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Quantum Mechanics PyEd 3424.33

|Views: 860|Likes: 20Published by mesfint

This is a teaching material prepared for undergraduate students of the Department of Physics Education, College of Education, Addis Ababa University.

Course Instructor: Mesfin Tadesse Beshah

Course Duration: One Semester

Course Instructor: Mesfin Tadesse Beshah

Course Duration: One Semester

This is a teaching material prepared for undergraduate students of the Department of Physics Education, College of Education, Addis Ababa University.

Course Instructor: Mesfin Tadesse Beshah

Course Duration: One Semester

Course Instructor: Mesfin Tadesse Beshah

Course Duration: One Semester

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/17673928/Quantum-Mechanics-PyEd-342

11/08/2012

text

original

The framework of Quantum Mechanics is built on a few theoretical principles

derived from experimental observations. These principles, called the postulates of

Quantum Mechanics, are discussed below:

Postulate 1:

*The state of a quantum mechanical system is completely specified by the wave
*

*function* ( )

,*t
*

Ψ**r**, where **r** represents the space coordinates ( )

,,

*xyz*of the system

and *t* is the time.

The wave function must be continuous, single valued and square integrable.

Quantum Mechanics (PyEd 342)

Prepared by Mesfin Tadesse, CoE, AAU, Megabit 2000 EC

9

The probability of finding the system within a volume *dv* of space at time*t* is:

( ) ( ) ( )

*

,

,

,

*Pt
*

*t
*

*tdv
*

=Ψ Ψ

**r
**

**r
**

**r
**

Square integrable means

( )

2

,

*allspace
*

*td
*

*finite
*

−

Ψ

=

∫

**r
**

**r
**

where

( ) ( ) ( )

2

*

,

,

,

*t
*

*t
*

*t
*

Ψ

= Ψ

Ψ

**r
**

**r
**

**r
**

Postulate 2:

*In Quantum Mechanics, every observable (i.e., any measurable property of the
*

*system), is described by a linear, Hermitian operator.
*

For example, for a particle in one dimensional motion, the momentum operator

corresponding to the classical momentum

*x
*

*p* isˆ

*x
*

*p
*

*i
*

*x
*

= − ∂ ∂

h

.

Postulate 3:

*The only possible results of any measurement of an observable are the eigenvalues
*

*of the operator that corresponds to such observable.
*

That is, if ˆ

A is the operator associated with the observableA being measured,

then the only values that will ever be observed are the eigenvalues *a* which satisfy

ˆ

A

*a
*

Ψ = Ψ

Although measurements must always yield an eigenvalue, the state of the system

is not necessarily an eigenstate ofˆ

A. Generally, the state of the system is any

arbitrary state that can be expanded in a complete set of eigenvectors as

*ii
ic*ψ

Ψ=

∑

,

where the sum can run to infinity in principle. The probability of observing

eigenvalue

*i
*

*a* is given by*

*ii
*

*cc*.

Postulate 4:

*The average value of many measurements of an observable*A*, corresponding to
*

*operator*ˆ

A*, is given by
*

Quantum Mechanics (PyEd 342)

Prepared by Mesfin Tadesse, CoE, AAU, Megabit 2000 EC

10

*

*

ˆ

A

A

*dv
*

*dv
*

Ψ Ψ

=

Ψ Ψ

∫

∫

This average value is called the *expectation value*.

Postulate 5:

*The evolution of the wavefunction* ( )

,*t
*Ψ

*dependent Schrodinger equation:
*

( )

( )

,

ˆ

H

,

*t
*

*ti
*

*t
*

∂Ψ

Ψ =

∂

**r
**

**r** h

where

( )

2

2

ˆ

ˆ

2

*H
*

*V
*

*m
*

=− ∇ +**r
**

h

is the operator associated with the total energy of the

system,

( )

2

2

*p
*

*E
*

*V
*

*m
*

= +**r**.

Quantum Mechanics (PyEd 342)

Prepared by Mesfin Tadesse, CoE, AAU, Megabit 2000 EC

11

**Chapter 2. Mathematical Foundation
**

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