Zac © 2013 Developmental Assessment Developmental Assessment  Gross motor skills refer to the use of the large muscles

of the body;  Fine motor skills refer to the use of small muscles of the hands;  Cognition means the use of higher mental processes including thinking, memory, and learning;  Language refers to the comprehension and production of meaningful symbolic communication;  Social and emotional functioning refers to emotional reactions to events and interactions with others Standardized screening methods,  on parental reports. o Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ), second edition, o Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS),  elicit behaviour from the child o Denver Developmental Screening Test o Battelle Developmental Inventory (BDI-2) The Denver Developmental Screening Test II is commonly used by general pediatricians (Figs. 8 -1 and 8-2). The Denver II assesses the development of children from birth to 6 years of age in four domains:  Personal-social  Fine motor-adaptive  Language  Gross motor Causes of delayed in Development Gross Motor Development Global developmental delay 1. Genetic syndromes and chromosomal abnormalities 2. Brain morphologic abnormalities 3. Endocrine deficiencies – hypothyroidism, prolonged hypoglycaemia 4. Neurodegenerative diseases 5. Congenital infections 6. Idiopathic mental retardation

Motor Dysfunction 1. CNS damage – kernicterus, birth injury, neonatal stroke, trauma, prolonged seizures, metabolic insult, infection 2. Spinal cord dysfunction – Werdnig-Hoffmann disease, myelomenigocele, polio 3. Peripheral nerve dysfunction – brachial plexus injury, heritable neuropathies 4. Motor end-plate dysfunction – myasthenia gravis 5. Muscular disorders – muscular dystrophies 6. Benign congenital hypotonia

Motor intact but otherwise restricted 1. Congenital malformations – bony or soft tissue defects 2. Diminished energy supply – chronic illness, severe malnutrition 3. Environmental deprivation – casted, nonweight bearing 4. Familial and genetic endowment – slower myelination 5. Sensory deficits – blindness 6. Temperamental effect – low activity level, slow to try new tasks 7. Trauma – child abuse

Gross Motor Development Observe Age 2 months 6 months 12 months Early Reflex Patterns Primitive Reflexes and Protective Equilibrium Responses Reflex Appears Disappear Hand grasp Birth 3 months Moro Birth 4 months response development of cortical functioning

Method Cradled in arms Sitting with minimal support on surface Cruising or toddling

elicited   can occur spontaneously after a loud noise  abrupt extension of the infant’s neck  Allowing the infant's head gently to move back suddenly (from a few inches off the mattress).    placing the infant supine turning the head to the side.

Result   symmetrical abduction and extension of the arms with extension of the trunk  followed by adduction and flexion.  frequently is accompanied by crying

Interpretation evaluate the integrity of the central nervous system and to detect peripheral problems, such as congenital musculoskeletal abnormalities neural plexus injuries.

Crossed adductor Asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR)

Birth 2 weeks to 4 weeks Not often seen immediately after birth, when the newborn has high flexor tone throughout the body, Birth

7 months 6 months

   ipsilateral extension of the arm and the leg into a "fencing" position. The contralateral side flexes as well. A new-born’s limb motions are strongly influenced by head position first steps in the coordination of vision and reaching 1

Toe grasp

8 – 15 months

Disclaimer: NOT INTENDED FOR PROFIT. FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. Plagiarism not intended. I do not own any of the materials. I only compile various resources. Credits goes to the textbook authors, lecturers and friends. Peer reviews and corrections are encouraged. These notes are used as a brief insight only and DO NOT REPLACE a good textbook. USE AT YOU OWN RISK . ISAAC 2013

or in a cephalocaudal progression. Asymmetrical tonic neck refl ex (ATNR).Head righting 4-6 months Persists voluntarily Protective equilibrium Parachute 4-6 months 8-9 months Persists voluntarily Persists voluntarily Elicited in a sitting infant by abruptly but gently pushing the infant’s centre of gravity past the midline in one of the horizontal planes. I do not own any of the materials.5 months) 4 Year old 5 Years old Cruising / Supported standing Walking three steps alone Walks Throw a ball balance on one foot Hop Cathing Ball Development sufficient control of shoulder and upper trunk musculature to prop up on the arms requires control of the lumbar spine and hip region pulling with upper arms and passive dragging of the legs voluntary control moves to the hips and legs. Flexion of the arm and leg on the occipital side and extension on the chin side create the “fencer position. Plagiarism not intended. Second phase of the Moro response. These notes are used as a brief insight only and DO NOT REPLACE a good textbook. accompanied by crying. lecturers and friends. Peer reviews and corrections are encouraged. an outreached hand and limb away from the force. USE AT YOU OWN RISK .  the body is abruptly moved head first in a downward direction    Zac © 2013 Developmental Assessment infant’s ability to keep increased trunk flexor the head vertical despite tone toward the force a tilt of the body. plus a decrease in flexor tone. Credits goes to the textbook authors.‖ 2 Disclaimer: NOT INTENDED FOR PROFIT. I only compile various resources. outstretching of both arms and legs demonstrates the integrity of the sensations and motor responses of the central nervous system Antigravity Muscular Control Control Development Head  neck flexors allow head control control  develops in an organized fashion. remains in a tightly flexed position and can simply turn the face from side to side along the bed sheets. ISAAC 2013 . holding their heads upright only briefly when supported in a sitting position In prone position. Evolution of trunk control down the thoracic spine can also be observed with the infant in a sitting position Neonate minimal control of the neck flexors. Symmetrical adduction and flexion of the extremities. paralleling neuronal myelination Trunk Control and Sitting   Progressive control of the shoulders and upper trunk in the first few months of life. FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. Symmetrical abduction and extension of the extremities follow a loud noise or an abrupt change in the infant’s head position. Infant the head lags behind the arms and shoulders Hold the chest off the bed with the weight supported on the forearms 5 to 6 months Anticipates the direction of movement of the pullto-sit manoeuvre and flexes the neck before the shoulders begin to lift lumbar lordotic curve can be seen when the child is standing Development of locomotion Age Method 3 to 4 months Prone-to-supine rolling 5 to 6 months Supine-to-prone rolling 5 to 6 months Early commando crawling 6 to 9 Months Creeping 9 to 10 months 9 to 17 months 13 ½ months 22 Months (1 yr 10 mth) 36 Months (1.. the child is capable of getting up on the hands and knees. from head to toe. assuming a quadruped position Increased control to the feet and disappearance of the plantar grasp Moro response Moro Reflex First phase of the Moro response.

At 5 to 6 months the child anticipates the movement and raises the head before the shoulders. At 1 to 2 months of age the head is held up intermittently. Peer reviews and corrections are encouraged. lecturers and friends. I only compile various resources. the infant keeps the pelvis fl at and lifts the head and shoulders. support in the lumbar area is required to sit. but trunk control is lacking. At 1 month of age the head lags after the shoulders. 3 Disclaimer: NOT INTENDED FOR PROFIT. the infant extends the hips and pulls the shoulders slightly.Zac © 2013 Developmental Assessment Head control Development of head control on the pull-tosit manoeuvre. The newborn lies tightly flexed with the pelvis high and the knees under the abdomen. Plagiarism not intended. These notes are used as a brief insight only and DO NOT REPLACE a good textbook. B. Development of posture in prone A. Credits goes to the textbook authors. Development of sitting posture A. he fl exes his trunk toward the force to regain his center of gravity while one arm extends to protect against falling (lateral propping). I do not own any of the materials. USE AT YOU OWN RISK . At 3 to 4 months. C. ISAAC 2013 . B. At 3 to 4 months. At 5 to 6 months the infant holds the head erect and the spine straight. At 2 months of age. At 2 to 3 months of age the infant raises the head and shoulders well but lacks control of the thoracolumbar area. C. D. Protective equilibrium response As the child is pushed laterally by the examiner. B. A. FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY.

The site of pressure of the thumb against the fingers moves away from the palm toward the fingertips differentiated use of the fingers allows the child to explore the details of an object allowing opposition of the tip of the thumb and the index finger self-feeding and exploration of small objects. Crawling implies that the belly is still on the floor. Early free walking. proximal and distal thumb joints extended. thumb opposed to index finger 12 Months Fine pincer grasp Between fingertips or fingernails. Plagiarism not intended. Peer reviews and corrections are encouraged. FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. the child uses the hand like a rake. Credits goes to the textbook authors. I only compile various resources. ability to bend the fingers against the palm squeeze objects.Zac © 2013 Developmental Assessment Parachute response. ISAAC 2013 . distal thumb joint flexed. lecturers and friends. and the infant may begin sucking on a thumb or individual digit  Able to hold an object in either hand if it is placed there   Independent hand radial palmar or wholehand grasp inferior-pincer or radialdigital grasp Pincer Grasp Fine Pincer Grasp Position in Space 5 to 7 months         Neither the hand nor the thumb functions independently at this point and.  from the midline to the periphery or from proximal to distal Fine Movement Involuntary Grasp both hands together for midline hand play Swiping Raking palmar grasp Appears birth 2nd to 3rd Month Interpretation  A newborn grasps reliably and reflexively at any object placed in the palm  cannot release the grasp unless stroke from the ulnar side  Hands are no longer tightly fisted. Creeping refers to mobility with the child on the hand and knees (quadruped). distal thumb joint slightly flexed. D. distal thumb joint slightly flexed. As the examiner allows the child to free fall in ventral suspension. 9 Months Inferior-pincer grasp Between ventral surfaces of thumb and index finger. USE AT YOU OWN RISK . fingers extended 7 Months Inferior-scissors grasp Raking object into palm with flexed fingers and proximal and distal thumb joints flexed 8 Months Scissors grasp Between thumb and side of curled index finger. I do not own any of the materials. These notes are used as a brief insight only and DO NOT REPLACE a good textbook. proximal thumb joint slightly flexed 4 to 5 months 9 months 10 Months 9 to 12 months 1 Year 6 Months Rake Thumb adducted. consequently. B. the child’s extremities extend symmetrically to distribute his weight over a broader and more stable base on landing. movement of the thumb allows it to adduct as the fingers squeeze against the palm in a radial palmar or whole-hand grasp the thumb moves from adduction to opposition. Fine Motor Development Voluntary Grasp  gains control of fi ne motor skills in an orderly progression. beginning opposition 10 Months Pincer grasp Between distal pads of thumb and index finger. position the hand in space to achieve vertical or horizontal orientation before grasping or releasing an object. and obtain them independently for closer inspection hands independently to transfer objects across the midline. Cruising refers to standing with two-handed support on stationary objects before moving with steps. proximal and distal thumb joints flexed. Development of locomotion. proximal thumb joint extended 4 Disclaimer: NOT INTENDED FOR PROFIT. proximal thumb joint extended. A. C.

or felt. lecturers and friends.  Dropping and throwing.  Mastery of the cup and spoon supplement or replace finger feeding as a more efficient and less messy means of eating Drawing  analyzing the age level of a drawing is to count the number of features in the drawing  The child receives one point for each of the following features:  two eyes. FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. o Infant’s continued though brief gaze at the site where a familiar toy or face has disappeared o repeat actions that they have discovered will produce interesting results o Between 4 and 8 months of age. Credits goes to the textbook authors. o I yo – MEANING PURPOSE – touch a comb to the hair in a meaningful nonpretend action. USE AT YOU OWN RISK . If there is handedness with neglect of other limb – neurodevelopmental Hearing and Speech Cognitive Development of Sensorimotor Intelligence  The nature of an infant’s thinking is assessed through concrete interaction with the environment.  Develops an understanding of the concept of object permanence. the ability to recognize that an object exists even when it cannot be seen. I do not own any of the materials. stacking. two legs. and banging o 9 to 12 months –  locate objects that have been completely hidden  peekaboo becomes a favourite pastime at this point. o 18 Months (1 1/2 ) –  deduce the location of an object even if they have not seen it hidden from view. two arms. These notes are used as a brief insight only and DO NOT REPLACE a good textbook. ISAAC 2013 . Plagiarism not intended. two feet.  consists of exploring toys to gain information about their physical characteristics. heard. hair. Development of Symbolic Capabilities  Imitation  Genuine pretending begins  using objects for their actual purpose but accompanied by exaggerated sounds or gestures 5 Disclaimer: NOT INTENDED FOR PROFIT. a nose. shaking. a neck. two hands. a mouth. two ears. and putting objects in and out of receptacles become favourite pastimes.  infants become interested in changes in the position and appearance of toys  can track an object visually through a vertical fall  Search for a partially hidden toy.  maintain mental images of desired objects  develop plans for obtaining them  Develops an understanding of cause-and effect relationships.Zac © 2013 Developmental Assessment Development of Complex Fine Motor Skills  Early in the second year of life the young child uses the grasp to master tools and to manipulate objects in new ways. and a trunk  Each point converts to the value of 1/4 year added to a base age of 3 Age Movement 18 Months Use both hands equally well.  infant can crawl away  from the mother and recall where to return to find her. I only compile various resources. Peer reviews and corrections are encouraged.  Activities such as mouthing.

1 year old – first meaningful words 6. begins to respond to “no‖.extend logical principles to increasingly diverse problems. At birth. 2 ½ . short stature.  follows one-step commands accompanied by gestures (―give me the doll. Expressive 1. asks adults to repeat actions (―do it again‖) Uses pronouns and plurals. Follow verbal routines. coos. lecturers and friends. makes average sentence of 21/2 words. Children remain interested in sounds as they grow older and turn voluntarily toward the source of a sound by 3 to 4 months of age 3.Ask what? 10. 18 to 24 months . constipation.  responds appropriately to friendly or angry voices  Listens selectively to familiar words.Zac © 2013 Developmental Assessment Development of Logical Thinking  Preschool . susceptibility to infection. infl ammatory disease. creating what is known as babble. children place consonant sounds with vowel sounds. children begin to coo or make musical sounds spontaneously. I only compile various resources. cold sweats. jaundice. The child is able to identify objects by their use. failure to thrive Hepatomegaly. on. FINDINGS SOMETIMES PRESENT ON HISTORY OR EXAMINATION Decreased vision or hearing Staring spells. weight below third percentile Poor purposeful attending in multiple settings Vomiting.‖ ―want cookie‖) 30 months 2 ½ year      3 year  Knows several colours. hypotonia.mental representation and symbolic thinking o all objects are alive like themselves – Mr Car. blue eyes. ―mousy‖ odor to urine Ongoing evidence of active or progressive disease Language Development  Receptive skills— the ability to comprehend communication  expressive skills—the ability to produce communication. Dada‖ 3. ball. children reliably respond to their name 4.word usage increases rapidly. ―Mama. The ability to choose between two pictures when asked ―sho w me the . thick skin and tongue.  understands soon. or both 12 – 18 months 18 months . responds with raised arms when parent says ―up‖ and reaches for child.‖ ―hug your bear.‖ ―up daddy. ataxia Myxoedema. 6 Disclaimer: NOT INTENDED FOR PROFIT. adjectives and adverbs appear. loss of consciousness Unexplained bruises in varying stages. coarse voice.  can formulate negative judgments (a pear is not a cookie) Follows two-step commands. turns to own name  Points to three body parts (eyes. malignancies Receptive 1. FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. POSSIBLE DISORDER Specific sensory deficits Seizure disorders Overmedication with anticonvulsants Hypothyroidism Hypoglycemia Child abuse and neglect Malnutrition or systemic illness ADHD Some inborn errors of metabolism Galactosemia Phenylketonuria Chronic infection. Uses jargon and echolalia infrequently.  participates in reciprocal exchange Babbles. begins to ask questions. standard forms replace baby talk. o number and quantity vary with appearance  School  Adolescent . bottle. cat. 6. children integrate babble with intonational patterns consistent with the parent’s speech. and under.‖ ―open your mouth‖)  Points to pictures when asked ―show me‖. b. By 2 to 3 months of age.  recognizes common objects by name (dog. These notes are used as a brief insight only and DO NOT REPLACE a good textbook. I do not own any of the materials. 2. . This is called jargon. uses words inconsistently and mixed with jargon. repeats self-initiated sounds 9 – 12 months      Uses symbolic gestures and jargon. Credits goes to the textbook authors. book). pain)  Makes musical sounds. sparse hair.‖ should be consistent between 18 and 24 months of age. mouth). Peer reviews and corrections are encouraged. in. the newborn is particularly attuned to the human voice and may turn toward a parent who is gently whispering. receptive language skills have advanced beyond the understanding of simple labels. Age 3 – complex language of pronouns and prepositions – ask questions – Why? Age 0 – 1 ½ month 1 ½ -4 months 4-9 months Receptive Startles or widens eyes to sound Quiets to voice. understands up to 50 words. goitre Irritability. nose. tremor. By 21/2 years of age. responds to verbal routine such as wave bye -bye or clap. motor automatism Lethargy.2 years Uses telegraphic two-word sentences (―go bye-bye. failure to thrive Short stature. increased sleep. the moon follows them on an evening walk. . delayed return on DTRs. repeats parent initiated sounds Uses words to express needs. By 6 months of age. 2. 6 months of age. echolalia. cataracts Fair hair. a. By 9 to 12 months of age. blinks eyes to sound   Turns head toward sound. ISAAC 2013 . The labelling of commonplace items in pictures is slightly more complex and begins after 1 year of age. can identify objects by use Expressive Shows variation in crying (hunger.  begins to distinguish you from me. 5. Plagiarism not intended. children will understand one-step commands such as “throw the ball‖ by approximately 1 year of age 4. and word combinations begin 8. irritability and seizures. 18 months – 20 -50 words 7. Telegraphic speech (two word sentences) 9. learns 20 to 50 words by 18 months. USE AT YOU OWN RISK . such as waving bye-bye or showing how big they are. 5.

o A child who remains playful and calm while securely in the parent’s arms may quickly fret or cry even if gently removed from that security. As they progress through the elementary school years. and umbrellas Understands what we do with eyes and ears. . stoves. lecturers and friends. infants return regularly for some verbal encouragement. o Extreme reactions.. funny. ISAAC 2013 . whereas later. and surprise. can define in terms of use. or disorganization at reunion with their parents.  Sharing for a young toddler involves showing or handing a prized toy to another child. FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. 7 Disclaimer: NOT INTENDED FOR PROFIT. such as trips or parties. o Typically.  knows what we do when we are hungry. two mothers). tunderstands today and not today Can answer such questions as ―do you have a doggie? “which is the boy?‖. These notes are used as a brief insight only and DO NOT REPLACE a good textbook. o peer interactions grow increasingly cooperative and complicated. makes serious inquiries (―how does this work?‖ and ―what does it mean?‖). a sister is a . is aware of past and future. T o his interest may relate to cognitive and social development.. boy. o The young preschooler is especially interested in imitating the parent of the same gender but shows no preference for same. when. With superior logical capabilities.  As infants begin to recognize faces of familiar caregivers. exhibiting stranger awareness. o pretend play involves themes requiring greater feats of imagination and experience.‖ ―I won’t‖). understands why we have houses. o Pediatricians are advised to refrain from holding the 9. verbalizes toilet needs. o Their exploration of the environment during the toddler years is limited. ambivalence. children begin to include one another in their pretending games. understands little. o Infants who have developed a secure attachment to their parents show signs of recognition and pleasure when they are reunited with them. can tell full name.month-old child at the well-child visit. with the development of symbolic capabilities in cognitive development. o In contrast. begins to understand left and right 3 ½ year              4 years                 Zac © 2013 Developmental Assessment can tell stories that begin to be understood. children protest when their parents leave the room. they realize that rules are invariant and must be followed regardless of the personal implications. only to take it back within seconds. and learning to handle conflicts  By 4 to 5 years of age. . smiling and later laughing with anyone willing to play. may occur in children who have not had routine care from alternative caregivers. asks many questions a day Indicates ―I don’t know‖. and secret Understands same versus different. Peer reviews and corrections are encouraged. the child initiates separation bywalking away independently and exploring at greater distances from parents. learning to communicate ideas to new friends. most children have experienced periods of separation from a parent. indicates funny. o At first both children may select the same role (e. completes opposite analogies (a brother is a primary colors. and why. broken  Children become capable of playing by rules when they reach school age. a skill that is evident during the fi rst few days of life  Responsive smile develops soon thereafter  The social smile is another innate behavior. o Active goals for this age group include learning to gain the cooperation of one’s peers. Plagiarism not intended. o Older preschoolers enjoy helping with household tasks and frequently are more interested in participating in gender-specifi c activities than they were at an earlier age. o They enjoy reading with caregivers and having their labeling questions answered.). can say a nursery rhyme. or hugging and then venture farther. smooth understands if. uses negative (―I can’t. soft. age. children begin to pretend. o These children are at risk for troubled social relationships as they become older.  By 1 year of age. I do not own any of the materials. understands differences in texture (hard. and gender. identifies words in terms of use. Development of Social Play  Infants and young toddlers tend to line up and engage in similar activities simultaneously. infants who have not developed secure attachments may show indifference.  Near 3 years of age.or opposite-gender playmate o taking turns is also a challenge for the pre-schooler who possesses a limited concept of time o Impulse control is just developing in the preschool years.to 12. board games and sports become preferred activities for groups of peers. This pattern is called parallel play. names enjoys rhyming nonsense words enjoys exaggerations. follows three-step commands.  By 6 to 8 months of age. thirsty. eye contact. although it may not appear until 4 to 6 weeks of life Development of Attachment  During the fi rst 6 months of life.g. o Strict adherence to the rules of category membership reflects the concrete and inflexible thinking of the pre-schooler o No rules – variable. forms sentences of 3 to 4 words Can relate experiences in sequential order. asks definition of specific words. uses past tense. or sleepy. o The severity of the reaction varies with the infant’s temperament and with previous experiences. USE AT YOU OWN RISK . counts to 3. they become interested in the implications of category membership. I only compile various resources. Credits goes to the textbook authors. o They will seek to engage their parents in activities that satisfy their growing curiosity.  Infants develop a sense that their parents exist when out of sight sooner than they learn inanimate objects are permanent. known as stranger anxiety. they may squirm and cling in the company of unfamiliar people. infants are rather indiscriminate in their social behavior. can ask permission Tells a story. the roles become more realistic and interactive. whether it be for minutes or hours.  By 2 years of age. and ―what toys do you have?‖. o While progressing in gross motor development. uses mature sentence structure and form 5 years Social Development Early Capabilities: Social Responsivity  Neonates begin this process by fi xing visually on faces in preference to other sights. o As children understand that they are in the same category as their same gender parent.

I do not own any of the materials. fussing to stand when placed in a sitting position). Peer reviews and corrections are encouraged. Plagiarism not intended. such as zipping or buttoning a coat 8 Disclaimer: NOT INTENDED FOR PROFIT.month-olds o prefer to grab the cups and spoons rather than accept passive roles in eating. FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. ISAAC 2013 .g. I only compile various resources.to 8.. o resist pressure to do something that they would prefer not to do (e. USE AT YOU OWN RISK . when infants display interest in their own mirror images. Credits goes to the textbook authors.Zac © 2013 Developmental Assessment Development of Sense of Self  at 6 to 9 months of age.  1 Year old o Expand sense of self o Explore environment with ease o can feed themselves with a cup and spoon o clear ideas about what they want  2 to 3 year old o donning and doffi ng clothing combine with the chil d’s desire to imitate adults and to gain parental approval o allows toilet training to begin o practice emerging self-care skills. lecturers and friends. These notes are used as a brief insight only and DO NOT REPLACE a good textbook.  7.

Follows a dangling ring at 25cm 90° Eyes unfocused Blinks to light (QUIET LOCATION) place child in seated on parents lap and hold bell to the side and ring gently. 4. FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. Peer reviews and corrections are encouraged. 2. I do not own any of the materials. Observe sudden abduction and extension of arms (refer if persist after 3 months) 12 weeks 3 months Excited when feeds approach 1. buttocks ahigh Standing – automatic walking When prone. Kicking legs alternating Ventral suspension – head well above live of body and shoulders extended Sustained head control – place child in supine position and hold both child’s elbow and pull to sitting position. 4–6 months 16 weeks 4 months 1. Observes mother’s face as she talks 2. USE AT YOU OWN RISK . observe weight bearing 4. Back rounded – Hold child by armpit in sitting position. lecturers and friends. Observes examiner 3. quiet and blink Vocalizes own sounds FACE regard 1. 2. 5. observe curvature of back Legs flexed – supports child in standing position with feet gently touching surface. 2. Grasp Reflex – introduce a finger into palm from the ulna side and observe for flexion and gripping of finger 4. Moro reflex. Recognize Mother Thumb sucking 1. Note the child turning direction Quietens to rattle at ear level Coos and Squeals – high pitched happy squealing Vocal play 2. Prone – head sideways. no head lag Reaches for objects without getting it Fixate on a toy brick 9 Disclaimer: NOT INTENDED FOR PROFIT. ISAAC 2013 . Response include cry. Head Erect – When Prone. 1. Credits goes to the textbook authors. 3. Head to one side arm and leg on the face side out stretched. I only compile various resources. 5. 4. lifts chin intermittently Rooting Reflex – Touch the corner of the Mouth with finger and observe child turn to direction of stimulation Fixate face and follows Quietens. Interest in surrounding Enjoys caring routines Responds vocally with played with (QUIET LOCATION) Turns head at level of sound – place the child seated on parent’s lap and hold bell 8 inches behind ear and ring bell gentle. 3. Child lifts head and chest up so that face is 45-90 degrees to surface – Little to no Head lag Holds object for few seconds when placed in hands Brings hands to midlines Plays with fingers and clasps hands Follows a dangling ring at 25 cm 180° Watches adult within visual field 3. Plagiarism not intended. arms and legs flexed.Zac © 2013 Developmental Assessment Developmental Milestones Range 0–3 months Actual At birth 2 weeks 1 month Eating Dressing General/Social/ Play Gross Motor Fine Motor Vision Follows a dangling ring at 25cm 45° Hearing Language Cry Startles responds to sound 1. cries or blinks to sound 6 weeks Social Smile 1. 3. startle. pull to sit has Head lag Ventral suspension – head in line with body and hips semi extended. These notes are used as a brief insight only and DO NOT REPLACE a good textbook .support head on palm of hand an inch above surface and release hand rapidly. 2.

ISAAC 2013 . observes turn Reduplicated sounds (Da. 4. And hands on table. When held. drop it so that if falls out of his line of vision and observe if child continues to look at where the red yarn disappeared Formal distraction test Responds to name Variable babble Mama dada Imitates one word 2. Reaches for objects and gets it Vision Hearing Distraction hearing test Language 6 months Likes and dislikes food Anger – watch if child shows his anger if something he is holding is taken away 3. can lean forward and turn body sideways to reach a toy Pulls to standing with support Creeps 1. Credits goes to the textbook authors. 6. Throws toys to the ground Matching – tplace cube in each hand of hild and encourage child to hit cubes together BUT do not show or touch his hands Index finger approach – child use index finger to reach Finger thumb apposition 10 Disclaimer: NOT INTENDED FOR PROFIT. 4. 3. if child graps and retains (refer if not able) (Raking) or ulnar grasp Adjusts position to see Follows adult across room Response to name Turns head at below level of sound Localized sound – place child on lap of parent. 9. 4. so that elbows at same level as table. Responds to name Enjoys mirror 8 months 9 months Chews biscuit Tries to grasp spoon when fed 5. Transfers objects from one hand to another Rolls over prone to supine 3. pulls self to sit Sits with support – with both hands under armpits – TRIPOD SIT 4. Rolls over supine to prone 2. Peer reviews and corrections are encouraged. Calls child name softly several times. I only compile various resources. Place toy on table within reach. FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. Ba. scissor fashion Looks at distant point when sitting Follows fallen objects – place child on parent’s lap and attract attention with red yarn. Bidextrous approach Transfers from 1 hand to another Drops cube when given another 7–9 months 7 months 1. Plagiarism not intended. 8. Object permanence – finds toy Responds to NO Wave bye bye Plays peek-a-boo Plays pat-a-cake Crawl 1. Lifts legs and grasps feet. Reaches out for objects – child seated. Downward parachute reflex Sits briefly with support Holds one brick when offered next Makes noise for attention 3. 7. USE AT YOU OWN RISK . 7. 2. These notes are used as a brief insight only and DO NOT REPLACE a good textbook . Stranger anxiety Prefers mother 8. 6. Whole hand palmar grasp – place child on parent’s lap and offer a cub. observe child to reach to toy Fine Motor 1. Mouthing 5. I do not own any of the materials. Ma) 5. raises head from pillow. 6. 7. lecturers and friends. approach child from behind. Grasps with finger and thumb. 5. Sitting without support for more than 10 mins. 3. 2. Voluntary grasp 2.Zac © 2013 Developmental Assessment Range Actual 5 months Eating Dressing General/Social/ Play Laughs and squeals Gross Motor 1.

obeys commands Pointing and vocalizing Kneels Stands from sitting without support Pushes wheeled toy 18-24 months 18 months 1yo+6 Feeds independently Use Spoon safely Chews well Holds cup with two hands without much spilling Takes off socks and shoes 1. ISAAC 2013 . Credits goes to the textbook authors. Walks well. 6. 4. 5. arms u[ and feet wide 5. Peer reviews and corrections are encouraged. Creeps downstairs 3. Independent – feed himself Toilet training Attention seeking Temper tantrums Obeys 4 simple orders Role play Wants immediate satisfaction of needs Intense curiosity. Will not give object to examiner 4. 5. two feet to one steep Runs.Zac © 2013 Developmental Assessment Range 10 – 12 months Actual 10 months 11 months Eating Dressing General/Social/ Play 1. Walks backwards Walks carrying toy Climbs into adult chair. Cast repeatedly Thumb Finger approach – give raisin with thumb and index finger Puts in objects – offer cubes and place cubes in small pail Throws objects To and fro scribble Tower of 2 cubes Sees small objects Looks with interest at coloured pictures and pats page Jargon speech 2-6 words Communicates wishes. 3. 2. Responds to words 2. 3. Good pincer grasp – 2 fingers Follows fast moving objects – roll ball on the floor and watch his eyes Recognize familiar people from 20 feet or more Turns to name Associate voice with person Understands simple instructions 2 – 3 words with meaning Follows one step command Shows understanding to familiar objects Holds own bottle Drinks from feeder cup Holds spoon but can’t feed 2. 8. 5. 3. 4. 7. Plagiarism not intended. 4. 3. Looks for fallen objects 5. Object recognition Release object on request Simple ball game Friendly Shows affection to familiar adult 2. starting and stopping safely. 1. walks upstairs with hand held. 4. 1. Steady. attempts to sing Points to one object in picture card 24 months 2yo Feeds with fork and spoon without spilling Puts on shoes 1. USE AT YOU OWN RISK . Waves bye-bye 3. watch child walk sideways holding on to chair 12 months (1 yo) Finger feeds Dressing 2. avoid obstacles Walks backward with toy Walks up and down stairs holding on ( 2 feet to a step holding railing) Kicks ball 1. squats. 2. 4. Will give object to examiner Gross Motor Fine Motor Vision Hearing Language 1. 13 – 18 months 15 months 1yo+3 Picks up cup and drinks from it Use cup and spoon Helps with dressing Knows when wet or soiled Indicates desire by pointing Explores toys. I only compile various resources. 5. 3. I do not own any of the materials. 4. Inserts pellet into bottle Circular scribble Tower of 3 cubes Turns several pages of book Hands preference Primitive tripod grasp when holding crayons 6 – 20 words Use more than 6 words Echoes prominent or last words in short sentences Demands object by simple words Enjoys nursery rhymes. Stands alone Rise to sitting from supine Walks with support – walks with one hand held 1. no danger awareness 1. runs. 2. 2. can open doors. 2. 5. 2. 4. Points to named body parts Domestic mimicry Dry by day Obeys 2 simple orders Explores dustbins Symbolic play alone Dislikes being left alone Imitates simple activities = Feeds doll 1. 3. 2. 7. 6. 2. purposeful walk with arms down. Cruising – place the child and holding on to chair. 5. soundmakers with interest Carries toys by hair or ear Rejection CURIOUS – DANGER!! – PROTECT Broad based gait – walks alone. 6. Copies vertical line Hold pencil with tripod grip Tower of 6 cubes Turns single pages of book” Points to picture Recognize fine detail in book Understands simple words Understands simple instructions ―mari sini‖and ―duduk 2 to 3 – word sentences with meaning‖‖nak susu‖ ―nak air Uses pivotal grammar Uses questions Talks to self when play Asking names of objects and people Drinks from cup well Ask for food and drink 11 Disclaimer: NOT INTENDED FOR PROFIT. lecturers and friends. 3. 8. These notes are used as a brief insight only and DO NOT REPLACE a good textbook . climb stairs. 4. 3. 3. FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY.

3. Draws a man with recognizable face with 3 parts Use scissors Copies triangle 5. 2. FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. Plagiarism not intended. Builds steps of bricks Draws a man with limbs and fingers Matches primary shapes into simple form board 4. 6. 2. Copies circle 1. “under”. 9. 5. 6. 4. Tells a story Goes to toilet alone Dramatic make believe play Takes turns Group play Sharing 1. 8. 5. 5. These notes are used as a brief insight only and DO NOT REPLACE a good textbook . 3. Turns somersaults and doing stunts Can bounce and catch a ball 4. I do not own any of the materials. 3.Zac © 2013 Developmental Assessment Range Actual 30 months 2yo+6 Eating Dressing General/Social/ Play 1. USE AT YOU OWN RISK . Cannot bear to lose games Will cheat to win Blames others Can go to toilet and clean himself 1.3. Repeats digits – 1. 3. sleepy Understands ön”.Walks up stairs 1 foot and down 2 feet per step Stands on one leg Jumps Walks on tip-toes Throws ball Pedals tricycle 1. 4. 2. 3. Draws a man with 6 parts Ties shoe laces Writes letters and numbers Distinguish morning and afternoon Understands left and right 12 Disclaimer: NOT INTENDED FOR PROFIT. Walks up stairs and down 1 foot per step Hops 1. Peer reviews and corrections are encouraged. “ïn” Enjoys long story Ask ―why‖ Recognizes 2 or 3 colours 37 – 48 months 48 months 4yo Able to undress 1. 2. 4. Climb . 2. 3. 2.play with other children Vivid make believe play Regular toilet needs Tower of 9 cubes Builds train and bridge if shown Draws a man with face and 2 other body parts 3.5 Names at least 4 colours Use grammatical speech Asks ―when‖and ―how‖questions Enjoys joke 6 yo 1. 7. Stands on tip toes Skips Catches ball Runs on toes 1. 3. 4. 2. 1. 4. 4. Helps to put things away Starts to play with other children Knows age and gender Likes hearing and telling stories Washes hands Brushes teeth 1. lecturers and friends. 3. Copies square 1. 2. Understands rules Chooses own friends Comforts playmate in distress 1. 2. 4. 3 words sentences ―Ädik nak Makan‖ Answer simple questions Good account Understands thirsty. Credits goes to the textbook authors. 4. Dry by night Gross Motor Jumps Rises from knees without hands Fine Motor Vision Hearing Language Refers self using pronoun I 25 – 36 months 36 months 3yo Eats with fork and spoon and knife Helps in dressing Brush teeth 2. Recognize at least 1 colour Lots of nursery rhymes 2. I only compile various resources. 3. 4. 4. 5. 10. 1. 3. 3. 2. 2. hungry. ISAAC 2013 . Parallel play . 3. 49 – 60 months 60 months 5yo Uses knife and work Able to put on clothes and do up large buttons 1. 3. 2. 6. 2.2.4. 6. 2. Copies cross Counts 10 or more 1.

I only compile various resources. FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. lecturers and friends. I do not own any of the materials.Zac © 2013 Developmental Assessment 13 Disclaimer: NOT INTENDED FOR PROFIT. Credits goes to the textbook authors. Plagiarism not intended. Peer reviews and corrections are encouraged. These notes are used as a brief insight only and DO NOT REPLACE a good textbook. ISAAC 2013 . USE AT YOU OWN RISK .

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