnop qrst u vwx y z acdefg hijklmnop qrst u vwx y z acdefg hijklmnop qrst u vwx y z acdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz acdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz acdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz acdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz acdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz a. a. a. thirty-two. a. etc.sldkfjghfjdksla. sixty-five. a. a.Level Three — Lesson 5 Introduces: hyphen (-) Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: ty ty.sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla. a. 2) Before doing your exercise do the following rhythm exercises.sldkfjghfjdksla. a. fifty.sldkfjghfjdksla. seventy-six. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 63 .sldkfjghfjdksla. we must use hyphens as in: twenty-one.sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla.
--. Fifty-nine. .--. thirty-three. .--. Forty-seven. forty-two. . Twenty-nine. forty-eight. twenty-eight. . .--. .--.--.--. fifty-eight. twenty-two. .--.--. ninety. seventy-nine.Level Three Margin 1. . thirty-one. . Eighty-nine. .--.--. . fifty-four.--. sixty-three.--. eighty-six.--. Thirty-eight. . seventy-four. . .--.--. forty-four.--. eighty-seven. eighty-two.--. . eighty. eighty-three. forty-nine. forty-five. twenty-four. forty-one. sixty-five. . Sixty-nine. fifty-three.--. Seventy-three.--. sixty-four. Forty-three. Ninety-seven. thirty-six. twenty-six. sixty-seven.--. . seventy-six. . one hundred. . .--.--.--. seventy-eight. fifty-seven. thirty-five. Ninety-three. forty.--. . twenty-three. .--. . thirty. sixty-one. . Eighty-one. Seventy-seven.25 . ninety-eight. . fifty. Tab Stop 1. Thirty-four. . eighty-eight. .--. . ninety-two. . . seventy. ninety-nine.--. sixty-six. seventy-five. forty-six. Eighty-five. . ninety-six. . thirty-nine. .--.--. fifty-six. fifty-two. Fifty-five. twenty-seven. .--. ninety-five. .--. . seventy-two.--.5 Lesson Five Twenty-one. ninety-one.--. . Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 64 . Fifty-one.--.--. sixty-two. sixty-eight. ninety-four.--. sixty. eighty-four. thirty-two. thirty-seven. Twenty-five.--. seventy-one.
4) Some typing manuals approve of one space before and one space after a hyphen to signify a dash – like this. 2) Printers and desktop publishers make a dash like this: —. 6) Did you ask your teacher to explain the meaning of the last sentence? Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 65 . On most typewriters. a dash is made with two hyphens like this: --. while other manuals prefer – the space hyphen hyphen space. 5) The correct procedure is your teacher’s or your employer’s procedure. 3) Some typing manuals require that no space is used before or after a dash—like this--or like this.Level Three — Lesson 6 Introduces: Dashes (— or --) Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: Directions: 1) Ask your teacher to explain what a dash is and how it is made on your typewriter or computer as the case may be.
Writing-- Dashes-- Dashes-- Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 66 . paper.this way -.some make dashes -. and ambition—these everyone needs. Clear-Need-Sweetest-Graceful-Summary-Needs-Who said? Pride-The dash-Writing-Tab Stop 1.2 .5 Lesson Six Use the dash—two hyphens—to mark a break in thought. You can use the dash to set off a brief summary— You need three things—pencil. . She is as graceful as a cow—trying to rumba on stilts. Pride.--. I want to make this perfectly—well. The dash—one solid line the way printers make it—tends to be informal.with a space before and a space after. almost—perfectly clear. Remember -. courage.Level Three Margin 1.two hyphens -. Remember – some make dashes – with one hyphen but with a space before and a space after. and time.--. When you are writing—if you don’t mind the interruption—remember not to overdo it. or fattening. She is the sweetest thing—when she is sleeping. When you are writing—not typing—make your dash as long as you would normally make two letter m’s. illegal. We need—let’s see—what did I say we needed? Tell me. Everything I like is—immoral.
It wouldn’t hurt you to memorize this little ditty. Neither. 2) The closing parenthesis is struck by the . Seize.Level Three — Lesson 7 Introduces: Parentheses () Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: ief ieve cei ceive cien eigh Directions: 1) The opening parenthesis is struck by the l finger while the little finger left hand holds down the Shift key. Are common exceptions spelled right. It works. weird. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 67 . finger while the little finger left hand holds down the Shift key. foreign. and height. As in Einstein or weigh. 4) During this lesson. 3) Underline words that you are not 100% positive of their pronunciation or meaning. you should learn how to apply the following: The Complete “Use I Before E Rule” Use I before E except after C. Or when sounded as I or A. forfeit. leisure. Believe me. But don’t let the C-I-E-N words get you uptight.
scientist. ll (((ll . believing. neighborhood. (iew)—view.0 Lesson Seven (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o) (ief)—grief. reviews. deceiving. vein. weird. freighters. weighing. Sounded as i Sounded as i (ei)—stein. conceive. (ei)—freight. relieved.Level Three Margin 1. scientific. efficient. Eisenhower. chief. weight. receiver. previews. conceited. leisure. (ei)—seize. meister. (ieve)—achieve. review. conscience. sleigh. foreign. deceive. forfeit. receives. neighbors. received. relieving. deceit. Eileen. relieves.5 Tab Stop 1. (ei)—reign. achieved. achieves. ancient. insufficient. eider down. weighed. (ei)—fraulein. sleighs. rein. ceilings. preview. relief. (cien)—conscientious. believes. reigning. (cei)—ceiling. heist. eighty. conscience. conceit. (ieve)—relieve. reigns. C-I-E-N words— C-I-E-N words— C-I-E-N words— (cien)—science. freighter. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 68 . receiving. (cei)—receipt. (ei)—weigh. (ieve)—believe. Use i before e Use i before e Use i before e Use i before e Use i before e Except after c Except after c Except after c (cei)—receive. thief. receipts.))). achieving. ein. Sounded as A Sounded as A Sounded as A Sounded as A (ei)—neighbor. weighs. proficient. views. reigned. (cien)—sufficient. reins. Exceptions— Exceptions— (ei)—neither. belief. height. Einstein. mischief. believed. eight.
sldkfjghfjdksla. a.sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla. a.sldkfjghfjdksla. consult your instructor as to how to underscore a word. Check with your instructor as to how your particular typewriter. If you are using a computer word processing program.sldkfjghfjdksla. abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 69 . a.Level Three — Lesson 8 Introduces: _________ (Underlining) Basic Letter Patterns (Or Combinations) Taught: ie ei cei cien Directions: 1) The underscore (underlining key) on most electric typewriters is directly above the hyphen—in other words.sldkfjghfjdksla. a. a. Quite often it is done by highlighting the word with your cursor and then clicking the U on the Menu. a. a.sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla. a. a. you capitalize the hyphen. 4) Before starting this lesson. or computer word processing program works.sldkfjghfjdksla. a. With computers we can italicize (the word italicize is in italics or underlined with the click of a mouse or by using (CTRL + I) or (CTRL + U) respectively. 2) Most modern electric typewriters or word processors make the underscoring key an automatic key so that if you hold the key down it will continue to strike all the way across the page—if you let it. do the following rhythm exercises: a. a.sldkfjghfjdksla. word processor.sldkfjghfjdksla.sldkfjghfjdksla. 3) In order to underscore using a typewriter (underlining or indicating to the printer that italics should be used) you must first type the word and then backspace to the beginning of the word before you underscore it.
. shalom. Gulliver’s Travels.___. leisure. Adios. magazines. aloha. Time. foreign.___. and Huckleberry Finn.___. .0 Lesson Eight Use I before E except after C. Some of my favorite books are Bambi. Are common exceptions spelled right. Sayonara. and newspapers to indicate that the word would be italicized if it were printed in a regular book or magazine.___. Seize. Or when sounded as I or A. .___. We subscribe to the following magazines— The Reader’s Digest. au revoir. As in Einstein or weigh. and ciao (say “chow”) also mean good-bye. . .___. salaam.___.___. and do svidanya all mean good-bye. We italicize by underlining.___. and The Ladies Home Journal.___. Neither. .___. .Level Three Margin 1. Ebony. .___. But don’t let the C-I-E-N words get you uptight! UNDERLINE— We underline names of books. . . People.___. . . forfeit. ITALICIZE— Names of Books— Magazine Titles— Foreign Words— Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 70 . Tab Stop 1.25 . weird. and height.___. .
The number 2 is struck by the s finger. you might find that it has no number 1 in the top row. If you have the number pad. you would have to know that these old. old typewriter. The numbers 6 and 7 are struck by the j finger. ask your instructor about how to use it properly. The number 9 is struck by the l finger. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 71 . If you ever run into an old. 2. and 5 are struck by fingers on the left hand. 4. 3) Most computer keyboards also have a number pad. old typewriters used the lower case of the letter L (l) as the number 1. finger. If you were to use it. 9. 8.Level Three — Lesson 9 Directions: Introduces: Numbers 1) The numbers 1. The number 0 is struck by the . The numbers 4 and 5 are struck by the f finger. 3. Notice the appearance of the letter L and the number 1 in these different fonts: all 123 all 123 all 123 all 123 all 123 all 123 Courier Gothic Times New Roman Arial Tahoma Helvetica 2) The number 1 is struck by the a finger. The number 3 is struck by the d finger. The number 8 is struck by the k finger. 7. and 0 are struck by fingers on the right hand. The numbers 6.
19. f555f. j666j. 60. 83. a111a. 67. Flint. 2-1. j666j.00. 64. 65. 43. D-3. D. 57. 36. 22. 37. s222s. 333.10. 7J. 47. k888k—k888k L999L—L999L . 34. 15. 27. 63. A-1. 20030 (919) 345-9000 3303 1st St. 33. 75. Washington. 22. 1.25 a111a. F-5. CA 92647 Linda Carol Joan Rayl Ann Smith Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 72 . 8. 17. F-4. 66. 1-1. 3-D. 58. 52. 39. 61. 100. 69. 50.C. 0. Lesson Nine 123. 66. 73. 21. 45. d333d—d333d f44f—f44f f555f.000. Apt. 3-2-1. 33. 49. 40.Level Three Margin 1. 42. 51. 7. 86-K. 68. 4-F. 94. 84. 85. 12. 74. 321. 53. 92. j777j. 44-f. 72. 11-A. 26. FL 30029 (617) 892-0070 109 NE 18th St. Robert James Tab Stop 1. MI 48504 (715) 624-4356 1960 Kennedy Drive Miami. 9. 29. 48. 70. 76. 71. 22.5 a-1. 55. 90. 21. 95. 16. 59. 38. 30. 46. 78. 82. 10. 28. 11. 111. 12. 35. 77. j777j. 25. 6-J. 5. F55. 89. 1. 44. 80. 79. 41. . 1-2. 14. 81. s222s. 55. 54. 6. 1-2-3.. 44. 28. A-1. 62. 9-L. 203 Windsor.000. (810) 232-2592 1613 Donald St. 91. 20. 56. 24. 18. 1-2.
0.0 and then do the following exercise tabbing between words on the line. and 6. ight light flight slight ight light flight slight ight light flight slight ight light flight slight ight light flight slight ight light flight slight right right right right right right bright ought bought brought bright ought bought brought bright ought bought brought bright ought bought brought bright ought bought brought bright ought bought brought thought thought thought thought thought thought fought caught taught eight weight fought caught taught eight weight fought caught taught eight weight fought caught taught eight weight fought caught taught eight weight fought caught taught eight weight Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 73 . 4. 3) Have your teacher show you how to set RIGHT TABS at 1. 5. finger while the little finger left hand is holding down the Shift key. 2) The colon — like the period — takes two spaces after it — except when it is used to separate hours and minutes as in the time 11:45.0.0. 2.0. 3.Level Three — Lesson 10 Directions: Introduces: Colon (:) 1) The colon (:) is struck by the .0.
g. “For example” when you see the letters. 2:30 PM is written: 14:30. In the military. than it is et cetera. It’s easier to write re than it is: regarding:. jkl.2 jkl. In business letters.: It’s easier to write etc.: It’s easier to write e. Lesson Ten In the military. and 6:02. e. you will often see the letters re:. 11:03. In the military.e.g.. Et cetera means “and so forth” in Latin. stands for the Latin phrase id est (which means that is). It’s easier to write i. etc. 4:47. pronounce i. Re: your letter dated. 12:00 NOON is written: 12:00. 3:45 AM is written: 03:45.g. At the tone.Level Three Margin 1.5 At the tone. 12:00. 6:05. 1:15 PM is written: 13:15. the time will be: 1:00 exactly. e. The abbreviation i. the time will be: 1:15 exactly. 3:45 PM is written: 15:45. 1:15 01:15 02:30 03:45 06:30 12:00 1:15 or 13:15 2:30 or 14:30 3:45 or 15:45 11:30 or 23:30 The bus leaves: re: re: re: i. In the military. February 14. In the military. 1990. than it is: for example. 8:27. In the military. as that is. 1:15 AM is written: 01:15. 2:03.e. In the military.: Tab Stop 1.g. 7:13. stands for the Latin phrase exampli gratia (which means for example). 2:30 AM is written: 02:30. In other words. So say. than it is: that is.e.. The abbreviation e. In the military.e. 6:30 AM is written: 06:30. In the military. 11:30 PM is written: 23:30. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 74 .
Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 75 . 5) Type Exercise _____ in ______________________________. 6) Copy the jokes from the __________ issue of The Reader’s Digest and make your own joke book. Use the directions for 1 above.” You are to double space and indent five spaces for each paragraph. “The Proper Editing of Notes: The Key to Successful Learning. 4) Type page _____ to page _____ in ______________________________. 1) Type the article on page 76 of this book entitled.Level Four — Lesson 1 Introduces: Straight copy and Individual assignments Directions: 1) Follow the assignments that your teacher gives you! 2) Follow the assignments that your teacher gives you! Some of the many possible assignments your teacher may give you. 3) Type the article on page 90. 2) Type the article on page 80. 7) Write your own letter about __________ to ________________. Use the directions for 1 above.
is the deliberate rewriting of the notes taken. he will find out that he will not be able to read half his notes. This. The notes are put into a form that will enable the student to properly study them and review them. And the other half won’t make any sense. very simply. Actually. One technique is the outline technique. In fact. it certainly does not guarantee it being remembered come time for the final exam. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 76 . On the next page you will find the outline technique explained.The Proper Editing of Notes: The Key to Successful Learning Although the very act of taking notes does help a student learn the material being presented by the teacher. using the outline technique. The second step is editing. if all a student does with his notes is to stick them in his notebook and forget about them until just before a test. the act of taking notes is only the first step in learning from lectures.
Lots of WHITE SPACE is used. EXAMPLES are listed underneath. In today’s academic jargon. Especially important facts are underlined or highlighted with transparent coloring. it is “instantiating schemata. On the next page the DIVIDED PAGE TECHNIQUE is explained.THE OUTLINE TECHNIQUE I. MAIN POINTS ARE IN SOLID CAPS A. 2. the student must think in terms of what are main points and what are examples or secondary points. 1. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 77 . highlighting The advantage of the outline technique is that to use it.” It also provides a neat set of notes which the student can use and in which he can quickly find what he is looking for. C. Note the effect of: a. CAPITALIZING b. The very act of THINKING and ORGANIZING helps to impress the information upon the mind. B. FACTS can be QUICKLY spotted. underlining c.
1957 Names Dates Identification & Reasons for Learning The advantage of the divided page technique is that the student can use it to quiz himself DAILY on the material that s/he must master. The editing and studying of notes really boils down to TWO important elements: Quality of time spent studying and frequency of studying. If the student can’t remember. the student would immediately see both the name and the identification and would not know for sure whether s/he actually can recall it in a test situation. the divided page technique is simply a variation on the timehonored flash card method of studying. then the student knows that more studying is in order.THE DIVIDED PAGE TECHNIQUE I must remember that… George Washington Crispus Attucks Name the person who 1st President 1st man to die in Amer. Actually. Pearl Harbor—WWII—Date? Sputnik—awoke interest in science and math education—Date? Dec. 1941 Oct. 7. 4. All s/he has to do is to cover up one side of the sheet. read a name and then try to think of who the person is. Revolution— Boston Massacre—African-Amer. With ordinary notes. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 78 .
It’s NOT how LONG you spend studying that really counts What counts is: A. 5 minutes daily for three weeks is better than 6 hours at one sitting. B. Thinking and Organizing your thoughts actively involves your mind with a reason and DESIRE to learn. Reading just because you have to makes studying a boring waste of time. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 79 . HOW OFTEN 1. 2. Study at a regular time. HOW WELL 1. Instead—Why don’t you read because you want to get something out of it. Reading for a reason beats just reading. This activates the learning process. 2.
that is the way I was at one time.Building a Better Vocabulary The Lazy Man’s Way Before anyone can successfully embark upon a program to improve his/her vocabulary. Some people have developed rather extensive vocabularies very successfully and easily by buying and using many. Others have managed to accomplish the same thing by keeping little notebooks into which they jot down every new word they encounter. And it won’t matter very much what method the person uses. It will be a pleasure. or other adults use some silly academic euphemism. I am learning and enjoying it. Now isn’t that silly? Yet. s/he must be completely convinced that it will be worthwhile. many cheap—well. Still others have acquired a vast word horde by simply reading and making a game out of trying to puzzle out the meanings of words either before they look them up or even without looking them up in a dictionary. I may still prefer simple straight forward writing to the academic. When I graduated from high school. The most important element in building a vocabulary is the desire. why spend the time and the effort necessary to learn words if the new words will not help in any way? Secondly. it is far more important to learn to LOVE WORDS. When teachers. a typical response is: “He’s just showing off his vocabulary. a person must be completely convinced that s/he CAN learn those “big” words like my favorite graffito: “ESCHEW OBFUSCATION” Although it is important to know that increasing one’s vocabulary is beneficial and possible. the joy. Now. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 80 . After all. If a person feels this way about words. we often accuse the other person or writer of knowing too much. I thought I knew everything—at least everything worth knowing. Once again. So when I encountered words that I just “knew” I had never seen before and thought I wouldn’t ever see again. newscasters. or polysyllabic bit of arcane jargon. They will all work for a person who loves words. sesquipedalianism. comparatively cheap—vocabulary building books. but I have learned that at eighteen I didn’t know everything that was worth knowing. you can increase the joys of living.” Rather than admit our ignorance and our need to learn. Learning new WORDS can be FUN. No method of learning new words has much chance for success if the person hates “big” words. s/he will enjoy learning words. I actually thought that the writers were showing off. and the humor in words. When you learn to feel the power.
remember that good writers eschew obfuscation. This desire—this signaling of the computer brain to learn a word—can be easily accomplished if we read with a pencil. But. and learned because I wanted to learn. we’re quite liable to ask somebody what the word means now because we are really sort of mad at ourselves for not figuring out what the word means. one of two things is liable to happen. We actually signal our computer brain to figure out what the word means and how to use it. We are just “jiving” ourselves if we think we can learn the meaning “jive” by looking it up in an ordinary dictionary. Personally. we should feel challenged. First. I have been known to be so mad that I have opened mine. After the fourth or fifth time that we have underlined the same word. we might even use the dictionary. And isn’t that the way re react when we encounter a new slang word that pops up out of nowhere but we hear it everywhere. I eschew dictionaries. heavens to Betsy. And. We should underline every word we don’t understand. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 81 . by the way. Second. we’re quite liable to know the word now because our computer-brain solved the problem for us. it isn’t right. Instead. We shouldn’t feel insulted by the usage of a word we don’t know. Or. because I find their definitions to be more obfuscating than helpful.Although it seems to be natural to accuse others of showing off when we don’t understand them because it protects us from feeling inferior.
instead. but because either their parents have reminded them or they feel like they just have to get the nasty business of reading the chapter done and out of the way. This avoids the psychological block of having to do something distasteful. inside their heads. It’s a habit. For example. we just do it. they do so. students who are using SQ3R begin by using the S in SQ3R which stands for: SURVEY Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 82 . This. not because they want to. they open the book to the chapter and begin what they believe is reading. We don’t think about it. in a deadly monotone. is an absolute waste of time. they can’t remember what it is they have read. If they eventually do get their book out and open it up. When they have finished listening to themselves read. They know they have a chapter to read. what they are doing is simply pronouncing the words mentally. when students come home from school. They begin with the first sentence and plod on to the last. and too often the “later” never comes. If we don’t think about it and just do it. They put it off until later. In fact. it’s a lot easier. First of all. they procrastinate. they should set a time and a place for their study.The SQ3R Reading Formula Really Works Perhaps the most common error by students in studying is in the method they use to read an assignment. Students who don’t like to waste their time and who want to be able to comprehend what it is they are reading must learn to approach their reading assignment differently. Instead of starting with the first sentence and plowing on through to the end. of course. Secondly. So. students should get into the habit of using what many reading experts call the SQ3R reading formula. sometimes they never even finish because they have lulled themselves to sleep. but they don’t want to read it right away. The reason is that once we start doing something out of HABIT. Actually. they quite commonly just throw their history books on the table and head straight for the refrigerator. So.
They should be trying to figure out what the chapter is really concerned with and what it is that the teacher will expect them to know. yes. of course. yes. This. Good readers think while they are reading. yes. REMEMBER: SQ3R S=SURVEY Q=QUESTION R#1=READ As students READ the chapter. students should also try to anticipate what will be coming next. and what it is they still don’t understand or—equally important—don’t agree with. This is just SURVEYING. the pictures. All the time that they are SURVEYING the chapter. and should even look at the questions at the end. they begin to READ. When they come to the end of sections within the chapter. Good readers ask themselves while they are reading: Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 83 . etc. Good readers question.QUESTION READ REVIEW RECITE Students should look at the chapter title. graphs. it is a form of REVIEWing related material—or in today’s jargon. As they read. after the students have previewed or SURVEYED the chapter and have certain QUESTIONS in mind that need answering. it is activating relevant schemata. the serious students will RECITE (R#3 of SQ3R). until they fall asleep. In today’s academic jargon it would be called establishing a general schema for a specific reading. Then. their minds should be actively involved. the headings. They will recite to themselves what they think the author is trying to get at.. is the QUESTION step. They should let their mind recall other related items. yes. Good readers don’t just nod their heads yes. In fact. what they think is important to remember. their minds should be active.
Is that really so? Is that really a fact? Or is that merely the author’s opinion? Is that the opinion of most experts? Students who honestly try the SQ3R approach to studying almost universally find it successful. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 84 . (Fact? Opinion? Would quoting one. Instead of just listening to that voice inside your skull calling out words when you pick up your history book. or three studies make a difference?) So. two. follow the SQ3R formula by Surveying Questioning Reading Reviewing Reciting You will be glad you did. just once. why don’t you. why don’t you stop boring yourself when you’re studying.
Occasionally. Thinks. Most students have never had any training in composition beyond being asked to complete composition assignments such as: “What did you do during your summer vacation?” Okay. Once that sentence is written. it’s difficult to blame them because all through grade school and junior high they have never had any systematic teaching of how to write. using the outline method. first things first. let’s suppose that this topic is your first assignment. thinks. Thinks. We get our pencil and paper. and then. In fact. we won’t write any sentences at all for a while. students will be able to write fairly good compositions using this method—which is the only method they know. Writes another sentence. They don’t hang together. and thinks and thinks and thinks. putting his name on it. They are just totally unrelated sentences. The piece of paper we start out with may quite easily end up looking something like the list that appears on the very next page. because they haven’t had any systematic training in how to write or in how to teach students to write. What we do is simply jot down ideas as fast as they pop into our heads. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 85 . We sit down—but what we don’t do is just sit until we have our first sentence written. What should you do? Well. Finally he writes another sentence. thinks. and then writes yet another sentence. In a way. And we can’t blame their teachers. a title.How to Write Better Compositions by Using the Outline Method The typical student begins writing his composition by taking out a sheet of paper. And the typical student feels like quitting the moment he has put together six or more sentences on the same topic. after much excruciating agony. a sentence. he sits and thinks for while. Rarely do these sentences have much to do with each other.
we try to figure out some way to organize it. and boring we marked with a D. for example. We could. After doing this. organize it by likes and dislikes. like this: Day time fun: swimming loafing sleeping late reading golf basketball Left now are the following items: Night time fun: swimming drive-ins drag races movies parties Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 86 . we would probably find out that this method of organizing doesn’t work out so well because only housework. speeding ticket. One way is by types of activities. So we would have to find another way of grouping these ideas.swimming loafing around sleeping late housework movies visit Detroit no homework no teachers reading magazines reading books repairing car basketball ball game speeding ticket parties boring drive-ins a fight golf drag races After we have jotted down everything we can think of that we might possibly include in a paper. We could mark each item with an L that we like and each item we dislike with a D.
of course. this kind of outline can’t be turned in. Inspiration strikes. unless. the outline is just about finished. It doesn’t have to be in a formal polished state.swimming loafing around sleeping late housework movies visit Detroit no homework no teachers reading magazines reading books repairing car basketball ball game speeding ticket parties boring drive-ins a fight golf drag races At this point. the teacher has asked for one — which is rare. for writing purposes. Of course. All we have to do is think of a good lead-in sentence and some way to use some of those “left-out” items. and now the composition writes itself: (See following page) Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 87 . we look back at our outline and find the items: no homework and no teachers. So. However. our outline is complete. We would have to follow our teacher’s pattern.
We use it because it works. we can usually find a way to organize them. we either played cards or just sat around the house. loafing away the time. About these I could write for a long. as well as a few drag races. this is not the world’s greatest paper. except when my mother would try to get me to work around the house. Now. almost a breeze—to write. we quite often cruised the drive-ins trying to see how many of our friends we could meet. We see it. there were quite a few parties that we went to. except when I saw that red light flashing behind me one night. My days seemed filled with all kinds of fun. And. That speeding ticket grounded me for a week. Nobody else sees it. but I refuse to write any more on the grounds that I might tend to incriminate myself. Good! This is why this type of outline is practical. Some nights my buddy would take his car. or when my dad would try to get me to wash his car or give it a tune-up. Once we have all our ideas in front of us. Once we can see all our ideas down on paper. After supper. but it will certainly get a passing grade. our real paper becomes a breeze—well. who knows. At least two or three times a week my buddy and I would drive out to Long Lake and go swimming. Some of our ideas we may not want to use. And it was almost always a lot of fun. long time. And. But the best part about writing a paper like this is that it is easy to write if we just first jot down ideas as fast as we can on a piece of paper.My Summer Vacation My summer vacation wasn’t boring even though I didn’t have any teachers and didn’t have any homework. it might even get an A or a B from some teachers. On other nights I would take mine. if things got boring—which they sometimes did—I would get a good mystery novel and sit down and read just for the fun of it. Copyright © 2007 AVKO Educational Research Foundation 88 . On Tuesdays we would play some golf—if you can call what we played golf! If it rained. of course. And.
3084 W. Willard Road.Improving Reading/Spelling Skills via Keyboarding A Teacher's Manual to accompany the student text: Individualized Keyboarding for Personal Typing and Computing by Don McCabe Copyright © 1990 AVKO Educational Research Foundation. Mich. Clio. 48420-7801 Phone: (810) 686-9283 FAX (810) 686-1101 . Inc.
microfilm. Inc. and not in information storage and retrieval systems. Willard Road. No part of this book (except those expressly stated within the book) may be reproduced in any form including photostat. Adult Basic Education. except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in a review or as provided in the Copyright Act of 1976. .5 Library of Congress Card Number: To be determined Dewey Decimal Classification Number 372. Remedial Reading. AVKO Educational Research Foundation 3084 W. 1978 AVKO Educational Research Foundation. Keyboarding. and xerography. Remedial Spelling. Library of Congress Classification Number: LB1050. (1932.2 Copyright © 1990. 1985. Library of Congress Subject Headings: Typing. methods to use in adult education classes. without permission in writing from the publisher. Donald J. Adult Literacy. Suite 404 Clio. MI 48420-7801 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Printing Publisher’s Cataloging in Publication Data McCabe.43 ISBN: 1-56400-404-X Year 94 91 89 87 85 83 80 78 Copyright © 1990 AVKO Educational Research Foundation. Contents: Methods to mainstream learning disabled and/or dyslexic students into keyboarding classes to achieve maximum individual attention with maximum enrollment by use of “volunteer” tutors who receive credit. Inc. Printed in the United States of America All rights reserved.) Improving Reading/Spelling Skills via Keyboarding A Teacher’s Manual to accompany the student text: Individualized Keyboarding for Personal Typing and Computing.
..........13 Making do without volunteers................ 4 Using keyboarding as a method to tutor a student who has severe learning disabilities ..................... 20 Structure of Individualized Keyboarding ................................ Fear of being looked down upon as being a "remedial" student may prevent them from taking a keyboarding course if their book were to be entitled...................... 9 Using volunteer tutors........... Organization of the Manual Part I Basis for theory that students can learn to improve their reading and/or spelling skills by learning phonic patterns as they learn the keyboard.................. 14 Part IV Using the Individualized Keyboarding text to MAINSTREAM students with severe learning problems into regular keyboarding classes................................ most students who may happen to have a reading or spelling problem do not want to admit it........................ The reason is simple..... Improving Reading/Spelling Skills via Keyboarding............................................................................ 6 Using Individualized Keyboarding as a text for an adult program for functional illiterates................... Inc...... ............... 10 Grading procedures............................................ ................................... At the same time........................................... 21 Part II Part III Part V Copyright © 1990 AVKO Educational Research Foundation........ Most students want to be able to use a typewriter or computer keyboard...................3 Improving Reading/Spelling Skills via Keyboarding by Don McCabe The student's book for this course is entitled: Individualized Keyboarding for Personal Typing and Computing......
try to see it in his mind. Inc. as he/she sees and writes the words. — C. . The act of writing the word – if it isn’t a mere drawing exercise – does help lock the pattern of letters into the computer brain. If a person hears the word all. Copyright © 1990 AVKO Educational Research Foundation. writes the word all using the letters a-l-l and says. is shown the word all. the learner is not only practicing stroking techniques in penmanship. This is why many teachers for years have combined the teaching of writing with reading and why Maria Montessori advocated teaching reading through writing. Fries. to be efficient. all” as the person writes it over and over and over again. C. and then to write the word several times. “AY EL EL. all all all all all all all all all all ball call recall fall halls mall small tall stall install stalls installs stalled installed stalling installing installer balls calls recalls falls halls malls smaller taller called recalled calling recalling falling caller Part I By the time the person is finished. say the word. but the learner is also locking in the sounds of the letters with the words. Linguistics and Reading One of the time-honored methods of teaching a person to respond to what Fries describes as “arbitrary contrastive sets of spelling-patterns” is that of having the person look at the word. develop high-speed recognition responses. to which readers.4 Basis for theory that students can learn to improve their reading and/or spelling skills by learning phonic patterns as they learn the keyboard Modern English spelling is fundamentally a system of a comparatively few arbitrary contrastive sets of spelling-patterns. Imagine a person writing the following exercise longhand while hearing someone read the word. he/she can read and respond to all the words. must through much practice.
must through much practice. if done “actively. to be efficient. both sides of the computer brain are automatically involved.” Others would say that since typing uses both hands. develop high-speed recognition responses. Copyright © 1990 AVKO Educational Research Foundation. Typing can provide the drill drill ill rill drill drill ill rill drill drill ill rill drill drill ill rill drill or as Fries describes it. — C. . The automatic muscle responses to letters and letter patterns help in almost precisely the same way as the automatic muscle responses in the fingers (or throat muscles when vocalizing or subvocalizing) help a person remember a word after the person has finished writing it. that drawing words (copying passively with no concentration) does not help. Typing is kinesthetic. must through much practice. — C. Linguistics and Reading Copying words. to which typists or computer operators.” is a help to learning to read. Fries. to which readers. “develop high-speed recognition responses. This is often considered to be a kinesthetic mode of learning. Modern English spelling is fundamentally a system of a comparatively few arbitrary contrastive sets of spelling-patterns. C. Integration of both right and left hemispheres of the brain is considered desirable by most experts on reading. Remember. Inc. Linguistics and Reading Modern English spelling is fundamentally a system of a comparatively few arbitrary contrastive sets of spelling-patterns. C. Fries. however.5 For convenience. to be efficient. “much practice” that is necessary for some students to learn to read or spell or type or as he puts it. develop high-speed digital (or kinesthetic) responses. we will repeat Fries’ definition of reading (with our italics) and then we will paraphrase it.
with plain index card or finger the tutors point out the words as they read them. dishes. If the prescription reads take one red pill three times a day. 5:15-7:00 Supper.6 Part II Using Keyboarding as a method to tutor AT HOME a student with severe learning disabilities Before each lesson volunteer tutors (such as parents) should read the instructions aloud to the student. Inc. For example: One Possible Daily Schedule for School Days 6:30-7:00 Wake up. 7:15-7:30 Breakfast 7:30-8:00 Travel time 8:00-3:00 School 3:00-3:30 Travel time 3:30-5:00 Home Work (Free time when finished) 5:00-5:15 Keyboarding with volunteer tutor (parent). We prefer that tutors use the “neurological impress” method with their students — that is. Please treat this just as you would a doctor’s prescription. This way the students who are reading along (or attempting to read along with their tutors) can hear the words correctly pronounced and have his mistakes in reading corrected immediately without any special attention being given to them. 15 minutes keyboarding before and/or after supper. it means just that. shower. dress. 15 minutes keyboarding before and/or after lunch. to be the most effective. So too. . We highly recommend that the time allotted to keyboarding be from ten to fifteen minutes three to six times a day. It doesn’t mean take all three at one time. Copyright © 1990 AVKO Educational Research Foundation. this keyboarding program should be done at regularly scheduled intervals. 7:15-9:30 Free time (when chores or homework don’t interfere). free time. 7:00-7:15 Keyboarding with volunteer tutor (parent). 7:00-7:15 Keyboarding with volunteer tutor (parent). One Possible Daily Schedule for Weekends & Holidays 15 minutes keyboarding before and/or after breakfast.
Never. No one ever learned to use a knife and fork without first missing his mouth. please Never skip the directions! Never skip the directions! The directions are as much for the tutor as for the person being tutored. Mistakes are natural. In fact. Sometimes even more so. No one ever learned to walk without falling down. Read all the directions to all the exercises before starting exercise 1. . The third time that the line is typed.7 Tutoring Techniques Smiles and Good Humor Essential The person being tutored must be constantly cheered up and made to fully appreciate the fact that everybody makes mistakes. So. Mistakes are the natural way of learning. didn’t you? Copyright © 1990 AVKO Educational Research Foundation. This is where you left off! You did pick up the student’s book Individualized Keyboarding for Personal Typing and Computing and read the directions to all the exercises. You will read the words. Each line in the beginning lessons will be typed three times. No one ever learned to drink from a glass without spilling milk thousands of times. You will read the line AS your student types. never. Both students and tutors should never be ashamed to make a mistake. the student reads the words. Use a plain index card and a paper clip to make it easier for the student’s eyes to keep the place. you must learn to be generous with praise and skip the criticism. You will read the words. Your student’s mind will link the letters he is typing to the word his eye is seeing and the word his ear is hearing. Think about it! Watch how a baby learns. Each line in the beginning lessons will be typed three times. The directions are often as important for the learning process as the lesson. why don’t you just put this book down right now (but mark your place) and read the directions to all the exercises. You only correct or tell him what the word really is if he misses. This will give you an overview. The student will have to think the letters. Each line in the beginning lessons will be typed three times. These concepts are presented time after time in the directions. Mistakes are opportunities to learn. Inc. Babies learn to stand and walk and speak a language without a class and without a textbook but not without making mistakes. never say: “Didn’t I just tell you what the word was?” Although it may be natural to be generous with criticism and stingy with praise.
Thou shalt make sure your student sits up straight when he types. That’s why I often doze off reading a book in my favorite recliner. Thou shalt not let your student get uptight over mistakes. He must learn to feel the positions of the keys. praise him. Inc. Help him learn the meanings of words. you should read AVKO’s 8th commandment as: Thou shalt read punctuation marks and spaces period space space. Encourage your student to ask you what a word means. Quiz him. If he can’t because his finger muscles are such that striking the c with the d finger is practically impossible. Tell him what a lad is. Teachers have been right for years about having students sit up straight. . a gentle reminder is what he needs — not criticism. Sitting up straight is the body’s natural position for attention. we want to move forward as quickly as possible without correcting mistakes. Use a tape recorder to record the directions and the exercises. 7. WATCH HIS FINGERS! The only exception is the letter c. Thou shalt not let your student watch his fingers.” 6. that position signals the computer brain that it’s time to relax. you are ready for the AVKO Nine Commandments. say “Good. 9.) 5. If you can’t be with your student in person. Thou shalt read punctuation marks and spaces. the backspace for erasing is certainly permissible. But for learning purposes. This has nothing to do with posture. for learning. PRAISE HIM. At the very least. Most students today (even some adults) who need this type of tutoring will not know what a lad or a lass is and the word lad is in the very first exercise. get ready for sleep.8 Now that you have read the directions to all the exercises in Individualized Keyboarding. Thou shalt not let your student backspace and erase. if you are working with a computer. 4. We all forget. Try to help him learn to use the d finger for the c. Thou shalt remember to encourage your student. Every single time he types a line correctly. The fact is: leaning back is more comfortable — but. 1. praise him. unfortunately. If he knows the word. Mistakes are for learning — not for correcting on paper. but they have been right for all the wrong reasons. And don’t you forget it! 8. turn-off. 3. If he forgets. Tell him so. you may allow him to use the f finger. Never let him feel dumb just because he forgets. (Later on. Thou shalt not let your student hit the right key with the wrong finger. For example. you can always be there by proxy. to lock the positions of the letters and the letterpatterns into his muscle memory. Copyright © 1990 AVKO Educational Research Foundation. Thou shalt not let your student type a word that he cannot read. 2.
This is where the typewriter or computer keyboard comes in. Students with reading problems rarely. With the exception of the person who is learning to print or to write letters. Both the typewriter and the computer have a fascination that holds and focuses the student’s attention. etc. We cannot imagine a situation where we could get a grown man or woman to form the letters of the following lesson with a pencil while listening to someone read: aaa lll aaa lll all all all all all all aaa lll aaa lll all all all all all all aaa lll aaa lll all all all all all all If we could get a person to copy each letter and each word as he heard it. Typewriter recommendation: Electric. Students who rarely. The learning how to use the keyboard is also a practical skill that most youngsters and adults would like to acquire and thereby gives added motivation for added learning concentration. Functional illiterates lack the physical skills to properly strike the keys. It is also especially designed to enable individuals with learning disabilities to unlock the written code of language. What is needed is something that will give the drill drill drill drill drill drill that is necessary without the pain. Please note that this course is not particularly designed to teach all the other reading skills such as using context clues. People with reading problems quite frequently lack the digital dexterity to strike the keys quickly and smoothly without causing keys to jam or the spacing mechanism to skip. if ever. AVKO does not know of any really Copyright © 1990 AVKO Educational Research Foundation. but it is designed to help adults whether they are nine or ninety to decode and encode the English language. this method is much too slow and much too painful to teach all the beginning words a person needs to learn. manual typewriters should not be used with this course.. write. Individualized Keyboarding for Personal Typing and Computing is especially designed to help adults with literacy problems to unlock the written code of language. we know that by the end of the exercise the person would be able to read and spell the word all. comprehension. The typewriter or computer is essentially a gimmick. The machine will skip spaces because the space bar mechanism is pushed down with too much force and not struck rapidly and released rapidly. etc. Inc. The important kinesthetic sense (the K in AVKO) is employed by striking the correct key with the correct finger in the same basic way that it is in writing or copying longhand.9 Part III Using Individualized Keyboarding for Personal Typing and Computing as a text for an adult program for functional illiterates. Generally speaking. if ever write. play musical instruments. Keys will jam on them. . retention. write just don’t develop the same amount of finger control and dexterity as the students who read. but a very important gimmick. developing greater eyespan.
The element that moves from left to right also has the good effect of imitating the natural eye-movements of reading. never making their students feel dumb. Manual. This way. The teacher should demonstrate to the volunteer tutors how they should call out each word and spell each word as the student types the line. the volunteer tutors call out the words and letters. They must be instructed to check with the teacher if there is the slightest chance that they might not fully understand any direction in the book. but in reality it would only have twenty-four remedial students with twelve student tutors. The reason for the one-to-two ratio is because a one-to-one ratio would end up having many tutors sitting around with no student because as a general rule. The third time through the line. or if there happens to be an active volunteer agency nearby. The first two times through each line. at the registration for this course. a remedial reading class could have a total enrollment of thirty-six students as far as class size is concerned. More important than the typewriter or computer is the volunteer tutor. Of all the electrics.10 successful project with manual typewriters. it should be impressed upon your students that they should bring their own volunteer tutor. it must be impressed upon them that there is no such thing as a dumb person—only people who have been carefully taught that they are dumb and who act accordingly. or aunt. niece. yes. Again. Of course. The same is true of computers. This can be arranged by having upperclassmen receive academic credit for tutoring. remedial students have a much higher absenteeism rate than regular students. Electric typewriters and computers. The most important reason for using this type is that it has no key bars to clash. Also there isn’t that absolute need to strike the keys in a perfect fashion as there is with manual typewriters. the student himself calls out the words and letters. A Audio . If at all possible. In fact. Having the student himself call out the words and letters on the third time through a line ensures that the student is active in the learning process and not merely passive. it would be possible for reliable high school students to be given extra academic credit for being tutors. Inc. that is unnecessary if your school district has enough funds to pay high school students to act as tutors or if you can get funds from local or federal agencies. Adults attending adult high school class could be made responsible for bringing someone outside the immediate family such as a neighbor or possibly a nephew. The volunteer tutors are responsible for reading and following the instructions for each lesson. the best is the type that has an element (that little round ball) rather than keys. If this course is part of the junior high or senior high remedial program. never. uncle. The teacher must find some time to talk to each of the volunteer tutors making sure that they fully understand the necessity for always giving encouragement and for never. again it would be best if each student could have a volunteer tutor. The best known is the IBM Selectric®. Typewriters that use key bars have carriages that move from right to left. He hears the words and letters combining Copyright © 1990 AVKO Educational Research Foundation. no.
smells. Of the 1% retained 99% of that is forgotten within hours. Ninety-nine per cent of all sense date processed by the human computer brain is forgotten in seconds—data such as sights. without ever having seen them). Forgetting is a natural mechanism. It will also enable the teacher to break up the classroom routine with different types of drills using either the overhead projector or the chalkboard. . etc.11 He sees the words and letters combining He feels the words and letters in his finger movements He says the words and letters This is the AVKO technique: V K O Visual Kinesthetic Oral Audio. temperature variations. If you don’t use it. They quickly learn to spell words without ever having studied them (or many times. Of the remaining . they have already been forgotten as far as the active recall of the memory is concerned. repetitive drill. So the next day. You know and I know that they are liable to forget. the students will learn to spell the word installment on the installment plan. you lose it. Since most of these were not important enough to be used. These drills should be the kind in which the students and their volunteer tutors correct their response immediately—the same principal that underlies the effectiveness of teaching machines. Every human being is programmed to forget.01% 99% is forgotten within weeks. Inc. Let ‘s assume that you are reading this in a classroom. Kinesthetic. you give the students the chance to recall and the chance to miss and to learn from their mistakes. sounds. Forgetting is a normal natural mechanism of the human computer brain. For example. One of the many types of drills that can be initiated at the beginning of the hour is the AVKO Sequential Spelling. You give “ “ call recall They write “ “ You show call “ “ recall They correct “ “ Copyright © 1990 AVKO Educational Research Foundation. and they do. For the moment they are 100% positive that they can correctly spell install—but only for the moment. These tests develop the student’s self-confidence. You say: all tall stall install They write “ “ “ “ “ “ “ You show all tall stall install installment They correct “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ installment “ Excitement! They know that they are going to spell the word install correctly. The presence of volunteer tutors in an adult program (or a junior or senior high remedial reading program) will free the teacher to move about the room giving personal attention and encouragement to each of the students individually. Before you entered this room you passed by literally thousands of different things from trees to license plates to cars to stones to youname-it that came within your field of vision. To keep data in the active memory requires usage—old fashioned. Oral. Visual.
rather than just give base words and rules as is traditionally given to students.12 “ “ stalls “ “ “ “ stalls “ “ If the students have severe learning disabilities. . But you show it. Inc. recalls. AVKO Sequential Spelling differs from traditional spelling in that it: • • • • concentrates on endings uses repetition with success requires no studying by the student and no correcting by the teacher uses repetition to encourage learning from mistakes. The next session will even have installment and the one after that will have installments. And they will learn. Copyright © 1990 AVKO Educational Research Foundation. “ “ installs “ “ “ “ installs “ “ Excitement time again. AVKO’s Sequential Spelling is a five to ten minute daily drill that not only has repetition of phonic sounds. AVKO always gives the -s. The students know that they will have this great big word right two days in a row. about half will leave out the t in stalls. Among the other words given the next session are: calls. and the-ing forms of each word. -ed. They correct it. and installing. The fourth session will include among the standard 20 sequenced words: called. recalled. Therefore. it concentrates on endings which most students with reading problems ignore. stalling. stalled and installed.
attitude. • Can you tell by looking at someone who is thirty years old just when that person first began to walk or talk? Is it important to know when the person first walked or talked? What difference is it to anyone today whether the person who is thirty years old first walked at nine months old or three years old? Who cares? Who cares when a person learned to feed himself without stabbing himself in the nose with a fork? It’s the getting there that counts—not when! • • • • Copyright © 1990 AVKO Educational Research Foundation. in an individualized keyboarding class each student should be graded (if grades are given at all) on the student’s attendance. It should be stressed at the beginning of the course that it really doesn’t matter when one learns how to type or read. and effort. We suggest that you use the following analogy on your students and their volunteer tutors.13 Grading Procedures Grading procedures should not be linked with how fast or how well a student learns to type. Inc. Rather. What matters is that one eventually gets there. .
you can help teach each student the specific words they don’t know. in practice. or as frequently as you can. • Underlining. you have to have a method to handle the situation. . In theory. as you walk around the room chatting with your students and giving encouragement to them. Inc. When you don’t have volunteer tutors to help a student read a word. We recommend that you concentrate on only a few and check the student every day on his two or three words. they are together. you can transfer the underlined words to each student’s chart of words they must learn. After they have correctly read and spelled those words on six consecutive occasions—they probably know them and then you can add another two or three irregulars. getting volunteer tutors isn’t easy. we recommend that you have at least one copy for reference and assignment. We suggest that you have your students underline the words that they don’t know. • Read the directions with (not just to) your students. From this chart you can determine the best method for a particular student to learn the words.14 Teaching the class without the support of volunteer tutors AVKO recognizes that there is a vast gap between theory and practice. wasn’t. soldier. colonel. having volunteer tutors is absolutely the only way to go. Therefore. and repeat that “Mistakes are Opportunities to Learn. Those words that do not follow patterns (words such as solder.) require a tremendous amount of repetition for mastery learning to take place. Copyright © 1990 AVKO Educational Research Foundation. you must repeat. the teacher must adapt. Even though in the first lesson the students are told not to worry about making mistakes. repeat. This way. etc. It is true in an individualized class. you can’t keep them together.” We suggest that you have a student from the art department make a great big sign that you can hang on your wall saying: • Mistakes are Opportunities to Learn. We happen to believe that those words that follow regular phonic patterns are best taught in groups and as AVKO’s The Patterns of English Spelling is the only source. it’s downright impossible. A good spot to keep this record is on the back cover of the student record book. lingerie. but at least for the very first session. In some places. however. Or when you collect their papers.
and say: That’s me!) directions. 4. Mistakes are opportunities to learn. Locate the home keys and place your hands very. Each line is to be typed three times before going to the next line. a. b. If you are left-handed keep your left thumb above the space bar and space with your left thumb. If you don’t have a bookholder. LEFT hand a—little finger s—ring finger d—middle finger f—index finger RIGHT hand . don’t be afraid to ask someone how it’s done properly. if you will let it. underline it on your paper (not the book) with your pencil. 2. place something underneath it so that it is in a good reading position. You might want to spend a few minutes practicing the taking of the hands off and putting them back onto the home keys. as per illustration. Copyright © 1990 AVKO Educational Research Foundation. 5. . Say each word—not just letters—to yourself as you type it. If you don’t know how. Always follow your teacher’s (Point to yourself.da1. aaa lll aaa lll all all all all all all aaa lll aaa lll all all all all all all aaa lll aaa lll all all all all all all 6. Inc. Let your teacher (“That’s me!”) help you. very lightly on the proper keys. c. Learning is what counts in this class. Insert paper. If you are right-handed keep your right thumb above the space bar and space automatically after every word or letter grouping. If you don’t have a teacher and you are using a typewriter.—little finger l—ring finger k—middle finger j—index finger Make a quick check around the room to make sure that everybody can put their hands on the home keys. And it will.15 Directions to be read WITH—not just to—your students Level One—Lesson One Directions: Introduces: a d l Basic letter patterns taught: -all -ad la. Place this book to the right of your typewriter on a bookholder. 3. If you don’t know how to pronounce a word or if you don’t know what it means. Don’t worry about mistakes. If you don’t have a regular teacher—the underlining is a signal to your computer brain that it has something to solve.
Level One Exercise A
1. 2. 3.
1. 1. 1. 2. 2. 2. 3. 3. 3.
aaa lll aaa lll aaa lll all all all all ddd aaa ddd dad dad dad dad aaa lll ddd lad lad dad dad add
The student’s copy should look like this: aaa lll aaa lll aaa lll all all all all aaa lll aaa lll aaa lll all all all all aaa lll aaa lll aaa lll all all all all ddd aaa ddd dad dad dad dad ddd aaa ddd dad dad dad dad ddd aaa ddd dad dad dad dad aaa lll ddd lad lad dad dad add aaa lll ddd lad lad dad dad add aaa lll ddd lad lad dad dad add
7. Point out that lad is a word meaning a young man and that its female equivalent is lass. These two words, lad and lass, go together as pairs. We say, “lads and lasses” or “laddies and lassies,” but we shouldn’t ever say, “boys and lasses” or “lads and girls.” Other pairs that can’t be mixed are: ladies and gentlement, men and women, guys and gals, boys and girls. No one would even think of saying women and gentlemen, ladies and guys, boys and gals, etc. 8. Impress upon your students the one AVKO NEVER RULE: NEVER, NEVER, NEVER deliberately hit the right key with the wrong finger. Do not deliberately send improper signals to your computer brain. 9. The most common mistake in the first lesson will be doing the exercise three times rather than doing each line three times. For example: Exercise A—the RIGHT way aaa lll aaa lll aaa lll all all all all aaa lll aaa lll aaa lll all all all all aaa lll aaa lll aaa lll all all all all ddd aaa ddd dad dad dad dad ddd aaa ddd dad dad dad dad ddd aaa ddd dad dad dad dad aaa lll ddd lad lad dad dad add aaa lll ddd lad lad dad dad add aaa lll ddd lad lad dad dad add Exercise A—the WRONG way aaa lll aaa lll aaa lll all all all all ddd aaa ddd dad dad dad dad aaa lll ddd lad lad dad dad add aaa lll aaa lll aaa lll all all all all ddd aaa ddd dad dad dad dad aaa lll ddd lad lad dad dad add aaa lll aaa lll aaa lll all all all all ddd aaa ddd dad dad dad dad aaa lll ddd lad lad dad dad add
Copyright © 1990 AVKO Educational Research Foundation, Inc.
17 Expect mistakes. And please be emphatic! Not only tell your students once that you expect them to make mistakes, but tell them again and again. Mistakes are a natural part of the learning process. They are not to get uptight over mistakes. No one has ever learned to walk without making mistakes and falling down. No one has ever learned to talk without making mistakes. No one has ever learned how to eat without spilling food all over the floor. No one has ever learned to ride a bike without falling down. We learn by and through mistakes. Unfortunately the grading systems employed by most schools have the tendency to make students afraid of making mistakes. In fact, some students would rather get a zero for not doing an assignment than to try and then as a result get back a paper with a D or E on it written in bloody red ink with all kinds of checks, circles, and nasty comments. Remind your students that they are never to watch their fingers. However, please don’t preface your reminders with a scolding such as “Didn’t I just tell you yesterday not to watch your fingers.” The reason why students should not be allowed to watch their fingers is because the computer brain is more apt to rely on the visual location of keys rather than the kinesthetic (muscle memory) mode of learning. We should try to reserve the visual mode for the words on the paper that we are copying from or to.
Individualizing the Instruction
Each student goes at his own pace. When a student is finished with a lesson (or thinks he is finished), he should check with you before going on to the next. Do not mark his paper. Don’t check for all his errors. One glance should be sufficient to tell whether or not the student has learned what was taught in the lesson. To have learned does not necessarily mean having the paper error free.
Mistakes are Opportunities to Learn
A paper that is filled with mistakes in the top half but is relatively error free near the bottom should mean that the student has learned, and it is the learning that is important. If a student thinks he knows the material even though the paper is a mess, we suggest that you ask him to re-do the last two lines of the last exercise one more time while you watch. If he types those two lines satisfactorily, let him go on. But be careful and do not let him progress so fast that he becomes lost. Some students have been so badly programmed that they equate numbers of lessons completed with learning. Thus they think that the faster they finish the better. So you must keep reminding those particular students that learning is what counts in this class— not how fast you finish a lesson nor how many lessons you finish. If a student wants to go back (and some will), let them. Some will want to develop more speed and accuracy by working on easily memorized passages. But help them to move forward. Don’t let them dwell too long on any one page.
Copyright © 1990 AVKO Educational Research Foundation, Inc.
18 All exercises in every lesson need not be completed. You as the teacher should use your discretion. This course is designed so that a normally slow student can actually move through the course and learn the keyboard without doing all the exercises. This course is not designed to fit the mythical average student. It is designed so that the very slowest student can learn to handle a typewriter or computer keyboard and to read what he is typing provided he has someone helping him. We fully expect the bright students to whiz through the keyboard lessons. Many of the average and even belowaverage students may also speed through without having to do each and every exercise. You, the teacher, should be the judge as to how well a particular student has learned the position of the keys and the words and the spelling patterns presented in a lesson. Once a student has completed Level Three, Lesson 10, the keyboard has been mastered. At this point, most traditional typing classes will emphasize business typing. This is exactly what is needed for the traditional business student taking a traditional business oriented typing course. However, AVKO believes that students with learning problems need more time practicing the keyboard. It is this additional practice on the keyboard that can be used more profitably for them by learning such things as spelling, grammar, vocabulary, composition, and reading comprehension skills, etc. We strongly recommend using SRA’s Reading for Understanding by Thelma Gwinn Thurston. These closely gradated comprehension builders allow a student to read and type at his/her reading level. Because the student must think while he is reading in order to make the correct decision at the end of the first or second sentence, it helps develop a habit of thinking while reading rather than just hearing a voice inside of their skull calling out words. But any type of straight copy could be used provided you ensure that your students don’t just copy letters. You can do this by having your students underline in pencil all words that they are not 100% sure of, whether the meaning of the word or how to pronounce it. You should have your tutor (or yourself) occasionally go over the words on the page with a student. Try to get your students to overcome their fear of asking questions, especially questions such as: “What’s this word?” or “What’s this word mean?” This is a real fear. In fact, most teachers themselves have this fear. We at AVKO believe that the natural “question box” stage of childhood is stifled somewhere in schools by either classmates laughing at the question or by a teacher unintentionally making the child appear stupid by the way she answers his question. By adulthood, almost everybody has acquired this fear of asking questions whether from being ridiculed themselves or by watching others being ridiculed. Please encourage questions. If you are lucky enough to have volunteer tutors make sure that they encourage questions and that they never ridicule their student for asking any question. To help develop your ability to help students learn words without always having to ask questions, we insist that each student underline in pencil every word a student may not be sure of. This way, when the students hand in their work, you will know something about each student’s individual problems and that in turn can help you help each student figure out the pronunciation or meaning of any word that you think is vitally important to be learned. This implies, of course, that you are NOT to try to teach a whole lot of words and definitely not all that are underlined. You may be surprised at how much your students can learn on their own after being given an assist by you. It is probably best that
Copyright © 1990 AVKO Educational Research Foundation, Inc.
Yes. workbooks and exercise cards. If during the process of a single lesson. More traditional ways of teaching reading comprehension through typing can be employed by having students type exercises from reading manuals. joke books are relevant! In fact.! What’s this word?” And chances are he will remember the meaning because he wants to remember the meaning. Using relevant interesting straight copy Using relevant interesting straight copy can be a real part of any keyboarding course. T. Inc. Almost every school has either unused or not-used sets of SRA Reading Labs. Copyright © 1990 AVKO Educational Research Foundation. he is to ask the teacher to teach him why. They can be used. Practice in thinking comes much more easily with humor than with drier than dust paragraphs followed by endless question and answer exercises. Again. The student is to use the answer booklet only when he isn’t positive that he has the correct answer. Mrs. For example. we at AVKO believe that humor is a key technique to get students to think while they are reading. the same word is underlined two or three times. Jokes are not funny if the mind isn’t operating at more than one level simultaneously. the student still might become so anxious to learn the word that he will just have to say. The underlining is in effect a signal to the computer brain that this word is a word that the computer brain should figure out. We at AVKO firmly believe that mistakes should be opportunities to learn and not the means for grading. If underlining the same word several times isn’t enough to help the subconscious solve the mystery word. We don’t score the exercises. To comprehend what is being read requires this facility of operating at more than one level. . we at AVKO prefer using SRA’s Reading for Understanding with a slight variation. you can have your students type the anecdotes from old copies of The Reader’s Digest and make their own personal joke book. “Hey.19 you explain to your students that there is a sound psychological reason for having them underline the words whose meanings or pronunciations they are not 100% sure of. Isn’t that what comprehension is all about? Think about it. if he still isn’t sure why the answer given is correct. quite often the computer brain solves the problem because the underlining directs it (the subconscious) to work on solving the mystery word. Then.
they are doomed to failure. See p. all students from the brightest to the slowest can function within the same room. We have deliberately said very little about how to handle specific mainstreaming problems and problem students. II. the teacher prefers the traditional text and the traditional approach for most of her regular students—fine! All she has to do is to use AVKO’s Individually Guided Keyboarding with those students who cannot handle the traditional materials. The abilities of the students will determine how fast they proceed through the book. counselors. This means that more and more special education students will want to learn how to type or operate computer keyboards. If. and behavior. Now. however. The teacher can start all her students off together on Level One. Grades can and should be based on: Attendance. With a traditional typing text. With Individualized Keyboarding as the standard introductory base to learning the keyboard. the typing teacher would probably have only 20 students with daily grades and 15 more whose grades are given strictly on attendance. Each school and each classroom will have its own particular sets of problems. 24 for an experiment to test and explain this concept. They will also want to be able to learn to type in a regular typing classroom. and behavior. We fully believe that if the special education teachers. Lesson One. attitude. and consultants sit down and discuss with the typing teachers their mutual problems. attitude. Instead of having 35 students with 35 grades given per day.20 Using Individualized Keyboarding for Personal Typing and Computing as a text for MAINSTREAMING students with learning problems Public Law 94-142 has focused attention on the need to provide equal services for all— including the learning disabled. But speed of learning and speed of progressing and the speed of typing should not be used for grading purposes. If you jumped immediately to this section on mainstreaming. and III even though some of it will not apply to you. her grading problems have been reduced. Then re-read this section and it will make more sense to you the second time around. Copyright © 1990 AVKO Educational Research Foundation. Inc. . Those who cannot handle traditional typing and who make excessive errors that create headaches in correcting can be taken off the regular textbook and put on the AVKO program. go back and read Parts I. mainstreaming can work.
ash mash smash. ash rash ash rash crash. Inc. Above average students succeed quickly.21 Part V: How AVKO’s approach differs Traditional Keyboarding • • • • Designed for average students. ash lash flash. Average students succeed quickly. AVKO exercise used to teach the letter h ash hash. Below-average students struggle. ash cash. and the dyslexic will fail. and the dyslexic achieve measurable success. Analysis Letter Patterns ash h + ash c + ash r + ash cr + ash tr + ash m ash sm + ash l + ash fl + ash Total ash’s Total h’s No. the learning disabled. but usually the slow. Average students success with effort. The slow. Only with great effort will they sometimes pass. Teaches spelling patterns. ash rash trash. the learning disabled. Used 15 5 1 4 4 5 1 2 1 3 2 4 9 3 2 1 • • • • AVKO’s Keyboarding Designed for “slow” students. . Used • • 7 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 18 19 Copyright © 1990 AVKO Educational Research Foundation. Below average students meet with success. Teaches single letter-finger-key Sample traditional exercise used to teach the letter h hat thin hug eight march show ship happy throw mouth huge height ghost spaghetti hawk Analysis: Letter h a c e g I k m n p r s t u w y No. Above average students zoom through.
To ensure mastery of those 12 letters and the spelling patterns available. (8 keys) No problem to learn for the average student who is also well motivated and who tries. or emotional problems to master no matter how well motivated or how hard they try. Lesson 2: e h shifting left & right Lesson 3: t i . it is nearly impossible for students with learning. (period) Lesson 4: Teaching GWAM (Gross Words A Minute) Review adefhijklst Lesson 5: c u • AVKO’s Order of Presentation Lesson 1: a d l (3 keys) No problem to learn for any student who is motivated and tries. The concept of something new for each lesson is accomplished by introducing other elements of typing such as shifting and punctuation marks.22 Traditional Order of Presentation • Lesson 1: a s d f j k l . Lesson 6: i Lesson 7: h Lesson 8: e Note: At this point AVKO has presented only 12 letters. or emotional problems. • • • Lesson 6: r z o Lesson 7: w g n Lesson 8: Tabulating and Review a c d e f g h i j k l n o r s t u w z . Inc. Lesson 3: f t Lesson 4: r j • • Lesson 5: c k Note: From this point on AVKO introduces at most one new letter per lesson. • • • • • • Lesson 2: s . • • • Copyright © 1990 AVKO Educational Research Foundation. Yet. even for those students with learning. no new letters are introduced during the next 6 lessons. reading. reading. .
(comma) Lesson 11: ? Lesson 12: ‘ (apostrophe) Lesson 13: Review Lesson 14: “Quotation marks” Lesson 15: g Lesson 16: m Lesson 17: n Lesson 18: b Lesson 19: o Lesson 20: p Lesson 21: ! Lesson 22: u Lesson 23: w Lesson 24: y Lesson 25: v Lesson 26: q Lesson 27: x Lesson 28: z Note: Because students progress at their own rate of speed in AVKO’s program.23 Traditional Order of Presentation Continued • • • Lesson 9: v p . This is fine for students who have the requisite reading skills. learning skills. AVKO’s presentation takes an additional 17 lessons to finish the presentation of the keyboard. However. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • AVKO’s Order of Presentation Continued Lesson 9: shifting Lesson 10: . Copyright © 1990 AVKO Educational Research Foundation . This slower rate of presentation allows the slower students to achieve mastery of the keyboard without holding the “faster” students back. traditional texts) or as many as 60 days. the keyboard can be master in as few as 11 days (cf. and physical coordination. Lesson 10: q x m Lesson 11: b y ? Note: The entire alphabet and keyboard has been taught in only 11 lessons in traditional keyboard texts.
kioaio nda cglgngi. Note: the paragraphs above are identical to the paragraphs in the other column with only one small difference.. Good readers already “know subconsciously” the patterns so they don’t need training to type by patterns. Note: Good readers have built-in responses to spelling patterns. Good typists are good readers who quickly build upon these built-in responses to develop new patterns. . Poor readers need training in patterns to become good typists. incordation. Inc. tNo:e dGoo rdrseae hvae bltui-ni rspnsseoe to lpsnlgei pttn. and cligging.e rPoo rdrseae ndee gtnrnaii ni ptrtnsae ot bcmeoe gdoo tpsyt. We deliberately scrambled the letters and punctuation marks so as to obliterate normal patterns and to force letterby-letter copying.ee srtkoe-ybsrtko. Or just try to copy both sets yourself! We’re sure you’ll understand why AVKO’s approach works so well with students who otherwise would fail in traditional typing or keyboarding classes. so they can easily read and spell nonwords like: depotion. would AVKO’s theories be all wet.24 To test AVKO’s theories have one group copy these paragraphs either longhand with pencil or on a typewriter. Poor readers don’t know the patterns and don’t know the words so they must type letter-by-letter.srae os hyte cna syleai rdea nda pllse nn-o rwsdo lki:e dptneoi. piction. stroke-bystroke.i dGoo tpstsyi rae gdoo rdrseae hwo qckylui bldui pnuo ehtse bltni-iu rspnsseoe ot dvlpoee wne pttrsna. Note: If a group of good readers can type or copy both sets of paragraphs equally well and equally fast.o pctnii.o ncradtn.e dGoo rdseae lrdyaea knw”o sbcnscsll”yuoiou hte pttrsnae os htye dnto’ ndee trnngaii ot tpye yb ptrts.nae rPoo rdrseae dnto’ nkwo hte ptrtnsae nda nt’do nwko hte wdrso os hyte mtsu ypte lttree-yb-lttr.si Have the other group copy these paragraphs in the same way as the first group. then. Copyright © 1990 AVKO Educational Research Foundation. and only then.
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