History and Development of Nursing Profession

Presented By Aswathy Krishnan MSc Nursing,(2008-2010) Bombay Hospital College of Nursing

Why study History

Looking Back gives you a vision of where you want to go Provides an understanding of the heritage behind Nursing as a career Highlights the contributions of eminent and inspirational nurses towards development of the nursing profession

Ancient civilizations & Nursing

Illness earlier was seen as “magic”, “sin” or “punishment” During 700-600 B.C Sushruta Samhita was written by the great surgeon Sushruta, who said

"the physician, the patient, the drugs and the nurse are four feet of `Padas' of the medicine, upon which the cure depends".

The first nursing school started in India in 250 B.C. during Charaka's time and only men were considered pure enough to be nurses. Other civilisations as Egyptians, Babylonians, Hebrews, Greeks and Romans also shows evidences of nursing care.

Ancient civilizations & Nursing

The earliest references to women as nurses is to be found in the Old testament (500 BC)

And they journeyed from Bethel; and… she had hard labour. And it came to pass, when she was in hard labour, that the midwife said unto her, Fear not; thou shall have this son . (Genesis 35).

Hippocrates in the 5th century BC known as “Father of Medicine”
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Hippocratic oath is from him Developed system of assessment, observation, record keeping Developed terms prognosis, diagnosis, cure

Early Christian Era (AD 60)

Women began nursing as an expression of Christianity (acts of mercy) Women were recognized as important members of community Phoebe—considered the first Deaconess and visiting nurse Fabiola—was a wealthy Christian in Rome and founded the first public hospital in Rome Paula -was a friend of Fabiola. She devoted herself for the services of the sick. She built a hospital for strangers, pilgrims, and travellers and for the sick. She constructed a monastery in Bethlehem. They gave good nursing care for the sick.

Middle Ages(AD 476 – 1475)

Throughout the middle ages, care was provided primarily by religious orders to sick and poor. The monasteries became the places of education, medical care and nursing.

Knight Hospitaliers of St. John’s of Jerusalem cared for the injured on the battle field —their symbol: a bright, Red Cross. Knights organized nursing care Some of nurses were nuns and deaconess.

Rennaisance(1500AD – 1850AD) - The dark period of nursing.

Rise of Protestantism meant that many Catholic monasteries offering nursing care and medicine was closed down. Nursing ceased to be valued as an intellectual endeavour it lost much of its economic support and social status The Protestants viewed the woman's place as being in the home raising children. Hence nurses of this period consists of
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Wayward” women of low status who became “nurses” instead of going to jail Women of ill repute Poor, single women with no family or hope of marriage

DAWN OF MODERN NURSING.

Pastor Theodur Fliedner opened the Kaiserwerth Deaconess Institute—the first REAL nursing school

Its most famous student:

Florence Nightingale
(1820-1910)

Florence Nightingale

“Mother of Modern Nursing” Went to Kaiserwerth for 3 months On Oct. 21, 1854, left with 38 women for the Crimean War— British casualties were high; within 6 months, death rate cut in half Made rounds at night with a lamp “Lady of the Lamp”

Her accomplishments at Crimea in two years included
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Death rate decreased drastically She established cleanliness and sanitation rules Patients received special diets and plenty of food Improved water supply Patients received proper nursing care Nightingale established a reputation which allowed her to improve nursing standards at home

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Florence Nightingale

Nightingale established nursing school at St. Thomas’ Hospital, London upon return By 1887, Nightingale had her nurses working in six countries and U.S. Nightingale developed basic philosophy re: the profession of nursing different from other existing programs Nightingale was a nurse, philosopher, statistician, historian Today Nightingale is considered the founder of modern nursing

NURSING IN MODERN INDIA

Military nursing was the earliest type of nursing. Florence Nightingale had a great influence over nursing in India especially in the army. St Stephens Hospital at Delhi was the first one to begin training the Indian girls as nurses in 1867. 1871, the first School of Nursing was started in Government General Hospital, Madras. 1897, Dr.B.C.Roy did great work in raising the standards of nursing and that of male and female nurses.

NURSING IN MODERN INDIA

1908, the trained nurses association of India was formed In 1926, Madras State formed the first registration council The first four year basic Bachelor Degree program were established in 1946 at the college of nursing in Delhi and Vellore. The Indian Nursing Council was passed by ordinance on December 31st 1947. The council was constituted in 1949. First master’s degree course, a two-year postgraduate program was begun in 1960 at the College of Nursing, Delhi. 1963, the School of Nursing in Trivandrum, instituted the first two years post certificate Bachelor Degree program.

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