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SUBSONIC AERODYNAMICS OF AEROSPACE VEHICLES

SUDIP DAS

LECTURER

DEPARTMENT OF SPACE ENGINEERING & ROCKETRY

BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY: MESRA

AEROPLANE IN STEADY FLIGHT


AIR IS FLOWING PAST THE AIRCRAFT
PILOT

AIRCRAFT IS MOVING INTO STILL AIR


OBSERVER

MUTUAL EFFECTS OF THE AIR AND THE AEROPLANE

AERODYNAMIC PROBLEMS

FLOW OF A STREAM OF FLUID PAST A BODY AT REST

TYPES OF FLOW

LOW DENSITY AND FREE MOLECULAR FLOW

AERODYNAMICS
CONTINUUM FLOW

CONTINUUM FLOW

VISCOUS FLOW

INVISCID FLOW

COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW

SUBSONIC FLOW SUPERSONIC FLOW TRANSONIC FLOW HYPERSONIC FLOW

SMOOTH & STREAMLINED FLOW COMMERCIAL, TRAINING, SMALL AIRCRAFTS PARTIALLY SUPERSONIC/SUBSONIC FLOW FIGHTERS, MODERN AIRCRAFTS

VISCOUS INTERACTION CHEMICALLY REACTING EFFECTS DOMINATE THE FLOW REENTRY VEHICLES, TRANSATMOSPHERIC VEHICLES, FUTURE AEROSPACE VEHICLES

PRESENCE OF SHOCK WAVES PROPERTIES AND STREAMLINES CHANGE DISCONTINUOUSLY FIGHTERS, MISSILES

LOW SPEED WIND TUNNELS

1 2 P1 V1 P2 < P1 V2 > V1 P1 V1 1

P1
P2 > P1 V2 < V1

P2 V2 A2 A1

V1

Convergent Duct

Divergent Duct

p Minimum pressure

V1

2( P 1P 2)

[( A1 / A2 )2 1]

A LOW SPEED WIND TUNNEL IS A LARGE VENTURI

AIRFLOW IS DRIVEN BY A FAN

WIND TUNNELS ARE GROUND BASED EXPERIMENTAL FACILITIES DESIGNED TO PRODUCE FLOWS OF AIR IN THE LABORATORY WHICH SIMULATE THE ACTUAL FLIGHT IN THE ATMOSPHERE
OPEN CIRCUIT WIND TUNNELS CLOSED CIRCUIT

OPEN CIRCUIT WIND TUNNEL


P1 P2 V 2 A2 P3 V3 A3

Fan

DRAWS AIR FROM ATMOSPHERE AND EXHAUSTS OUT TO THE ATMOSPHERE

V1 A1

Motor

Settling Chamber (reservoir)

Nozzle

Test Section

Diffuser

Motor

CLOSED CIRCUIT WIND TUNNEL

Fan

Nozzle

Test Section

Diffuser

AIR FROM EXHAUST IS RETURNED TO THE FRONT OF THE TUNNEL VIA A CLOSED DUCT FORMING A LOOP

P1 V1 A1

P2 V2

P3 V3 A3

PLANFORM OF A WING
Direction of Flight

Le
Wing Tip

ng adi

e edg
Root Cr

L.E

Fuselage Side

T.E

e Trailing edg
S b

CT

WING SPAN WING SEMI SPAN TIP CHORD

b s CT

ASPECT RATIO

WING SPAN / MEAN CHORD SPAN 2 / WING AREA

SWEEP BACK

LE

TE

ROOT CHORD
TAPER RATIO MEAN CHORD

Cr
CT/ Cr WING AREA / WING SPAN SG / b

WING SECTION [ AEROFOIL ]

Y X

Y Ys Ys Chord X

Upper surface Yu Yl Lower surface

Symmetrical fairing
Leading edge Thickness Mean Camber Line Chord Line Camber Trailing edge Chord C

Cambered aerofoil
Yu = Ys + Yc Yl = Ys - Yc

Yc

Camber Line
ANGLE BETWEEN CHORD AND FLIGHT DIRECTION

INCIDENCE (ANGLE OF ATTACK) TWIST WASH IN WASH OUT

WINGDIFFERENT SECTION GEOMETRY AEROFOIL SECTIONS HAVING ANGLES OF INCIDENCE FOR A WING
INCREASING INCIDENCE TOWARDS THE TIP DECREASING INCIDENCE TOWARDS THE TIP

AERODYNAMIC FORCES AND MOMENTS


Cross Wind Force
L

Y Camber Line M Pitching moment Lift L Drag D


W W V

High speed level flight

Climbing flight
L

Lr Rolling Moment X

N Yawing Moment
V

Low speed level flight

Banked circling flight

DEPENDENT VARIABLE AERODYNAMIC FORCE VARY WITH INDEPENDENT VARIABLES F = f [ STREAM SPEED V, BODY SIZE D, FLUID DENSITY , KINEMATIC VISCOSITY , BULK ELASTICITY K ] FROM DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS FLOW GEOMETRICALLY SIMILAR

F/V2D2 = f [ VD/ ; M ]

RAYLEIGHS EQUATION

ESSENTIAL FOR WIND TUNNEL EXPERIMENTS

LOW SUBSONIC FLOWS

REYNOLDS NUMBER - ONLY CRITERION FOR DYNAMIC SIMILARITY

THE QUANTITY

F/V2D2 IS A NONDIMENSIONAL QUANTITY AND

IT IS CONVENTIONAL TO USE (1/2) V2 IN PLACE OF V2 AND IS CALLED DYNAMIC PRESSURE..

NON DIMENSIONAL AERODYNAMIC FORCE COEFFICIENT :

CF = F / [0.5 V2 S]

NON DIMENSIONAL LIFT COEFFICIENT :

CL = LIFT / [0.5 V2 S]
CD = DRAG / [0.5 V2 S] CM = M / [0.5 V2 S.C]

NON DIMENSIONAL DRAG COEFFICIENT :

NON DIMENSIONAL MOMENT COEFFICIENT :

NON DIMENSIONAL PRESSURE COEFFICIENT :

CP = (LOCAL STREAM PRESSURE ) / [0.5 V2 ]

PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION ON AN AEROFOIL

ZERO DEGREE INCIDENCE

FIFTEEN DEGREE INCIDENCE

Zero degree incidence


CP IS POSITIVE +ve CP CP IS NEGATIVE

AT HIGHER INCIDENCE THE LIFT IS DUE TO PRESSURE REDUCTION ON THE UPPER SURFACE AND PRESSURE INCREASE ON THE LOWER SURFACE CP +ve

Fifteen degree incidence

X/C

X/C

-ve

-ve

TYPES OF DRAG [ RESIST THE MOTION OF THE BODY THROUGH BULK OF FLUID] TOTAL DRAG = RATE OF DECREASE OF MOMENTUM IN A DIRECTION PARALLEL TO FREESTREAM SURFACE FRICTION DRAG = > FROM RESOLVED COMPONENTS OF THE TANGENTIAL STRESSES ON THE SURFACE OF THE BODY. > GRIP DUE TO VISCOSITY > ALSO CALLED SKIN FRICTION DRAG

INDUCED DRAG = DRAG DUE TO LIFT


WAVE DRAG = DRAG ASSOCIATED WITH SHOCK WAVES IN HIGH SPEED FLIGHT FORM DRAG = [BOUNDARY LAYER NORMAL PRESSURE DRAG ] DRAG DUE TO VORTICES PROFILE DRAG = > DRAG ASSOCIATED WITH LOSSES OF TOTAL PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE IN THE BOUNDARY LAYER > SUM OF SKIN FRICTION DRAG & FORM DRAG

COEFFICIENT OF LIFT Vs INCIDENCE

1.4

ORDINARY ANGLES OF FLIGHT

CL

STALLING ANGLE

stalling angle is where the lift coefficient is maximum and beyond this angle airflow becomes separated instead of streamlined

15O

INCIDENCE

THE DRAG CURVE

0.3

ORDINARY ANGLES OF FLIGHT

CD
DUE TO TURBULENCE

STALLING ANGLE

INCIDENCE

15O

THE LIFT / DRAG RATIO

24

L/D

MOST EFFICIENT ANGLE

STALLING ANGLE

INCIDENCE

15O