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2
85 . 0 q

5 . 0 q

67 , 0
4
S
37 , 0
2
85 . 0 q

875 . 0 q

1
5
= = S = 0,13 =
2
85 . 0 q

6 . 0 q

5 , 0
5
S
= 0,425 =
2
85 . 0 q

1 q

1
6
S = 0,13 =
2
85 . 0 q

5 , 0 q

6 , 0
6
S
= 0,34 =
2
85 . 0 q

8 . 0 q

1
7
S = 0,17 =
2
85 . 0 q

8 . 0 q

5 , 0
7
S
= 0,3 =
2
85 . 0 q

88 . 0 q

8 . 0
8
S = 0,28 =
2
85 . 0 q

82 . 0 q

8 . 0
8
S
= 0,22 =
2
85 , 0 q

62 . 0 q

82 . 0
1
S
18
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19
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20
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21
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23
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24
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25
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26
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27
OK` Ga] JEHOKTK M, PaEGKOBREadSK, ORKHKTK HBZKcMg UEPR. /PaM SBMZKaEE
^KHKR^B] HBZKRB PKKROERPRO[ER ORKHKU[ HBZKcEU[ UEPR[ KSB JaBSMH[ERP]
^ O_JKaSESMe JKPaEGSE` SB ORKHKU HBZKcEU UEPRE M, PaEGKOBREadSK, JK-
PaEGSMU MPJKaS]ERP] SB JEHOKU HBZKcEU UEPRE.
4BREU KJEHBfMM JKORKH]eRP] Ga] OPEg KPRBOmMgP] NBGBSM` GK REg JKH,
JK^B SE Z[GER JKaSKPRde PKPRBOaES THBDM^.

6DOUBD
%cMR_OB] GBSS_E RBZaMf_ 17, PKPRBOdRE HBPJMPBSME O_JKaSESM] HB-
ZKR Ga] GO[g HBZKcMg UEPR.

+B Z a M f B 1 7 <HKGKaVMREadSKPRd O_JKaSESM] KJEHBfM` SB HBZK-
cMg UEPRBg

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!JEHBfMKSSKE OHEU]
HBZKcETK UEPRB ', c.
!JEHBfMKSSKE OHEU]
HBZKcETK UEPRB -, c.
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2 8 7
3 5 7
4 6 7
5 9 8

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SKPRd GBSSK` KJEHBfMM HBOSB 3 cBPBU. #aEGKOBREadSK, HBZKRB 1 Z[GER O_-
JKaS]RdP] JKPaEGSE`.
&BaEE, SBMZKaEE ^KHKR^KE KJEHBfMKSSKE OHEU] MN KPRBOmMgP] HBZKR
gBHB^REHSK Ga] 3-E` HBZKR_, Ga] KJEHBfMM O_JKaS]EUK` HBZKcMU UEPRKU
' EE JHKGKaVMREadSKPRd HBOSB 5 cBPBU. - PKKROERPROMM P JHBOMaKU
&VKSPKSB, R.^. kRK KJEHBfMKSSKE OHEU] gBHB^REHSK Ga] JEHOKTK HBZKcETK
UEPRB, GBSSB] HBZKRB JaBSMH[ERP] JEHOK`.
'SBaKTMcSB] PMR[BfM] Z[GER gBHB^REHSB Ga] 4-K` HBZKR_, KSB Z[GER
O_JKaS]RdP] JKPaE RHERdE`, R.^. SBMZKaEE ^KHKR^B] MN KPRBOmMgP] KJEHB-
fM`, KJEHBfMKSSKE OHEU] ^KRKHK` HBOSK 6 cBPBU, O_JKaS]ERP] SB HBZKcEU
UEPRE '.
2-B] HBZKRB Z[GER O_JKaS]RdP] JHEGJKPaEGSE`, R.^. 7-UM cBPKOB] KJE-
HBfM], ^KRKHB] O_JKaS]ERP] SB HBZKcEU UEPRE -, ]Oa]ERP] SBMZKaEE ^KHKR-
^K`.
+B^MU KZHBNKU, JKPaEGKOBREadSKPRd O_JKaSESM] HBZKR PaEG[eiB].
#SBcBaB O_JKaS]ERP] RHERd] HBZKRB, JKRKU cEROEHRB], NBREU J]RB], JKPaE
SEE ORKHB], JKPaEGSE` JEHOB] (3 4 5 2 1).
!ZiB] JHKGKaVMREadSKPRd HBZKR PKPRBOMR JHM PKZaeGESMM GBSSKTK
JHBOMaB 38 cBPKO.
28
1B HMP[S^E 2 JHEGPRBOaES THBDM^ O_JKaSESM] KJEHBfM` SB HBZKcMg
UEPRBg. -MGSK, cRK Ga] [PRHBSESM] JHKPRKEO O gKGE O_JKaSESM] HBZKR, ORK-
HB] KJEHBfM] RHERdE` HBZKR_ SBcBRB SE PHBN[ JK NBOEHmESMM JEHOK` KJEHB-
fMM.



) M P [ S K ^ 2 HBDM^ O_JKaSESM] HBZKR JK HBZKcMU UEPRBU

8JPJNOB 3. #KPRBOdRE HBPJMPBSME O_JKaSESM] SEP^Kad^Mg HBZKR Ga]
SEP^Kad^Mg HBZKcMg UEPR.

+B Z a M f B 1 8 4BRHBR_ SB JHKOEGESME HBZKR

#RBSK^ 1 #RBSK^ 2 #RBSK^ 3 #RBSK^ 4
)BZKRB 1 2 3 1 4
)BZKRB 2 4 5 5 6
)BZKRB 3 7 6 8 6
)BZKRB 4 6 3 5 4

?BXGPO`BQVOB ^VJWJNOL

T7'0N 4$34$B74)K KPKZ_` Pa[cB` RHBSPJKHRSK` NBGBcM, fEade ^K-
RKHKTK ]Oa]ERP] UMSMUMNBfM] MaM UB^PMUMNBfM] RK` MaM MSK` UEH_ kD-
DE^RMOSKPRM. nRMU UERKGKU [GKZSK JKadNKOBRdP], ^KTGB SEKZgKGMUK HBP-
JHEGEaMRd NBGBSM] JK HBZKcMU UEPRBU, aeGE` JK HBZKRBU, R.^. ^KaMcEPROK
OKNUKVS_g Ga] BSBaMNB OBHMBSRKO NSBcMREadSK PK^HBiBERP], O RK OHEU]
^B^, EPaM JHM n = 5 ^KaMcEPROK OBHMBSRKO SBNSBcESM` HBOSK 5! 120, JHM
n = 4, ^KaMcEPROK OBHMBSRKO 24 M R.G.
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38
2 paouee uec1o
1 paouee uec1o
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Rpoponxu1enuuoc1u 38 pue
29
XERKG SBNSBcESM` JKGgKGMR Ga] HEmESM] NBGBc PK PaEG[eiMUM gB-
HB^REHMPRM^BUM:
MUEERP] n JHEGUERKO, ^KRKH_E SEKZgKGMUK HBPJHEGEaMRd JK n JK-
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JKa[cBREae;
UKVER MPJKadNKOBRdP] RKad^K KGMS ^HMREHM` KfES^M kDDE^RMOSK-
PRM (UMSMUBadS_E NBRHBR_, UB^PMUBadSB] JHMZ_ad, UMSMUBadSKE
OHEU] O_JKaSESM]).
&a] PKPRBOaESM] HBPJMPBSM] GBSS_U UERKGKU GE`PRO[eR PaEG[eiMU
KZHBNKU.
1B JEHOKU kRBJE KJHEGEa]eR NBRHBR_, SEKZgKGMU_E Ga] KP[iEPROaE-
SM] HBZKR Ga] OPEg HBZKcMg UEPR.
4BREU O_cMRBeR SBMUESdmEE cMPaK O ^BVGK` PRHK^E MN PBUKTK PEZ] M
MN OPEg GH[TMg cMPEa O kRK` PRHK^E (RB^ O PRHK^E JK]Oa]ERP] gKR] Z_ KGMS
SKad).
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R] Z_ KGMS SKad O PRKaZfE).
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NSBcMR KJRMUBadSKE HEmESME SB`GESK, JKP^Kad^[ SBNSBcESME HBZKRB
PRBSK^ GKaVSK KP[iEPROa]RdP] JK JKa[cESS_U S[aEO_U kaEUESRBU. /PaM
VE HEN[adRBR KRHMfBREadS_`, RK JEHEgKG]R ^ PaEG[eiEU[ kRBJ[.
1B GBSSKU kRBJE JHKOKG]R SBMUESdmEE OKNUKVSKE cMPaK aMSM` cEHEN
OPE S[aM (KSM UKT[R PKOJBGBRd P HBSEE JHKOEGESS_UM). 4BREU O_cMRBeR
SBMUESdmEE MN SEJEHEcEH^S[R_g cMPaK MN PBUKTK PEZ] M MNK OPEg GH[TMg
SEJEHEcEH^S[R_g M JHMZBOa]eR ETK ^ cMPaBU SB ^BVGKU JEHEPEcESMM aM-
SM` M JKORKH]eR GE`PROM] cEROEHRKTK kRBJB. 9 RB^ GK RKTK UKUESRB, JK^B
^KaMcEPROK aMSM` SE Z[GER HBOSK n.

6DOUBD
%cMR_OB] GBSS_E RBZaMf_ 19, PKPRBOdRE HBPJMPBSME O_JKaSESM] HB-
ZKR Ga] n HBZKcMg UEPR.

+B Z a M f B 1 9 4BRHBR_ SB JHKOEGESME HBZKR

#RBSK^ 1 #RBSK^ 2 #RBSK^ 3 #RBSK^ 4
)BZKRB 1 5 6 4 8
)BZKRB 2 8 9 7 5
)BZKRB 3 6 7 5 7
)BZKRB 4 4 5 3 6
30
$BkBNOB.
-_ZMHBEU O PRHK^E SBMUESdmEE NSBcESME NBRHBR, KRSMUBEU ETK MN
OPEg NSBcESM` O PRHK^E M MN PBUKTK PEZ].

+B Z a M f B 2 0 )EN[adRBR_ ORKHKTK kRBJB

#RBSK^ 1 #RBSK^ 2 #RBSK^ 3 #RBSK^ 4
)BZKRB 1 5-4= 1 6-4= 2 4-4= 0 8-4= 4
)BZKRB 2 8-5=3 9-5=4 7-5=2 5-5=0
)BZKRB 3 6-5=1 7-5=2 5-5=0 7-5=2
)BZKRB 4 4-3=1 5-3=2 3-3=0 6-3=3

-_ZMHBEU O PRKaZfE SBMUESdmEE NSBcESME NBRHBR, KRSMUBEU ETK MN
OPEg NSBcESM` O PRKaZfE M MN PBUKTK PEZ].

+B Z a M f B 2 1 )EN[adRBR_ RHERdETK kRBJB

#RBSK^ 1 #RBSK^ 2 #RBSK^ 3 #RBSK^ 4
)BZKRB 1 1-1=0 2-2=0 0-0=0 4-0=4
)BZKRB 2 3-1=2 4-2=2 2-0=2 0-0=0
)BZKRB 3 1-1=0 2-2=0 0-0=0 2-0=2
)BZKRB 4 1-1=0 2-2=0 0-0=0 3-0=3

<EHEcEH^MOBEU ^B^ UKVSK UESdmMU cMPaKU aMSM` OPE JKa[cESS_E
S[aM M JKGPcMR_OBEU cMPaK aMSM`.

+B Z a M f B 2 2 )EN[adRBR_ cEROEHRKTK kRBJB

#RBSK^ 1 #RBSK^ 2 #RBSK^ 3 #RBSK^ 4
)BZKRB 1 0 0 0 4
)BZKRB 2 2 2 2 0
)BZKRB 3 0 0 0 2
)BZKRB 4 0 0 0 3

7MPaK aMSM` HBOSK 4, R.E. HBOSK n.
<KGPcMR_OBEU NBRHBR_, ^KRKH_E OKNUKVS_ JHM HBNaMcS_g OBHMBSRBg
SBNSBcESM`.

1BNSBcESME 1.
)BZKRB 2 PRBSK^ 4 5
)BZKRB 1 PRBSK^ 3 (min) 4
)BZKRB 3 PRBSK^ 1 (min) 6
)BZKRB 4 PRBSK^ 2 5
20
31
1BNSBcESME 2.
)BZKRB 2 PRBSK^ 4 5
)BZKRB 1 PRBSK^ 1 5
)BZKRB 3 PRBSK^ 2 7
)BZKRB 4 PRBSK^ 3 3
20
1BNSBcESME 3.
)BZKRB 2 PRBSK^ 4 5
)BZKRB 1 PRBSK^ 2 6
)BZKRB 3 PRBSK^ 3 5
)BZKRB 4 PRBSK^ 1 4
20

- SBmEU JHMUEHE OK OPEg Pa[cB]g NBRHBR_ KGMSB^KO_. #aEGKOBREad-
SK UKVSK O_ZHBRd aeZKE MN RHEg SBNSBcESM` Ga] KJHEGEaESM] RKTK, ^B^[e
HBZKR[ JKa[cMR RK MaM MSKE HBZKcEE UEPRK.

4GYDGQZ PML QJUGYDGIBDVO
1. - cEU P[Rd KJEHBRMOSK-^BaESGBHSKTK JaBSMHKOBSM]?
2. 7RK RB^KE HBPJMPBSME?
3. AB^ME UERKG_ PKPRBOaESM] HBPJMPBSM` P[iEPRO[eR?
4. &B`RE JKS]RME JHMKHMRERB.
5. - cEU P[Rd JHMKHMRERB JK SBMZKadmE` JHKGKaVMREadSKPRM OHE-
UESM O_JKaSESM]?
6. !gBHB^REHMN[`RE UERKGM^[ PKPRBOaESM] HBPJMPBSM] Ga] KGSKTK
HBZKcETK UEPRB.
7. - ^B^KU Pa[cBE MPJKadN[ERP] UERKG SBNSBcESM`?
8. AB^ME KTHBSMcESM] PaEG[ER [cMR_OBRd JHM PKPRBOaESMM HBPJMPB-
SM] P MPJKadNKOBSMEU UERKGKU SBNSBcESM`?
9. - cEU P[iSKPRd JHBOMaB &VKSPKSB?
10. AB^[e fEad JHEPaEG[eR JHM MPJKadNKOBSMM JHBOMaB &VKSPKSB?
11. &B`RE KJHEGEaESME PEREOKU[ THBDM^[.
12. !gBHB^REHMN[`RE THBDM^ BSRB.

32
0!?& 7 $&8?!S!*9! 6$!#6$9b09=
9 6$,984,#204!**,., 6$,T!22&

6DJVXO`BQVGB WJNLXOB 4
9W^`BNOB UBXGPGI GYDBPBMBNOL UBQX DJWUBlBNOL
YDBPYDOLXOL O YDG\BQQJ

4GYDGQZ WJNLXOL
1. !PKZESSKPRM JKGgKGB ^ HBNUEiESMe.
2. #RHBRETMM HBNUEiESM] JHEGJHM]RM` O PDEHE JHKMNOKGPROB.
3. #RHBRETMM HBNUEiESM] JHEGJHM]RM` O PDEHE [Pa[T.
4. <HMS]RME HEmESM` K HBNUEiESMM JHEGJHM]RM`: UERKG_ M UKGEaM.
5. !PSKOS_E PJKPKZ_ HBNUEiESM] KZKH[GKOBSM].

,QNGINZB YGNLXOL OW^`JBUG[ XBUZ
)BNUEiESME JHEGJHM]RM`. XERKG_ HEmESM] NBGBc HBNUEiESM]: UERKG
ONOEmMOBSM], UERKG ZEN[Z_RKcSKTK HBNUEiESM] (UERKG ^HMRMcEP^K` RKc-
^M), UERKG fESRHB THBOMRBfMM, RHBSPJKHRS_E UERKG_.
)BNUEiESME JHKMNOKGPROESSKTK JHKfEPPB. !PSKOS_E PJKPKZ_ HBN-
UEiESM] KZKH[GKOBSM]. )BNUEiESME KZKH[GKOBSM] JK REgSKaKTMcEP^KU[,
JHEGUERSKU[ JHMSfMJ[ M JHMSfMJ[ KZPa[VMOBSM] SEJKGOMVSKTK KZjE^RB.
<HMSfMJ_ HBfMKSBadSKTK HBNUEiESM] JKGHBNGEaESM` JHEGJHM]RM].

0BUJXOVJ DBaBDJXGI
1. >B^RKH-HE`RMSTKO_E PMPREU_.
2. 'SBaMRMcEP^B] UKGEad &EadDM.
3. +HBSPJKHRS_E UERKG_.
4. !PKZESSKPRM HBNUEiESM] KZKH[GKOBSM].
5. )BNUEiESME JKUEiESM` PEHOMPS_g JHEGJHM]RM`.

8JPJNOB 1. 9PJKadN[] UERKG fESRHB THBOMRBfMM, KJHEGEaMRE SBM-
a[cmEE UEPRKJKaKVESME ZMZaMKRE^M, EPaM MNOEPRSB MSDKHUBfM], JHEG-
PRBOaESSB] O RBZaMfE 23.

+B Z a M f B 2 3 &BSS_E K UEPRE HBPJKaKVESM] O[NKO M ^KSRMSTESRE
PR[GESRKO

-[N AKKHGMSBR_ AKaMcEPROK PR[GESRKO
#' 400; 200 5 000
-+% 50; 200 7 000
<HKTHEPP 300; 50 12 000

33
?BXGPO`BQVOB ^VJWJNOL

XERKG fESRHB THBOMRBfMM JHEGJKaBTBER JKPaEGKOBREadSKE O_JKaSESME
H]GB mBTKO.
<EHO_` mBT NB^aecBERP] O HBNUEiESMM SBNSBcESM` O PMPREUE ^KKH-
GMSBR. 1BcBaK PMPREU_ ^KKHGMSBR M MPJKadN[EUB] m^BaB PKTaBPKO_OBeRP]
SB KPSKOE ^KHHE^RSKTK JHEGPRBOaESM] KRSKPMREadS_g HBPPRK]SM`. nRK UKV-
SK PGEaBRd J[REU SBaKVESM] ^KKHGMSBRSK` PER^M KJHEGEaESSKTK UBPmRBZB
SB ^BHR[ UEPRSKPRM.
#aEG[eiM` mBT HBPcER ^KKHGMSBR fESRHB THBOMRBfMM JK DKHU[-
aBU (10, 11). - ^BcEPROE OEPKO MPJKadN[eRP] GBSS_E KZ KZjEUBg JKRHEZSKPRE`
(JEHEUEiBEU_g TH[NKO, KZPa[VMOBEU_g JKRHEZMREaE` M R.J.), ^KRKH_E SEKZgK-
GMUK [GKOaEROKHMRd NB KJHEGEaESS_` JHKUEV[RK^ OHEUESM.

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=
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TGE 5
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^KKHGMSBRB r fESRHB THBOMRBfMM;
5
y
^KKHGMSBRB Y fESRHB THBOMRBfMM;
d
ix
^KKHGMSBRB X HBNUEiESM];
d
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^KKHGMSBRB H HBNUEiESM];
Wi KZjEU KZjE^RKO, JEHEUEiBEU_g KR/O HBNUEiESME i.

4BREU GBSS_E ^KKHGMSBR_ SBSKP]RP] SB ^KKHGMSBRS[e PER^[, ^K-
RKHB] PKOUEiBERP] P ^BHRK` UEPRSKPRM. <Ka[cESSKE UEPRK HBNUEiESM]
KfESMOBERP] P JHMO]N^K` ^ ^KS^HERSKU[ UEPR[.

6DOUBD
9PJKadN[] UERKG fESRHB THBOMRBfMM, KJHEGEaMRE SBMa[cmEE UEPRK-
JKaKVESME P^aBGB, EPaM MNOEPRSB MSDKHUBfM], JHEGPRBOaESSB] O RBZaMfE 24.

+B Z a M f B 2 4 &BSS_E K UEPRE HBPJKaKVESM] UBTBNMSKO M KZjE-
UBg JKPRBOK^

XBTBNMS AKKHGMSBR_ !ZjEU JKPRBOK^, R
XBTSKaM] 100; 75 10 000
OKNGM^B 150; 215 8 000
1ENBZ[G^B 215; 300 6 000

34
$BkBNOB
+B^ ^B^ ^KKHGMSBR_ UEPR SBNSBcESM` SBU [VE MNOEPRS_, HBPPcMR_OB-
EU ^KKHGMSBR_ UEPRB HBPJKaKVESM] fESRHB THBOMRBfMM.

42 , 145
000 24
000 490 3
000 6 000 8 000 10
000 6 215 000 8 150 000 10 100
= =
+ +
+ +
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5 ;

92 , 177
000 24
000 270 4
000 6 000 8 000 10
000 6 300 000 8 215 000 10 75
= =
+ +
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5 .

1BSKPMU JKa[cESS_E HEN[adRBR_ SB ^KKHGMSBRS[e PER^[, ^B^ kRK
PGEaBSK SB HMP[S^E 3.
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 50 100 150 200 250

) M P [ S K ^ 3 XEPRK HBPJKaKVESM] fESRHB THBOMRBfMM (#)

8JPJNOB 2. 9PJKadN[] UERKG ONOEmMOBSM], KJHEGEaMRE UEPRK HBNUE-
iESM] SKOKTK JHEGJHM]RM], [cMR_OB] GBSS_E, JHEGPRBOaESS_E O RBZaMfE 25.

+B Z a M f B 2 5 &BSS_E Ga] KJHEGEaESM] UEPRB HBNUEiESM]

>B^RKH
4SBcMUKPRd
(^KkDDMfMESR
OEPKUKPRM)
!fES^M JK
J[S^R[ '
!fES^M JK
J[S^R[ 3
)BNOMRKPRd MSDHBPRH[^R[H_ 0,35 100 60
1BaMcME JKGTKRKOaESS_g ^BGHKO 0,2 70 80
1BaMcME HEP[HPKO 0,25 90 90
4BRHBR_ SB RH[G 0,15 80 100
>MP^BadSB] JKaMRM^B HETMKSBadS_g
OaBPRE` (SBaKTM)
0,05 60 100
1 - -

2
35
?BXGPO`BQVOB ^VJWJNOL

<HM KJHEGEaESMM UEPRB HBNUEiESM] JHEGJHM]RM] UERKGKU ONOEmM-
OBSM] SB JEHOKU kRBJE KJHEGEa]eR DB^RKH_, ^KRKH_E MUEeR P[iEPROESSKE
NSBcESME JHM JHMS]RMM HEmESM] K HBPJKaKVESMM JHEGJHM]RM].
4BREU [PRBSBOaMOBeRP] ^KkDDMfMESR_ OEPKUKPRM kRMg DB^RKHKO.
<HM kRKU UKVSK MPJKadNKOBRd UERKG HBSTKO, m^Ba[ P[VGESM` K OBVSKPRM,
UERKG JKPaEGKOBREadS_g PKJKPRBOaESM`.
&BaEE k^PJEHRS_U J[REU O_PRBOa]eRP] KfES^M ^BVGKU[ OBHMBSR[
HBNUEiESM] JK ^BVGKU[ DB^RKH[. <KPaE cETK JK DKHU[aE 12 HBPPcMR_OB-
ERP] ^KUJaE^PS_` JK^BNBREad, JKNOKa]eiM` KfESMRd, SBP^Kad^K OBHMBSR
JHEGJKcRMREadSEE.

=
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TGE g
i
KfES^B i-TK DB^RKHB;
g
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^KkDDMfMESR OEPKUKPRM i-TK DB^RKHB.

)EmESME [GKZSK KDKHUa]Rd RB^MU KZHBNKU, ^B^MU kRK JK^BNBSK O
RBZaMfE 26.

6DOUBD
9PJKadN[] UERKG ONOEmMOBSM], KJHEGEaMRE UEPRK HBNUEiESM] SKOKTK
JHEGJHM]RM], [cMR_OB] GBSS_E, JHEGPRBOaESS_E O RBZaMfE 26.

+B Z a M f B 2 6 &BSS_E Ga] KJHEGEaESM] UEPRB HBNUEiESM]

>B^RKH
4SBcMUKPRd
(^KkDDMfMESR
OEPKUKPRM), g
i

!fES^M
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J[S^R[
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'
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g
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0,09 100 60 9 5,4
1BaMcME JKGTKRKO-
aESS_g ^BGHKO
0,15 80 85 12 12,75
1BaMcME HEP[HPKO 0,35 60 90 21 31,5
4BRHBR_ SB RH[G 0,17 100 90 17 15,3
>MP^BadSB] JKaMRM-
^B HETMKSBadS_g
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0,24 100 95 24 22,8
1 - - 83 87,75

36
3KaEE O_PK^ME ONOEmESS_E KfES^M JKa[cMa J[S^R 3. XKVSK JHEGJK-
aKVMRd, cRK MUESSK KS ZKaEE O_TKGES Ga] HBNUEiESM] JHEGJHM]RM]. !GSB-
^K HBNH_O KfESK^ SEOEaM^. &a] O_HBZKR^M K^KScBREadSKTK HEmESM] SEKZ-
gKGMUK KfESMRd JKRESfMBadS_E UEPRB HBNUEiESM] UERKGBUM ^HMRMcEP^K`
RKc^M, DB^RKH-HE`RMSTKO_g PMPREU M R.J.

8JPJNOB 3. 9PJKadN[] UERKG ^HMRMcEP^K` RKc^M, KJHEGEaMRE UEPRK
HBNUEiESM] SKOKTK JHEGJHM]RM], [cMR_OB] GBSS_E, JHEGPRBOaESS_E O RBZ-
aMfE 27, M EPaM MNOEPRSK, cRK JHKMNOKGPROESSB] UKiSKPRd JHEGJHM]RM] PK-
PRBOa]ER 3 000 MNG. O TKG.

+B Z a M f B 2 7 &BSS_E Ga] KJHEGEaESM] UEPRB HBNUEiESM]

<K^BNBREaM ' - #
<KPRK]SS_E NBRHBR_, R_P.H[Z. 450 000 250 000 500 000
<EHEUESS_E NBRHBR_, H[Z. 15 25 10

?BXGPO`BQVOB ^VJWJNOL

V4$?)3 &")')B79&0K '0B&) kRK UERKG PHBOSMREadSKTK BSBaMNB NBRHBR
JK OBHMBSRBU HBNUEiESM], JKNOKa]eiM` PGEaBRd O_ZKH SBMZKaEE kDDE^RMO-
SKTK MN MUEeiETKP] SBZKHB BadREHSBRMO. !JHEGEa]] JKPRK]SS_E M JEHEUES-
S_E NBRHBR_ M JHEGPRBOa]] Mg THBDMcEP^M Ga] ^BVGKTK OKNUKVSKTK HBNUE-
iESM], UKVSK O_ZHBRd OBHMBSR, ^KRKHKU[ PKKROERPRO[eR PBU_E SMN^ME KZ-
iME NBRHBR_ HBNUEiESM]. 'SBaMN ^HMRMcEP^K` RKc^M JHM HBNUEiESMM UKVER
Z_Rd JHEGPRBOaES ^B^ THBDMcEP^M, RB^ M BSBaMRMcEP^M. HBDMcEP^KE JHEG-
PRBOaESME MUEER JHEMU[iEPROK, KZEPJEcMOB] HBSTKOKE NSBcESME KfES^M
JHEGJKcRESM] ^BVGKTK UEPRB HBNUEiESM]. 'SBaMN ^HMRMcEP^K` RKc^M M JHM
HBNUEiESMM O^aecBER RHM kRBJB:
1. KJHEGEaESME JKPRK]SS_g M JEHEUESS_g NBRHBR Ga] ^BVGKTK OBHM-
BSRB HBNUEiESM];
2. JKPRHKESME THBDB NBRHBR_/HEN[adRBR Ga] ^BVGKTK OBHMBSRB HBN-
UEiESM] P NBRHBRBUM SB OEHRM^BadSK` KPM M TKGKO_U HEN[adRBRKU
SB TKHMNKSRBadSK` KPM;
3. O_ZKH OBHMBSRB HBNUEiESM] P SBMUESdmMUM P[UUBHS_UM NBRHB-
RBUM SB NBGBSS_` HEN[adRBR.
AKTGB NBGBcB HBNUEiESM] HEmBERP] JHMUESMREadSK ^ JHKMNOKGPRO[,
JKG HEN[adRBRKU KZ_cSK JKSMUBERP] KZjEU JHKMNOKGPROB.

6DOUBD
9PJKadN[] UERKG ^HMRMcEP^K` RKc^M, KJHEGEaMRE UEPRK HBNUEiESM]
SKOKTK JHEGJHM]RM], [cMR_OB] GBSS_E, JHEGPRBOaESS_E O RBZaMfE 28, M EP-
aM MNOEPRSK, cRK JHKMNOKGPROESSB] UKiSKPRd JHEGJHM]RM] PKPRBOa]ER:
37
B) 100 000 MNG. O TKG;
Z) 150 000 MNG. O TKG;
O) 200 000 MNG. O TKG

+B Z a M f B 2 8 &BSS_E Ga] KJHEGEaESM] UEPRB HBNUEiESM]

' - #
<KPRK]SS_E NBRHBR_, R_P. H[Z. 30 000 60 000 12 000
<EHEUESS_E NBRHBR_ SB EGMSMf[
JHKG[^fMM, H[Z.
65 55 30

$BkBNOB
)BPPcMR_OBEU PKOK^[JS_E NBRHBR_ Ga] ^BVGKTK OBHMBSRB KZjEUKO
JHKMNOKGPROB. !DKHUa]EU HBPcER_ O RBZaMfBg 29-31.

+B Z a M f B 2 9 )BPcER PKOK^[JS_g NBRHBR JK UEPRBU HBNUEiESM]
JHM JHKMNOKGPROE 100 000 MNG. O TKG

<K^BNBREaM ' - #
<KPRK]SS_E NBRHBR_, R_P. H[Z. 30 000 60 000 45 000
<EHEUESS_E NBRHBR_ SB EGMSMf[
JHKG[^fMM, H[Z.
125 55 30
<EHEUESS_E NBRHBR_ SB 100 000 EG.,
R_P. H[Z.
12 500 5 500 3 000
#KOK^[JS_E NBRHBR_, R_P. H[Z. 42 500 65 500 48 000

<HM KZjEUE JHKMNOKGPROB O 100 R_P. MNGEaM` SBMZKaEE O_TKGS_U
Z[GER HBNUEiESME JHEGJHM]RM] O RKc^E '.

+B Z a M f B 3 0 )BPcER PKOK^[JS_g NBRHBR JK UEPRBU HBNUEiESM]
JHM JHKMNOKGPROE 150 000 MNG. O TKG

<K^BNBREaM ' - #
<KPRK]SS_E NBRHBR_, R_P. H[Z. 30 000 60 000 45 000
<EHEUESS_E NBRHBR_ SB EGMSMf[
JHKG[^fMM, H[Z.
125 55 30
<EHEUESS_E NBRHBR_ SB 150 000 EG.,
R_P.H[Z.
18 750 82 50 4 500
#KOK^[JS_E NBRHBR_, R_P.H[Z. 48 750 68 250 49 500

<HM KZjEUE JHKMNOKGPROB O 150 R_P. MNGEaM` SBMZKaEE O_TKGS_U
Z[GER HBNUEiESME JHEGJHM]RM] RB^VE O RKc^E '.

38
+B Z a M f B 3 1 )BPcER PKOK^[JS_g NBRHBR JK UEPRBU HBNUEiESM]
JHM JHKMNOKGPROE 200 000 MNG. O TKG

<K^BNBREaM ' - #
<KPRK]SS_E NBRHBR_, R_P. H[Z. 30 000 60 000 45 000
<EHEUESS_E NBRHBR_ SB EGMSMf[ JHKG[^-
fMM, H[Z.
125 55 30
<EHEUESS_E NBRHBR_ SB 200 000 EG., R_P.
H[Z.
25 000 11 000 6 000
#KOK^[JS_E NBRHBR_, R_P. H[Z. 55 000 71 000 51 000

<HM [PaKOMM, EPaM KZjEU JHKMNOKGPROB GKPRMTSER 200 R_P. MNGEaM`,
SBMZKaEE O_TKGS_U Z[GER HBNUEiESME JHEGJHM]RM] O RKc^E #.
#RHKMU THBDM^ P fEade KJHEGEaESM] PKOK^[JS_g NBRHBR. 1B HMP[S^E
4 JHEGPRBOaES THBDM^, GEUKSPRHMH[eiM` MNUESESME JHEGJKcRMREadSKPRM
RKTK MaM MSKTK UEPRB HBPJKaKVESM].

0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
70000
80000
0 100 1mc. ep. 150 1mc.ep. 20 1mc.ep
A B C

) M P [ S K ^ 4 9NUESESME NBRHBR O NBOMPMUKPRM KR KZjEUKO
JHKMNOKGPROB

8JPJNOB 4. !JHEGEaMRE, ^B^MU KZHBNKU SEKZgKGMUK NBS]Rd ^KUSBR_,
HBPJKaKVESS_E KGSB NB GH[TK` O KGS[ aMSMe, ^BVGB] MN ^KRKH_g JHEGSB-
NSBcESB Ga] UBH^ERKaKTB (A), PJEfMBaMPRB JK HE^aBUE (B), MUMGVUE`^EHB
(#), k^KSKUMPRB (D), EPaM MSRESPMOSKPRd ONBMUKPO]NE`, O_HBVESSB] cEHEN
cMPaK ^KSRB^RKO, PKPRBOa]ER: AB = 30; BC = 40; #D = 75; AD = 100;
BD = 85; AC = 55.

39
A B C D
30
A B C D
10
15 20
20
10
?BXGPO`BQVOB ^VJWJNOL

<KPaEGKOBREadSKPRd GE`PROM` JHM HEmESMM NBGBcM JKGKZSKTK RMJB
PaEG[eiB].
#SBcBaB KJHEGEa]eRP] NBRHBR_ SB JEHEUEiESME JHM GE`PRO[eiEU
OBHMBSRE HBNUEiESM]. &a] kRKTK ^KaMcEPROK ^KSRB^RKO JHM PUEVSKU HBPJK-
aKVESMM JKUEiESM`, HBZKcMg UEPR [USKVBeR SB 1. - Pa[cBE, EPaM UEVG[
HBZKcMUM UEPRBUM, ^KSRB^RMH[eiMUM GH[T P GH[TKU, SBgKGMRP] EiE KGSK,
cMPaK ^KSRB^RKO [USKVBERP] SB GOB, EPaM RB^Mg UEPR GOB RK SB 3 M R.G.
4BREU, JHEGJKaBTB] MNUESESME HBPJKaKVESM] JKGHBNGEaESM`, HBPPcM-
R_OBeR NBRHBR_ SB ^KSRB^R_ Ga] GBSSKTK OBHMBSRB, JKRKU Ga] PaEG[eiETK
M R.G. <HM BSBaMNE OBHMBSRKO HBNUEiESM] O_ZMHBeR RKR, JHM ^KRKHKU ^K-
aMcEPROK NBRHBR SB ^KSRB^R_ UMSMUBadSK. - PKKROERPROMM P GBSS_U OBHM-
BSRKU MNUES]eR JKH]GK^ HBNUEiESM] NKS, JKUEiESM`, [cBPR^KO M R.J.

6DOUBD
!JHEGEaMRE, ^B^MU KZHBNKU SEKZgKGMUK NBS]Rd JKUEiESM], HBPJK-
aKVESS_E KGSK NB GH[TMU O KGS[ aMSMe, ^BVGKE MN ^KRKH_g JHEGSBNSBcESK
Ga] ^BSfEa]HMM (A), JaBSKOKTK KRGEaB (B), Z[gTBaREHMM (#), k^KSKUMcEP^K-
TK KRGEaB (D), EPaM MSRESPMOSKPRd ONBMUS_g ^KSRB^RKO PKPRBOa]ER:
AB = 10; BC = 15; #D = 20; AD = 30; BD = 10; AC = 20.

$BkBNOB
!JHEGEa]EU NBRHBR_ SB ^KSRB^R_ Ga] JEHOKTK OBHMBSRB HBNUEiESM].










) M P [ S K ^ 5 <EHO_` OBHMBSR HBNUEiESM]

4BREU KJHEGEa]EU NBRHBR_ SB ^KSRB^R_ Ga] ORKHKTK OBHMBSRB HBNUE-
iESM]. &a] kRKTK MNUES]EU HBPJKaKVESME JKGHBNGEaESM`, JHMZaMVB] GH[T
^ GH[T[ RE, ^KRKH_E ^KSRB^RMH[eR UEVG[ PKZK` ZKaEE MSRESPMOSK.
'- = 10q1 = 10
-# = 15q1 = 15
#D = 20q1 = 20
'# = 20q2 = 40
AD = 30q3 = 90
BD = 10q2= 20
____________
195

40
B A D C
15
B A D C
10
30 20
10
20
B C D A
10
B C D A
15
20 30
10
20











) M P [ S K ^ 6 -RKHK` OBHMBSR HBNUEiESM]

&BaEE KJHEGEa]eRP] NBRHBR_ SB ^KSRB^R_ Ga] RHERdETK OBHMBSRB HBN-
UEiESM].











) M P [ S K ^ 7 +HERM` OBHMBSR HBNUEiESM]

AB^ OMGSK MN HBPcERKO, UMSMUBadS_E NBRHBR_ JKa[cES_ JHM PaE-
G[eiE` JKPaEGKOBREadSKPRM HBPJKaKVESM] KRGEaKO: JaBSKO_` KRGEa, Z[g-
TBaREHM], k^KSKUMcEP^M` KRGEa, ^BSfEa]HM]. #aEGKOBREadSK, kRKR OBHMBSR
Z[GER SBMZKaEE kDDE^RMOS_U.

4GYDGQZ PML QJUGYDGIBDVO
1. 1BNKOMRE ^HMREHMM KJHEGEaESM] UEPRB HBNUEiESM] JHEGJHM]RM].
2. 7RK ]Oa]ERP] KPSKOBSMEU JHM KJHEGEaESMM UEPRB HBNUEiESM]
JHEGJHM]RM` JHKMNOKGPROESSK` PDEH_ M PDEH_ [Pa[T?
3. !gBHB^REHMN[`RE UERKG ONOEmMOBSM].
4. AB^ HBPPcMR_OBERP] fESRH THBOMRBfMM?
5. 7RK [cMR_OBeR JHM KJHEGEaESMM UEPRB HBNUEiESM] UERKGKU ^HM-
RMcEP^K` RKc^M?
6. <HMOEGMRE JHMUEH_ HBNUEiESM] KZKH[GKOBSM] JK REgSKaKTMcE-
P^KU[ JHMSfMJ[.
'- = 10q1 = 10
-# = 15q3 = 45
#D = 20q1 = 20
'# = 20q2 = 40
AD = 30q1 = 30
BD = 10q2= 20
______________
165

'- = 10q3 = 30
-# = 15q1 = 15
#D = 20q1 = 20
'# = 20q2 = 40
AD = 30q1 = 30
BD = 10q2= 20
______________
155

41
7. - ^B^Mg Pa[cB]g HBNUEiBeR KZKH[GKOBSM] JK JHMSfMJ[ KZPa[VM-
OBSM] SEJKGOMVSKTK KZjE^RB?
8. &B`RE gBHB^REHMPRM^[ JHMSfMJBU HBfMKSBadSKTK HBNUEiESM]
JKGHBNGEaESM` JHEGJHM]RM].
9. - cEU KPKZESSKPRd JaBSMHKO^M JKUEiESM` JHEGJHM]RM` PDEH_
PEHOMPB?

42
0!?& 8 6$,!<09$,4&*9!
6$,984,#204!**>m ?,S*,20!=

2BUONJDQVGB WJNLXOB 3
9W^`BNOB YDGOWIGPQXIBNNG[ UGlNGQXO YDBPYDOLXOL

4GYDGQZ QBUONJDJ
1. <KS]RME JHKMNOKGPROESSK` UKiSKPRM.
2. )BPcER JHKMNOKGPROESSK` UKiSKPRM.
3. <aBSMHKOBSME JHKMNOKGPROESSK` UKiSKPRM.
4. !ZKPSKOBSME JHKMNOKGPROESSK` UKiSKPRM.

,QNGINZB YGNLXOL OW^`JBUG[ XBUZ
<KS]RME JHKMNOKGPROESSK` UKiSKPRM. )BPcER JHKMNOKGPROESSK`
UKiSKPRM. <aBSMHKOBSME JHKMNOKGPROESSK` UKiSKPRM. !ZKPSKOBSME JHK-
MNOKGPROESSK` UKiSKPRM. <aBSMHKOBSME NBTH[N^M UKiSKPRE`.

0BUJXOVJ DBaBDJXGI
1. AKSfEJfMM JaBSMHKOBSM] UKiSKPRE`.
2. <aBSMHKOBSME NBTH[N^M UKiSKPRE`.
3. <HKJ[P^SB] PJKPKZSKPRd PEHOMPSKTK JHEGJHM]RM].


6DJVXO`BQVGB WJNLXOB 5
,YDBPBMBNOB YDGOWIGPQXIBNNG[ UGlNGQXO YDBPYDOLXOL

8JPJNOB 1. %cMR_OB] PaEG[eiME GBSS_E, KJHEGEaMRE JHKMNOKGPR-
OESS[e UKiSKPRd JHEGJHM]RM], EPaM SB MNTKRKOaESME KGSKTK MNGEaM] [gK-
GMR 8 cBPKO, JHM kRKU MPJKadN[ERP] 6 PRBS^KO. <HEGJHM]RME HBZKRBER 288
GSE` O TKG[, JHEGJHM]RME HBZKRBER O GOE PUES_ JHKGKaVMREadSKPRde 8 cB-
PKO ^BVGB]. <aBSKO_` JHKfESR JKREHd OHEUESM SB HEUKSR KZKH[GKOBSM]
[PRBSKOaES O HBNUEHE 0,5 %.

?BXGPO`BQVOB ^VJWJNOL

<HKMNOKGPROESSB] UKiSKPRd ]Oa]ERP] MPgKGS_U J[S^RKU JaBSMHK-
OBSM] JHKMNOKGPROESSK` JHKTHBUU_ JHEGJHM]RM]. !SB KRHBVBER JKRESfM-
BadS_E OKNUKVSKPRM KZjEGMSESM`, JHEGJHM]RM`, fEgKO JK O_J[P^[ JHK-
G[^fMM. !JHEGEaESME OEaMcMS_ JHKMNOKGPROESSK` UKiSKPRM NBSMUBER OE-
G[iEE UEPRK O O_]OaESMM M KfES^E HENEHOKO JHKMNOKGPROB.
<HKMNOKGPROESSB] UKiSKPRd kRK UB^PMUBadSK OKNUKVS_` O_J[P^
JHKG[^fMM, JHEG[PUKRHESS_` SB PKKROERPRO[eiM` JEHMKG (GE^BG[, UEP]f,
^OBHRBa, TKG) O NBGBSSK` SKUES^aBR[HE M BPPKHRMUESRE P [cERKU KJRMUBad-
43
SKTK MPJKadNKOBSM] SBaMcSKTK KZKH[GKOBSM] M JHKMNOKGPROESS_g JaKiB-
GE`, JHKTHEPPMOSK` REgSKaKTMM, JEHEGKOK` KHTBSMNBfMM JHKMNOKGPROB M
RH[GB.
n^KSKUMcEP^KE KZKPSKOBSME JHKMNOKGPROESSK` UKiSKPRM OBV-
SE`mM` MSPRH[UESR JaBSMHKOBSM] JHKU_maESSKTK JHKMNOKGPROB. 9S_UM
PaKOBUM, kRK JKRESfMBadSB] OKNUKVSKPRd OBaKOKTK O_J[P^B JHKU_maES-
SK` JHKG[^fMM.
<HM DKHUMHKOBSMM JHKMNOKGPROESSK` UKiSKPRM [cMR_OBERP] OaM]-
SME RB^Mg DB^RKHKO, ^B^ SKUES^aBR[HB, BPPKHRMUESR, ^BcEPROK JHKG[^fMM,
JBH^ KPSKOSKTK REgSKaKTMcEP^KTK KZKH[GKOBSM], PHEGSM` OKNHBPR KZKH[-
GKOBSM] M kDDE^RMOS_` TKGKOK` DKSG OHEUESM ETK HBZKR_ JHM [PRBSKO-
aESSKU HEVMUE, [HKOESd PKJH]VESSKPRM JBH^B, HBNUEH JHKMNOKGPROESS_g
JaKiBGE` M R.J.
&a] RKTK, cRKZ_ KJHEGEaMRd JHKMNOKGPROESS[e UKiSKPRd O KZiEU
OMGE, MPJKadN[eR DKHU[a[ (13):

t
F
T =
, (13)


TGE F HBPJKaBTBEU_` DKSG OHEUESM HBZKR_ O JaBSKOKU JEHMKGE, cBPKO;
t RH[GKEU^KPRd EGMSMf_ JHKG[^fMM, cBPKO.

)BPJKaBTBEU_` DKSG OHEUESM O JaBSKOKU JEHMKGE F HBPPcMR_OBERP]
JK DKHU[aE (14):

)
100
1 (
a
s T qD F
9- p
=
, (14)

TGE q cMPaK EGMSMf [PRBSKOaESSKTK KZKH[GKOBSM];
D
p
cMPaK HBZKcMg GSE` O JaBSKOKU JEHMKGE;
T
9-
JHKGKaVMREadSKPRd PUES_, cBPKO;
s cMPaK PUES HBZKR_ KZKH[GKOBSM];
a JaBSKO_` JHKfESR JKREHd OHEUESM SB HEUKSR KZKH[GKOBSM].

6DOUBD
%cMR_OB] PaEG[eiME GBSS_E, KJHEGEaMRE JHKMNOKGPROESS[e UKi-
SKPRd JHEGJHM]RM], EPaM SB MNTKRKOaESME KGSKTK MNGEaM] [gKGMR 4 cBPB,
JHM kRKU MPJKadN[eRP] 3 PRBS^B. <HEGJHM]RME HBZKRBER 350 GSE` O TKG[,
JHEGJHM]RME HBZKRBER O GOE PUES_ JHKGKaVMREadSKPRde 7 cBPKO ^BVGB].
<aBSKO_` JHKfESR JKREHd OHEUESM SB HEUKSR KZKH[GKOBSM] [PRBSKOaES O
HBNUEHE 0,5 %.

44
$BkBNOB
1B JEHOKU kRBJE KJHEGEa]EU DKSG OHEUESM, ^KRKH_U HBPJKaBTBER
JHEGJHM]RME.



+B^MU KZHBNKU, JHEGJHM]RME Ga] MNTKRKOaESM] GBSSKTK MNGEaM] UK-
VER JKRHBRMRd 14 626,5 cBPKO.
&BaEE HBPPcMR_OBEU JHKMNOKGPROESS[e UKiSKPRd.

3657 4 / 5 , 14626 = =
t
F
T


#aEGKOBREadSK, O GBSS_g [PaKOM]g JHEGJHM]RME TKRKOK MNTKRKOMRd
3 657 MNGEaM`.

8JPJNOB 2. !JHEGEaMRE JHKMNOKGPROESS[e UKiSKPRd fEgB, EPaM MN-
OEPRSK, cRK HEVMU HBZKR_ GO[gPUESS_`, JHKGKaVMREadSKPRd PUES_ 8 c.;
HETaBUESRMHKOBSS_E JHKPRKM KZKH[GKOBSM] PKPRBOa]eR 2% KR HEVMUSKTK
DKSGB OHEUESM, cMPaK HBZKcMg GSE` O TKG[ 295. - fEgE NBOKGB RHM TH[JJ_
PRBS^KO: PaEPBHS_g 7 EG.; POEHMadS_g 12 EG.; DHENEHS_g 14 EG. 1KHUB
OHEUESM SB KZHBZKR^[ EGMSMf_ MNGEaM] O ^BVGK` TH[JJE PRBS^KO PKKROER-
PROESSK: 0,7 cBP; 1,1 cBP; 1,0 cBP.

?BXGPO`BQVOB ^VJWJNOL

- JKGKZSKU Pa[cBE HBPcER JHKMNOKGPROESSK` UKiSKPRM KP[iEPROa]-
ERP] JK ^BVGKU[ OMG[ KZKH[GKOBSM], ^B^ kRK JK^BNBSK O JHMUEHE.

6DOUBD
!JHEGEaMRE JHKMNOKGPROESS[e UKiSKPRd fEgB, EPaM MNOEPRSK, cRK
HEVMU HBZKR_ GO[gPUESS_`, JHKGKaVMREadSKPRd PUES_ 8 c.; HETaBUES-
RMHKOBSS_E JHKPRKM KZKH[GKOBSM] PKPRBOa]eR 7% KR HEVMUSKTK DKSGB
OHEUESM, cMPaK HBZKcMg GSE` O TKG[ 255. 9NGEaM] KZHBZBR_OBeRP] JK-
PaEGKOBREadSK SB maMDKOBadSKU, PRHKTBadSKU, HEOKadOEHSKU PRBS^Bg. -
fEgE 5 EG. maMDKOBadS_g PRBS^KO; PRHKTBadS_g 11 EG.; HEOKadOEHS_g 15
EG. 1KHUB OHEUESM SB KZHBZKR^[ EGMSMf_ MNGEaM] O ^BVGK` TH[JJE PRBS-
^KO PKKROERPROESSK: 0,5 cBP; 1,4 cBP; 1,6 cBP.

5 , 14 626 995 , 0 q 2 q 7 q 350 q 3 )
100
5 , 0
1 ( 2 q 7 q 350 q 3 )
100
1 ( = = = =
a
s T qD
F
9- p
45
$BkBNOB
)BPPcMR_OBEU DKSG OHEUESM, ^KRKH_U HBPJKaBTBER JHEGJHM]RME.

. 2 , 794 3 93 , 0 8 2 255 B F = =

!JHEGEa]EU JHKMNOKGPROESS[e UKiSKPRd maMDKOBadS_g PRBS^KO.

. _ 942 37
5 , 0
5 2 , 794 3
)3N T
L?
=

=

!JHEGEa]EU JHKMNOKGPROESS[e UKiSKPRd PRHKTBadS_g PRBS^KO.

. _ 812 29
4 , 1
11 2 , 794 3
)3N T
9'
=

=

!JHEGEa]EU JHKMNOKGPROESS[e UKiSKPRd HEOKadOEHS_g PRBS^KO.

. _ 571 35
6 , 1
15 2 , 794 3
)3N T
"72
=

=

#aEGKOBREadSK, fEg PUKVER O_HBZKRBRd 29 812 MNGEaM`, R.^. [cBPRK^,
KZjEGMS]eiM` PRHKTBadS_E PRBS^M, ]Oa]ERP] [N^MU UEPRKU.

8JPJNOB 3. )BPPcMRB`RE JHKMNOKGPROESS[e UKiSKPRd DBZHM^M JK
O_J[P^[ R^BSM M ^KkDDMfMESR EE MPJKadNKOBSM], EPaM MNOEPRSK, cRK R^Bf-
^B] DBZHM^B HBZKRBER O GOE PUES_, ^KaMcEPROK R^Bf^Mg PRBS^KO SB SBcBaK
TKGB 750. # 1 BJHEa] [PRBSKOaESK 45 PRBS^KO, B 1 BOT[PRB O_Z_aM 32 PRBS^B.
7MPaK HBZKcMg GSE` O TKG[ 260, JaBSKO_` JHKfESR JHKPRKEO SB HEUKSR
PRBS^B 10%, JHKMNOKGMREadSKPRd KGSKTK PRBS^B 7 U R^BSM O cBP, JaBS
O_J[P^B JHKG[^fMM 7 500 R_P. U.

?BXGPO`BQVOB ^VJWJNOL

&a] KJHEGEaESM] PHEGSETK ^KaMcEPROB PRBS^KO, GE`PRO[eiMg O REcE-
SME TKGB, MPJKadN[eR DKHU[a[ (15):

12 12
2J> 2J> )) 22
4 9"
P n P n
n n

+ = , (15)

TGE n
4
^KaMcEPROK EGMSMf KZKH[GKOBSM] SB SBcBaK JEHMKGB;
n
22
) n
2J>
OOKGMU_E M O_Z_OBeiME O REcESME TKGB EGMSMf_ KZKH[GKOBSM]
P
22
) P
2J>
JHKGKaVMREadSKPRd MPJKadNKOBSM] OOKGMU_g M SEMPJKadNKOBSM] O_Z_-
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46
/PaM MNOEPRS_ DKSG OHEUESM (F), JHKMNOKGMREadSKPRd KZKH[GKOBSM]
(<
U
) M ^KaMcEPROK ETK EGMSMf (n), OKNUKVS[e UKiSKPRd JHEGJHM]RM] X
HBPPcMR_OBeR JK DKHU[aE (16):

n F T
-
= (16)

AKkDDMfMESR MPJKadNKOBSM] JHKMNOKGPROESSK` UKiSKPRM HBPPcM-
R_OBERP] JK DKHU[aE (17):

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[
A
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= , (17)

TGE [
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JaBS O_J[P^B JHKG[^fMM.

6DOUBD
)BPPcMRB`RE JHKMNOKGPROESS[e UKiSKPRd DBZHM^M JK O_J[P^[ R^BSM
M ^KkDDMfMESR EE MPJKadNKOBSM], EPaM MNOEPRSK, cRK R^Bf^B] DBZHM^B HB-
ZKRBER O GOE PUES_, JK 6 cBPKO ^BVGB], ^KaMcEPROK R^Bf^Mg PRBS^KO SB SB-
cBaK TKGB 400. # 1 BJHEa] [PRBSKOaESK 60 PRBS^KO, B 1 BOT[PRB O_Z_aM 50
PRBS^KO. 7MPaK HBZKcMg GSE` O TKG[ 260, JaBSKO_` JHKfESR JHKPRKEO SB
HEUKSR PRBS^B 5%, JHKMNOKGMREadSKPRd KGSKTK PRBS^B 4 U R^BSM O cBP,
JaBS O_J[P^B JHKG[^fMM 4 500 R_P. U.

$BkBNOB.
!JHEGEa]EU ^KaMcEPROK PRBS^KO, MPJKadNKOBSSKE SB JHEGJHM]RMM O
REcESME TKGB.

424 21 45 400
12
5 50
12
9 60
400 = + =

+ =
9"
n


)BPPcMRBEU DKSG OHEUESM.

. 964 2 95 , 0 6 2 260 B F = =

!JHEGEa]EU OKNUKVS[e JHKMNOKGPROESS[e UKiSKPRd.

- T 944 026 5 424 964 2 4 = =

)BPPcMR_OBEU ^KkDDMfMESR MPJKadNKOBSM] UKiSKPRM.

89 , 0
944 026 5
000 500 4
= =
)-
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47
+B^MU KZHBNKU, JHKMNOKGPROESSB] UKiSKPRd JHEGJHM]RM] MPJKadN[-
ERP] RKad^K SB 89%.

8JPJNOB 4. )BPPcMRB`RE JHKMNOKGPROESS[e UKiSKPRd UEgBSMcEP^KTK
[cBPR^B KGSKSKUES^aBR[HSKTK JHKMNOKGPROB, [cMR_OB] GBSS_E RBZaMf_ 32.
)EVMU HBZKR_ KGSKPUESS_`, JHKGKaVMREadSKPRd PUES_ 8 c.

+B Z a M f B 3 2 9PgKGS_E GBSS_E Ga] HBPcERB

H[JJB
KZKH[GKOBSM]
AKaMcEPROK
PRBS^KO
#HEGS]] SKHUB
SB ^KUJaE^R, cBP_
-_JKaSESME
SKHU P [a[cmESMEU
KHTREgUEHKJHM]RM`, %
+K^BHSB] 10 120 110
)EOKadOEHSB] 5 25 106
>HENEHSB] 8 300 103
#OEHMadSB] 6 240 107
#RHKTBadSB] 7 275 110
;aMDKOBadSB] 10 140 105

?BXGPO`BQVOB ^VJWJNOL

- JKGKZSKU Pa[cBE HBPcER JHKMNOKGPROESSK` UKiSKPRM KP[iEPROa]-
ERP] RB^, ^B^ kRK JK^BNBSK O JHMUEHE.

6DOUBD
)BPPcMRB`RE JHKMNOKGPROESS[e UKiSKPRd UEgBSMcEP^KTK [cBPR^B
KGSKSKUES^aBR[HSKTK JHKMNOKGPROB, [cMR_OB] GBSS_E RBZaMf_ 33. )EVMU
HBZKR_ GO[gPUESS_`, JHKGKaVMREadSKPRd PUES_ 8 c.

+B Z a M f B 3 3 9PgKGS_E GBSS_E Ga] HBPcERB

H[JJB
KZKH[GKOBSM]
AKaMcEPROK
PRBS^KO
#HEGS]] SKHUB
SB ^KUJaE^R, cBP_
-_JKaSESME
SKHU P [a[cmESMEU
KHTREgUEHKJHM]RM`, %
+K^BHSB] 8 200 105
)EOKadOEHSB] 8 180 108
>HENEHSB] 6 120 110
#OEHMadSB] 4 50 115
#RHKTBadSB] 5 100 103
;aMDKOBadSB] 6 110 107

48
$BkBNOB
&a] HBPcERB JHKMNOKGPROESSK` UKiSKPRM PKPRBOMU RBZaMf[ 34.

+B Z a M f B 3 4 )BPcER JHKMNOKGPROESSK` UKiSKPRM

H[JJB
KZKH[GKOB-
SM]
AK-
aMcE
cE-
PROK
PRBS
^KO
#HEGS]]
SKHUB SB
^KUJaE^R,
cBP_
-_JKaSE-
SME SKHU P
[a[cmESM-
EU KHTREg-
UEHKJHM]-
RM`, %
1KHUB P
[cERKU UE-
HKJHM]RM`
(J.3*100/
J.4)
7BP_
(J.5/J.2)
&SM,
(J.6/(^Ka-OK
PUES * JHK-
GKaVMREad-
SKPRd PUES_))
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+K^BHSB] 8 200 105 190,5 23,8 1,5
)EOKadOEH-
SB]
8 180 108 166,7 20,8 1,3
>HENEHSB] 6 120 110 109,1 18,2 1,1
#OEHMadSB] 4 50 115 43,5 10,9 0,7
#RHKTBadSB] 5 100 103 97,1 19,4 1,2
;aMDK-
OBadSB]
6 110 107 102,8 17,1 1,1

+B^MU KZHBNKU, JHKMNOKGPROESSB] UKiSKPRd PKPRBOa]ER 2 ^KUJaE^RB
NB RHM GS] (1 ^KUJaE^R NB 1,5 GS]). %N^MU UEPRKU O GBSSKU Pa[cBE ]Oa]ERP]
RK^BHSB] TH[JJB. /PaM [OEaMcMRd ^KaMcEPROK PRBS^KO GBSSK` TH[JJ_ MaM
Mg JHKMNOKGMREadSKPRd, UKVSK JHKMNOKGMRd ZKadmEE ^KaMcEPROK JHKG[^-
fMM. /iE KGSMU SBJHBOaESMEU KJRMUMNBfMM UKVER ]Oa]RdP] PK^HBiESME
cMPaB PRBS^KO POEHMadSK`, DHENEHSK`, maMDKOBadSK` TH[JJ_. 9g [UESd-
mESME O 1,3, 2, 1,3 HBNB PKKROERPROESSK SE JKOaM]ER SB KZjEU O_J[P^BEUK`
JHKG[^fMM. 1K JHM kRKU PaEG[ER [cEPRd KZjEU PJHKPB SB JHKG[^fMe.
%UESdmESME ^KaMcEPROB PRBS^KO MUEER PU_Pa O RKU Pa[cBE, ^KTGB MNTKRBO-
aMOBEUB] JHKG[^fM] SE O JKaSK` UEHE HEBaMN[ERP].

4GYDGQZ PML QJUGYDGIBDVO
1. &B`RE JKS]RME JHKMNOKGPROESSK` UKiSKPRM.
2. 1BNKOMRE JKPRK]SS_E PKPRBOa]eiME JHKMNOKGPROESSK` UKiSK-
PRM.
3. - ^B^Mg EGMSMfBg MNUEH]ERP] JHKMNOKGPROESSB] UKiSKPRd?
4. #HBOSMRE JKS]RM] JHKE^RMH[EUB] UKiSKPRd, KVMGBEUB] UKi-
SKPRd, SKHUBRMOSB] UKiSKPRd.
5. AB^ KJHEGEaMRd ^KkDDMfMESR MPJKadNKOBSM] UKiSKPRM?
6. AB^ME OKJHKP_, PO]NBSS_E P JHKMNOKGPROESSK` UKiSKPRde, KRSK-
P]RP] ^ ^KUJERESfMM H[^KOKGMREaE` PRH[^R[HS_g JKGHBNGEaESM`?
7. AB^ME JKREHM ZKadmE KR SEGKNBTH[N^M JHKMNOKGPROESS_g UKi-
SKPRE` MaM KR [J[iESSK` O_TKG_?
49
8. AB^MU KZHBNKU UKVER Z_Rd PKNGBS HENEHO JHKMNOKGPROESSK`
UKiSKPRM?
9. - cEU P[iSKPRd kDDE^RB UBPmRBZB JHKMNOKGPROB?
10. AB^MU KZHBNKU UKT[R Z_Rd PDK^[PMHKOBS_ UKiSKPRM JHEGJHM-
]RM]?
11. AB^ [PRHBSMRd [N^ME UEPRB?
50
0!?& 9 6$,984,#204!**&b 20$;<0;$&

2BUONJDQVGB WJNLXOB 4
9W^`BNOB YDGOWIGPQXIBNNG[ QXD^VX^DZ

4GYDGQZ QBUONJDJ
1. <HKMNOKGPROESSB] PRH[^R[HB JHEGJHM]RM] M EE kaEUESR_.
2. <HMSfMJ_ HBfMKSBadSKTK HBNUEiESM] JKGHBNGEaESM` JHEGJHM-
]RM`.
3. >KHU_ PJEfMBaMNBfMM JKGHBNGEaESM` JHEGJHM]RM`.
4. <HKMNOKGPROESSB] PRH[^R[HB JKGHBNGEaESM` JHEGJHM]RM`.

,QNGINZB YGNLXOL OW^`JBUG[ XBUZ
<KS]RME JHKMNOKGPROESSK` PRH[^R[H_. +MJ_ JHKMNOKGPROESSK`
PRH[^R[H_: JHEGJHM]RM] P JKaS_U M SEJKaS_U REgSKaKTMcEP^MU fM^aKU.
#KPRBO KPSKOS_g M OPJKUKTBREadS_g fEgKO, KZPa[VMOBeiMg gKN]`PRO
JHEGJHM]RM].

0BUJXOVJ DBaBDJXGI
1. AaBPPMDM^BfM] M gBHB^REHMPRM^B JHKMNOKGPROESS_g JKGHBNGEaE-
SM` JHEGJHM]RM].
2. +EgSKaKTMcEP^B] PJEfMBaMNBfM].
3. <HEGUERSB] PJEfMBaMNBfM].

4GYDGQZ PML QJUGYDGIBDVO
1. &B`RE JKS]RME JHKMNOKGPROESSK` PRH[^R[H_.
2. )EmESME ^B^Mg OKJHKPKO SBgKGMRP] O HBU^Bg JKaSKUKcM` SB-
cBadSM^KO PRH[^R[HS_g JKGHBNGEaESM`?
3. AB^ME DB^RKH_ KJHEGEa]eR KPKZESSKPRM JHKMNOKGPROESSK`
PRH[^R[H_?
4. 7RK JHEGPRBOa]ER PKZK` fEg?
5. AB^ME fEgB KRSKP]RP] ^ KPSKOS_U?
6. - cEU NB^aecBeRP] D[S^fMM OPJKUKTBREadS_g fEgKO?
7. <EHEcMPaMRE KZPa[VMOBeiME gKN]`PROB.
8. AB^KO_ SBJHBOaESM] PKOEHmESPROKOBSM] JHKMNOKGPROESSK`
PRH[^R[H_?
9. &B`RE KJHEGEaESME PJEfMBaMNBfMM.
10. <HMOEGMRE JHMUEH_ REgSKaKTMcEP^K` PJEfMBaMNBfMM JHKMNOKG-
PROB.
11. - cEU GKPRKMSPROB JHEGUERSK` PJEfMBaMNBfMM JHKMNOKGPROB?

51
0!?& 10 6$,!<09$,4&*9! 6$,#;<0&
9 4>7,$ 6$,T!22&

2BUONJDQVGB WJNLXOB 5
9W^`BNOB YDG\BQQJ YDGBVXODGIJNOL YDGP^VXJ

4GYDGQZ QBUONJDJ
1. %cER RHEZKOBSM` JKRHEZMREaE` JHM JHKE^RMHKOBSMM JHKG[^RB.
2. 'SBaMN ^KSPRH[^fMM JHKG[^RB SB REgSKaKTMcSKPRd JHKMNOKGPROB.
3. 'SBaMN ZEN[Z_RKcSKPRM.
4. <HKE^RMHKOBSME JHKMNOKGPROESSKTK JKRK^B.
5. <HKE^RMHKOBSME M JHKMNOKGPROK TaKZBadSKTK JHKG[^RB.

,QNGINZB YGNLXOL OW^`JBUG[ XBUZ
<HKE^RMHKOBSME JHKG[^RB. %cER RHEZKOBSM` JKRHEZMREaE` JHM JHK-
E^RMHKOBSMM JHKG[^RB. 'SBaMN ^KSPRH[^fMM JHKG[^RB SB REgSKaKTMcSKPRd
JHKMNOKGPROB. 'SBaMN ZEN[Z_RKcSKPRM. <HKE^RMHKOBSME JHKMNOKGPROESSK-
TK JKRK^B.

0BUJXOVJ DBaBDJXGI
1. <HKG[^RKOK-JHKfEPPSB] UBRHMfB.
2. #RH[^R[HMHKOBSME D[S^fM` ^BcEPROB JHM JHKE^RMHKOBSMM JHKG[^RB.
3. <HKE^RMHKOBSME JHKMNOKGPROESSKTK JKRK^B
4. -MHR[BadS_` NBOKG.
5. AHMREHMM PKOEHmESPROKOBSM] JHKfEPPB PKNGBSMM MNGEaM].


4GYDGQZ PML QJUGYDGIBDVO
1. <EHEcMPaMRE KPSKOS_E DBN_ JHKE^RB PKNGBSM] SKOKTK JHKG[^RB.
2. 7RK JHEGPRBOa]ER PKZK` &KUM^ ^BcEPROB?
3. AB^KOB fEad BSBaMNB M JHKE^RMHKOBSM] fESSKPRM JHKG[^RB?
4. &B`RE KJHEGEaESME ^KSPRH[MHKOBSMe.
5. 1B ^B^KU kRBJE JHKE^RMHKOBSM] JHKG[^RB GKaVES KP[iEPROa]RdP]
BSBaMN ^KSPRH[^fMM JHKG[^RB SB REgSKaKTMcSKPRd JHKMNOKGPROB?
6. - cEU NB^aecBERP] KRaMcME O_ZKHB JHKfEPPB KR ETK JHKE^RMHKOB-
SM]?
7. 7RK JHEGPRBOa]ER PKZK` OMHR[BadS_` NBOKG?
8. AB^ME DB^RKH_ [cMR_OBeRP] JHM O_ZKHE KZKH[GKOBSM]?

52
0!?& 11 ;6$&4(!*9! $!2;$2&?9

6DJVXO`BQVGB WJNLXOB 6
,YDBPBMBNOB YGXDBdNGQXO I DBQ^DQJe. ;YDJIMBNOB WJYJQJUO

4GYDGQZ WJNLXOL
1. !PSKO_ PRHBRETMM HEP[HPKPZEHEVESM].
2. #MPREUB JK^BNBREaE` HEP[HPKEU^KPRM RKOBHB M JHKMNOKGPROB.
3. +EgSMcEP^ME DB^RKH_ HEP[HPKPZEHEVESM].
4. !HTBSMNBfMKSS_E DB^RKH_ HEP[HPKPZEHEVESM].
5. #KfMBadSK-k^KSKUMcEP^ME DB^RKH_ HEP[HPKPZEHEVESM].
6. >[S^fMM aKTMPRM^M O [JHBOaESMM HEP[HPKPZEHEVESMEU.
7. #MPREU_ [JHBOaESM] NBJBPBUM JHM SENBOMPMUKU PJHKPE.
8. #MPREU_ [JHBOaESM] NBJBPBUM JHM NBOMPMUKU PJHKPE.

,QNGINZB YGNLXOL OW^`JBUG[ XBUZ
#RHBRETMM HEP[HPKPZEHEVESM]. -_ZKH PRHBRETMM HEP[HPKPZEHEVESM].
#MPREUB JK^BNBREaE` HEP[HPKEU^KPRM RKOBHB: BZPKaeRS_E, PRH[^R[HS_E,
KRSKPMREadS_E, [GEadS_E.
>B^RKH_ HEP[HPKPZEHEVESM]: REgSMcEP^ME, KHTBSMNBfMKSS_E, PKfM-
BadSK-k^KSKUMcEP^ME. >[S^fMM aKTMPRM^M O [JHBOaESMM HEP[HPKPZEHEVE-
SMEU.
XKGEaM M UERKG_ [JHBOaESM] NBJBPBUM. %JHBOaESME NBJBPBUM JHM
SENBOMPMUKU M NBOMPMUKU PJHKPE. MRP-PMPREU_. #MPREUB [JHBOaESM] NB-
JBPBUM RKcSK O PHK^. !ZiME JHMSfMJ_ JKPRHKESM] PMPREU_ RKcSK O
PHK^. -_R]TMOBeiME M O_RBa^MOBeiME PMPREU_ [JHBOaESM] JHKMN-
OKGPROKU. 9SDKHUBfMKSSB] PMPREUB ^BSZBS.

0BUJXOVJ DBaBDJXGI
1. )EP[HPKEU^KPRd MNGEaM`.
2. nDDE^RMOSKPRd MPJKadNKOBSM] HEP[HPKO.
3. >[S^fMM aKTMPRM^M O [JHBOaESMM HEP[HPKPZEHEVESMEU.
4. #MPREU_ [JHBOaESM] NBJBPBUM (MRP, ERP, JIT).

8JPJNOB 1. !JHEGEaMRE k^KSKUMcS_` HBNUEH NB^BNB, TKGKO_E NBRHBR_
SB gHBSESME ^KUJaE^R[eiMg MNGEaM`, TKGKO_E NBRHBR_ SB NB^BN_ ^KUJaE^-
R[eiMg MNGEaM`, RKc^[ JEHENB^BNB, EPaM MNOEPRSK PaEG[eiEE.
<HEGJHM]RME JEHEHBZBR_OBER 78 000 ^KUJaE^R[eiMg MNGEaM` O TKG.
rHBSESME KGSK` EGMSMf_ ^KUJaE^R[eiMg MNGEaM` KfESMOBERP] O 120 H[Z-
aE`, NBRHBR_ SB KGMS NB^BN PKPRBOa]eR 800 H[ZaE`, JHEGJHM]RME HBZKRBER
260 HBZKcMg GSE` O TKG[. <KPRBOiM^ KZEPJEcMOBER GKPRBO^[ ^KUJaE^R[e-
iMg MNGEaM` SB JHEGJHM]RME O PHEGSEU NB 12 GSE`.
53
?BXGPO`BQVOB ^VJWJNOL

n^KSKUMcS_` HBNUEH NB^BNB R" KJHEGEa]ERP] JK DKHU[aE (18).

H
DS
R"
2
= , (18)

TGE D JKRHEZSKPRd O GERBa]g (P_HdE, ^KUJaE^R[eiMg), EG.;
S NBRHBR_ SB J[P^KSBaBGKcS_E HBZKR_, SB NB^BN, H[Z.;
H NBRHBR_ SB gHBSESME, H[Z.

<K DKHU[aE (19) HBPPcMR_OBeRP] NBRHBR_, SEKZgKGMU_E SB gHBSESME
KJRMUBadSKTK HBNUEHB NB^BNBSSK` JHKG[^fMM (Z
gH
).

H
Op
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F"
2
= , (19)

&a] KJHEGEaESM] NBRHBR, ^KRKH_E SEKZgKGMU_ Ga] JKGTKRKO^M M
KDKHUaESM] NB^BNB (Z
NB^
), MPJKadN[eR DKHU[a[ (20).

S
Op
D
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3$&
= , (20)

1B PaEG[eiEU kRBJE KJHEGEa]eR RKc^[ JEHENB^BNB JK DKHU[aE (21).
nRKR JK^BNBREad JKNOKa]ER KJHEGEaMRd UKUESR, ^KTGB PaEG[ER PGEaBRd PaE-
G[eiM` NB^BN.
L d R = , (21)

TGE d PHEGSEGSEOSB] JKRHEZSKPRd;
L OHEU] O_JKaSESM] NB^BNB.

6DOUBD
!JHEGEaMRE k^KSKUMcS_` HBNUEH NB^BNB, TKGKO_E NBRHBR_ SB gHBSE-
SME ^KUJaE^R[eiMg MNGEaM`, TKGKO_E NBRHBR_ SB NB^BN_ ^KUJaE^R[eiMg
MNGEaM`, RKc^[ JEHENB^BNB, EPaM MNOEPRSK PaEG[eiEE.
<HEGJHM]RME JEHEHBZBR_OBER 5 000 ^KUJaE^R[eiMg MNGEaM` O TKG.
rHBSESME KGSK` EGMSMf_ ^KUJaE^R[eiMg MNGEaM` KfESMOBERP] O 20 H[Z-
aE`, NBRHBR_ SB KGMS NB^BN PKPRBOa]eR 60 H[ZaE`, JHEGJHM]RME HBZKRBER
365 HBZKcMg GSE` O TKG[. <KPRBOiM^ KZEPJEcMOBER GKPRBO^[ ^KUJaE^R[e-
iMg MNGEaM` SB JHEGJHM]RME O PHEGSEU NB 15 GSE`.
54
$BkBNOB
)BPPcMR_OBEU k^KSKUMcS_` HBNUEH NB^BNB.

. 173
20
60 000 5 2
7N R" =

=

&BaEE HBPPcMR_OBEU NBRHBR_, SEKZgKGMU_E SB gHBSESME KJRMUBadSK-
TK HBNUEHB NB^BNBSSK` JHKG[^fMM.
. 730 1 20
2
173
"+> Z
F"
= =
)BPPcMR_OBEU NBRHBR_ SB KDKHUaESME NB^BNB.
. 578 20
173
000 5
"+> Z
3$&
= =
!JHEGEa]EU RKc^[ JEHENB^BNB.
. 205 15
365
000 5
7N R = =

8JPJNOB 2. 9N[cMRd UERKGM^[ MRP HBPcERB.

?BXGPO`BQVOB ^VJWJNOL

XR)-HBPcER JKNOKa]ER KJHEGEaMRd, O ^B^KE OHEU] M O ^B^KU ^KaMcE-
PROE PaEG[ER KHTBSMNKOBRd JHKfEPP JKa[cESM] P_Hd] (^KUJaE^R[eiMg) M
RK, ^KTGB M ^B^ME NB^BN_ PaEG[ER PGEaBRd. - GBSSKU Pa[cBE MUEeRP] O OMG[
SE RKad^K NB^BN_ SB MNTKRKOaESME ^KUJKSESRKO, SK M SB NB^[J^[ P_Hd] MaM
UBREHMBaB JHM SEKZgKGMUKPRM. - JKPaEGSEU Pa[cBE Ga] HBPcERB [cMR_OBER-
P] SE OHEU] MNTKRKOaESM] JBHRMM, B PHK^ EE JKPRBO^M.
&a] NB^[JBEUKTK SB PRKHKSE MNGEaM] HBPcER Z_a Z_ NBOEHmES, SK
Ga] MNTKRBOaMOBEUKTK MNGEaM] BSBaKTMcS_` JaBSKO_` HBPcER GKaVES Z_Rd
PGEaBS JHMUESMREadSK ^K OPEU OgKG]iMU O SETK ^KUJKSESRBU, cRK KJHEGE-
a]ER MEHBHgMcSKPRd MRP-HBPcERB. <HMcEU PHK^M, ^KTGB OKNSM^SER JKRHEZ-
SKPRd O kRMg ^KUJKSESRBg, [^BN_OBeRP] PRHEa^BUM O JKPaEGSE` PRHK^E RBZ-
aMf_ 35.
AHKUE RKTK, HEN[adRBR_ MRP-HBPcERB GBeR MSDKHUBfMe:
Ga] JaBSMHKOBSM] JHKMNOKGPROESSK` UKiSKPRM;
Ga] [PRBSKOaESM] JHMKHMRERKO JHM PKPRBOaESMM HBPJMPBSM` MNTK-
RKOaESM] JBHRM` HBNaMcS_g ^KUJKSESRKO O fEgBg M SB [cBPR^Bg;
Ga] [JHBOaESM] NB^[J^BUM.
A JBHBUERHBU OgKGB O MRP-HBPcER KRSKP]R:
GBSS_E K PRH[^R[HE MNGEaM] M OgKG]iMg O SETK ^KUJKSESRKO;
PJHKP MaM TaBOS_` JaBS-THBDM^ JHKMNOKGPROB;
OEGKUKPRd PKPRBOB ^BVGKTK ^KSEcSKTK MNGEaM];
55
POKZKGS_` KPRBRK^ NBJBPB ^BVGKTK ^KUJKSESRB;
KR^H_R_E HBSEE NB^BN_ SB MNTKRKOaESME MaM NB^[J^[;
PRHBRETM] JaBSMHKOBSM] JKJKaSESM] NBJBPB (JKaMRM^B NB^BNB);
JBHBUERH_ JaBSMHKOBSM] (SBJHMUEH, HBNUEH JBHRM`, HENEHOS_E NB-
JBP_ M PHK^M JKPRBO^M/MNTKRKOaESM] JBHRM`).
<BHBUERH_ O_gKGB MN XR)-HBPcERB O^aecBeR:
SKO_E NB^BN_ SB MNTKRKOaESME MaM NB^[J^[;
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+B Z a M f B 3 5 <HKfEG[HB MRP-HBPcERB

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)BPPcMR_OBEU JKRHEZSKPRd O ^KUJaE^R[eiMg JK SEGEa]U.
1 SEGEa] 40 10 = 30
2 SEGEa] 30 15 = 15
3 SEGEa] 15 20 + 20 = 15
56
4 SEGEa] 15 0 = 15
5 SEGEa] 15 5 = 10
6 SEGEa] 10 15 + 20 = 15
7 SEGEa] 15 15 + 20 = 20
8 SEGEa] 20 10 = 10.
&a] RKTK cRKZ_ KZEPJEcMRd ZEPJEHEZK`SKE JHKMNOKGPROK, SB 2 M 3 SE-
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NB OEPd VMNSESS_` fM^a?
7. # ^B^K` fEade SB JHEGJHM]RMM PKNGBeRP] NBJBP_?
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9. &B`RE KJHEGEaESME NBOMPMUKU[ PJHKP[.
10. AB^ME UERKG_ [JHBOaESM] NBJBPBUM JHMUES]eRP] JHM NBOMPMUKU
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4. <KRKcSKE JHKMNOKGPROK.
5. <KRKcSKE JHKMNOKGPROK EGMSMcS_g MNGEaM`.

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SMcS_g MNGEaM`.
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2. <HEGUERSB] DKHUB KHTBSMNBfMM JHKMNOKGPROB.
3. <H]UKRKcSB] DKHUB KHTBSMNBfMM JHKMNOKGPROB.
4. +KcEcSB] DKHUB KHTBSMNBfMM JHKMNOKGPROB.
5. 9SRETHMHKOBSSB] DKHUB KHTBSMNBfMM JHKMNOKGPROB.

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JHKE^R KHTBSMNBfMM EGMSMcSKTK JHKMNOKGPROB.

?BXGPO`BQVOB ^VJWJNOL

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JBHRM]UM.
%PaKOM] KZPa[VMOBSM] HBZKcMg UEPR KRaMcBeRP] REU, cRK HBZKcME
JKcRM JKPRK]SSK JKadN[eRP] KGSMU SBZKHKU MSPRH[UESRKO M SEZKadmMU
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58
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REcESME PUES_. <KkRKU[ OKNSM^BER SEKZgKGMUKPRd O TMZ^K` KHTBSMNBfMM
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aE` SB KGSK MNGEaME h.
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TGE S
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100
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SBOaMOBERP] J[REU K^H[TaESM] JKa[cESSKTK NSBcESM] GK fEaKTK RB^, cRKZ_
KZiEE ^KaMcEPROK PRBS^KO SE O_gKGMaK NB JHEGEa_ JHMS]RKTK Mg cMPaB.
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2. 50]?$902$4)7 <"0<+9&40K 9<090>409') 0'N7?C4JF +B$9'&02 <0
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1
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JHBOaESMM, ^KRKHKE OEGER ^ NBOEHmESMe MNTKRKOaESM] MNGEaM].

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JHKE^R KHTBSMNBfMM PEHM`SKTK JHKMNOKGPROB.

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61
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TGE S
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P
S
RH[GKEU^KPRd MNTKRKOaESM] GERBaE`, NB^HEJaESS_g NB [cBPR^KU, c;
P
2i
OHEU] KZHBZKR^M i-` GERBaM NB JHEGEaBUM [cBPR^B, c;
k cMPaK GERBaE`, fM^a KZHBZKR^M ^KRKH_g SE NBOEHmBERP] SB GBSSKU [cBPR^E;
A
<.3
^KkDDMfMESR JHKMNOKGPROESSK` NBU^S[RKPRM;
T
ni
OHEU] KZHBZKR^M i-` GERBaM, MNTKRKOa]EUK` SB [cBPR^E JK ^KKJEHBfMM;
m ^KaMcEPROK GERBaE`, JEHEGBSS_g Ga] KZHBZKR^M SB GBSS_` [cBPRK^ JK UEV[cB-
PR^KOK` ^KKJEHBfMM.
63
9SRETHBadS_` JK^BNBREad PREJESM NBU^S[RKPRM A
MSR
HBPPcMR_OBERP]
JK DKHU[aE (35)
b b P )4'
A A A
. .
= . (35)

<HM A
MSR
= 1 JHMUESESME UERKGKO TH[JJKOKTK JHKMNOKGPROB SBMZKaEE
kDDE^RMOSK.
5. D$3"$>0'&$ -$"L"+'40K &$"'J <"0)320N9'27440]0 <"0I799$.
XBHmH[RSB] ^BHRB JHEGPRBOa]ER PKZK` THBDMcEP^KE MNKZHBVESME JKPaEGK-
OBREadSKPRM OPEg KJEHBfM`, O^aecB] JEHEUEiESME UBREHMBaKO M Mg KVMGB-
SME.
6. D$3"$>0'&$ <?$4)"02&) I7F$ (+B$9'&$). <aBSMHKO^B fEgB ([cBPR-
^B) PKPRBOa]ERP] P [cERKU KZiETK SBJHBOaESM] GOMVESM] UBREHMBaKO. 1E-
KZgKGMU_E GBSS_E ZEH[R MN UBHmH[RSK` ^BHR_ JHKMNOKGPROESSKTK JHK-
fEPPB. )BPPRBSKO^B KZKH[GKOBSM] JHKMNOKGMRP] JK P[iEPRO[eiMU SKHUB-
RMOBU P UB^PMUBadS_U PKZaeGESMEU JH]UKRKcSKPRM.

8JPJNOB 3. 9N[cMO MSDKHUBfMe, JHEGPRBOaESS[e O UERKGMcEP^Mg
[^BNBSM]g, HBNHBZKRB`RE PMR[BfMe, HEN[adRBRKU HEmESM] ^KRKHK` PRBa Z_
JHKE^R KHTBSMNBfMM JKRKcSKTK JHKMNOKGPROB.

?BXGPO`BQVOB ^VJWJNOL

XERKG KHTBSMNBfMM JKRKcSKTK JHKMNOKGPROB MPJKadN[ERP] JHM MNTK-
RKOaESMM MNGEaM` KGSKTK SBMUESKOBSM] MaM ^KSPRH[^RMOSKTK H]GB M JHEG-
JKaBTBER PKOK^[JSKPRd PaEG[eiMg PJEfMBadS_g JHMEUKO KHTBSMNBfMKSSK-
TK JKPRHKESM] JHKMNOKGPROESSKTK JHKfEPPB:
HBPJKaKVESME HBZKcMg UEPR JK gKG[ REgSKaKTMcEP^KTK JHKfEPPB;
PJEfMBaMNBfMe ^BVGKTK HBZKcETK UEPRB SB O_JKaSESMM KGSK` MN
KJEHBfM`;
JEHEGBc[ JHEGUERKO RH[GB P KJEHBfMM SB KJEHBfMe JKmR[cSK MaM
UEa^MUM JBHRM]UM PHBN[ VE JKPaE K^KScBSM] KZHBZKR^M;
HMRUMcSKPRd O_J[P^B, PMSgHKSSKPRd KJEHBfM`;
GERBadS[e JHKHBZKR^[ KHTBSMNBfMM REgSMcEP^KTK KZPa[VMOBSM]
HBZKcMg UEPR.
<KRKcS_` UERKG KHTBSMNBfMM UKVSK JHMUES]Rd JHM PKZaeGESMM
PaEG[eiMg [PaKOM`:
KZjEU O_J[P^B JHKG[^fMM GKPRBRKcSK ZKadmK` M SE MNUES]ERP] O
REcESME GaMREadSKTK JEHMKGB OHEUESM;
^KSPRH[^fM] MNGEaM] REgSKaKTMcSB, KRGEadS_E [Na_ M GERBaM
RHBSPJKHRBZEadS_, MNGEaM] UKVSK GEaMRd SB ^KSPRH[^RMOSK-
PZKHKcS_E EGMSMf_, cRK KPKZESSK OBVSK Ga] KHTBSMNBfMM JKRK^B
SB PZKH^E;
64
NBRHBR_ OHEUESM JK KJEHBfM]U UKT[R Z_Rd [PRBSKOaES_ P GKPRBRKc-
SK` RKcSKPRde, PMSgHKSMNMHKOBS_ M POEGES_ ^ EGMSK` OEaMcMSE;
KZEPJEcMOBERP] SEJHEH_OSB] JKGBcB ^ HBZKcMU UEPRBU UBREHMB-
aKO, GERBaE`, PZKHKcS_g [NaKO;
OKNUKVSB JKaSB] NBTH[N^B KZKH[GKOBSM].
!HTBSMNBfM] JKRKcSKTK JHKMNOKGPROB PO]NBSB P JHKOEGESMEU H]GB
HBPcERKO M JKGTKRKOMREadS_g HBZKR. 9PgKGS_U UKUESRKU JHM JHKE^RMHK-
OBSMM JKRKcSKTK JHKMNOKGPROB ]Oa]ERP] KJHEGEaESME KZjEUB O_J[P^B JHK-
G[^fMM M RB^RB JKRK^B. +B^R - kRK JHKUEV[RK^ OHEUESM UEVG[ NBJ[P^KU
(MaM O_J[P^KU) GO[g PUEVS_g MNGEaM` SB aMSMM. !S KJHEGEa]ERP] JK
DKHU[aE (36):

3
_
N
F
r = , (36)

TGE F
N
GE`PROMREadS_` DKSG OHEUESM HBZKR_ aMSMM NB KJHEGEaESS_` JEHMKG (UEP]f,
P[R^M, PUES[) P [cERKU JKREHd SB HEUKSR KZKH[GKOBSM] M HETaBUESRMHKOBSS_g JE-
HEH_OKO, UMS;
N
3
JHKTHBUUB NBJ[P^B NB RKR VE JEHMKG OHEUESM, mR.

-EaMcMSB, KZHBRSB] RB^R[, SBN_OBERP] REUJKU HBZKR_ aMSMM. <HM KH-
TBSMNBfMM JKRKcSKTK JHKMNOKGPROB SEKZgKGMUK KZEPJEcMRd RB^K` REUJ,
cRKZ_ O_JKaSMRd JaBS JK O_J[P^[ JHKG[^fMM.
#aEG[eiMU kRBJKU O KHTBSMNBfMM JKRKcSKTK JHKMNOKGPROB ]Oa]ERP]
KJHEGEaESME JKRHEZSKPRM O KZKH[GKOBSMM. )BPcER ^KaMcEPROB KZKH[GKOB-
SM] KP[iEPROa]ERP] MPgKG] MN cMPaB HBZKcMg UEPR JK KJEHBfM]U JHKfEPPB:

r
t
.
i
= , (37)

TGE . HBPcERSKE cMPaK HBZKcMg UEPR SB KGSK` KJEHBfMM JHKfEPPB;
t
i
SKHUB OHEUESM SB KJEHBfMe P [cERKU [PRBSKO^M, RHBSPJKHRMHKO^M M PS]RM] GE-
RBaE`, UMS.

<HMS]RKE cMPaK HBZKcMg UEPR 1 KJHEGEa]ERP] K^H[TaESMEU HBPcER-
SKTK ^KaMcEPROB GK ZaMVB`mETK fEaKTK cMPaB. <HM kRKU [cMR_OBERP], cRK
SB PRBGMM JHKE^RMHKOBSM] GKJ[P^BERP] JEHETH[N^B O JHEGEaBg 10-12% SB
^BVGKE HBZKcEE UEPRK.
AKkDDMfMESR NBTH[N^M HBZKcMg UEPR AN KJHEGEa]ERP] JK DKHU[aE
(38):
<" " 3
5 5 A = , (38)
65
&a] KZEPJEcESM] JKaSK` NBTH[N^M KZKH[GKOBSM] M SEJHEH_OSKPRM
JHKMNOKGPROESSKTK JHKfEPPB JHM JKRKcSKU JHKMNOKGPROE KP[iEPROa]ERP]
PMSgHKSMNBfM] (O_HBOSMOBSME) KJEHBfM` OK OHEUESM.
!GSK MN KPSKOS_g [PaKOM` SEJHEH_OSK` M HMRUMcSK` HBZKR_ JKRKc-
S_g aMSM` KHTBSMNBfM] UEVKJEHBfMKSSKTK RHBSPJKHRB.
- JKRKcSKU JHKMNOKGPROE RHBSPJKHRS_E PHEGPROB SE RKad^K MPJKad-
N[eRP] Ga] JEHEUEiESM] MNGEaM`, SK M Pa[VBR Ga] HET[aMHKOBSM] RB^RB
HBZKR_ M HBPJHEGEaESM] JHEGUERKO RH[GB UEVG[ JBHBaaEadS_UM HBZKcMUM
UEPRBUM SB aMSMM.
<HMUES]EU_E O JKRKcSKU JHKMNOKGPROE RHBSPJKHRS_E PHEGPROB
UKVSK HBNGEaMRd SB JHMOKGS_E M ZEPJHMOKGS_E SEJHEH_OSKTK M JHEH_O-
SKTK GE`PROM].
1BMZKaEE cBPRK O [PaKOM]g JKRK^B JHMUES]eRP] HBNSKKZHBNS_E JHM-
OKGS_E RHBSPJKHRS_E PHEGPROB-^KSOE`EH_. #^KHKPRd aESR_ ^KSOE`EHB v
JHM SEJHEH_OSKU GOMVESMM HBPPcMR_OBERP] O PKKROERPROMM P RB^RKU JK-
RKcSK` aMSMM:

r
l
v
o
= , (39)

- Pa[cBE JHEH_OSKTK GOMVESM] P^KHKPRd ^KSOE`EHB KJHEGEa]ERP] JK
DKHU[aE (40).

PD
o
t
l
v = , (40)

TGE l
o
HBPPRK]SME UEVG[ fESRHBUM GO[g PUEVS_g HBZKcMg UEPR (mBT ^KSOE`EHB), U;
t
'"
OHEU] RHBSPJKHRMHKOBSM] MNGEaM] P KGSK` KJEHBfM` SB GH[T[e, UMS.

-_ZKH RHBSPJKHRS_g PHEGPRO NBOMPMR KR TBZBHMRS_g HBNUEHKO, OEPB
KZHBZBR_OBEU_g GERBaE`, RMJB M cMPaB KZKH[GKOBSM], OEaMcMS_ RB^RB M
PREJESM PMSgHKSMNBfMM KJEHBfM`.
<HKE^RMHKOBSME JKRK^B NBOEHmBERP] HBNHBZKR^K` HBfMKSBadSK` JaB-
SMHKO^M aMSMM. <HM JaBSMHKO^E SEKZgKGMUK PKZaeGBRd PaEG[eiME RHEZK-
OBSM]:
JHEG[PUKRHERd [GKZS_E JKGgKG_ ^ HBZKcMU UEPRBU Ga] HEUKSRB M
KZPa[VMOBSM] aMSMM;
KZEPJEcMRd SEJHEH_OS[e RHBSPJKHRMHKO^[ GERBaE` ^ HBNaMcS_U
HBZKcMU UEPRBU SB aMSMM;
O_GEaMRd JaKiBG^M Ga] SB^KJaESM] NBGEaB M JKGgKG_ ^ SMU;
JHEG[PUKRHERd SB aMSMM HBZKcME UEPRB Ga] O_JKaSESM] ^KSRHKad-
S_g KJEHBfM`.

66
4GYDGQZ PML QJUGYDGIBDVO
1. &B`RE KJHEGEaESME RMJ[ JHKMNOKGPROB.
2. !gBHB^REHMN[`RE EGMSMcSKE JHKMNOKGPROK.
3. 1BNKOMRE cEHR_, gBHB^REHS_E Ga] PEHM`SKTK JHKMNOKGPROB.
4. &B`RE gBHB^REHMPRM^[ UBPPKOKU[ JHKMNOKGPRO[.
5. 7RK JHEGPRBOa]ER PKZK` JKRKcSKE JHKMNOKGPROK?
6. AB^ KJHEGEa]ERP] M cRK GEUKSPRHMH[ER ^KkDDMfMESR NB^HEJaESM]
KJEHBfM`?
7. <HM ^B^KU RMJE JHKMNOKGPROB ^KSRHKad ^BcEPROB KP[iEPROa]ERP]
JK KRSKmESMe ^ ^BVGKU[ MNGEaMe MSGMOMG[BadSK?
8. &B`RE KJHEGEaESME DKHUE KHTBSMNBfMM JHKMNOKGPROB.
9. <EHEcMPaMRE OHEUESS_E PRH[^R[H_ KHTBSMNBfMM JHKMNOKGPROB.
10. 1BNKOMRE JHKPRHBSPROESS_E PRH[^R[H_ KHTBSMNBfMM JHKMNOKGPROB.
11. - cEU KPKZESSKPRM MSRETHMHKOBSSK` DKHU_ JHKMNOKGPROB?

67
0!?& 13 6$,984,#204!**>= 6$,T!22

2BUONJDQVGB WJNLXOB 6
9W^`BNOB XBGDBXO`BQVOe JQYBVXGI YDGOWIGPQXIBNNGFG YDG\BQQJ

4GYDGQZ QBUONJDJ
1. -MG_ JHKfEPPKO.
2. <HKMNOKGPROESS_` JHKfEPP M ETK PRH[^R[HB.
3. )BZKcM` fESRH M ETK PRHKESME P RKc^M NHESM] kaEUESRSKTK, D[S^-
fMKSBadSKTK M KHTBSMNBfMKSSKTK PKPRBOB.
4. <HMSfMJ_ HBfMKSBadSK` KHTBSMNBfMM JHKMNOKGPROESSKTK JHKfEPPB.
5. !PKZESSKPRM PRHBRETMM JHKfEPPB O PEHOMPE.

,QNGINZB YGNLXOL OW^`JBUG[ XBUZ
<HKMNOKGPROESS_` JHKfEPP M ETK PRH[^R[HB. AaBPPMDM^BfM] OMGKO
JHKMNOKGPROESS_g JHKfEPPKO. -MG_ JHKfEPPKO: JHKfEPP_ JEHEHBZKR^M,
JHKfEPP_ MNTKRKOaESM], PZKHKcS_E JHKfEPP_, JHKfEPP_ REPRMHKOBSM]. )B-
ZKcM` fESRH M ETK PRHKESME P RKc^M NHESM] kaEUESRSKTK, D[S^fMKSBadSKTK
M KHTBSMNBfMKSSKTK PKPRBOB.
<HMSfMJ_ HBfMKSBadSK` KHTBSMNBfMM JHKMNOKGPROESSKTK JHKfEPPB:
PJEfMBaMNBfM], JBHBaaEadSKPRd, SEJHEH_OSKPRd, JHKJKHfMKSBadSKPRd,
JH]UKRKcSKPRd, HMRUMcSKPRd, MSRETHBRMOSKPRd, TMZ^KPRd, BGBJRMOSKPRd.
!PKZESSKPRM PRHBRETMM JHKfEPPB O PEHOMPE.

0BUJXOVJ DBaBDJXGI
1. +H[GKOK` JHKfEPP.
2. <KOEGEScEP^ME BPJE^R_ O JHKE^RMHKOBSMM RH[GKOKTK JHKfEPPB.
3. >MNMKaKTMcEP^ME BPJE^R_ O JHKE^RMHKOBSMM RH[GKOKTK JHKfEPPB.
4. 9NUEHESME M SKHUMHKOBSME RH[GB.
5. XERKG_ RH[GB.


6DJVXO`BQVGB WJNLXOB 8
9W^`BNOB YDJVXO`BQVOe JQYBVXGI YDGOWIGPQXIBNNGFG YDG\BQQJ

8JPJNOB 1. %cMR_OB] GBSS_E, JHEGPRBOaESS_E O RBZaMfE 36, HBPPcM-
RB`RE SKHU[ OHEUESM, SEKZgKGMUKTK Ga] ^KSRHKa] ^BcEPROB MNGEaM] ', M
KJHEGEaMRE ^KaMcEPROK ^KSRHKaEHKO !+A, SEKZgKGMUKTK Ga] ^KSRHKa] ETK
^BcEPROB.
<aBSMH[EU_` O_J[P^ MNGEaM] r 500 mR. O UEP]f
#HEGSEUEP]cSB] SKHUB OHEUESM SB KGSKTK HBZKRBeiETK 155 cBP.
- MNGEaMM GOE GERBaM ', GOE GERBaM -, 4 GERBaM #.

68
+B Z a M f B 3 6 &BSS_E Ga] HBPcERKO

1BMUESKOBSME GERBaE`
M KJEHBfM`
% ^KSRHKa] KR KZiETK
^KaMcEPROB GERBaE`
SKHUB OHEUESM
^KSRHKa] SB 1 GERBad, cBP
#BXJMh &
1 100 0,2
2 50 0,8
3 5 0,7
4 25 0,6
#BXJMh 7
1 100 0,8
2 100 0,5
3 100 0,9
4 20 1,5
#BXJMh 2
1 50 0,35
2 25 0,4
3 15 0,8
4 100 0,25
5 40 2

?BXGPO`BQVOB ^VJWJNOL

<HM O_JKaSESMM NBGBSM] PaEG[ER H[^KOKGPROKOBRdP] UERKGM^K`,
JHEGPRBOaESSK` O JHMUEHE.

6DOUBD
%cMR_OB] GBSS_E, JHEGPRBOaESS_E O RBZaMfE 37, HBPPcMRB`RE SKHU[
OHEUESM, SEKZgKGMUKTK Ga] ^KSRHKa] ^BcEPROB MNGEaM] ', M KJHEGEaMRE
^KaMcEPROK ^KSRHKaEHKO !+A, SEKZgKGMUKTK Ga] ^KSRHKa] ETK ^BcEPROB.
<aBSMH[EU_` O_J[P^ MNGEaM] r 1 000 mR. O UEP]f.
#HEGSEUEP]cSB] SKHUB OHEUESM SB KGSKTK HBZKRBeiETK 155 cBP.
- MNGEaMM GOE GERBaM ', GOE GERBaM 3.

$BkBNOB
-PETK Ga] MNTKRKOaESM] 1 000 MNGEaM` r SEKZgKGMUK 2 000 GERBaE`
', 2 000 GERBaE` 3. 1EKZgKGMUKE ^KaMcEPROK OHEUESM Ga] ^KSRHKa] ^BcE-
PROB HBPPcMRBSK JHM JKUKiM RBZaMf_ 37.
69
+B Z a M f B 3 7 &BSS_E Ga] HBPcERKO

1BMUESKOBSME
GERBaE`
M KJEHBfM`
% ^KSRHKa]
KR KZiETK
^KaMcEPROB
GERBaE`
^Ka-OK GERBaE`
JKGaEVBiMg ^KSRHKae,
mR. (J.2*^Ka-OK GERB-
aE`/100)
SKHUB OHEUESM
^KSRHKa] SB 1
GERBad, cBP.
SKHUB
OHEUESM
^KSRHKa]
SB OPe
KJEHB-
fMe, cBP.
(J.3*J.4)
1 2 3 4 5
#BXJMh &
1 15 300 0,02 6
2 100 2 000 0,025 50
3 5 100 0,02 2
4 15 300 0,028 8,4
#BXJMh 7
1 20 400 0,025 10
2 15 300 0,028 8,4
3 100 2000 0,032 64
4 10 200 0,025 5
90,.,: - - - 153,8

!JHEGEa]EU SEKZgKGMUKE ^KaMcEPROK ^KSRHKaEHKO JK DKHU[aE (41).

"
0
P
P
c = , (41)
TGE c ^KaMcEPROK HBZKRSM^KO,
P
0
SKHUB OHEUESM SB O_JKaSESME OPEg KJEHBfM`;
P
"
SKHUB OHEUESM SB KGSKTK HBZKRSM^B.

1 99 , 0
155
8 , 153
= = c

&a] KP[iEPROaESM] ^KSRHKa] SEKZgKGMU 1 ^KSRHKaEH.


8JPJNOB 2. <HKBSBaMNMH[`RE, SBP^Kad^K HBfMKSBadSK KHTBSMNKOBS
JHKMNOKGPROESS_` JHKfEPP JK MNTKRKOaESMe KZ[OM, EPaM MNOEPRSK:
JaBS JHKMNOKGPROB O_JKaSES JKaSKPRde;
KZiB] JHKGKaVMREadSKPRd JHKfEPPB PKPRBOa]ER 14 cBPKO, OHEU]
JEHEH_OKO JHM kRKU HBOSK 60 UMS;
UB^PMUBadSB] JHKMNOKGPROESSB] UKiSKPRd KGSK` MN TH[JJ KZKH[-
GKOBSM] HBOSB 45 MNGEaM]U, UMSMUBadSB] 12 MNGEaM]U;
KJRMUBadSB] GaMSB J[RM GOMVESM] MNGEaM] HBOSB 1,5 ^U, DB^RMcE-
P^B] 2,3 ^U;
70
JaBSKO_` KZjEU HBZKR O UEP]f PKPRBOa]ER 520 MNGEaM`, JHM kRKU
O_JKaSESME JaBSKOKTK NBGBSM] KP[iEPROa]aKPd PaEG[eiMU KZHB-
NKU: JEHO_` UEP]f 480 MNGEaM`, ORKHK` UEP]f 540, RHERM` UE-
P]f 380, cEROEHR_` UEP]f 680 .

?BXGPO`BQVOB ^VJWJNOL

-_JKaSESME GBSSKTK NBGBSM] JHEGJKaBTBER HBPcER M BSBaMN KJHEGE-
aESS_g ^KkDDMfMESRKO.
AKkDDMfMESR SEJHEH_OSKPRM gBHB^REHMN[ER PREJESd PKOUEiESM] JHK-
fEPPKO OK OHEUESM, R.E. KGSKOHEUESSKPRd O_JKaSESM] HBNaMcS_g cBPRMcS_g
MaM JKaS_g HBZKcMg JHKfEPPKO. &a] HBPcERB MPJKadN[ERP] DKHU[aB (42).

0
"$>
47<"
P
P
A = , (42)

TGE P
"$>
JHKGKaVMREadSKPRd HBZKcETK OHEUESM;
P0

KZiB] JHKGKaVMREadSKPRd JHKfEPPB, O^aecB] OPE JEHEH_O_.

AKkDDMfMESR JHKJKHfMKSBadSKPRM JK^BN_OBER, SBP^Kad^K PZBaBSPM-
HKOBSB JHKJ[P^SB] PJKPKZSKPRd OPEg JKPaEGKOBREadS_g NOESdEO REgSKaK-
TMcEP^KTK JHKfEPPB, fEJM M kaEUESRKO HEP[HPSKTK KZEPJEcESM]. <HM HBPcE-
RE GBSSKTK ^KkDDMfMESRB MPJKadN[eR DKHU[a[ (42).

max
min
M
T
A
<"
= , (42)

TGE T
min
UMSMUBadSB] JHKJ[P^SB] PJKPKZSKPRd (UKiSKPRd, HBNH]G, KZjEU ^KaMcEPROK
MSDKHUBfMM);
M
max
UB^PMUBadSB] JHKJ[P^SB] PJKPKZSKPRd;

#REJESd KZEPJEcESM] ^HBRcB`mETK J[RM PaEGKOBSM] JHEGUERB JK HBZK-
cMU JKNMfM]U, ZEN OKNOHBRS_g M OPRHEcS_g JEHEUEiESM`, ZEN MNaMmSMg
JEHEPEcESM` UBHmH[RKO gBHB^REHMN[ERP] ^KkDDMfMESRKU JH]UKRKcSKPRM,
^KRKH_` KJHEGEa]ERP] JK DKHU[aE (43).

=
i
a
i
0<'
i
<"
_
_
A 1, (43)

TGE _
i
0<'
KJRMUBadSB] GaMSB JHKgKVGESM] JHEGUERB JK I-U[ JHKfEPP[;
_
i
a
DB^RMcEP^B] GaMSB JHKgKVGESM] JHEGUERB JK I-U[ JHKfEPP[.
71
AKkDDMfMESR HMRUMcSKPRM, gBHB^REHMN[eiM` HBOSKUEHSKPRd O_-
JKaSESM] JHKfEPPKO OK OHEUESM, HBPPcMR_OBeR JK DKHU[aE (44).
i
<
i
a
")'-
V
V
A

=
(44)


TGE V
i
<
JaBSKO_` KZjEU HBZKR;
V
i
a
DB^RMcEP^M` KZjEU O_JKaSESSK` HBZKR_ NB BSBaMNMH[EU_` JEHMKG O JHEGE-
aBg JaBSB (PO_mE JaBSB SE [cMR_OBERP]);

8JPJNOB 3. <HKBSBaMNMH[`RE, SBP^Kad^K HBfMKSBadSK KHTBSMNKOBS
JHKMNOKGPROESS_` JHKfEPP JK MNTKRKOaESMe ^KSGMREHP^Mg MNGEaM`, EPaM
MNOEPRSK:
JaBS JHKMNOKGPROB O_JKaSES JKaSKPRde;
KZiB] JHKGKaVMREadSKPRd JHKfEPPB PKPRBOa]ER 2 cBPB, OHEU] JE-
HEH_OKO JHM kRKU HBOSK 12 UMS;
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4. <HMUESESME D[S^fMKSBadSK-PRKMUKPRSKTK BSBaMNB Ga] HBPcERB
PEZEPRKMUKPRM JHKG[^fMM.

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G[eiME GBSS_E:
NBRHBR_ SB JHKMNOKGPROK PKPRBOa]eR 452 360 R_P. H[Z.;
MNUESESME KPRBR^B JK PcER[ )BPgKG_ Z[G[iMg JEHMKGKO 890
R_P. H[Z.;
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?BXGPO`BQVOB ^VJWJNOL

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85
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<K^BNBREaM
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4BRHBR_ SB JHKMNOKGPROK 26 040
9NUESESME KPRBR^B JK PcER[ )BPgKG_ Z[G[iMg JEHMKGKO +190
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JaBREVE`
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<HKMNOKGPROESSB] PEZEPRKMUKPRd JHKG[^fMM PKPRBOMR
26 040-190-610+250 = 25 280 R_P. H[Z.

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6. 'UKHRMNBfM] KPSKOS_g DKSGKO 872 767
7. <HKcME HBPgKG_ 20 661 19 862
8. 9N KZiE` P[UU_ NBRHBR SB JHKMNOKGPROK KRSKPMRP]
SB SEJHKMNOKGPROESS_E PcERB
190 200
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+120 +130
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)ENEHO JHEGPRK]iMg HBPgKGKO M JaBREVE`
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a[DBZHM^BRKO, MSPRH[UESRKO, SE O^aecBEU_g O
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?BXGPO`BQVOB ^VJWJNOL

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6. - cEU P[Rd JKJHKfEPPSK` PMPREU_ ^Bad^[a]fMM?
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