So here it is the electromagneticspectrum, showing that electromagnetic radiation can have wave lengths that rangeover a huge a huge

range from really l arge wave lengths to really, really small wavelengths, and these are in meters. You can also see that here there is arelatively narrow range that's the visible spectrum known as the visible spectrum.And in fact that is what we're concerned with when we talk about portable tastebecause that's where the sun dumps most of its energy. Perhaps not coincidentally. You can see, the radiation.Has, if we take a snapshot of it here, has electromag, electric fields in onedirection and magnetic fields perpendicular to that and they're bothperpendicular to the direction of travel which is along here.So let's look at this and you can see it moving with oscillating with movingelectric and magnetic fields. So we characterize these, thiselectromagnetic radiation by wavelength which I've already mentioned is given theGreek character lambda. And as I said before it can range over ahuge range of lengths. It's also characterized by frequency, ifyou sit here at, at the zero position th e electric field oscillates up and down,and, and it does so at a given speed and that's the frequency.So the frequency is units of one over time, it's given the Greek symbol new, andyou can relate it to the wave length b y just saying the new is equal to c overlambda. Now where C is the speed of light, so thisequation as I said give's you the relationship between frequency and thewave length of a light, but it also answers a commonly asked question whichis, hey what's new. You can say it's over lambda.The factor of magnetic radiation is also characterized by a photon energy, and thisis the smallest amount of energy which can be take, put into or taken out of a givenelectro magnetic field. And this photon energy is given by h new,where h. H is Planck's constant.It's given by, in different units.

It has dimensions of energy times time,so, for example, joules, seconds, or EV seconds.So this photon energy is critically important to how a solar cell works,because that's the amount of energy which we can extract from, from electromagneticradiation or light. And we'll see that this plays a big rolein, in how a solar cell works.

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