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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION

1. Define the following terms: Species Habitat Population Community Ecosystem Ecology Niche Biodiversity

1. Outline six factors that affect the distribution of plant species.

2. Explain how the following factors affect the distribution of animal species: Factor Effect on the distribution of animals Temperature

Water

Food Supply

Breeding sites

Territory

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION


3. Explain what is meant by the niche concept, with an example species in its niche.

4. Distinguish between fundamental and realized niches.

5. Explain the following interactions between species, giving examples of each: Herbivory

Predation

Intraspecific competition

Interspecific competition

Parasitism

Mutualism

6. Explain the competitive exclusion principle.

7. Give synonyms for the following terms: Primary consumer Secondary consumer (and above)

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION


8. Complete the tree below with definitions and examples of each type of feeding strategy. Can you distinguish between the feeding strategies at each level?

9. Food chains represent the flow of energy and nutrients in a series of feeding relationships. Give one example of a marine food chain (min. 4 organisms)

Give one example of a terrestrial food chain (min. 4 organisms)

Give one other example of a food chain (min. 4 organisms)

10. Describe what is meant by a food web.

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION


11. The food web below shows some coral reef feeding relationships;

a. Identify species in the following trophic levels: i. Producers ii. iii. Primary consumers Secondary consumers

12. On a separate sheet, construct a freshwater food web based on the following information:
Organism Energy sources Water crowfoot Sunlight Cased caddisfly larva Micro-plants, algae, particles of dead plants and animals Damselfly nymph Micro-plants, algae, particles of dead plants and animals Mayfly nymph Micro-plants, algae, particles of dead plants and animals Dragonfly Other adult insects and small flies Duck All nymphs, all plants, snails, tadpoles, young frogs Freshwater Shrimp Particles of dead plants and animals Water vole Plants Algae Sunlight Otter Fish, frogs and newts Water starwort Sunlight Pond snail Microplants, all water plants and algae Alderfly nymph Micro-plants, algae, particles of dead plants and animals Pond skater Particles of dead plants and animals Frog Mayfly, midge larvae, pond skater, caddisfly, small flies Tadpole Micro-plants, algae Micro-plants Sunlight Great diving beetle Water flea, snails, tadpole, all nymphs Bullhead fish Diving beetle, tadpole, all nymphs, water flea, snail, midge larvae Adapted from: http://www.cornwallriversproject.org.uk/education/education_pack.htm

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION


13. For the food web created above: a. Identify organisms in each of the trophic levels. Do any fit more than one trophic level? b. Which could be classed as detritivores?

14. Why is it sometimes difficult to classify organisms into trophic levels?

15. Why are the numbers of organisms usually smaller higher up the trophic levels?

16. What is the original source of energy for almost all communities?

17. Use the table below to summarize the stages of photosynthesis: Stage Light-dependent Photolysis Summary

Photophosphorylation

Reduction of NADP+

Light-independent (Calvin cycle)

Carbon fixation

Reduction of glycerate-3-phosphate Glucose phosphate production Regeneration of RuBP

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION


18. What are the functions of the following molecules in photosynthesis? Photosystem I and II ATP synthetase ATP NADPH Rubisco CO2

19. What is the function of a pyramid of energy?

20. Give an example of a unit of measurement used in a pyramid of energy, giving a description of each component.

21. Define the following terms: Gross production Net Production

22. Explain why gross production is always higher than net production.

23. Write the calculation used for determining gross production, net production and respiration.

24. a. Draw a simple pyramid of energy based on this information:

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION


25. Energy transfers are never 100% efficient. In which ways is energy lost between trophic levels?

26. Study the energy flow diagram below:

a. Calculate the net production of the autotrophs.

b. Calculate the percentage of energy lost as heat in: i. ii. Autotrophs Heterotrophs

c. Suggest reasons for the difference in part b.

27. Energy flows through an ecosystem, nutrients are recycled.


Explain this statement with the aid of a flow chart. Include the roles of saprotrophic bacteria and fungi.

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION


28. Define biomass.

29. Suggest some reasons for studying the biomass of an ecosystem.

30. Outline one method for estimating the biomass of different trophic levels of an ecosystem. How do researchers ensure both minimal impact and maximal reliability of results?

31. Explain why biomass is generally low at higher trophic levels.

32. Distinguish between primary and secondary succession, with two examples of each. Primary succession

Secondary succession

33. Describe the effects of succession on the following factors: Productivity

Biomass

Biodiversity

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION


34. In what ways do living organisms affect the abiotic environment in primary succession? Soil composition & strength

Organic nutrients

Mineral Nutrients

Water uptake

35. Distinguish between biome and biosphere.

36. Complete the climographs for these biomes. Make notes on vegetal characteristics below each.

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION


37. Although biomes can be described separately, they tie in to the global biosphere. Explain how biomes are distributed, with reference to rainfall and temperature.

38. Draw a box diagram to show the effects of natality, mortality, immigration and emigration on a population:

39. Under which conditions will a population: a. Grow b. Decline

40. In the space below, draw a population growth curve. Annotate it to explain the exponential, transition and plateau phases and carrying capacity.

41. What are three factors that set limits to population growth?

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION

42. Random sampling can be used to estimate the population of a plant species in an area. a. Explain how the researcher may make sure the samples taken are: i. Random

ii.

Reliable

b. Quadrats are used to estimate the coverage or number of individuals present. In the space below, draw a diagram to explain how a quadrat is used and how results are determined and recorded.

c. The data collected can be used to compare the populations of two or more species. Species A B i. Percentage cover in each quadrat (2%) 34 32 45 12 34 46 12 9 23 5 4 12 5 8 mean 54 2 STDEV

12 7

Calculate the mean and standard deviation of each set of results.

ii.

What does the standard deviation tell us about these data?

iii.

Which statistical test could be used to determine the significance of any difference between the two populations?

iv.

H0 = Confidence limit usually chosen in Biology:

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION

v.

The value of t was calculated as 3.995. Use the t-table to determine the significance of the results.

n= Degrees of freedom (n-2) = Critical value = Is t greater than or less than the critical value?

Therefore reject/ accept H0.

There is / is no significant difference in distribution of species A and species B.

Can you also complete this using Excel?

43. What is the function of a transect?

44. Explain how a transect would be carried out to correlate the distribution of a species with and abiotic variable.

45. What is meant by the term correlation does not necessarily imply causation?

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION


46. What is the function of Simpsons Diversity Index?

47. Describe how Simpsons Index could be used to compare two parts of a stream.

48. Use Simpsons Diversity Index to compare these communities: Grassland Site 1 Species A B C D E F G H Present number y 65 y 12 y 8 x 0 x 0 x 0 x 0 x O N= n= 3 N-1= n-1= 2

Simpsons Index:

Grassland Site 2 Species A Present number y 12

B X o

C y 32

D y 21

E y 08

F y 6

G y 07

H y 4 N= n= 7 N-1= n-1= 6

Simpsons Index:

Which one of these sites was farmed grassland? Which was left to go wild? Explain your answer.

49. Discuss the following reasons for conservation of biodiversity in rainforests: Ethical/moral Economical

Economical

Aesthetic

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Bandung International School

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION


50. Define alien species.

51. Give examples of the introduction of the following types of invasive species and their impacts:

Intentional Introduction: food source

Intentional Introduction: biological control

Accidental Introduction: human exploration

Accidental Introduction: shipping or globalization

52. How do alien species have the following impacts on ecosystems? Give examples. Predation

Interspecific competition

Habitat destruction

Biological control

Extinction

53. Describe how RHDV has been used as biological control in Australia.

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION


54. Distinguish between bioaccumulation and biomagnification.

55. Using a diagram or flow-chart, describe the cause and consequences of one named example of biomagnification.

56. In the space below, draw and annotate a diagram to show the carbon cycle and processes involved.

57. Outline some of the methods used to measure or estimate atmospheric carbon dioxide.

Stephen Taylor

Bandung International School

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION


58. The topic of increasing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere has been the source of intense debate with regard to climate change in recent years.

a. Describe the overall trend shown in the graph.

b. Suggest one human impact and one natural cause that could have led to the overall trend shown in the graph: Human: Natural: c. Identify with an arrow any one point where the graph is in mid-summer. d. Explain the seasonal fluctuations in CO2 levels.

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Bandung International School

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION


59. Explain, with the aid of a diagram, the greenhouse effect.

60. Identify three greenhouse gases other than carbon dioxide.

61. Explain how increased atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases lead to an enhanced greenhouse effect.

62. Outline some of the possible consequences of a global temperature rise on arctic ecosystems.

63. What is the precautionary principle?

64. How does the precautionary principle apply to human impacts and global warming?

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION


65. Give two other examples of the precautionary principle in effect in Biology or Medicine.

66. Evaluate the precautionary principle as a justification for taking strong action in response to the threats posed by the enhanced greenhouse effect. What are some of the steps that we could take?

67. What is ozone and what is its function in the stratosphere.

68. Outline the effect of CFCs on the ozone layer.

69. Outline the effects of UV radiation on living tissues and biological productivity.

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION


70. Define evolution.

71. Populations tend to produce more offspring than the environment can support. a. What is the consequence of this?

b. What is the significance of variation within a species in relation to survival?

c. How does sexual reproduction lead to variation within a species? Meiosis

Random fertilization

Mate selection

d. How does the struggle for survival lead to natural selection?

72. Explain antibiotic resistance in bacteria as an example of evolution. Environmental change = Variation allowed And so

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION


73. Explain one other example of evolution of a species, in response to environmental change. (Galapagos finches or pepper moths)

74. In what way do the following types of evidence support the theory of evolution? Fossil Record

Homologous structures

Selective breeding of domesticated animals

75. In the space below, explain how the Linnean binomial system of nomenclature works, paying attention to formatting conventions.

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION


76. Define taxonomy.

77. In the table below, list the seven levels in the hierarchy of taxa. Using two examples from different kingdoms give all seven levels. Hierarchical level Most diverse Example 1: Example 2:

Most Specific

78. Distinguish between the following phyla of plants, using external characteristics. Give examples.

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION


79. Distinguish between the following phyla of animals, using external recognition features and giving examples.

80. Design and apply a dichotomous key to help you identify these beetles:

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION


Questions from here on apply only to Higher Level students. 81. Define biotic index.

82. Outline how a tolerance rating can be applied to a species.

83. List some examples of freshwater invertebrate species which are indicators of: a. Good water quality

b. Poor water quality

84. Annotate the equation below to show the components of a biotic index calculation.

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION


85. Calculate and compare the biotic indexes of these two locations: Site 1 ai 10 8 6 4 2 (ni x ai) = Site 2 ai 10 8 6 4 2 (ni x ai) =

Species A B C D E N=

ni 0 0 2 9 12

ni x ai

ni 2 6 1 3 0 N=

ni x ai

Biotic Index = Conclusion:

Biotic Index =

86. How does the application of a biotic index differ from a diversity index?

87. How might biotic and/or diversity index data be used in the monitoring of an ecosystem?

88. Describe how the extinction of the dodo came about. Event: Effects: Why was the dodo vulnerable?

Suggest some measures that could have been taken to prevent the extinction of the dodo.

Stephen Taylor

Bandung International School

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION


89. Complete the following Structured Data Analysis question:

a. State the percentage of species in some way affected by habitat loss.

b. Calculate the approximate number of bird species threatened by persecution/ predation only.

c. State two factors that could have caused habitat loss.

Stephen Taylor

Bandung International School

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION


90. What is a nature reserve?

91. How do the following biogeographical features of nature reserves aid in species conservation? Give examples of species that can take advantage of each of these effects. Size

Habitat corridors

Edge Effect

92. Explain how the edge effect can have a negative impact on reserves which are small in size.

93. What is active management with regard to conservation?

94. Which of the following qualify as active management strategies? a. Culling invasive species b. Leaving an area to grow wild c. Fencing off an area to prevent poachers from gaining entry d. Building new habitats e. Replanting vegetation

95. Using an Indonesian example, discuss how active management of a nature reserve has had a positive impact on biodiversity.

Stephen Taylor

Bandung International School

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION


96. Distinguish between in-situ and ex-situ conservation of endangered species.

97. Complete the table to give the advantages and some plant and animal examples of in-situ and ex-situ conservation measures. In-situ Advantages Ex-situ

Plant examples

Animal examples

98. Outline how the following ex-situ methods can help in conservation of endangered species: Seed banks Botanic Gardens Captive breeding

99. Annotate the equation below to the show the components of a calculation of rate of change of a population:

Stephen Taylor

Bandung International School

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION


100. Distinguish between r- and K-strategists in terms of the following characteristics: r-strategists Examples Life span Growth & size Age at maturity Number of offspring
Number of reproductive events

K-strategists

Competition

Favoured environmental conditions

101.

As always in Biology, there is no black and white, but a spectrum. Arrange the following species on a r-K spectrum:
(elephants, bacteria, oak trees, humans, mice, mosquitoes, algae, frogs)

102.

Discuss the use of the Lincoln Index, as shown in the diagram:

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION

103.

What are some of the ethical considerations of a capture-mark-recapture technique?

104.

What are some of the practical difficulties associated with a capture-mark-recapture technique?

105.

What is a commercial fish stock?

106.

How can the following methods be used to estimate the size of commercial fish stocks? Fish catch data

Capture-Mark-Recapture

Echolocation or Satellite data

107.

What are the ecological and economical impacts of overfishing?

108.

When setting catch limits, which groups might be considered as stakeholders in the decision?

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION


109. Answer this Structured Data Analysis question on fish catch data.

a. Calculate the percentage of the world catch that came from the Atlantic in 1990.

b. Compare the Pacific and Atlantic data.

c. Suggest one reason in each case for the change in catch in the Indian and Atlantic oceans between 1980 and 1990. Indian: Atlantic:

110.

Outline the concept of maximum sustainable yield.

111.

How does the precautionary principle apply when setting international catch limits?

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ESSENTIAL BIOLOGY 05: ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION & CONSERVATION


112. Discuss how the following international measures may aid the conservation of fish stocks: International cooperation

Stakeholder identification and agreement

Independent research and monitoring

Mapping

Subsidies

Legalisation and enforcement

Education and awareness

Stephen Taylor

Bandung International School

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