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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterium responsible for several difficult-totreat infections in humans.

It is also calledoxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA). MRSA is any strain of Staphylococcus aureus that has developed, through the process of natural selection, resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, which include the penicillins (methicillin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, etc.) and the cephalosporins. Strains unable to resist these antibiotics are classified as methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, or MSSA. The evolution of such resistance does not cause the organism to be more intrinsically virulent than strains of Staphylococcus aureus that have no antibiotic resistance, but resistance does make MRSA infection more difficult to treat with standard types of antibiotics and thus more dangerous. MRSA is especially troublesome in hospitals, prisons and nursing homes, where patients with open wounds, invasive devices, and weakened immune systems are at greater risk of infection than the general public. Contents [hide]

1 Signs and symptoms 2 Risk factors

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2.1 Hospital patients 2.2 Prison inmates, military recruits, and the homeless 2.3 People in contact with live food-producing animals 2.4 Athletes 2.5 Children

3 Diagnosis 4 Genetics
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4.1 SCCmec 4.2 mecA 4.3 Strains

5 Prevention
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5.1 Screening programs 5.2 Surface sanitizing 5.3 Research on copper alloys 5.4 Hand washing 5.5 Use of surgical respirator

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5.6 Proper disposal of hospital gowns 5.7 Isolation 5.8 Restricting antibiotic use 5.9 Public health considerations 5.10 Decolonization 5.11 Community settings

6 Treatment 7 History
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7.1 US and UK 7.2 Worldwide