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• Session 14: (22nd March 2009)
– Circuits and wiring
• (Previous) Session 13: (15th March 2009)
– Isolation and protection
B.Sc.Engineering [Electronics and Telecommunication (special) 1st class honors] Moratuwa, AMIE(SL), MIET(UK), MIEEE(US)
Power supplies: Outline
• Function of a power supply • Half wave rectifier as power supply • Full-wave rectifier
• Centre-tapped transformer type full-wave rectifier • Bridge type full-wave rectifier
• Need to regulate the output voltage of a power supply
• Zener diode regulator
. frequency • Maintain output voltage when output load varies • Maintain output voltage when input voltage varies • Terminology: What is output load? • Output load is the current requirement of the target device. i.g.e. continuas/pulsating. . large load at the output requires higher current from the power supply and vice versa. • In an electrical circuit a power supply performs the following functions • Provide required type of input waveform • E.Function of a power supply • Power supplies are an integral component of all electric devices or appliances.. DC/AC.
Half wave rectifier as power supply • Half wave rectifier converts an input AC waveform in to pulsating DC to be fed into the load • Use of a reservoir capacitor in parallel is to smooth this pulsating voltage before being fed into load. .
the full-wave rectifier converts both the half-waves into DC form. .Full wave rectifier as power supply • Full wave rectifier converts an input AC waveform in to pulsating DC to be fed into the load • As opposed to half-wave rectifier.
Centre tapped transformer type full-wave rectifier • Two diodes perform half-wave rectification of the two half-cycles taken over the two ends of the centre-tapped transformer. .
.Bridge type full-wave rectifier • The diode arrangement is also called Wheatstone bridge.
. Zener-diode regulator .g. • E. • The power supplies that achieves this function is also called regulated power supplies or regulated power supplies. the power supply is required to remain stable and make sure that a constant voltage is provided to the output load.Regulation of output voltage of a power supply • When the output load varies and when the voltage of the input energy source varies.
Electrical cables .
Electrical cables: Outline • Different constructions of electrical tables • Applications of different types of electrical cables • Identification of different cables by the colour of insulation .
Construction of electrical cables Single-strand conductor (unshielded) cable Single-cored (unshielded) cable Armored cable Co-axial cable Multi-strand conductor (unshielded) cable Multi-cored (unshielded) cable Twisted-pair cables .
Applications of electrical cables • Single-strand cables: • One solid wire in a plastic coating available in a wide variety of colours. for example links between points of a circuit board. 24/0. used for test leads. • Multi-strand cables: • This consists of many fine strands of wire covered by an outer plastic coating. • Typical specifications: 10/0.1mm diameter). maximum current 3A.4A. maximum current 0. • Heat dissipation is difficult. • It is flexible and can withstand repeated bending without breaking therefore used for connections that may be disturbed. • Used for connections which will not be disturbed. maximum current 6A.1mm (55 strands of 0. • Typical specification: 1/0.e. E.2mm diameter)..2mm diameter).5A.2mm diameter). maximum current 1. 7/0.2mm (16 strands of 0.g. maximum current 4.2mm (7 strands of 0.6mm diameter) maximum current 1. It can be bent to shape but will break if repeatedly flexed. 55/0.1mm (10 strands of 0. 16/0..5A.1mm diameter).2mm (24 strands of 0. .6mm (i.8A. 1 strand of 0. wires outside cases to sensors and switches.
E. 3-cored) these may have solid conductors or separate strands twisted together to provide flexibility for longer cable installations.e. The earth is not insulated. Insulation must be provided for the earth conductor when it is exposed to make connections. • The live and neutral are colour code insulated. • Multi-cored cables: • Often referred to as ‘twin and earth’ (i.g. used for supplementary earth bonding. Connecting driven unit to the Company’s earth connection. • Cables with more than 3-cores are only used in special signal applications.g. All three are then sheathed in a protective layer. • In domestic wiring it is only used in specific applications...Applications of electrical cables • Single-cored cables: • Single core cable is mostly used for industrial applications where it is run in conduits.. E. . connection of the consumer unit to the meter. they are rarely used for electrical power related maters.
Applications of electrical cables • Twisted-pair cables: • Used for signaling applications • Advantage is that due to twisting of the pairs the capacitance and inductance effects do not cause any differential mode noise on signals • Co-axial cables: • Used for signaling applications • E. antenna cables • Armoured cables: • Cables for direct burial or for exposed installations include metal armor in the form of wires spiralled around the cable.g. or a corrugated tape wrapped around it. .. • The armor may be made of steel or aluminum. and although connected to earth ground is not intended to carry current during normal operation.
water. determining the form and composition of the outer cable jacket. determining the thickness of the insulation • Current-carrying capacity. and mechanical impact.Applications of electrical cables • Different types of electrical cables have varied applications • Distribution and supply • Domestic and industrial applications • Flexible leads • The construction of electrical cables is determined by three main factors: • Working voltage. . determining the cross-sectional size • Environmental conditions such as temperature. chemical or sunlight exposure.
no heat dissipation problem High voltage operation Large current capacity required Reliability and durability are concerns Therefore: • • • • Have multi-strands (high current capacity) No insulation (if in high-rise installations in-air) Thick insulation (if in-doors. due to high voltage) Shielding armor used if not in-air installations to provide protection .Applications of electrical cables Distribution and supply (either three-phase or single phase): • • • • • Installed in-air.
. eg.Applications of electrical cables Domestic and industrial applications: • • • • • Cost is a major limiting factor Installed dusts..g. environmental hardships are no major threat . earth wire) and single-strand (e. lighting and sockets) • Have Always insulated • Shielding armor not used generally. heat dissipation is problematic Moderate voltages and currents Safety is a major concern Therefore: • Have both multi-strand (high current capacity.
more flexible cables called "cords“. "flex“ or “flexible leads” are used. • Heavy duty flexible power cords such as those feeding a mine face cutting machine are carefully engineered—their life is measured in weeks.Applications of electrical cables Flexible leads: • All electrical cables are somewhat flexible. • Flexible cords contain fine stranded conductors. . machine tools and in robotics. allowing them to be shipped to installation sites wound on reels or drums. • Very flexible power cables are used in automated machinery. not solid core conductors • Insulation made to be able to withstand repeated flexing • Sheaths included to support withstand the forces of repeated flexing and abrasion. • Where applications require a cable to be moved repeatedly. such as for portable equipment.
Identification of cable in an installation by the color of insulation IEE(UK) electrical cable colour scheme .
Isolation and protection .
Isolation and protection: Outline • Need for isolation and over-load protection in electrical circuits • Connecting isolating and over–load protection devices • Operation of over-load protection devices • • • • • Timing requirements of over-load protection devices Rewirable fuses Cartridge fuses Circuit breakers Residual current devices • Use of residual current devices for protection in nonearthed applications .
• Isolation is required in electrical circuits in order to protect the installation from the supply surges. • Protection is required because the variations in the supply-side and in the load resistance can cause excessively large currents on the conducting wires. isolation. protection. means the ability to couple one circuit to another without the use of direct wire connections. generally refers to over-current protection. ..Need for isolation and protection • In electrical engineering. protecting the electrical appliances from damage due excessively large currents. • In electrical engineering. i.e.
• temporarily events: e.. .g. i. come into action within a very short time period after the over-current.e.Connecting isolation and protection devices in an electrical circuit • At all times. but ensure saftey of installation against hard events.. starting current of a motor • hard events: internal short circuit • The response time of protection device must not trigger due to reasonable temporary events. the isolation and over-current protection devices have to be connected to the live-phase in an electrical circuit. • The over-current protection devices must act fast. Over currents can be either.
Over-load protection devices • Various types of over-load protection devices: Fuses Automotive fuses Cartridge fuse Typical Industrialgrade fuse Rewirable fuse Plug fuse .
it can be reset.Over-load protection devices • Circuit breaker is a protective device that opens a circuit upon sensing a current overload. Unlike a fuse. Domestic 2-pole Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB) 3 pole trip circuit breaker used in 3phase industrial supply 3-pole 1.2kA 115kV circuit breaker at a distribution station MCB is constructed operate by magnetic means .
a common RCD .Over-load protection devices Residual current device (RCD) is a protective device that cuts off current very quickly when a fault in an appliance or installation causes a small current to flow through the earth conductor. Residual Current Circuit Breaker (RCCB).
so the current in the live wire is the same as the current in the neutral wire.Over-load protection devices Operation of a residual current device (RCD) The earth is connected through a coil in the trip switch. If a fault develops. no current flows to earth. This cuts off current to the faulty appliance. The current in the neutral is now less than the current in the live. A typical domestic RCD is tripped by an earth current of 30MA. In an RCD these currents flow through two opposed electromagnets which are balanced as long as the 2 currents are the same. . The electromagnets are no longer balanced. When an appliance that is operating correctly. a current flows to earth. so the switch is tripped.
in non-earthed devices as in portable applications. RCDs have to be used in the supply. • The reason is that both fuses and circuit breakers can not detect leakage currents properly in a non-earthed situation. .Over-load protection devices • In non-earthed installations. residual current device (RCD) are compulsory. • Therefore.
Circuits and wiring .
Circuits and wiring: Outline • Circuit diagrams and wiring diagrams • Lighting circuits • Single-way switching • Two-way switching • Intermediate switching • Power circuits • Radial supplies • Ring mains • spurs .
communication and testing purposes electrical engineers use various types of drawings: • Line diagrams (used in electrical design calculations mostly) • Wiring diagrams (Used for demonstration and communication purposes) • Circuit diagram (less in electrical engineering and more in electronic circuits) A line diagram used in design of protection circuits in an electrical installation .Diagrams used in electrical wiring • For design.
Lighting circuits: One-way switching Wiring diagram .
Lighting circuits: Two-way switching Wiring diagram .
Lighting circuits: Intermediate switching Wiring diagram .
or are too long. danger can occur if flexible cords are too small in cross-section. As for ring circuits.Power circuits: Radial supplies Wiring diagram • Radial circuits can be especially economic in a long building where the completion of a ring to the far end could effectively double the length of cable used. or if 3A fuses are not used where appropriate. .
. • This design enables the use of smaller-diameter wire than would be used in a radial of equivalent total current. • If the load is evenly split across the two directions the current in each direction is half of the total. • Ideally. the dividing point between them dependent on the distribution of load in the ring. allowing the use of wire with half the current-carrying capacity. the ring acts like two radial circuits proceeding in opposite directions around the ring.Power circuits: Ring mains Wiring diagram • Ring mains provide two independent conductors for live. neutral and protective earth within a building for each connected load or socket.
on either a ring main or a radial circuit. • A spur can be connected to an existing socket. . providing that socket does not already have a spur. That is only one spur per socket is allowed and the number of spurs must not exceed the number of sockets.Power circuits: Spurs Wiring diagram • Spur adds an additional socket outlet to an existing circuit.
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