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Ethics Framework

Ethics Framework

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Published by Benjamin Tee
Ethics Framework
Ethics Framework

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Published by: Benjamin Tee on Oct 16, 2013
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Ethics & Social Responsibility – Ethical Framework and Problem Approach Map

Approaching the question:  Identify the key facts of the case and also interesting points  Develop key ideas through the “Scratchpad”, creativity and moral imagination  Identify the ethical questions to be answered Ethical Problem Statement:  Differentiating between a “must” and a “may”.  Start with lowest common narrative: “May Laura comply with the request of funds to enhance her bidding position”  Ethical problem statement should be a neutral question Using the Ethical Toolbox: 1. Deontology Kantian Principle of Universality: “Act only according to the maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.” Kantian Principle of Humanity: “Act so that you treat humanity whether in your own person or that of another, always as an end and never as a means only." Categorical Imperative (Universal Maxim)  Maxim of the Act.  Can it be universalized?  If no, alternative Maxim.  Apply the maxim to evaluate the action in context.  Look at the duties of individuals and if there have been violation of duty.  Show under what circumstances the action is considered to be unethical.  Which side of the line does the act fall under?  Under the maxim, was there a violation of an ethical principal? Principle of Humanity  Kant emphasizes mutual respect for humans. Humans to be treated as an end in themselves and not as a means to an end.  Was there (1) Coercion, (2) Deception, (3) Lack of Respect (4) Compromise of Autonomy  Apply; show how act violates the principle of humanity according to the three factors above.  Has the autonomy of the individual been violated? 2. Rule Utilitarianism “Act in accordance with those rules that will produce the greatest amount of utility for society as a whole”  Consistency  Professional Code of Conduct (Credos)  Company guidelines & legal rules  Often tends to ignore the minority and interests of special groups. a. Recurring situation  What is the recurring situation here?  Precise situation that covers the whole problem.  Will this cover situations which I am not concerned about? (Not too broad) b. Hat  Put on the hat to understand what would define a desirable outcome  Professional: Go to the head of the code of professional conduct.  Not Professional: Association of decision makers Advertising – Advertising Authority of Country Corruption – Chamber of Commerce Workplace – Director of Human Resource Affairs Objectives: (1) Degree of consistency – similar situation, same response, (2) Efficiency – Formulate a rule such that efficiency is increased. c. Desired Outcome  What is the core objective to be preserved?  What would ensure the greatest net utility in the long run?  Cost-Benefit Analysis to justify the desired outcome. (Be sure to evaluate society as a whole and all possible consequences flowing from the outcome) d. Outcome of Applying the Rule  Show how the rule when applied would be valid and ensure the greatest net utility in the long run.  What are the outcomes of applying this rule?  Rule: Society specific, context specific and different from deontology (resource driven)  Has the rule been violated? e. Conclusion  Apply the rule to the case: Is it ethical or not?

Compiled by: Tee Chin Min Benjamin

LGST 001: Ethics & Social Responsibility

st nd  1 principle to be prior to 2 principle.  Risk averse or conservative attitude in decision making.  Draw distinctions between different types of consequences and how each differ in terms of weight.3. Veil of Ignorance Theory of Justice enables the assigning of rights and duties in the basic institutions of society and distributing the benefits and costs of mutual cooperation done under a veil of ignorance. LGST 001: Ethics & Social Responsibility . (2) Space – how far and to what extent do the consequences extend to Looking at the stakeholders and how they are affected:  Who are the persons affected in the decision. it must be justified such that the least advantaged member in the distribution is not compromised. which might affect the decision outcome. without discriminatxion  Least member of society benefits Veil of Ignorance stems from a thought experiment:  Retributive Justice (punishment – Just desserts)  Distributive Justice (allocation of resources) 1 Principle of Justice – equal liberty:  Comprise essentially civil rights and political rights including the right to vote. right to freedom of speech and assembly and freedom of conscious and thought (opinion).  If you are discriminating against someone. Act Utilitarianism Looking at the consequences of the act directly:  Would the act result in an increase in net utility for society as a whole?  Apply cost-benefit analysis. Degree of problem: give reasons to justify the middle ground (Where do we draw the line) What would a virtuous person do? Standards for evaluation:  Consistency & Determinacy  Intuitive appeal and internal/external support  Is it prescriptive (tell a person what he should do) 6. liberties should not be compromised for greater socioeconomic advantages 2 Principle of Justice – difference principle:  Greatest benefit to accrue to the least advantaged representative man in society. medium term interest and long term interest? 4. Maximin approach in choosing outcomes Application: Taking a step backward to the original position how would the rational individual make a fair decision?  The rational self-interested actor in the original position. Checklist for a good answer:  Have I zeroed in with reasonable focus on the ethical issue?  Have I come up with a conclusion that is based on an appropriate rule?  Have I stated my rule clearly?  Have I adequately discussed the positive and negatives as disclosed by the facts?  Have I shown which side of the line the action belongs to and why?  Am I clear? Simple. Virtue Ethics “Always advice the person seeking the advice” – What would a ____ do in this situation     Looking at two extremes (Behavior/Beliefs) Find the middle ground: looking at other factors. how do they rank in terms of importance/impact. nd st 5. elegant answers. Faced with a constraint of Limited Resources. identify the possible consequences stemming from the ethical decision  Look at (1) Time Span – inter-temporal consequences.  Assumes everyone seeks to maximize their own utility. veil seeks to:  Ensure fair distribution. Ethical Egoism  Looking at the problem from the point of view of the individual. would not make self-serving decisions to benefit himself  Each person to have an equal right to the most extensive total system of basic liberties compatible with a similar system of liberty for all.(Credibility/reputation/intangible results)  Feelings of the individual (conscience)  How should I act in my immediate interest.

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