# calculus essentials

krista king integralcalc.com

Contents
1 foundations vertical line test 2 limits and continuity what is a limit? when does a limit exist? solving limits mathematically continuity 3 derivatives deﬁnition of the derivative derivative rules chain rule equation of the tangent line implicit diﬀerentiation optimization 4 integrals deﬁnite integrals fundamental theorem of calculus initial value problems 5 solving integrals u-substitution integration by parts partial fractions 6 partial derivatives second-order partial derivatives 7 diﬀerential equations linear, ﬁrst-order diﬀerential equations nonlinear (separable) diﬀerential equations 8 about the author
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foundations

play video

Most of the equations you’ll encounter in calculus are functions. Since not all equations are functions, it’s important to understand that only functions can pass the Vertical Line Test.

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vertical line test
Most of the equations you’ll encounter in calculus are functions. Since not all equations are functions, it’s important to understand that only functions can pass the Vertical Line Test. In other words, in order for a graph to be a function, no completely vertical line can cross its graph more than once. the graph twice, which causes the graph to fail the Vertical Line Test.

Circles are not functions because they never pass the Vertical Line Test.

You can also test this algebraically by plugging in a point between − 1 and 1 for x,
This graph does not pass the Vertical Line Test because a vertical line would intersect it more than once.

such as x = 0.

Example
Passing the Vertical Line Test also implies that the graph has only one output value for y for any input value of x. You know that an equation is not a function if y can be two diﬀerent values at a single x value. You know that the circle below is not a function because any vertical line you draw between x = − 1 and x = 1 will cross Determine algebraically whether or not x 2 + y 2 = 1 is a function. Plug in 0 for x and simplify. (0)2 + y 2 = 1 y2 = 1 y =±1
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y2 =

1

the function fails the Vertical Line Test and is therefore not a function.At x = 0. y can be both 1 and − 1. We’ve now proven with both the graph and with algebra that this circle is not a function. Since a function can only have one unique output value for y for any input value of x. 4 .

5 . regardless of whether the function actually reaches that value.2 limits and continuity play video The limit of a function is the value the function approaches at a given value of x.

what is a limit? The limit of a function is the value the function approaches at a given value of x. the value of f (x) gets closer and closer to 6. However. and some more creative methods for ﬁnding the limit.0000 5. because 6 is the value that the function approaches as the value of x gets closer and closer to 5. Therefore. consider the function f (x) = x + 1 When x = 5. regardless of whether the function actually reaches that value.9999 5.0001.9999 5. 6 . I know it’s strange to talk about the value that a function “approaches. we’ll talk about when limits do and do not exist. if you set x = 5. Similarly.0001.0001 side. ﬁnding limits gets a little trickier when we start dealing with points of the graph that are undeﬁned. In the next section. 6 is the limit of the function at x = 5.9999. the limit of the function is clearly 6 because that is the actual value of the function at that point. the point is deﬁned. f (x) = 6. whether you’re approaching it from the 4. For an easy example.9999 in the function above. then f (x) = 5.0001 6. You can begin to see that as you get closer to x = 5. then f (x) = 6. x f (x) 4.0000 6.9999 side or the 5.0001 In this simple example.” Think about it this way: If you set x = 4.

You would read this general limit formula as “The limit of f of x as x approaches 2 equals 4. or left-hand side of the graph. due to a break in the graph. then separate left. The general limit will look something like this: lim f (x) = 4 x→2 Left-hand limits are written as x→2− lim f (x) = 4 The negative sign after the 2 indicates that we’re talking about the limit as we approach 2 from the negative. the general limit exists at x = − 1 because the left. he or she is usually talking about the general limit. These are the three conditions that must be met in order for the general limit to exist. The left. If the graph approaches two separate values at the point x = c as you approach c from the left. In the graph below. On the other hand.when does a limit exist? General vs. the general limit does not exist at x = 1 because the left-hand and right-hand limits are not equal. Unless a right.or left-hand limit is speciﬁcally speciﬁed. Right-hand limits are written as x→2+ lim f (x) = 4 The positive sign after the 2 indicates that we’re talking about the limit as we approach 2 from the positive. 7 .and righthand limits both approach 1. and 3. you’re dealing with a general limit.and right-hand limits may exist even when the general limit does not. or right-hand side of the graph. The right-hand limit exists at x = c .and right-hand limits are equal.and right-hand limits may exist. 2. one-sided limits When you hear your professor talking about limits. The general limit exists at the point x = c if 1.” Left. The left-hand limit exists at x = c .and right-hand side of the graph.

The general limit does not exist at x = 1 or at x = 2. There is no limit at a vertical asymptote because the graph of a function must approach one ﬁxed numerical value at the point x = c for the limit to exist at c. In the graph below. but not at x = 1.and right-hand limits are equal at x = − 1.and left-hand limits exist at x = 1 but the general limit does not exist at that point. the general limit does not exist at the vertical asymptote because the left. separate right. However. The graph at a vertical asymptote is increasing 8 . Left. Where limits don’t exist We already know that a general limit does not exist where the left.since that is the value that the graph approaches as you trace the graph from right to left. Where there is a vertical asymptote at x = 2. There is no limit at a vertical asymptote because the graph of a function must approach one ﬁxed numerical value at the point x = c for the limit to exist at c.and righthand limits are unequal. the left-hand limit is −∞. On the other hand.and right-hand limits are not equal. the right-hand limit is − 1. Limits also do not exist whenever we encounter a vertical asymptote. Limits also do not exist whenever we encounter a vertical asymptote. The graph at a vertical asymptote is increasing and/or decreasing without bound. because that is the value that the graph approaches as you trace the graph from left to right. The left-hand limit is 4. Where limits don’t exist We already know that a general limit does not exist where the left. which means that it is approaching inﬁnity instead of a ﬁxed numerical value.and right-hand limits are not equal. and the right-hand limit is + ∞.

and righthand limits are unequal. However. the right-hand limit is − 1.and/or decreasing without bound. The left-hand limit is 4. since that is the value that the graph approaches as you trace the graph from right to left. separate right. the left-hand limit is −∞. Where there is a vertical asymptote at x = 2. On the other hand. In the graph below. 9 . The general limit does not exist at x = 1 or at x = 2. which means that it is approaching inﬁnity instead of a ﬁxed numerical value. and the right-hand limit is ∞. the general limit does not exist at the vertical asymptote because the left.and left-hand limits exist at x = 1 but the general limit does not exist at that point. because that is the value that the graph approaches as you trace the graph from left to right.

When you can’t just plug in the value you’re evaluating. lim 4 + 4 x→ 4 x→−2 Factoring x 2 − 16 lim =8 x→ 4 x − 4 10 .solving limits mathematically Substitution Sometimes you can ﬁnd the limit just by plugging in the number that your function is approaching. If you just plug 5 into this function. Example Evaluate the limit. which is the limit of the function. where you can simply plug in the number you’re approaching to solve for the limit. x 2 − 16 lim x→ 4 x − 4 Just plugging in 4 would give us a nasty Example Evaluate the limit. f (x) = x + 1. lim x→ 4 lim x 2 + 2 x + 6 (x + 4)(x − 4) x−4 Plug in − 2 for x and simplify. Therefore. we’ll try factoring instead. you get 6. You could have done this with our original limit example. x→−2 Canceling (x − 4) from the top and bottom of the fraction leaves us with something that is much easier to evaluate: lim x + 4 x→ 4 lim (− 2)2 + 2(− 2) + 6 lim 4 − 4 + 6 lim x + 2 x + 6 = 6 2 x→−2 Now the problem is simple enough that we can use substitution to ﬁnd the limit. Below is another example. your next approach should be factoring. x→−2 0/0 result.

which is useful to us but still doesn’t change the value of the original function. we have to multiply by the conjugate of whichever part of the fraction contains the radical. Needless to say. lim x→0 4+h−2 h Multiply the numerator and denominator by the conjugate. Here’s an example of a great. lim x→0 (4 + h) + 2 4 + h − 2 4 + h − 4 h ( 4 + h + 2) lim x→0 (4 + h) − 4 h ( 4 + h + 2) h h ( 4 + h + 2) 1 4+h+2 lim x→0 lim x→0 Since we’re evaluating at 0. 4+h Simplify and cancel the h. lim x→0 Evaluate the limit. We also can’t factor and cancel anything out of the fraction. the substitution method would result in a 0 in the denominator. Luckily. lim x→0 1 4+0+2 = 1 4 lim x→0 4+h−2 h Example 11 . plug that in for h and solve. Notice that the numerator has exactly two terms. and common candidate for the conjugate method. its usefulness is limited. The conjugate of two terms is those same two terms with the opposite sign in between them. In this case. we have the conjugate method. and − 2. that’s the numerator. Conjugate method to the rescue! In order to use it. lim x→0 4+h−2 h 4+h−2 h ⋅ ( 4+h+2 4 + h + 2) In this example.Conjugate method This method can only be used when either the numerator or denominator contains exactly two terms. Notice that we multiply both the numerator and denominator by the conjugate. because that’s like multiplying by 1.

you can always go back to the method we were using originally. 12 .Remember. if none of these methods work. which is to plug in a number very close to the value you’re evaluating and solve for the limit that way.

Let’s take some time to classify the most common types of discontinuity. They tell us that the cost per ounce of any package lighter than 1 pound is 20 cents per ounce. the point discontinuity exists at x = − 4. except for a hole at a single point. fractures. where the denominator would equal 0.continuity You should have some intuition about what it means for a graph to be continuous. Jump discontinuity A piecewise-deﬁned function 13 . This function is deﬁned and continuous everywhere. broken bones. as well as the graph of this function. You usually ﬁnd this kind of discontinuity when your graph is a fraction like this: x 2 + 11x + 28 f (x) = x+4 In this case. in its graph. breaks. Basically. a function is continuous if there are no holes. jumps. You can also think about it this way: A function is continuous if you can draw the entire thing without picking up your pencil. Point discontinuity Point discontinuity exists when there is a hole in the graph at one point. You’ll usually encounter jump discontinuities with piecewise-deﬁned functions. Here’s how the cost of postage might be deﬁned as a function. except at x = − 4. “A piece-wahoozle whatsit?” you ask? Exactly. etc. etc. A common example used to illustrate piecewise-deﬁned functions is the cost of postage at the post oﬃce. that the cost of every ounce from 1 pound to anything less than 2 pounds is 40 cents per ounce. The graph of a point discontinuity is easy to pick out because it looks totally normal everywhere. A piecewise-deﬁned function is a function for which diﬀerent parts of the domain are deﬁned by diﬀerent functions.

The ﬁrst graph below shows a vertical asymptote that makes the graph discontinuous. it means that the function is discontinuous at a vertical asymptote. but point discontinuity 14 . A vertical asymptote at x = 0 that does not make the graph discontinuous A vertical asymptote at x = 2 that makes the graph discontinuous (Non)removable discontinuities A discontinuity is removable if you can easily plug in the holes in its graph by redeﬁning the function. In order to continue. you’d have to jump up to the second segment. Vertical asymptotes are only points of discontinuity when the graph exists on both sides of the asymptote. When you can’t easily plug in the holes because the gaps are bigger than a single point. you’re dealing with nonremovable discontinuity.Every break in this graph is a point of jump discontinuity. The vertical asymptote in the second graph below is not a point of discontinuity. Jump and inﬁnite/essential discontinuities are nonremovable. You can remember this by imagining yourself walking along on top of the ﬁrst segment of the graph. Inﬁnite (essential) discontinuity You’ll see this kind of discontinuity called both inﬁnite discontinuity and essential discontinuity. because it doesn’t break up any part of the graph. In either case. because the function exists on both sides of the vertical asymptote.

is removable because you can easily patch the hole in the graph. x 2 + 11x + 28 f (x) = x+4 If we add another piece to this function as follows. Let’s take the function from the point discontinuity section. we “plug” the hole and the function becomes continuous. 15 .

Let’s ﬁnd out why.” By deﬁnition. the derivative is the slope of the original function. and read as “ f prime of x.3 derivatives play video The derivative of a function f (x) is written as f ′(x). 16 .

So let’s talk about how we build the diﬀerence quotient. A tangent line Connecting those points together gives us a secant line. and move a certain distance. Creating the derivative If we start with a point. like this: Secant and tangent lines A tangent line is a line that juuussst barely touches the edge of the graph. we can call the new point on the graph (c + Δ x. Tangent lines look very graceful and tidy. f (c)) on a graph. is a line that runs right through the middle of a .definition of the derivative The deﬁnition of the derivative. before we learn all the shortcuts later that let us ﬁnd them “the fast way”. sometimes hitting it at multiple points. like this: A secant line It’s important to realize here that the slope of the secant line is the average rate of change over the interval between the points where the secant line intersects the graph. (c. also called the “diﬀerence quotient”. graph. and looks generally meaner. on the other hand. Mostly it’s good to understand the deﬁnition of the derivative so that we have a solid foundation for the rest of calculus. f (c + Δ x)). to the right of that point. The slope of the tangent line instead indicates an instantaneous rate of change. intersecting it at only one speciﬁc point. or slope. at the single point where it intersects the graph. and we can use the slope of a line 17 A secant line. Δ x. is a tool we use to ﬁnd derivatives “the long way”.

Expand all terms and collect like terms. 6. Plug your original function in for f (x) in the diﬀerence quotient. 2. As the secant line moves closer and closer to the tangent line.y2 − y2 x2 − x1 to determine that the slope of the secant line is f (c + Δ x) − f (c) (c + Δ x) − c which. when we simplify. Running through this exercise allows us to realize that if I reduce Δ x to 0 and the distance between the two secant points becomes nothing. which is the very deﬁnition of the derivative. In fact. which eventually reduces Δ x to 0. Factor out h from the numerator. Plug your answer from Step 1 in for f (x + h) in the diﬀerence quotient. we’ve just changed the secant line into the tangent line entirely. gives us f (c + Δ x) − f (c) Δx The point of all this is that. closer to the original point. Using the diﬀerence quotient To ﬁnd the derivative of a function using the diﬀerence quotient. 18 . which is why the deﬁnition of the derivative is the slope of the function at a single point. that the slope of the secant line is now exactly the same as the slope of the tangent line. Put h in the denominator. the slope of the secant line becomes closer to the slope of the tangent line at the original point. 3. if I take my second point and start moving it slowly left. the points where the line intersects the graph get closer together. follow these steps: 1. Plug in x + h for every x in your original function. 4. 5. That is how we create the formula above. then cancel it from the numerator and denominator. Sometimes you’ll also see h as Δ x.

plug in the number you’re approaching. x 2 + 2 xΔ x + Δ x 2 − 5x − 5Δ x + 6 − x 2 + 5x − 6 lim Δx Δ x→0 Collect similar terms together then factor Δ x out of the numerator and cancel it from the fraction. For Δ x. [(x + Δ x)2 − 5(x + Δ x) + 6] − (x 2 − 5x + 6) lim Δx Δ x→0 Expand all terms. Then plug in f (x) as-is for f (c). Example Find the derivative of f (x) = x 2 − 5x + 6  at  x=7 Δ x→0 lim 0 + 2 x − 5 → Δ x→0 lim 2 x − 5 After replacing x with (x + Δ x) in f (x). plug in your answer for f (c + Δ x).7. Then simplify and solve. Plug in 0 for h and simplify. Δ x 2 + 2 xΔ x − 5Δ x lim Δx Δ x→0 lim Δ x (Δ x + 2 x − 5) Δx Δ x→0 Δ x→0 lim Δ x + 2 x − 5 19 . Put Δ x in the denominator. in this case 0.

If there is no coeﬃcient (the coeﬃcient is 1). the derivative of any constant must be 0. we’ve gotten to the point where things start to get easier. Because the derivative of a function is the slope of that function. Remember also that the slope of any horizontal line is 0. f (x) = 7x 3 Applying power rule gives f ′(x) = 7(3)x 3−1 f ′(x) = 21x 2 The derivative of a constant The derivative of a constant (a term with no variable attached to it) is always 0. then subtract 1 from the exponent.derivative rules Finally. Here is the formula: Given a function h (x) = f (x)g (x) then its derivative is h′(x) = f (x)g′(x) + f ′(x)g (x) Power rule The power rule is the tool you’ll use most frequently when ﬁnding derivatives. which was cumbersome and tedious and generally not fun. The rule says that for any term of the form a x n. you cannot simply take their derivatives separately and then multiply the derivatives together. n. by its coeﬃcient. We’ve moved past the diﬀerence quotient. a. Product rule If a function contains two variable expressions that are multiplied together. the derivative of the term is (a ⋅ n)x n−1 To use the power rule. Example Find the derivative of the function. and the slope of a horizontal line is 0. You’re about to learn several new derivative tricks that will make this whole process a whole lot easier. Remember that the graph of any constant is a perfectly horizontal line. You have to use the product rule. the exponent will become the new coeﬃcient. then 20 . multiply the variable’s exponent.

Plugging all of these components into the quotient rule gives (ln x)(2 x) − (x 2)( 1 x) (ln x)2 2 x ln x − x (ln x)2 x (2 ln x − 1) (ln x)2 h′(x) = Quotient rule Just as you must always use the product rule when two variable expressions are multiplied. Here is the formula: h′(x) = h′(x) = 21 . then add the derivative of the ﬁrst function times the second function to your result. f ′(x) = 2 x. It doesn’t matter which one you choose for f (x) and g (x). and g′(x) = 1/ x. Let’s assign f (x) to x 2 and g (x) to e 3x. According to the product rule. The derivative of g (x) is g′(x) = 3e 3x. The derivative of f (x) is f ′(x) = 2 x. multiply the ﬁrst function by the derivative of the second function. Given a function h (x) = then its derivative is h′(x) = f ′(x)g (x) − f (x)g′(x) [g (x)]2 f (x) g (x) Example Find the derivative of the function. we know that f (x) is the numerator and therefore f (x) = x 2 and that g (x) is the denominator and therefore that g (x) = ln x. h′(x) = (x 2)(3e 3x ) + (2 x)(e 3x ) h′(x) = 3x e + 2 xe h′(x) = xe 3x(3x + 2) 2 3x 3x Example Find the derivative of the function.To use the product rule. you must use the quotient rule whenever two variable expressions are divided. h (x) = x 2e 3x The two functions in this problem are x 2 and e 3x. x2 h (x) = ln x Based on the quotient rule formula.

multiplied by the derivative of the denominator divided by the square of the denominator. Here is the formula: Given a function h (x) = then its derivative is h′(x) = − a f ′(x) [ f (x)]2 a f (x) Given that the numerator is a constant and the denominator is any function. the derivative will be the negative constant.Reciprocal rule The reciprocal rule is very similar to the quotient rule. except that it can only be used with quotients in which the numerator is a constant. Example Find the derivative of the function. h (x) = 1 5 + 2 x + 1 3x − 1 Applying the reciprocal rule gives h′(x) = − 2 15 − (2 x + 1)2 (3x − 1)2 22 .

we’re not done. and its derivative is 2 x. Take the derivative of the “outside” function. You should use chain rule anytime your function contains something more complicated than a single variable. completely untouched. leaving our inside function. A. Our “inside” function is x 2 + 3. multiplying our result by the derivative of the inside function gives f ′(x) = 10(x 2 + 3)9(2 x) Example Find the derivative of the function. leaving the “inside” function completely alone. but we’ll leave that part alone for now because the chain rule tells us to take the derivative of the outside function ﬁrst.chain rule The chain rule is often one of the hardest concepts for calculus students to understand. It’s also one of the most important. The chain rule says that if your function takes the form h (x) = f (g (x)) then its derivative is h′(x) = f ′(g (x))g′(x) The chain rule tells us how to take the derivative of something where one function is “inside” another one. and it’s used all the time. the “outside” function is (A)10. f (x) = (x 2 + 3)10 In this example. Multiply your result by the derivative of the “inside” function. It seems complicated. but applying the chain rule requires just two simple steps: 1. But remember. Taking the derivative of (A)10 using power rule gives 10(A)9 Plugging back in for A gives us 10(x 2 + 3)9 23 . A is representing x 2 + 3. The chain rule tells us to take our result and multiply it by the derivative of the “inside” function. 2. Therefore. so make sure you don’t leave this section without a solid understanding.

f ′(x) = 20x (x 2 + 3)9 24 .

Next you’ll take the derivative of the function. insert both f (4) and f ′(4) into the tangent line formula. y = 93 + 46(x − 4) You can either leave the equation in this form. you’ll need to plug that point into the original function. since this is the point at which we’re asked to evaluate. f ′(x) = 12 x − 2 f ′(4) = 12(4) − 2 f ′(4) = 46 Finally. take the derivative and plug in x = 4. In order to ﬁnd the equation of the tangent line.equation of the tangent line You’ll see it written diﬀerent ways. Next. plug x = 4 into the original function. along with 4 for a. or simplify it further: y = 93 + 46x − 184 y = 46x − 91 Example Find the equation of the tangent line at x = 4 to the graph of f (x) = 6x 2 − 2 x + 5 First. then substitute your answer for f (a). f (4) = 6(4)2 − 2(4) + 5 f (4) = 96 − 8 + 5 f (4) = 93 25 . plug the same point into the derivative and substitute your answer for f ′(a). you’ll always be asked to evaluate at the point where the tangent line intersects the graph. but the most understandable tangent line formula I’ve found is y = f (a) + f ′(a)(x − a) When a problem asks you to ﬁnd the equation of the tangent line.

3x 2 + 3y 2 3x 2 + 3y 2 3. and the thing that usually confuses students the most. Treat y as a variable just like x. Whenever you encounter y. we always multiply by dy / d x when we take the derivative of y.implicit differentiation Implicit Diﬀerentiation allows you to take the derivative of a function that contains both x and y on the same side of the equation. Therefore. Example Find the derivative of x 3 + y 3 = 9x y Our ﬁrst step is to diﬀerentiate both sides with respect to x. and the denominator tells you what variable is being derived. 4. 26 . Diﬀerentiate both sides with respect to x. dy dy = (9)( y) + (9x)(1) dx dx dy dy = 9y + 9x dx dx Move all terms that include dy / d x to the left side. multiply by dy / d x. treating 9x as one function and y as another. the numerator tells you what function you’re deriving. and move everything else to the right side. On the left sides of these derivatives. You’ll need to use the product rule for the right side. follow these steps: 1. To use implicit diﬀerentiation. If you can’t solve the function for y. Move all terms involving dy / d x to the left side and everything else to the right. is that we have to treat y as a function and not just as a variable like x. but whenever you take the derivative of a term that includes y. then multiply that term by dy / d x. In this notation. Factor out dy / d x on the left and divide both sides by the other left-side factor so that dy / d x is the only thing remaining on the left. 2.” One of the most important things to remember. dy / d x is literally read “the derivative of y with respect to x. instead of seeing y′ or f ′(x). treat it as a variable just like x. implicit diﬀerentiation is the only way to take the derivative. you’ll ﬁnd dy / d x instead.

let’s pretend you’re asked to ﬁnd the equation of the tangent line of the function in the previous example at the point (2. Then simplify.3) = dx 3 Since you have the point (2.3) = dx (3)2 − 3(2) dy 9−4 (2. plug the point and the slope into pointslope form to ﬁnd the equation of the tangent line. and plug in this point to the derivative of the function to ﬁnd the slope of the tangent line.3y 2 dy dy − 9x = 9y − 3x 2 dx dx Example (continued) dy 3(3) − (2)2 (2. y−3= 5 (x − 2) 3 Factor out dy / d x on the left.3). 3y − 9 = 5(x − 2) 3y − 9 = 5x − 10 3y = 5x − 1 y= 5 1 x− 3 3 27 . You’d just pick up right where you left oﬀ. dy (3y 2 − 9x) = 9y − 3x 2 dx dy 9y − 3x 2 = 2 dx 3y − 9x Dividing the right side by 3 to simplify gives us our ﬁnal answer: dy 3y − x 2 = 2 dx y − 3x Equation of the tangent line You may be asked to ﬁnd the tangent line equation of an implicitly-deﬁned function.3). then divide both sides by (3y 2 − 9x).3) and the slope of the tangent line at the point (2. Just for fun.3) = dx 9−6 dy 5 (2.

Like anything. Determine behavior as f (x) approaches ± ∞. 7. You can move the x in the denominator of the fraction into the numerator by changing the sign on its exponent from 1 to − 1. 2. 5. Determine where f (x) is increasing and decreasing. f (x) = x + 4x −1 Using power rule to take the derivatives gives f ′(x) = 1 − 4x −2 f ′(x) = 1 − 4 x2 28 . 8. When it comes to sketching the graph. Find critical points. Critical points Critical points occur at x-values where the function’s derivative is either equal to zero or undeﬁned. 3. f (x) = x + 4 x Take the derivative and simplify. Critical points are the only points at which a function can change direction. but there are a lot of steps to remember. Draw the graph with the information we’ve gathered. You certainly won’t get all the information you need from your calculator. so unfortunately you still have to learn the steps. Find x. 6. Plot critical points. Find inﬂection points. the best way to master it is with a lot of practice. and also the only points on the graph that can be maxima or minima of the function. Our strategy for sketching the graph will include the following steps: 1. but it’s a good double-check system. Example Find the critical points of the function.optimization Graph sketching is not very hard. 4.and y-intercepts. if possible I absolutely recommend graphing the function on your calculator before you get started so that you have a visual of what your graph should look like when it’s done. possible inﬂection points and intercepts. Determine where f (x) is concave up and concave down.

we’ll therefore plot those critical points on a wiggle graph to test where the function is increasing and decreasing. has a positive slope. As we continue with our example. and therefore a negative derivative. the original function is decreasing there. f (x) = x + 4 x 29 Similarly. Not surprisingly. the original function is increasing at that point. a function that is decreasing (moving down as you travel from left to right along the graph).Now set the derivative equal to 0 and solve for x. if the derivative is negative at a point. If the derivative is positive at a point. function’s derivative indicates the direction of the original function. 0=1− 1= 4 x2 4 x2 x2 = 4 x =±2 A decreasing function Based on this information. it makes sense that the sign (positive or negative) of a Increasing and decreasing A function that is increasing (moving up as you travel from left to right along the graph). . An increasing function Example (continued) Find the intervals on which the function is increasing and decreasing. and therefore a positive derivative. We already know that the direction of the graph can only change at the critical points that we found earlier. has a negative slope.

Inﬂection points 30 . 9 4 − 9 9 5 f ′(− 3) = > 0 9 To test − 2 < x < 2. we’ll plug 3 into the derivative.First. f ′(3) = 1 − 4 (3)2 4 9 9 4 − 9 9 5 >0 9 Now we plot the results on our wiggle and we can see that f (x) is • increasing on −∞ < x < − 2. since − 3 is a value in that interval. as follows: f ′(− 1) = 1 − 4 (− 1)2 f ′(− 1) = 1 − 4 f ′(− 1) = − 3 < 0 Next. A negative result means it’s decreasing. we’ll plug − 1 into the derivative. − 2 < x < 2 and 2 < x < ∞. • decreasing on − 2 < x < 2 and • increasing on 2 < x < ∞. The intervals that we will test are −∞ < x < − 2. we’ll plug − 3 into the derivative. the graph is increasing. If we get a positive result. we pick values on each interval of the wiggle graph and plug them into the derivative. To test −∞ < x < − 2. f ′(3) = 1 − f ′(3) = f ′(3) = To test 2 < x < ∞. f ′(− 3) = 1 − f ′(− 3) = 1 − f ′(− 3) = 4 (− 3)2 4 9 graph. we create our wiggle graph and plot our critical points.

and it looks like a smile. Concavity Concavity is indicated by the sign of the function’s second derivative. We then set the second derivative equal to 0 and solve for x. In order to ﬁnd inﬂection points. we ﬁrst take the second derivative. The following graph illustrates examples of concavity. the graph is concave down. 0= 8 x3 x 3 is concave down on the range −∞ < x < 0 and concave up on the range 0 < x < ∞. except that they indicate where the graph changes concavity. 31 . On the range 0 < x < ∞. which is the job of critical points. but we can see that the second derivative is undeﬁned at x = 0. For now. x = 0 is the only possible inﬂection point. which is the derivative of the derivative. Think about the fact that a graph that is concave down looks like a frown. Sad. I know. The inﬂection point at which the graph changes concavity is at x = 0. From −∞ < x < 0. let’s ﬁnd our inﬂection points. and concave down everywhere the second derivative is negative (f ′′(x) < 0). and take its derivative to ﬁnd the second derivative.Inﬂection points are just like critical points. f ′(x) = 1 − 4 x2 f ′(x) = 1 − 4x −2 f ′′(x) = 0 + 8x −3 f ′′(x) = 8 x3 Now set the second derivative equal to 0 and solve for x. Example (continued) We’ll start with the ﬁrst derivative. Therefore. the graph is concave up. Ah… much better. The function is concave up everywhere the second derivative is positive (f ′′(x) > 0). There is no solution to this equation. We’ll learn about concavity in the next section. instead of indicating where the graph changes direction. f ′′(x).

along with the possible inﬂection point we just found. Intercepts To ﬁnd the points where the graph As you might have guessed. to test for concavity. Let’s plug in 0 for y to ﬁnd x-intercepts. we can plug 0 into the original function for one variable and solve for the other. y =0+ 4 0 Immediately we can recognize there are no y-intercepts because we can’t have a 0 result in the denominator. we’ll be testing values in the following intervals: −∞ < x < 0 and 0<x<∞ intersects the x and y-axes. we’ll plug 1 into the second derivative. 32 . We determine that f (x) is concave down on the interval −∞ < x < 0 and concave up on the interval 0 < x < ∞. we’ll plug − 1 into the second derivative. x we’ll plug 0 in for x to ﬁnd y-intercepts. 8 f ′′(− 1) = =−8<0 (− 1)3 To test 0 < x < ∞. Now we can plot the results on our wiggle graph Example (continued) Since our only inﬂection point was at x = 0. Example (continued) Given our original function To test −∞ < x < 0. let’s go ahead and plot that on our wiggle graph now. f ′′(1) = 8 =8>0 (1)3 4 f (x) = x + .We can use the same wiggle graph technique.

for Local and global extrema Maxima and Minima (these are the plural versions of the singular words maximum and minimum) can only exist at critical points. then you 33 . and a local minimum exists at x = 1. Minimums exist at x = − 2 as well as x = 1.0=x+ 4 x Multiply every term by x to eliminate the fraction. First derivative test Remember the wiggle graph that we created from our earlier test for increasing and decreasing? Based on the positive and negative signs on the graph. 0 = x2 + 4 −4 = x2 Since there are no real solutions to this equation. we know that this function has no x-intercepts. you have to test each solution separately. the global minimum exists at x = − 2. then increasing again. then the endpoints 0 and 5 are candidates for extrema and must also be tested. then decreasing. Based on the y-values at those points. We’ll use the ﬁrst derivative test to ﬁnd extrema. but not every critical point is necessarily an extrema. example some function f (x) on the interval 0 to 5. and if you can picture a function like that in your head. If you’re dealing with a closed interval. To know for sure. you can see that the function is increasing.

if the ﬁrst returns a y-value of 10 and the second returns a y-value of 5. If you’re asked to determine where the function has its maximum/minimum. As an example. and which ones are only local. Second derivative test You can also test for local maxima and minima using the second derivative test if it easier for you than the ﬁrst derivative test. If the derivative is negative to the left of the critical point and positive to the right of it. Remember. you must plug in the value of x at the critical points to your original function. As a side note. if you have more than one local maximum or minimum.know immediately that we have a local maximum at x = − 2 and a local minimum at x = 2. the point is a local minimum. you can plug in the value for x at those critical points. Example (continued) Remember that our critical points are x = − 2 and x = 2. the graph has a local minimum at that point. because it tells you in a formal way exactly what you just ﬁgured out on your own: 1. then the ﬁrst point is your global maximum and the second point is your local maximum. If your result is negative. But if you’re asked for the value at the maximum/minimum. In order to use this test. You really don’t even need the silly ﬁrst derivative test. Let’s try it. you’ll have to plug the x-value into your original function and state the y-value at that point as your answer. If the result is positive. you can’t draw a conclusion from the second derivative test. if it’s positive on both sides or negative on both sides. then the point is neither a local maximum nor a local minimum. If the result is zero. The y-values you get back will tell you which points are global maxima and minima. 2. and you have to resort to the ﬁrst derivative test to solve the problem. and the test is inconclusive. For example. that point is a local maximum. the graph has a local maximum at that point. if you ﬁnd that your function has two local maxima. your answer will be in the form x=[value]. If the derivative is positive to the left of the critical point and negative on the right side of it. f ′′(− 2) = 8 (− 2)3 34 . simply plug in your critical points to the second derivative.

Here’s how we test for horizontal asymptotes. we conclude that there is a local minimum at that point. Good news! These are the same results we got from the ﬁrst derivative test! So why did we do this? Because you may be asked on a test to use a particular method to test the extrema. so you should really know how to use both tests. we conclude that there is a local maximum at that point. and therefore undeﬁned. f ′′(2) = f ′′(2) = 8 (2)3 8 8 You should see immediately that we have a vertical asymptote at x = 0 because plugging in 0 for x makes the denominator of the fraction 0. Both of those terms will have what’s called a degree. When we’re looking for horizontal f ′′(2) = 1 > 0 Since the second derivative is positive at x = 2. we only care about the ﬁrst term in the numerator and denominator. asymptotes. or whenever we have a negative value inside a square root sign. If our function is x 3 + lower-degree terms f (x) = 2 x + lower-degree terms then the degree of the numerator is 3 and the degree of the denominator is 2.f ′′(− 2) = 8 −8 value of zero as the denominator of a fraction. Consider the example we’ve been working with in this section: f (x) = x + 4 x f ′′(− 2) = − 1 < 0 Since the second derivative is negative at x = − 2. which is the exponent on the variable. a function is undeﬁned whenever we have a 35 . Horizontal asymptotes Vertical and horizontal asymptotes are similar in that they can only exist when the function is a rational function. Remember. Asymptotes Vertical asymptotes Vertical asymptotes are the easiest to test for. because they only exist where the function is undeﬁned.

36 . Using the example we’ve been working with throughout this section. our function just happened to be the composition of the quotient and remainder. The following is the same function as our original function. so we know that we have a slant asymptote. Slant asymptotes Slant asymptotes are a special case. To ﬁnd the equation of that asymptote. We can use long division to convert the function into one fraction. If the degree of the numerator is equal to the degree of the denominator. 2. then the coeﬃcient of the ﬁrst term in the numerator divided by the coeﬃcient in the ﬁrst term of the denominator is the horizontal asymptote. Let’s take the example we’ve been using throughout this section. then the x-axis is a horizontal asymptote. f (x) = x + 4 x First. we’ll determine whether the function has any horizontal asymptotes. They exist when the degree of the numerator is 1 greater than the degree of the denominator. 3. we divide the denominator into the numerator using long division and we get f (x) = x + 4 x Right back to our original function! That won’t always happen. That means that our numerator is one degree higher than our denominator. we’ll convert this function to a rational function by multiplying the ﬁrst term by x / x and then combining the fractions. and that the degree of our denominator is 1. If the degree of the numerator is less than the degree of the denominator. just consolidated into one fraction after multiplying the ﬁrst term by x / x: x2 + 4 f (x) = x We can see immediately that the degree of our numerator is 2. which means that this function does not have a horizontal asymptote. x2 + 4 f (x) = x We can see that the degree of our numerator is one greater than the degree of our denominator. there is no horizontal asymptote.1. If the degree of the numerator is greater than the degree of the denominator.

The graph of f (x) = x + 4/ x In this case. This will be something you’ll just have to practice and get the hang of. The quotient is the equation of the line representing the slant asymptote. and therefore they act as good guidelines. you should be able to make a pretty good guess that it will look like the following: Sketching the graph Now that we’ve ﬁnished gathering all of the information we can about our graph. Therefore. and extrema. because you know that your graph won’t cross those lines. and then connect the points using the information you have about increasing/decreasing and concavity. and realizing that it can’t cross either of the asymptotes. picturing the graph was a little easier because of the two asymptotes. our slant asymptote is the line y = x. So let’s draw in the lines x = 0 and y = 0. critical and inﬂection points. the ﬁrst term is our quotient and the second term is our remainder. and concave down in the lower left. but if you didn’t have the slant asymptote.Whenever we use long division in this way to ﬁnd the slant asymptote. you’d want to graph the x.and yintercepts. The asymptotes of f (x) = x + 4/ x 37 . The ﬁrst thing I usually do is sketch any asymptotes. Knowing that the graph is concave up in the upper right. we can start sketching it.

The value we ﬁnd for the integral models the area underneath the graph of the function. In other words. Let’s ﬁnd out why. 38 . we perform the opposite actions that we would have taken to ﬁnd its derivative.4 integrals play video The integral of a function is its antiderivative. to ﬁnd a function’s integral.

2]. Evaluating on the interval [0. over the given interval [a . the constant of integration “cancels out” in the end. you can just leave C out of your answer whenever you’re solving a deﬁnite integral. into the result. and then subtracting from that whatever you get when you plug in the lower limit. F (x) = If we let f (x) = 3x 2 − 5x + 2 and then integrate the polynomial. a. we get 5 (2)3 − (2)2 + 2(2) + C − ( ) 2 5 (0)3 − (0)2 + 2(0) + C ( ) 2 F (x) = (8 − 10 + 4 + C ) − (0 − 0 + 0 + C ) F (x) = 8 − 10 + 4 + C − C F (x) = 2 As you can see. what do we mean when we say F (x) = 2? What does this value represent? 39 3x 2 − 5x + 2 d x . b]. In Figure I. plugging the upper limit. ∫0 2 Since this will always be the case. So. Finding this area means taking the integral of f (x). Example Evaluate the integral. b.definite integrals Evaluating a deﬁnite integral means ﬁnding the area enclosed by the graph of the function and the x-axis. we get 5 . leaving a deﬁnite Figure I value as the ﬁnal answer. the shaded area is the integral of f (x) on the interval a to b. F (x) = x 3 − x 2 + 2 x + C ( ) 2 0 2 where C is the constant of integration. not just a function for y deﬁned in terms of x.

Then ﬁnding the value of F (x) means subtracting the area enclosed by the graph under the x-axis from the area enclosed by the graph above the x-axis. between the lines x = 0 and x = 2 is 2. above the x-axis. and 3. then F (x) = 0. then the value of F (x) will be negative (F (x) < 0). This means that. If the area enclosed by the graph below the x-axis is exactly equal to the area enclosed by the graph above the x-axis.5] means subtracting the area enclosed by the graph below the x-axis from the area enclosed by the graph above the x-axis. 2. b]. Keep in mind that we’re talking about the area enclosed by the graph and the x-axis. it means that the area 1. 40 . Evaluating the deﬁnite integral of f (x) = sin x on [1. we treat the area under the x-axis as negative area.When we say that F (x) = 2. if the area enclosed by the graph below the x-axis is larger than the area enclosed by the graph above the x-axis. If f (x) drops below the x-axis inside [a . below the graph of f (x).

The limits of integration on the left are substituted into the equivalent function on the right . the equivalent function is on the right after it’s been evaluated through integration.fundamental theorem of calculus The fundamental theorem of calculus is the formula that relates the derivative to the integral and provides us with a method for evaluating deﬁnite integrals. Example Evaluate the integral on the given interval. We need it for derivatives too! The ﬁrst derivative of the function F (x) is the continuous function f (x). ∫a ∫a b =8− = = 8 3 24 8 − 3 3 16 3 f (x) d x = F (x) b a b f (x) d x = F (b) − F (a) The fundamental theorem of calculus is not just applicable to integrals. y = 4 − x 2 on [0. On the left side of the equal sign is the deﬁnite integral.upper limit minus lower limit.2] x3 2 4 − x d x = 4x − ∫1 3] [ 2 2 0 (2)3 (0)3 = 4(2) − − 4(0) − 3 ] [ 3 ] [ 41 .

This function is pretty basic. but somewhere along the way we lost the − 3. − 3 . In order to get back to our original function. As you can see. taking the integral of the derivative we found gives us back the ﬁrst term of the original function.initial value problems Consider the following situation. when we take the derivative of something. it’s impossible for you to ﬁnd get back to our original function. you can pick a speciﬁc solution out of a much broader solution set. namely. More speciﬁcally. and whittles them down to one speciﬁc solution. By integrating f ′(x). Initial conditions take what would otherwise be an entire rainbow of possible solutions. C is called the “constant of integration” and it acts as a placeholder for our missing constant. it shouldn’t cause you too much stress to ﬁgure out that the derivative of f (x) is 2. Which means we’re never going to get the constant back when we try to integrate our derivative. You’re given the function f (x) = 2 x − 3 and asked to ﬁnd its derivative. which looks like this: y (0) = − 3 Problems that provide you with one or more initial conditions are called Initial Value Problems. f (x) = 2 x − 3. (the initial condition). If you’re given the function f ′(x) = 2 and asked to ﬁnd its integral. an initial condition. so unless you’re taking calculus out of order. we always lose the constant (term without a variable attached). 2 x. Remember that the basic idea behind Initial Value Problems is that. you lose the constant. It’s lost forever. you get a family of solutions that only diﬀer by a constant. Now consider what it would be like to work backwards from our derivative. ∫ 2 d x = 2x − 3 = 2x + 7 = 2x − 2 Given one point on the function. we’ll need some additional information about this problem. once you diﬀerentiate a function. In fact. Accounting for that lost constant is why we always add C to the end of our integrals. and ﬁnd our long-lost friend. you lose some information about that function. 42 .

We have to use our initial condition to ﬁnd out. To use our initial condition. Integrating f ′(x) means we’re integrating 2 d x. where C is the constant of integration. − 3. we plug in the number inside the parentheses for x and the number on the right side of the equation for y. − 3 = 2(0) + C −3 = C Notice that our solution would have been diﬀerent had we been given a diﬀerent initial condition. At this point.Example Given f ′(x) = 2 and f (0) = − 3. Therefore. ﬁnd f (x). f (0) = − 3. but we don’t know that yet. our ﬁnal answer is the function we originally diﬀerentiated: f (x) = 2 x − 3 43 . So hooray for our longlost friend − 3!! Now we know exactly what our full solution looks like. in our case. Therefore. and we’ll get 2 x + C. and exactly which one of the many possible solutions was originally diﬀerentiated. we’ll plug in 0 for x and − 3 for y. C is holding the place of our now familiar friend.

we’ll talk about diﬀerent techniques we can use to solve integrals.5 solving integrals play video Now that we know what an integral is. 44 .

we get ∫ x (u)4 ∫ u4 du 2x du 2 1 4 u du ∫ 2 45 . This is not the case with integration. and every function is like a puzzle. Example Use u-substitution to evaluate the integral. just try another one. They have to be transformed or manipulated in order to reduce the function’s form into some simpler form. U-substitution is the simplest tool we have to transform integrals. try using the base of the power function as the substitution. take the derivative of u to get du. you’ll get faster at identifying the right value for u. When you use u-substitution. you’ll deﬁne u as a diﬀerentiable function in terms of the variable in the integral. it may not be immediately clear which integration rules to use. If you try a substitution that doesn’t work. With practice.u-substitution Finding derivatives of elementary functions was a relatively simple process. Most integrals need some work before you can even begin the integration. Here are some common substitutions you can try. there are no perfect rules for deﬁning u. dx = or solving for d x. and then substitute these values back into your integrals. ∫ x (x 2 + 1)4 d x Substituting back into the integral. Unlike derivatives. du 2x and du = 2 x d x Let u = x2 + 1 For integrals that contain power functions. because taking the derivative only meant applying the right derivative rules. Unfortunately.

back-substitute to put the answer For integrals of rational functions. 46 . 1 ln | u | + C 2 Now. 1 1 5 u +C 2 (5 ) 1 5 u +C 10 Now. we get x du ⋅ ∫ u 2x 1 du ⋅ ∫u 2 1 1 du 2∫ u This is much simpler than our original integral. Example Use u-substitution to evaluate the integral. du = 2 x d x dx = du 2x Substituting back into the integral. try using the denominator as a possible substitution. if the numerator is of equal or greater degree than the denominator. and something we can actually integrate. x dx ∫ x2 + 1 Let u = x +1 and 2 back in terms of x instead of u. Otherwise.This is much simpler than our original integral. back-substitute to put the answer back in terms of x instead of u. 1 ln | x 2 + 1 | + C 2 For integrals containing exponential functions. always perform division ﬁrst. 1 2 (x + 1)5 + C 10 or solving for d x. and something we can actually integrate. try using the power for the substitution.

Therefore. the better you know your trigonometric identities.Integrals containing trigonometric Example Use u-substitution to evaluate the integral. the value of u isn’t even part of the original integral. Sometimes. e sin x cos x + C or solving for d x. we get ∫ e u du Let eu + C Now. ∫ Let u = sin x cos x and using the product rule to diﬀerentiate. and u = cos x du = − sin x d x dx = − du sin x 47 . e sin x cos x cos 2 x d x Example Use u-substitution to evaluate the integral. the better oﬀ you’ll be. du = d d sin x cos x + sin x cos x dx ) ( dx )] [( d x functions can be more challenging to manipulate. tan x d x = cos x d x ∫ cos x ∫ cos x = = sin x 1 ⋅ dx ∫ cos x cos x sin x dx ∫ cos2 x sin x du = [cos x ⋅ cos x + sin x ⋅ (− sin x)] d x du = cos2 x − sin2 x d x du = cos 2 x d x Substituting back into the integral. back-substitute to put the answer back in terms of x instead of u. tan x dx ∫ cos x Since tan x = sin x /cos x.

we need to use the equation u = sin x to ﬁnd limits of integration in terms of u. the limits of integration must be changed as well.Substituting back into the integral. when x = π . 1 +C cos x du = cos x d x or solving for d x. 48 . since the variable is changed. back-substitute to put the answer back in terms of x instead of u. instead of x. we get cos x du ⋅ ∫0 1 + u 2 cos x 1 Example Use u-substitution to evaluate the integral. Substituting back into the integral (including for our limits of integration). we get sin x du ⋅ − ∫ u 2 ( sin x ) − 1 du ∫ u2 and cos x dx ∫0 1 + sin2 x Let u = sin x π 2 − u −2 du ∫ − 1 −1 u +C −1 u −1 + C 1 +C u Now. 2 u = sin 0 u=0 u = sin u=1 π 2 U-substitution in deﬁnite integrals U-substitution in deﬁnite integrals is just like substitution in indeﬁnite integrals except that. when x = 0. dx = du cos x Since we’re dealing with a deﬁnite integral.

1 −1 d x = tan x+C ∫ 1 + x2 take the integral.1 du ∫0 1 + u 2 Using this very common formula. 1 −1 du = tan u ∫0 1 + u 2 1 1 0 1 = tan−1 1 − tan−1 0 = π 4 49 .

you won’t ﬁnd anything to cancel in your I would assign u to x. My favorite technique for picking u and dv dx is to assign u to the function in your integral whose derivative is simpler than the original u. and which will be dv. Suppose you want to integrate the following ∫ xe −x integral. everything to the left of the equals sign represents your original function. If you have ln x in your integral. integration by parts should be your next approach for evaluating your integral. and you’ll be no better oﬀ. that’s usually a good bet for u because the 50 . and looks like this: ∫ u dv = uv − v du ∫ In the formula above. Your job is to identify which part of your original function will be u. you can think about integration by parts as the method often used for integrating functions that are multiplied together. integration is not always straightforward and we can’t always express the integral of every function in terms of neat and clean elementary functions. because the derivative of x is 1. unless you’re a super human genius. If you remember that the product rule was your method for ﬁnding derivatives of functions that were multiplied together. integration by parts. which means your original function must be composed of u and dv. If you try u-substitution.integration by parts Unlike diﬀerentiation. When your integral is too complicated to solve without a fancy technique and you’ve ruled out u-substitution. which means that your next step should be an attempt at integrating with our new method. which is much simpler than x. Consider again the example from earlier: ∫ xe −x d x How can you integrate the above expression quickly and easily? You can’t. one being x and the other being e −x. The formula we’ll use is derived by integrating the product rule from CALC I. But hopefully you can recognize that you have two functions multiplied together inside of this integral.

derivative of ln x is 1/ x; much simpler than ln x. Once you pick which of your functions will be represented by u, the rest is easy because you know that the other function will be represented by dv. Using this formula can be challenging for a lot of students, but the hardest part is identifying which of your two functions will be u and which will be dv. That’s the very ﬁrst thing you have to tackle with integration by parts, so once you get that over with, you’ll be home free. After completing this ﬁrst crucial step, you take the derivative of u, called du, and the integral of dv, which will be v. Now that you have u, du, v and dv, you can plug all of your components into the right side of the integration by parts formula. Everything to the right of the equals sign will be part of your answer. If you’ve correctly assigned u and dv, the integral on the right should now be much easier to integrate. Let’s apply the formula to our original example to see how it works.

Our integral is comprised of two functions, x and e −x. One of them must be u and the other dv. Since the derivative of x is 1, which is much simpler than the derivative of e −x, we’ll assign u to x. u=x → diﬀerentiate → → intgrate → du = 1 d x v = − e −x

dv = e −x d x

Plugging all four components into the right side of our formula gives the following transformation of our original function: (x)(− e −x ) − (− e −x )(1 d x) ∫ − xe −x + e −x d x ∫ Now that we have something we can work with, we integrate. − xe −x + (− e −x ) + C Our ﬁnal answer is therefore − xe −x − e −x + C Or, factored, we have − e −x(x + 1) + C

Example
∫ xe −x d x What happens if you apply integration by parts and the integral you’re left with still

51

isn’t easy to solve? The ﬁrst thing you should do in this situation is make sure that you assigned u and dv correctly. Try assigning u and dv to opposite components of your original integral and see if you end up with a better answer. If you still get a funky integral, you may be able to apply another fancy integration technique to your answer. Try ﬁrst to see if u-substitution will work on your new integral. If not, you may need to apply integration by parts a second time. Here’s an example of what that looks like.

by parts again, using our most recent integral. u = 3x 2 → diﬀerentiate → → integrate → du = 6x d x v = − cos x

dv = sin x d x

Plugging in again to our last integral gives x 3 sin x − (3x 2)(− cos x) − (− cos x)(6x d x) [ ] ∫ x 3 sin x − − 3x 2 cos x + 6x cos x d x ( ) ∫ x 3 sin x + 3x 2 cos x − 6x cos x d x ∫ We still don’t have an easy integral, so we

Example
∫ u = x3 x 3 cos x d x du = 3x 2 d x v = sin x

use integration by parts one more time. u = 6x → diﬀerentiate → → integrate → du = 6 d x v = sin x

→ diﬀerentiate →

dv = cos x d x

→ integrate →

dv = cos x d x

Using the integration by parts formula to again transform the integral, we get:
x 3 sin x + 3x 2 cos x − (6x)(sin x) − (sin x)(6 d x) ( ) ∫

Plugging all four components into the formula gives (x 3)(sin x) − (sin x)(3x 2 d x) ∫ x 3 sin x − 3x 2 sin x d x ∫ What remains inside the integral is not easy to evaluate. Since u-substitution won’t get us anywhere, we try integration

x 3 sin x + 3x 2 cos x − 6x sin x + 6 sin x d x ∫ We ﬁnally have something we can easily integrate, so we get our ﬁnal answer: x 3 sin x + 3x 2 cos x − 6x sin x − 6 cos x + C
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e x cos x + (sin x)(e x ) − (e x )(cos x d x) ( ) ∫ Sometimes after applying integration by parts twice, you end up with an integral that is the same as your original problem. When that happens, instead of feeling like you’re right back where you started, realize that you can add the integral on the right side of your equation to the integral on the left. Take the following example.
e x cos x d x = e x cos x + e x sin x − e x cos x d x ∫ ∫

See how our new integral on the right is the same as our integral? It seems like we’re right back to the beginning of our problem and that all hope is lost. Instead, we can add the integral on the right to the left side of our equation.

Example

u = cos x

e x cos x d x
du = − sin x d x

2 e x cos x d x = e x cos x + e x sin x ∫ We’ll just simplify the right-hand side and

→ diﬀerentiate →

then divide both sides of the equation by 2 to get our ﬁnal answer. 2 e x cos x d x = e x(cos x + sin x) ∫ e x(cos x + sin x) e cos x d x = ∫ 2
x

dv = e x d x

→ integrate →

v = ex

Plugging all four components into the integration by parts formula gives (cos x)(e x ) − (e x )(− sin x d x) ∫ e x cos x + e x sin x d x ∫ We use integration by parts again to simplify the remaining integral.
u = sin x → diﬀerentiate → du = cos x d x

dv = e x d x

→ integrate →

v = ex

Plugging in again, we get
53

partial fractions
The method of Partial Fractions is an extremely useful tool whenever you need to integrate a fraction with polynomials in both the numerator and denominator; something like this: 7x + 1 f (x) = 2 x −1 If you were asked to integrate 3 4 f (x) = + x+1 x−1 you shouldn’t have too much trouble, because if you don’t have a variable in the numerator of your fraction, then your integral is simply the numerator multiplied by the natural log (ln) of the absolute value of the denominator, like this: 3 4 + dx ∫ x+1 x−1 3 ln | x + 1 | + 4 ln | x − 1 | + C where C is the constant of integration. Not too hard, right? Don’t forget to use chain rule and divide by the derivative of your denominator. In the case above, the derivatives of both of our So back to the original example. We said at the beginning of this section that f (x) = 7x + 1 x2 − 1 denominators are 1, so this step didn’t appear. But if your integral is 3 dx ∫ 2x + 1 then your answer will be 3 ln | 2 x + 1 | + C 2 because the derivative of our denominator is 2, which means we have to divide by 2, according to chain rule.

would be diﬃcult to integrate, but that we wouldn’t have as much trouble with f (x) = 3 4 + x+1 x−1

In fact, these two are actually the same function. If we try adding 3/(x + 1) and 4/(x − 1) together, you’ll see that we get back to our original function. f (x) = 3 4 + x+1 x−1

54

f (x) = 3(x − 1) + 4(x + 1) (x + 1)(x − 1) Because the degree (the value of the highest exponent in the numerator. Let’s start talking about how to perform a partial fractions decomposition. is greater than the degree of the denominator. we have to perform long division ﬁrst. then integrating is much simpler. Before we move forward it’s important to remember that you must perform long division with your polynomials whenever the degree (value of the greatest exponent) of your denominator is not greater than the degree of your numerator. After performing long division. This method of converting complicated fractions into simpler fractions that are easier to integrate is called decomposition into “partial fractions”. But if you can express this function as f (x) = 3/(x + 1) + 4/(x − 1). 1. attempting to integrate f (x) = (7x + 1)/(x 2 − 1) is extremely diﬃcult. it’s 55 . ∫ x 2 − 6x + 18 − 52 dx x+3 1 3 x − 3x 2 + 18x − 52 ln | x + 3 | + C 3 Example x 3 − 3x 2 + 2 dx ∫ x+3 Okay. 3x − 3 + 4x + 4 f (x) = 2 x −x+x−1 f (x) = 7x + 1 x2 − 1 Again. So now that you’ve either performed long division or conﬁrmed that the degree of your denominator is greater than the degree of your numerator (such that you don’t have to perform long division). as is the case in the following example. 3). our fraction has been decomposed into (x 2 − 6x + 18) − 52 x+3 Now the function is easy to integrate.

we don’t have to perform long division before we start. Your denominator will be the product of the following: 1. A. straight to factoring the denominator. Your second step will be determining which type of denominator you’re dealing with. we multiply both sides by the denominator of Distinct linear factors In this ﬁrst example. as follows. Since our denominator can be broken down into three diﬀerent factors. we can move 2 the left-hand side. Repeated linear factors 3. The ﬁrst step is to factor your denominator as much as you can. and on the right. assigning new variables to the numerator of each of our fractions. and (x − 2). are all diﬀerent ﬁrst-degree factors. Instead. depending on how it factors. B and C to go on top of each one of our new fractions. like so: x 2 + 2x + 1 A B C = + + (x − 1)(x + 1)(x − 2) x−1 x+1 x−2 Now that we’ve separated our original function into its partial fractions. x 2 + 2x + 1 dx ∫ (x − 1)(x + 1)(x − 2) We can see that our denominator is a product of distinct linear factors because (x − 1). we need three variables. Distinct quadratic factors 4. Oh goodie! I hope you’re excited. Distinct linear factors 2. x 2 + 2 x + 1 = A(x + 1)(x − 2)+ 56 . Example x + 2x + 1 dx ∫ x3 − 2x2 − x + 2 Since the degree of the denominator is higher than the degree of the numerator. in which the denominator is a product of distinct linear factors. we set our fraction equal to the sum of its component parts. Once we have it factored. each of the three partial fractions will end up multiplied by all the factors other than the one that was previously included in its denominator. The denominator will cancel on the left-hand side. we’ll look at the ﬁrst case above. (x + 1).time for full-blown partial fractions. Repeated quadratic factors Let’s take a look at an example of each of these four cases so that you understand the diﬀerence between them.

the coeﬃcient on the x 2 term on the right-hand side is (A + B + C ). Adding A to both sides in (2) gives us B =2+A 4 1 2 3 Now we’ll substitute (4) for B into (1) and (3) and then simplify. that’s a good place to start. x 2 + 2 x + 1 = (A + B + C )x 2+ (− A + B )x + (− 2 A + 2B − C ) Doing this allows us to equate coeﬃcients on the left and right sides. We get the following three equations: A+B+C =1 −A + B = 2 − 2 A + 2B − C = 1 Now that we have these equations. putting all the x 2 terms next to each other. all the x terms next to each other. as well as for the constants. x 2 + 2 x + 1 = A(x 2 − x − 2)+ B(x 2 + x + 2)+ C(x 2 − 1) x 2 + 2 x + 1 = Ax 2 − Ax − 2 A+ Bx 2 + Bx + 2B+ Cx 2 − C Now we collect like terms together. but with practice. such that these equations: A + (2 + A) + C = 1 − 2 A + 2(2 + A) − C = 1 become these equations: 57 . B. you should get the hang of it. meaning that we re-order them. which means those two must be equal. we need to solve for our three constants. A. If you have one equation with only two variables instead of all three. This can easily get confusing. Do you see how the coeﬃcient on the x 2 term on the lefthand side of the equation is 1? Well. like (2). and C. we factor out our x terms.B(x − 1)(x + 2)+ C(x − 1)(x + 1) Our next step is to multiply out all of these terms. We can do the same for the x term. and then all the constants next to each other. x 2 + 2 x + 1 = Ax 2 + Bx 2 + Cx 2− Ax + Bx− 2 A + 2B − C Finally.

we get 3 2 − dx ∫ x−2 x−1 Remembering that the integral of 1/ x is ln | x | + C. in which the denominator will be a product of linear factors. Simplifying the integral on the right side. we get 3 x−2 ln +C 2 x−1 7 Repeated linear factors Let’s move now to the second of our four case types above. since the degree of the numerator is greater than the degree of the denominator (5 > 4). −2 + B + 3 = 1 B=0 Having solved for the values of our three constants in (7). some of which are repeated. (6) and (7). 2A + 3 = − 1 2A = − 4 A=−2 5 6 3 ln | x − 2 | − 2 ln | x − 1 | + C And using laws of logarithms to simplify our ﬁnal answer. Doing so should produce something that’s easier for us to integrate than our original function. x 2 + 2x + 1 −2 0 3 dx = + + dx ∫ (x − 1)(x + 1)(x − 2) ∫ x−1 x+1 x−2 8 Example 2 x 5 − 3x 4 + 5x 3 + 3x 2 − 9x + 13 dx ∫ x 4 − 2x2 + 1 You’ll see that we need to carry out long division before we start factoring.2A + C = − 1 C=3 Now we can plug (6) into (5) to solve for A. we’re ﬁnally ready to plug them back into our partial fractions decomposition. (8) and (6). With (1). we have everything we need to ﬁnd B. we integrate and get Now that the degree of the remainder is less than the degree of the original 58 .

(x + 1)2(x − 1)2. our original factor.denominator. Let’s continue with our original example. you might think that the partial fraction decomposition would look like this: 9x 3 − 3x 2 − 11x + 16 A B C D = + + + (x + 1)2(x − 1)2 x+1 x+1 x−1 x−1 3 2 3 2 To see why. our partial fractions decomposition is actually the following: 9x 3 − 3x 2 − 11x + 16 A B C D = + + + x 4 − 2x2 + 1 x − 1 (x − 1)2 x + 1 (x + 1)2 . as well as each factor of lesser degree? We have to do this every time we have a repeated factor. the fact that we’re dealing with repeated factors. 9x 3 − 3x 2 − 11x + 16 = A(x − 1)(x + 1)2 + B(x + 1)2+ C(x − 1)2(x + 1) + D (x − 1)2 To simplify. 9x 3 − 3x 2 − 11x + 16 = A(x 3 + x 2 − x − 1)+ 59 However. we can rewrite the problem as 9x 3 − 3x 2 − 11x + 16 2x − 3 + dx ∫ x 4 − 2x2 + 1 Integrating the 2 x − 3 will be simple. We’ll factor the denominator. 9x 3 − 3x 2 − 11x + 16 A B C D = + + + 4 2 2 x − 2x + 1 x − 1 (x − 1) x + 1 (x + 1)2 We’ll multiply both sides of our equation by the denominator from the left side. 9x − 3x − 11x + 16 (x 2 − 1)(x 2 − 1) 9x − 3x − 11x + 16 (x + 1)(x − 1)(x + 1)(x − 1) 9x 3 − 3x 2 − 11x + 16 (x + 1)2(x − 1)2 Given the factors involved in our denominator. which will cancel the denominator on the left and some of the factors on the right. let’s take a simpler example. we’ll start multiplying all terms on the right side together. let’s focus on the fraction. The partial fractions decomposition of x 2 /[(x + 1)4] is x2 A B C D = + + + (x + 1)4 x + 1 (x + 1)2 (x + 1)3 (x + 1)4 Notice how we included (x + 1)4. so for now. ((x + 1) is a factor twice and (x − 1) is a factor twice).

(3) and (4). 9x 3 − 3x 2 − 11x + 16 = (A + C )x 3 + (A + B − C + D)x 2+ (− A + 2B − C − 2D)x + (− A + B + C + D) Equating coeﬃcients on both sides of the equation gives us the following equations. A+C =9 A+B−C+D =−3 − A + 2B − C − 2D = − 11 − A + B + C + D = 16 1 2 3 2A + B + D = 6 2B − 2D = − 2 −2A + B + D = 7 Let’s now solve (7) for B. 2 A + 2(4 + A) = 7 10 11 Now we’ll start solving for variables. 2B − 2D = − 2 2B = − 2 + 2D B =−1+D B =D−1 Plugging (9) into (6) and (8). we get the following: 12 60 . − 2 A + 2D = 8 2D = 8 + 2 A D =4+A We plug (12) into (10) to solve for A. we have A + B − (9 − A) + D = − 3 − A + 2B − (9 − A) − 2D = − 11 − A + B + (9 − A) + D = 16 And simplifying. If we subtract A from both sides of (1). we get C =9−A 5 If we plug (5) into (2). we get the following: 4 6 7 8 9 2 A + 2D = 7 − 2 A + 2D = 8 We solve (11) for D. we get 2 A + (D − 1) + D = 6 − 2 A + (D − 1) + D = 7 And simplifying.B(x 2 + 2 x + 1)+ C(x 3 − x 2 − x + 1)+ D (x 2 − 2 x + 1) Now we’ll group like terms together.

we can use (12) to ﬁnd D. Now it’s pretty quick to ﬁnd the other three. With (13). we’ll integrate to get our ﬁnal answer. (15). we’ll write out our partial fractions decomposition. 2 x 5 − 3x 4 + 5x 3 + 3x 2 − 9x + 13 dx = ∫ x 4 − 2x2 + 1 9x 3 − 3x 2 − 11x + 16 2x − 3 + dx = ∫ x 4 − 2x2 + 1 ∫ 14 At last! We’ve solved for one variable. 1 C =9− − ( 4) C =9+ C= 37 4 1 4 16 37 1 15 dx + (x + 1)−2 d x 4 ∫ x+1 4 ∫ Now that we’ve simpliﬁed. ∫ 2x − 3 d x − 1 1 11 dx + (x − 1)−2 d x + ∫ ∫ 4 x−1 4 We plug (14) into (9) to ﬁnd B. (16) and (14) and bringing back Distinct quadratic factors 61 . we’ll ﬂip the second and fourth fractions so that they are easier to integrate. 15 B= −1 4 11 B= 4 15 Last but not least. D =4− D= 15 4 1 4 2x − 3 + x−1 −4 1 + (x − 1)2 11 4 + x+1 37 4 + (x + 1)2 15 4 dx Now we can integrate. we plug (13) into (5) to solve for C. Using the rule from algebra that 1/(x n) = x −n.2A + 8 + 2A = 7 4A = − 1 1 A=− 4 13 the 2 x − 3 that we put aside following the long division earlier in this example. x 2 − 3x − 1 11 ln | x − 1 | − + 4 4(x − 1) 37 15 ln | x + 1 | − +C 4 4(x + 1) Taking the values of our constants from (13).

we never want to repeat the same constant. As we already know. Multiplying both sides of our decomposition by the denominator on the left gives x 2 − 2 x − 5 = A(x 2 + 9) + (Bx + C )(x − 1) x 2 − 2 x − 5 = Ax 2 + 9A + Bx 2 − Bx + Cx − C x 2 − 2 x − 5 = (Ax 2 + Bx 2) + (− Bx + Cx) + (9A − C ) and one distinct quadratic factor. (x 2 + 9). the ﬁrst thing to notice is that the degree of the denominator is larger than the degree of the numerator. like this: A x−1 x 2 − 2 x − 5 = (A + B )x 2 + (− B + C )x + (9A − C ) Then equating coeﬃcients on the left and right sides gives us the following equations. linear factors require one constant in the numerator. x 2 − 2x − 5 dx ∫ (x − 1)(x 2 + 9) We have one distinct linear factor. So let’s get right to it and factor the denominator. In order to solve these types of integrals. A+B =1 1 62 . like this: Ax + B x2 + 9 Remember though that when we add these fractions together in our partial fractions decomposition.Now let’s take a look at an example in which the denominator is a product of distinct quadratic factors. which means that we don’t have to perform long division before we can start factoring the denominator. so our partial fractions decomposition is Example x 2 − 2x − 5 dx ∫ x 3 − x 2 + 9x − 9 As always. x 2 − 2x − 5 A Bx + C = + (x − 1)(x 2 + 9) x−1 x2 + 9 See how we started the second fraction with B instead of A? If we added a second quadratic factor to this example. (x − 1). you’ll sometimes need the following formula: 1 m x −1 d x = tan +C (n) ∫ m x2 + n2 n A The numerators of quadratic factors require a polynomial. it’s numerator would be Dx + E.

63 . we get u = x2 + 9 8 du = 2 x d x dx = du 2x Now that we have a value for B. we get 2 6 8 −3 x− 5 x 2 − 2x − 5 5 5 dx = + 2 dx ∫ (x − 1)(x 2 + 9) ∫ x−1 x +9 2 − 7 3 1 8 x 2 1 dx + d x − dx 5∫ x−1 5 ∫ x2 + 9 5 ∫ x2 + 9 Integrating the ﬁrst term only. we’ll plug (8) into (7) to solve for C. (8) and (9) into our partial fractions decomposition. A=1− A=− 3 5 8 5 10 2 5 Plugging (10). −B + C = − 2 9(1 − B ) − C = − 5 Simplifying (5) leaves us with −B + C = − 2 − 9B − C = − 14 Solving (2) for C we get C =B−2 Plugging (7) into (6) gives − 9B − (B − 2) = − 14 − 10B + 2 = − 14 − 10B = − 16 B= 8 5 2 3 C= 8 −2 5 2 5 9 C=− 4 We can also plug (8) into (4) to solve for A.−B + C = − 2 9A − C = − 5 We solve (1) for A. A=1−B Plugging (4) into (3) leaves us with two equations in terms of B and C. we get − 3 8 x 2 1 ln | x − 1 | + d x − dx 5 5 ∫ x2 + 9 5 ∫ x2 + 9 Using u-substitution to integrate the second term.

which will be − x 3 + 2x 2 − x + 1 A Bx + C Dx + E = + + x (x 2 + 1)2 x x2 + 1 (x 2 + 1)2 Multiplying both sides by the denominator of the left-hand side gives us − x 3 + 2 x 2 − x + 1 = A(x 2 + 1)2+ (Bx + C )x (x 2 + 1)+ (Dx + E )x Simplifying the right-hand side. (Dx + E )x − x 3 + 2 x 2 − x + 1 = Ax 4 + 2 Ax 2 + A+ Bx 4 + Bx 2 + Cx 3 + Cx + 64 . at least some of which are repeated. we get 1 m x −1 d x = tan +C ( ) ∫ m x2 + n2 n n m=1 n=3 3 4 2 1 x − ln | x − 1 | + ln | x 2 + 9 | − tan−1 +C ( 3 )] 5 5 5 [3 A − 3 4 2 x ln | x − 1 | + ln | x 2 + 9 | − tan−1 +C (3) 5 5 15 1 2 x 4 ln | x 2 + 9 | − 3 ln | x − 1 | − tan−1 +C ( 3 )] 5[ 3 Repeated quadratic factors Last but not least.− 3 8 x du 2 1 ln | x − 1 | + ⋅ − dx 2 ∫ ∫ 5 5 u 2x 5 x + 9 3 4 1 2 1 ln | x − 1 | + du − dx 5 5∫ u 5 ∫ x2 + 9 We’ll be using formula (A) like we did in the last example. let’s take a look at an example in which the denominator is a product of quadratic factors. we have to include every lesser degree of that factor in our partial fractions decomposition. when we’re dealing with repeated factors. we get − x 3 + 2 x 2 − x + 1 = A(x 4 + 2 x 2 + 1)+ (Bx + C )(x 3 + x)+ 3 4 2 1 − ln | x − 1 | + ln | u | − dx 5 5 5 ∫ x2 + 9 − 3 4 2 1 ln | x − 1 | + ln | x 2 + 9 | − dx 2 ∫ 5 5 5 x +9 Using (A) to integrate the third term. − Example − x 3 + 2x 2 − x + 1 dx ∫ x (x 2 + 1)2 Remember.

we have − x 3 + 2 x 2 − x + 1 = (Ax 4 + Bx 4) + (Cx 3)+ (2 Ax 2 + Bx 2 + Dx 2)+ (Cx + Ex)+ (A) And factoring. (8) and (7) back into our decomposition. A+B =0 C =−1 2A + B + D = 2 C+E =−1 A=1 We already have values for A and C. we get 5 ln | x | − 1 x x d x − d x + dx ∫ x2 + 1 ∫ x2 + 1 ∫ (x 2 + 1)2 65 . (2). we get −1 + E = − 1 E=0 7 Plugging (5) and (6) into (3) to solve for D gives us 2(1) − 1 + D = 2 D=1 8 Plugging our constants from (5).Dx 2 + Ex Grouping like terms together. (6). we get − x + 2 x − x + 1 = (A + B )x + (C )x + (2 A + B + D)x 2+ (C + E )x + (A) Now we equate coeﬃcients and write down the equations we’ll use to solve for each of our constants. we get (1) (− 1)x + (− 1) (1)x + (0) + + 2 dx ∫ x x2 + 1 (x + 1)2 1 x+1 x − 2 + 2 dx ∫ x x + 1 (x + 1)2 1 x+1 x dx − d x + dx ∫x ∫ x2 + 1 ∫ (x 2 + 1)2 1 x 1 x dx − 2 dx − d x + dx ∫x ∫x +1 ∫ x2 + 1 ∫ (x 2 + 1)2 Integrating the ﬁrst term only. Plugging (5) into (1) to solve for B gives us 1 2 3 4 3 2 4 3 1+B =0 B =−1 6 Plugging (2) into (4) to solve for E.

we get u = x2 + 1 . you should follow these steps: 1. Ensure that the rational function is “proper”. 66 ln | x | − 1 x ln | x 2 + 1 | − tan−1 x + dx ∫ (x 2 + 1)2 2 Using u-substitution to integrate the fourth term. ln | x | − 1 1 ln | x 2 + 1 | − tan−1 x − +C 2 2(x 2 + 1) Using formula (A) to integrate the third term. we get u = x2 + 1 du = 2 x d x dx = ln | x | − du = 2 x d x dx = ln | x | − ln | x | − ln | x | − du 2x 1 x du ln | x 2 + 1 | − tan−1 x + 2 ⋅ ∫ u 2x 2 1 1 1 ln | x 2 + 1 | − tan−1 x + du 2 2 ∫ u2 1 1 −2 ln | x 2 + 1 | − tan−1 x + u du 2 2∫ 1 1 ln | x 2 + 1 | − tan−1 x − +C 2 2u du 2x x du 1 x ⋅ − d x + dx ∫ u 2x ∫ x2 + 1 ∫ (x 2 + 1)2 1 1 1 x du − d x + dx ∫ x2 + 1 ∫ (x 2 + 1)2 2∫ u ln | x | − ln | x | − ln | x | − ln | x | − 1 1 x ln | u | − d x + dx ∫ x2 + 1 ∫ (x 2 + 1)2 2 1 1 x ln | x 2 + 1 | − d x + dx ∫ x2 + 1 ∫ (x 2 + 1)2 2 And plugging back in for u gives us our ﬁnal answer. such that the degree (greatest exponent) of the numerator is less than the degree of the denominator. we get m=1 n=1 1 1 x x ln | x | − ln | x 2 + 1 | − tan−1 + dx ( 1 ) ∫ (x 2 + 1)2 2 1 In summary. If necessary. in order to integrate by expressing rational functions (fractions) in terms of their partial fractions decomposition. use long division to make it proper.Using u-substitution to integrate the second term.

If the denominator is a product of linear factors. Perform the partial fractions decomposition by factoring the denominator. a. some of which are repeated: Use the two formulas above and remember to include factors of lesser degree than your repeated factors.2. If the denominator is a product of quadratic factors. c. some of which are repeated: Remember to include factors of lesser degree than your repeated factors. If the denominator is a product of distinct quadratic factors: You’ll need the following equation: 1 m x −1 d x = tan +C ( ) ∫ m x2 + n2 n n d. A 67 . some of which may be repeated. If the denominator is a product of distinct linear factors: This is the simplest kind of partial fractions decomposition. b. which will always be expressible as the product of either linear or quadratic factors. Nothing fancy here.

we’ll take the derivative with respect to x while we treat y like it’s a constant. y) = x 4y 3 + x 3y 2 + ln xe y Finding derivatives of a multivariable function like this one may be less challenging than you think. product rule. In that way. we sort of reduce the problem to a single-variable derivative problem. if z is a function deﬁned in terms of x and y. Then we’ll take another derivative of the original function. For example. this one with respect to y. After learning derivative rules like power rule. because we’re actually only going to take the derivative with respect to one variable at a time. Remember the deﬁnition of the derivative from single-variable calculus (aka the diﬀerence quotient)? Let’s adapt that deﬁnition so that it works for us for multivariable functions. and we’ll treat x as a constant. which is a derivative we already know how to handle! We call these kinds of derivatives “partial derivatives” because we’re only taking the derivative of one part (variable) of the function at a time.6 partial derivatives By this point we’ve already learned how to ﬁnd derivatives of single-variable functions. The partial derivative of z with respect to x is 68 . then 1. chain rule and others. We know that. we’re pretty comfortable handling the derivatives of functions like these: f (x) = x 2 + 5 (x 2 + 4)3sin x f (x) = 4 x + ln 7x 4 But now it’s time to start talking about derivatives of multivariable functions. like z = f (x. such as f (x. quotient rule. y).

In fact. y + h) − f (x. we get 2 x 2y + 4xhy + 2h 2y − 2 x 2y fx(x. y) = 4x y For the partial derivative of z with respect to y. f (x + h . y) into the deﬁnition. y) − f (x. y) = fx = zx ∂x ∂x ∂x 2. y) = ∂z ∂f ∂ = = f (x. y) or fy(x. y) = lim h h→0 fx(x. y) h Example Using the deﬁnition. y) = 2 x 2y For the partial derivative of z with respect to x. we’ll substitute y + h into the original function for y. y) = 2(x + h)2 y f (x + h . y) = fy = zy ∂y ∂y ∂y fx(x. 69 . y) = lim h h→0 4xhy + 2h 2y fx(x. there are many ways you might see partial derivatives deﬁned. y) = 2(x 2 + 2 xh + h 2)y f (x + h . we’ll substitute x + h into the original function for x. y) and f (x + h . fx(x. The partial derivative of z with respect to x: fx(x. The partial derivative of z with respect to y is f (x. y) = lim h→0 f (x + h . y) = lim 4x y + 2(0)y h→0 Let’s use what we’ve learned so far to work through an example using the diﬀerence quotient to ﬁnd the partial derivatives of a multivariable function. y) = lim h h→0 The deﬁnition as we’ve written it here gives two diﬀerent kinds of notation for the partial derivatives of z: zx or zy and fx(x. y) = ∂z ∂f ∂ = = f (x. y) = 2 x 2y + 4xhy + 2h 2y Plugging our values of f (x. y) zy = fy(x. ﬁnd the partial derivatives of f (x. The partial derivative of z with respect to y: fy(x.zx = fx(x. y). y) = lim 4x y + 2hy h→0 2. The partial derivatives of a function z deﬁned in terms of x and y could be written in all of these ways: 1.

f (x. we get 2 x 2y + 2 x 2h − 2 x 2y fy(x. we treat y as a constant and use power rule to ﬁnd the derivative. y) = lim h→0 h fy(x. y) = 2 x 2(1) fy(x. y) = 2 d 2 x y ( dx ) fy(x. The good news is that we can apply all the same derivative rules to multivariable functions to avoid using the diﬀerence quotient! We just have to remember to work with only one variable at a time. y) = 2 x 2y For the partial derivative of z with respect to x. y + h) = 2 x 2( y + h) f (x. y + h) = 2 x 2y + 2 x 2h Plugging our values of f (x. The next example shows how the power rule provides a faster way to ﬁnd this function’s partial derivatives. treating all other variables as constants. fy(x. y) = lim 2 x 2 h→0 Example Using the power rule. y) = 2 x 2 70 . y) = 4x y You’ll remember from single-variable calculus that using the deﬁnition of the derivative was the “long way” that we learned to take the derivative before we learned the derivative rules that made the process faster. y) and f (x. y + h) into the deﬁnition. y) = 2 x 2 fx(x. y) = lim h h→0 2 x 2h fy(x. y) = 2 (2 x) y fx(x. ﬁnd the partial derivatives of f (x. fx(x. For the partial derivative of z with respect to y. we treat x as a constant and use power rule to ﬁnd the derivative. y) = 2 x 2 d y ( dx ) fy(x.

Remember how we even used the second derivative to help us with inﬂection points and concavity when we were learning optimization and sketching graphs? Here’s an example from single variable calculus of what a second derivative looks like: f (x) = 2 x 3 f ′(x) = 6x 2 f ′′(x) = 12 x Well. of the ﬁrst-order partial derivative with respect to y ∂ ∂f ∂ 2f fyy = = ∂y ( ∂y ) ∂y2 3. instead of just one function that deﬁnes the second derivative (like f ′′(x) = 12 x above). 71 . we can ﬁnd the second derivative of a multivariable function in the same way.second-order partial derivatives We already learned in single-variable calculus how to ﬁnd second derivatives. The derivative with respect to y. we just took the derivative of the derivative. where we start with the original function in the ﬁrst row. of the ﬁrst-order partial derivative with respect to x ∂ ∂f ∂ 2f fxy = = ∂ y ( ∂x ) ∂x∂ y 4. Except. we’ll need four functions that deﬁne the second derivative! Our second-order partial derivatives will be: 1. The derivative with respect to x. take ﬁrst derivatives in the second row. of the ﬁrst-order partial derivative with respect to y ∂ ∂f ∂ 2f fyx = = ( ) ∂x ∂ y ∂ y∂x That wording is a little bit complicated. and then second derivatives in the third row. We can think about like the illustration below. The derivative with respect to y. The derivative with respect to x. of the ﬁrst-order partial derivative with respect to x ∂ ∂f ∂ 2f fxx = = ∂x ( ∂x ) ∂x 2 2.

y) = 2 x 2y We found the ﬁrst-order partial derivatives of this function in a previous section. 72 . or vice versa. even though this looks like four second-order partial derivatives. you’ll get the same answer in both cases.Example Find the second-order partial derivatives of f (x. Which means our tree actually looks like this: fyx = fyy = are: fxx = fxy = ∂ (4x y) = 4y ∂x ∂ (4x y) = 4x ∂x ∂ (2 x 2) = 4x ∂x ∂ (2 x 2) = 0 ∂x they were fx(x. Whether you start with the ﬁrst-order partial derivative with respect to x. y) = 2 x 2 The four second order partial derivatives Notice that the mixed second-order partial derivative is the same. That’s because the two second-order partial derivatives in the middle of the third row will always come out to be the same. regardless of whether you take the partial derivative ﬁrst with respect to x and then y. and then take the partial derivative of that with respect to y. and then take the partial derivative of that with respect to x. it’s actually only three. and The good news is that. or if you start with the ﬁrstorder partial derivative with respect to y. y) = 4x y fy(x.

When we talk about the “order” of a diﬀerential equation. Partial Diﬀerential Equations (PDEs) 2. ODEs involve the “ordinary” derivative of a function of a single variable. we mean the derivative of the highest degree that occurs in the equation. Linear diﬀerential equations 2. so here we’ll be discussing only ordinary diﬀerential equations. an ordinary diﬀerential equation looks like this: d 2y = 2x 2 dx ODEs can be classiﬁed as 1. the order of d 2y dy − 3 = d x2 dx 73 . while PDEs involve partial derivatives of functions of multiple variables. In contrast. the order of dy − sin x cos x = 2 x dx is 1.7 differential equations Diﬀerential equations are broadly classiﬁed into two categories: 1. So as we saw before. For example. Nonlinear (separable) diﬀerential equations ODEs can also be classiﬁed according to their order. because the highest-degree derivative that occurs in this equation is dy / d x. ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u + + =0 ∂x 2 ∂ y 2 ∂z 2 is a partial derivative. In contrast. Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations (ODEs) We discussed partial derivatives previously.

is 2. because the highest-degree derivative that occurs in this equation is d 2y / d x 2. 74 .

Let’s talk about how to solve a linear. Remember from the introduction to this section that these are ordinary diﬀerential equations (ODEs). C.linear. ﬁrst-order diﬀerential equations. we can see that . Example Solve the diﬀerential equation. x the integrating factor for this equation is I(x) = e ∫ − x 2 dx 1 I(x) = e −2 ∫ x dx I(x) = e −2 ln x Note: You can leave out the constant of integration. In order to get dy / d x by itself in our equation. our next step is to identify our equation’s “integrating factor”. A linear. You can take my word for it. we use the formula I(x) = e ∫ P(x) dx Since B where P (x) and Q (x) are functions of x. or you can read through the very. very long proof that tells you why. To ﬁnd the integrating factor. ﬁrst-order diﬀerential equation will be expressed in the form dy + P (x)y = Q (x) dx A P (x) = − and Q (x) = x 2 x Once we’re at a point where we’ve identiﬁed P (x) and Q (x) from the standard form of our linear. the independent variable. 75 Matching (1) to (A) above. we need to divide both sides by x. ﬁrst-order diﬀerential equation. ﬁrst-order diﬀerential equation. dy 2 − y=x dx x 1 2 P (x) = − . when you integrate P (x). first-order differential equations ordinary diﬀerential equations (ODEs) Here we’ll be discussing linear. dy x − 2y = x 2 dx It’s really important that the form of the diﬀerential equation match (A) exactly.

So we can substitute [ yx −2]′ into (3) to get [ yx −2]′ = x −1 Now we integrate both sides. (2). It turns the left side of (3) is the derivative of yx −2. or yI(x) . y times our integrating factor. And this will always be the case! Let’s prove it by taking the derivative of yx −2. [ yx −2]′ d x = x −1 d x ∫ ∫ yx −2 = ln | x | + C y = x 2(ln | x | + C ) We’ll multiply both sides of (1) by (2) to get dy 1 2 1 1 ⋅ 2 − ⋅ 2 ⋅y = x⋅ 2 dx x x x x dy 1 2 1 − y = d x ( x2 ) x3 x y′x −2 − 2yx −3 = x −1 3 The reason we multiply by the integrating factor is that it does something for us that’s extremely convenient. even though we don’t realize it yet.I(x) = e ln x I(x) = x −2 Our integrating factor is: 1 I(x) = 2 x −2 d ( yx −2) = y′x −2 − 2yx −3 dx See how the derivative we just found matches the left side of (3)? If we multiply through (1) by the integrating factor that 2 we found. in other words. We’ll need to use product rule. d d d −2 ( yx −2) = y (x −2) + ( y) x ( dx ) ( dx ) dx d ( yx −2) = ( y′)(x −2) + ( y)(− 2 x −3) dx 76 . the resulting left side will always be [ yI(x)]′.

nonlinear (separable) differential equations ordinary diﬀerential equations (ODEs) A separable. This makes it easier for us to separate our variables. We can easily integrate functions in this form by separating variables. 77 Example Solve the diﬀerential equation. When we can’t. ﬁrst-order diﬀerential equation is an equation in the following form y′ = f (x)g ( y). where y and x are not cleanly separated by the = sign. dy = y 2 sin x dx Next. we’ll be able to express y explicitly as a function of x. y′ = y 2 sin x First. we’ll write the equation in Leibniz notation. The dependent variable is y. collecting y’s on the left and x’s on the right. dy = y 2 sin x d x dy = sin x d x y2 1 dy = sin x d x y2 With variables separated. respectively. we get 1 dy = sin x d x ∫ y2 ∫ y −2 dy = sin x d x ∫ ∫ . we just have to be satisﬁed with an implicit function. y′ = f (x)g ( y) dy = f (x)g ( y) dx dy = f (x)g ( y) d x dy = f (x) d x g ( y) 1 dy = f (x) d x g ( y) 1 dy = f (x) d x ∫ g ( y) ∫ Sometimes in our ﬁnal answer. where f (x) and g ( y) are functions of x and y. the independent variable is x. and integrating both sides. we’ll separate our variables. but not always.

Using the same method we used in the last example. and then plug in the initial condition(s) to ﬁnd a particular solution to the diﬀerential equation. but we didn’t change the sign on C.− y −1 = − cos x + C Note: You can leave out the constant of integration on the left side. 78 . because the negative can always be absorbed into the constant. because in future steps it would be absorbed into the constant on the right side. − 1 = − cos x + C y 1 = cos x + C y Note: We just multiplied through both sides by − 1. 1 = y (cos x + C ) y= 1 cos x + C Sometimes we’ll encounter separable diﬀerential equations with initial conditions provided. we can ﬁnd the general solution.

A graduate of the University of Notre Dame. an interactive learning tool designed speciﬁcally to guide students through the depth and complexity of a comprehensive calculus curriculum.integralcalc. http://www. Krista has 10 years experience empowering students to excel in calculus.about the author Krista King is the creator of integralCALC Academy.com/ 79 .

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