This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
• Session 14: (22nd March 2009)
– Circuits and wiring
• (Previous) Session 13: (15th March 2009)
– Isolation and protection
B.Sc.Engineering [Electronics and Telecommunication (special) 1st class honors] Moratuwa, AMIE(SL), MIET(UK), MIEEE(US)
Power supplies: Outline
• Function of a power supply • Half wave rectifier as power supply • Full-wave rectifier
• Centre-tapped transformer type full-wave rectifier • Bridge type full-wave rectifier
• Need to regulate the output voltage of a power supply
• Zener diode regulator
. large load at the output requires higher current from the power supply and vice versa. . DC/AC. • In an electrical circuit a power supply performs the following functions • Provide required type of input waveform • E.Function of a power supply • Power supplies are an integral component of all electric devices or appliances. frequency • Maintain output voltage when output load varies • Maintain output voltage when input voltage varies • Terminology: What is output load? • Output load is the current requirement of the target device.e.g. continuas/pulsating.. i.
Half wave rectifier as power supply • Half wave rectifier converts an input AC waveform in to pulsating DC to be fed into the load • Use of a reservoir capacitor in parallel is to smooth this pulsating voltage before being fed into load. .
. the full-wave rectifier converts both the half-waves into DC form.Full wave rectifier as power supply • Full wave rectifier converts an input AC waveform in to pulsating DC to be fed into the load • As opposed to half-wave rectifier.
Centre tapped transformer type full-wave rectifier • Two diodes perform half-wave rectification of the two half-cycles taken over the two ends of the centre-tapped transformer. .
.Bridge type full-wave rectifier • The diode arrangement is also called Wheatstone bridge.
g. the power supply is required to remain stable and make sure that a constant voltage is provided to the output load. Zener-diode regulator .. • E.Regulation of output voltage of a power supply • When the output load varies and when the voltage of the input energy source varies. • The power supplies that achieves this function is also called regulated power supplies or regulated power supplies.
Electrical cables .
Electrical cables: Outline • Different constructions of electrical tables • Applications of different types of electrical cables • Identification of different cables by the colour of insulation .
Construction of electrical cables Single-strand conductor (unshielded) cable Single-cored (unshielded) cable Armored cable Co-axial cable Multi-strand conductor (unshielded) cable Multi-cored (unshielded) cable Twisted-pair cables .
2mm diameter). • Heat dissipation is difficult. 16/0.6mm (i.g. • Typical specification: 1/0.2mm (24 strands of 0. maximum current 3A.1mm (55 strands of 0.5A.4A.e..1mm diameter). • Multi-strand cables: • This consists of many fine strands of wire covered by an outer plastic coating.1mm (10 strands of 0. It can be bent to shape but will break if repeatedly flexed. 7/0. maximum current 6A. 55/0.Applications of electrical cables • Single-strand cables: • One solid wire in a plastic coating available in a wide variety of colours. . wires outside cases to sensors and switches. maximum current 4.2mm diameter).5A.2mm (16 strands of 0.1mm diameter). • Used for connections which will not be disturbed.8A. 24/0. • It is flexible and can withstand repeated bending without breaking therefore used for connections that may be disturbed. 1 strand of 0.6mm diameter) maximum current 1.. for example links between points of a circuit board. maximum current 0. used for test leads. maximum current 1. • Typical specifications: 10/0.2mm (7 strands of 0. E.2mm diameter).
• The live and neutral are colour code insulated. connection of the consumer unit to the meter. The earth is not insulated. All three are then sheathed in a protective layer... E. 3-cored) these may have solid conductors or separate strands twisted together to provide flexibility for longer cable installations.Applications of electrical cables • Single-cored cables: • Single core cable is mostly used for industrial applications where it is run in conduits. • Cables with more than 3-cores are only used in special signal applications.e. used for supplementary earth bonding. Connecting driven unit to the Company’s earth connection. • In domestic wiring it is only used in specific applications. Insulation must be provided for the earth conductor when it is exposed to make connections. • Multi-cored cables: • Often referred to as ‘twin and earth’ (i.g. E.. .g. they are rarely used for electrical power related maters.
and although connected to earth ground is not intended to carry current during normal operation. . or a corrugated tape wrapped around it..Applications of electrical cables • Twisted-pair cables: • Used for signaling applications • Advantage is that due to twisting of the pairs the capacitance and inductance effects do not cause any differential mode noise on signals • Co-axial cables: • Used for signaling applications • E. antenna cables • Armoured cables: • Cables for direct burial or for exposed installations include metal armor in the form of wires spiralled around the cable.g. • The armor may be made of steel or aluminum.
determining the cross-sectional size • Environmental conditions such as temperature. and mechanical impact.Applications of electrical cables • Different types of electrical cables have varied applications • Distribution and supply • Domestic and industrial applications • Flexible leads • The construction of electrical cables is determined by three main factors: • Working voltage. determining the thickness of the insulation • Current-carrying capacity. chemical or sunlight exposure. determining the form and composition of the outer cable jacket. . water.
Applications of electrical cables Distribution and supply (either three-phase or single phase): • • • • • Installed in-air. due to high voltage) Shielding armor used if not in-air installations to provide protection . no heat dissipation problem High voltage operation Large current capacity required Reliability and durability are concerns Therefore: • • • • Have multi-strands (high current capacity) No insulation (if in high-rise installations in-air) Thick insulation (if in-doors.
lighting and sockets) • Have Always insulated • Shielding armor not used generally.. earth wire) and single-strand (e. heat dissipation is problematic Moderate voltages and currents Safety is a major concern Therefore: • Have both multi-strand (high current capacity.g. environmental hardships are no major threat . eg..Applications of electrical cables Domestic and industrial applications: • • • • • Cost is a major limiting factor Installed dusts.
such as for portable equipment.Applications of electrical cables Flexible leads: • All electrical cables are somewhat flexible. • Where applications require a cable to be moved repeatedly. not solid core conductors • Insulation made to be able to withstand repeated flexing • Sheaths included to support withstand the forces of repeated flexing and abrasion. allowing them to be shipped to installation sites wound on reels or drums. more flexible cables called "cords“. machine tools and in robotics. • Very flexible power cables are used in automated machinery. • Heavy duty flexible power cords such as those feeding a mine face cutting machine are carefully engineered—their life is measured in weeks. . • Flexible cords contain fine stranded conductors. "flex“ or “flexible leads” are used.
Identification of cable in an installation by the color of insulation IEE(UK) electrical cable colour scheme .
Isolation and protection .
Isolation and protection: Outline • Need for isolation and over-load protection in electrical circuits • Connecting isolating and over–load protection devices • Operation of over-load protection devices • • • • • Timing requirements of over-load protection devices Rewirable fuses Cartridge fuses Circuit breakers Residual current devices • Use of residual current devices for protection in nonearthed applications .
e.Need for isolation and protection • In electrical engineering. protecting the electrical appliances from damage due excessively large currents. .. isolation. generally refers to over-current protection. means the ability to couple one circuit to another without the use of direct wire connections. protection. • Isolation is required in electrical circuits in order to protect the installation from the supply surges. • In electrical engineering. • Protection is required because the variations in the supply-side and in the load resistance can cause excessively large currents on the conducting wires. i.
come into action within a very short time period after the over-current. the isolation and over-current protection devices have to be connected to the live-phase in an electrical circuit. • The over-current protection devices must act fast. i. but ensure saftey of installation against hard events. • temporarily events: e.e. Over currents can be either. starting current of a motor • hard events: internal short circuit • The response time of protection device must not trigger due to reasonable temporary events. .g.Connecting isolation and protection devices in an electrical circuit • At all times...
Over-load protection devices • Various types of over-load protection devices: Fuses Automotive fuses Cartridge fuse Typical Industrialgrade fuse Rewirable fuse Plug fuse .
Domestic 2-pole Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB) 3 pole trip circuit breaker used in 3phase industrial supply 3-pole 1. Unlike a fuse.Over-load protection devices • Circuit breaker is a protective device that opens a circuit upon sensing a current overload. it can be reset.2kA 115kV circuit breaker at a distribution station MCB is constructed operate by magnetic means .
Over-load protection devices Residual current device (RCD) is a protective device that cuts off current very quickly when a fault in an appliance or installation causes a small current to flow through the earth conductor. Residual Current Circuit Breaker (RCCB). a common RCD .
If a fault develops. The electromagnets are no longer balanced. no current flows to earth. so the current in the live wire is the same as the current in the neutral wire. .Over-load protection devices Operation of a residual current device (RCD) The earth is connected through a coil in the trip switch. a current flows to earth. A typical domestic RCD is tripped by an earth current of 30MA. When an appliance that is operating correctly. The current in the neutral is now less than the current in the live. so the switch is tripped. In an RCD these currents flow through two opposed electromagnets which are balanced as long as the 2 currents are the same. This cuts off current to the faulty appliance.
in non-earthed devices as in portable applications. residual current device (RCD) are compulsory. . RCDs have to be used in the supply.Over-load protection devices • In non-earthed installations. • Therefore. • The reason is that both fuses and circuit breakers can not detect leakage currents properly in a non-earthed situation.
Circuits and wiring .
Circuits and wiring: Outline • Circuit diagrams and wiring diagrams • Lighting circuits • Single-way switching • Two-way switching • Intermediate switching • Power circuits • Radial supplies • Ring mains • spurs .
Diagrams used in electrical wiring • For design. communication and testing purposes electrical engineers use various types of drawings: • Line diagrams (used in electrical design calculations mostly) • Wiring diagrams (Used for demonstration and communication purposes) • Circuit diagram (less in electrical engineering and more in electronic circuits) A line diagram used in design of protection circuits in an electrical installation .
Lighting circuits: One-way switching Wiring diagram .
Lighting circuits: Two-way switching Wiring diagram .
Lighting circuits: Intermediate switching Wiring diagram .
. or are too long. As for ring circuits. danger can occur if flexible cords are too small in cross-section. or if 3A fuses are not used where appropriate.Power circuits: Radial supplies Wiring diagram • Radial circuits can be especially economic in a long building where the completion of a ring to the far end could effectively double the length of cable used.
• This design enables the use of smaller-diameter wire than would be used in a radial of equivalent total current. the dividing point between them dependent on the distribution of load in the ring.Power circuits: Ring mains Wiring diagram • Ring mains provide two independent conductors for live. • If the load is evenly split across the two directions the current in each direction is half of the total. neutral and protective earth within a building for each connected load or socket. the ring acts like two radial circuits proceeding in opposite directions around the ring. • Ideally. allowing the use of wire with half the current-carrying capacity. .
That is only one spur per socket is allowed and the number of spurs must not exceed the number of sockets. providing that socket does not already have a spur. on either a ring main or a radial circuit.Power circuits: Spurs Wiring diagram • Spur adds an additional socket outlet to an existing circuit. • A spur can be connected to an existing socket. .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.