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Solutions Manual

for

Microwave Engineering
4th edition

David Pozar
April 2011

Chapter 1
This is an open-ended question where the focus of the answer may be largely chosen by
1.1 the student or the instructor. Some of the relevant historical developments related to the
early days of radio are listed here (as cited from T. S. Sarkar, R. J. Mailloux, A. A. Oliner, M.
Salazar-Palma, and D. Sengupta, History of Wireless, Wiley, N.J., 2006):
1865: James Clerk Maxwell published his work on the unification of electric and magnetic
phenomenon, including the introduction of the displacement current and the theoretical
prediction of EM wave propagation.
1872: Mahlon Loomis, a dentist, was issued US Patent 129,971 for aerial telegraphy by
employing an aerial used to radiate or receive pulsations caused by producing a disturbance in
the electrical equilibrium of the atmosphere. This sounds a lot like radio, but in fact Loomis was
not using an RF source, instead relying on static electricity in the atmosphere. Strictly speaking
this method does not involve a propagating EM wave. It was not a practical system.
1887-1888: Heinrich Hertz studied Maxwells equations and experimentally verified EM wave
propagation using spark gap sources with dipole and loop antennas.
1893: Nikola Tesla demonstrated a wireless system with tuned circuits in the transmitter and
receiver, with a spark gap source.
1895: Marconi transmitted and received a coded message over a distance of 1.75 miles in Italy.
1894: Oliver Lodge demonstrated wireless transmission of Morse code over a distance of 60 m,
using coupled induction coils. This method relied on the inductive coupling between the two
coils, and did not involve a propagating EM wave.
1897: Marconi was issued a British Patent 12,039 for wireless telegraphy.
1901: Marconi achieved the first trans-Atlantic wireless transmission.
1943: The US Supreme Court invalidated Marconis 1904 US patent on tuning using resonant
circuits as being superseded by prior art of Tesla, Lodge, and Braun.
So it is clear that many workers contributed to the development of wireless technology during
this time period, and that Marconi was not the first to develop a wireless system that relied on the
propagation of electromagnetic waves. On the other hand, Marconi was very successful at
making radio practical and commercially viable, for both shipping and land-based services.

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Chapter 2
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Chapter 3
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Chapter 4
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Chapter 5
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Chapter 6
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Chapter 7
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Chapter 8
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Chapter 9
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Chapter 10
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Chapter 11
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Chapter 12
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Chapter 13
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Chapter 14
14.1
Data on satellite fading at L-band in various environments can be found in Handbook of
Propagation Effects for Vehicular and Personal Mobile Satellite Systems, by J. Goldhirsh and
W. Vogel, and in Satellite Systems for Personal and Broadband Communications, by E. Lutz,
M. Werner, and A. Jahn, as well as from various other sources. Typically, one can expect fading
levels of 15 to 20 dB for domestic and commercial buildings, for 95% link availability. For
vehicles, the fading levels can be 20 dB or more. On the other hand, a line-of-sight system (as
when the handset is used outdoors with little or no blockage to the satellite) would require a link
margin of 0 dB in principal, although a few dB of margin would provide a more robust system.
In view of this data, it is not clear why the Iridium system was designed with a link margin of 16
dB.

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