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Bp cm ng

Bch khoa ton th m Wikipedia

Bp cm ng hay bp t l bp s dng dng in cm ng (foucoult) nu nng, bng cch t tm st mng di y ni hoc s dng ni bng hp kim st, khng hot ng nu n khng c ming st t ny. [sa]Hot

ng

Bp cm ng

Bp cm ng c ch to da trn nguyn l t trng trong cun dy v dng in Foucault. Ngi ta t mt cun dy dn in di mt tm vt liu cch in, cch nhit (thng l s thy tinh v ngoi kh nng cch in, cch nhit, n cn c tnh thm m). Khi cho dng in chy qua cun dy s to ngay tc thi t trng trong khong cch vi milimt trn b mt bp. y ni bng kim loi (st nhim t) nm trong t trng ny s sinh ra dng in Foucault v nng ln, nu chn thc n nh i vi cch un nu thng thng. thay i nhit un, ngi ta thay i cng t trng tc dng ln y ni bng cch thay i cng dng in. iu ny c th lm c bng cch thay i tr s cain tr. a s cc loi bp hin nay u thit k nhiu chc nng nu tng ng vi cc mc nhit nh sn nhm gip cho vic s dng tr ln d dng. Nhiu loi bp cn c chc nng hn gi. tng hiu qu dn nhit, ngi ta ch to y ni c lp kim loi dn nhit tt nh nhm,ng ph ln lp vt liu st t, di cng c th l lp vt liu c bn cao nh inox. [sa]u

im

u im ca bp cm ng l tc un nu nhanh, do gim c nhit dung (khng cn nhit dung ca bp, ch c nhit dung ca ni). Vic iu chnh nhit c thc hin bng cc mch in t nn c chnh xc cao. [sa]Ch

Bp cm ng ch s dng vi cc loi ni c y lm bng vt liu dn t, y ni phi bng, khng dng cc loi ni, cho y nhn. Ngoi ra cng khng dng c (hon ton khng nn dng) ni bng cc cht liu 2 dn t thp nh: nhm hoc ng...vv. V nhng vt liu ny c hiu sut sinh nhit thp (I R thp), do cun dy ca bp c th b nng ln gy nguy him cho bp.

Cng sut bp thng tng i ln (1800~2200 W) nn phi kim tra k trc khi dng. Cc phch cm cm cng phi trn 5 ampe v dng ring khng c cm chng ln nhau d gy chy n. Cc dy in phi c tit din ln m bo an ton. Bp cm ng thng c gn mt qut tn nhit nn khi un nu ch y bp phi tht thong, nn bp cch xa hi nng, hi nc, cng nh cc loi bp khc, khng nn st tng v cc vt khc. Khng cc vt dng bng st nh dao, da, bt trng men, np l, vung ni ln mt bp khi bp ang hot ng. Khng nhng vt d h hng khi b nhim t gn mt bp nh bng ghi m, ghi hnh, my thu hnh v cc thit b gia dng d b nhim t.

Dng in Foucalt, hay dng in Phuc hoc dng in xoy, l hin tng dng in sinh ra khi ta t mt vt dn in vo trong mt t trng bin i theo thi gian hay vt dn chuyn ng ct ngang t trng. Nh vt l ngi Php Lon Foucault (1819-1868) l ngi u tin chng minh s tn ti ca cc dng in cm ng trong vt dn nh tc dng ca mt t thng bin thin. Nguyn nhn vt l gy nn dng in Foucault chnh l lc Lorentz hay lc in tng i tnh tc ng ln cc ht tch in c th chuyn ng t do trong vt dn. Dng in Foucault lun chng li nguyn nhn gy ra n, theo nh lut Lenz. N to ra mt cm ng t c t thng ngc nhm chng li s bin thin ca t thng to ra n; hoc tng tc vi t trng to ra n gy ra lc c hc lun chng li chuyn ng ca vt dn. Dng in Foucault cng l mt hiu ng vt l, trong nhiu hiu ng lin quan n cm ng in t, c nhiu ng dng hay ngha thc tin. N cng c chung bn cht vi hiu ng b mt trong cc dy dn in xoay chiu.

nh lut Lenz cho bit hng ca lc in ng sinh ra bi cm ng in t, pht biu nh sau: Lc in ng bi cm ng in t trong mt mch in lun theo mt hng sao cho dng in n to ra chy trong mch gy nn mt t trng chng li s bin thin t thng sinh ra n. nh lut Lenz ph hp vi nh lut bo ton nng lng. nh lut ny c t tn theo nh vt l c Heinrich Lenz, ngi vit ra n nm 1834. nh lut ny c th hin qua du "-" trong cc phng trnh Maxwell.

Tng tc in t
Bch khoa ton th m Wikipedia
(i hng t Lc Lorentz)

Lc in t l lc m in-t trng tc dng ln ht mang in tch (chuyn ng hay ng yn). Theo biu din c in ca lc in t, lc ny gm hai thnh phn, do in trng to ra (lc in) v do t trng to ra (lc t). Lc in t i khi cn c gi l lc Lorentz, mc d thut ng ny cng c th ch dng ni v thnh phn gy ra bi t trng. L do l trong l thuyt in t v l thuyt tng i, t trng v in trng c thng nht thnh mt trng to ra tng tc duy nht gi l trng in t. c bit, trong l thuyt tng i, biu thc lc t v lc tnh in quy t v mt biu thc duy nht. Vic thng nht lc in v lc t thnh mt loi lc in t cng ph hp vi quan im ca l thuyt in ng lc hc lng t. Theo l thuyt ny, lc in t c gy ra bi s trao i ca ht trng l photon. M hnh chun ghi nhn lc in t l mt trong bn lc c bn ca t nhin.
Mc lc
[n]

1 Biu din c in 2 Lc t 3 Lc in 4 Biu din trong thuyt tng i 5 Lc c bn 6 Xem thm 7 Lin kt ngoi

[sa]Biu

din c in

Biu thc ton hc c in ca lc in t, khi cho bit cng in t trng v tnh cht ca ht mang in, l: F = q (E + v B) Trong :

E l vc-t cng in trng ti v tr ca ht q l in tch ca ht v l vc-t vn tc chuyn ng ca ht B l vc-t cm ng t ti v tr ca ht "" l php nhn vc-t.

[sa]Lc

Lc t khin ht in tch chuyn ng trn.

Thnh phn gy ra bi t trng ca lc ny, cn gi l lc t hay i khi l lc Lorentz, c phng lun vung gc vi phng chuyn ng ca ht mang in v lm thay i qu o chuyn ng ca ht mang in. Nu ht mang in chuyn ng theo phng vung gc ving cm ng t th ht s chuyn ng theo qu o trn, nu ht chuyn ng theo phng khng vung gc vi ng cm ng t th qu o ca n s l hnh xon c. Lc tc ng ca t trng ln dng in c nguyn nhn l thnh phn ny ca lc Lorentz. Lc t gia cc cc ca nam chm, cng l tng hp lc gy ra bi t trng ca nam chm ny ln cc electron chuyn ng quanh nguyn t nam chm kia, v bn cht cng l thnh phn ny ca lc Lorentz.

[sa]Lc

in

Bi chi tit: Lc tnh in Khi ht in tch ng yn; lc in t n gin ho thnh lc tnh in, l thnh phn gy ra bi in trng: Lc tng tc gia hai in tch im c phng nm trn mt ng thng ni hai in tch im, c chiu l chiu ca lc ht nu hai in tch im tri du v y nu hai in tch im cng du, c ln t l thun vi tch cc in tch v t l nghch vibnh phng khong cch gia chng. ln ca lc c tnh theo cng thc:

vi:

F l ln ca lc Coulomb, o bng N trong SI q1 l in tch ca in tch im th nht, o bng C trong SI q2 l in tch ca in tch im th hai, o bng C trong SI r l khong cch gia hai in tch im, o bng m trong SI

k l hng s vt l (cn gi l hng s lc Coulomb) thng c biu din l l in thm chn khng. Gi tr cc hng s ny l:

vi

k 8 987 742 438 F1m (hay C2Nm2) 8.854 1012 Fm1 (hay C2N1m2)

Cng thc trn cng c th c vit dng vc-t

vi:

l vc-t lc l vc-t ni hai in tch im c tnh theo:

y:

l cc vc-t v tr ca cc in tch im.

[sa]Biu

din trong thuyt tng i

Trong l thuyt tng i, cng thc ca lc in t hay lc Lorentz, lin h gia thay i trng thi chuyn ng ca ht mang in vi cng ca trng in t, l:

vi m v q l khi lng, v in tch ca ht; F l tenx cng in t trng v:

l vn tc-4 ca ht; l c (tc nh sng) ln thi gian ring ca ht.

[sa]Lc

c bn

Lc in t l mt trong bn lc c bn ca t nhin, theo m hnh chun. Theo l thuyt in ng lc hc lng t, lc ny c gy ra bi s trao i ca ht trng l photon. y l lc nm trong bn cht ca hu ht cc loi lc m con ngi thng quan st thy trong cuc sng hng ngy, ngoi tr lc hp dn ca Tri t. Gn nh mi tng tc gia cc nguyn t u c th quy v lc in t gia proton v electron nm bn trong. N sinh ra tng tc gia cc phn t, v cc lc y v ko khi tc ng c hc vo cc vt, v tng tc gia cc qu o ca electron, iu khin cc phn ng ho hc.