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I. Chng IV: 1.

So vi t nng bng in tr, t nng cm ng c cc u im sau y: Tc t nng cao hn v nhit t l vi cng sut a vo khng b hn ch c th t ti gi tr lm nng chy kim loi v c th to ra plasma. D dng iu khin cc ch sinh nhit thch ng i vi nhiu qu trnh cng ngh khc nhau. D dng thc hin mi trng thi h hoc kn, trong mi trng kh bo v v trong chn khng. c im quan trng ca t nng cm ng l kh nng iu chnh vng phn b ca dng in Foucaults bn trong vt th ty thuc vo tn s ca ngun kch t. thm su ca t trng vo vt th t l nghch vi tn s. Hiu qu truyn nng lng t trng ph thuc vo khe h khng kh gia cun dy v vt th. Cng ging nh t nng in tr, t nng cm ng cho nng sut lm vic cao, m bo iu kin lao ng v sinh v an ton. 2. C s vt l ca t nng in mi: Cc thit b loi 1: c s dng trong cng ngh x l nhit sn phm c kch thc ln v khi cn t nng nhanh chng: sy si bng, len, sy g v cc sn phm lm t g, nung cc sn phm cch in, s, gm, hn cc chi tit bng nha v polyme. Cc thit b loi 2: c s dng sy kh cc sn phm dng tm, bng nh: vi, tranh nh, giy, phim nha, cc ch phm ha dc, cc sn phm cao su. Cc thit b loi 3: y qu trnh t nng khng nht thit phi nhanh v u, v d lm tan cc sn phm ng bng, nung cc sn phm t gm th, sy tr, u, II. CHNG V: 1. S ION ha cht kh v khi nim v PLASMA: Ion ha t nhin: Di tc ng ca cc tia v tr ( ) nguyn t kh c th b tch thnh electron v ion dng. S lng ion nhn c do s ion ha t nhin trong cht kh rt t. S t pht x electron: Qu trnh ny din ra khi c s tc ng ca trng E ln in cc. Cc electrons t do trong mng tinh th ca in cc ( cht rn ) di tc ng ca in trng, nhn c nng lng ln vt qua mng chn in th ca vt cht bay ra mi trng chung quanh in cc. S pht x electron nhit: Trong trng hp ny, ngun cung cp nng lng cho cc electrons t do trong mng tinh th ca cht rn l nhit . Cc electrons ny khi nhn nng lng c kh nng thot ra khi cht rn v bay ra mi trng xung quanh. S ion ha do va p: Di tc ng ca in trng gia hai in cc, cc ion v electrons thc hin qu trnh chuyn ng gia tc v pha cc in cc tng ng. Trn hnh trnh cu mnh chng c th va p vi cc phn t, nguyn t trung ha trong cht kh. S va p nguyn t trung ha li c kch thch ln mc nng lng mi v cui cng chng b tch thnh electrons v ion dng.

2. Cc l luyn kim h quang: L h quang tc ng gin tip: y h quang chy gia cc in cc c b tr pha bn trn cc lp vt liu cn c t nng. S trao i nhit gia h quang v cc lp liu nm pha bn di ch yu da trn c s ca bc x nhit. L h quang tc ng trc tip: Trong c loi ny, h quang chy gia cc in cc v lp liu cn t nng. Nhit t nng c sinh ra ch yu nh cc qu trnh cc vng vt anode v vt cathode, nh dng in chy qua kim loi nng chy, nh bc x nhit t ngn la h quang v nh s i lu v dn nhit. L h quang chn khng: Trong cc loi l ny, h quang chy trong mi trng kh tr hoc hi kim loi nng chy trong iu kin p thp. in cc thng c ch to t vt liu kh nng chy. III. CHNG VI: 1. C ch to ra ngn la plasma nhit thp v lnh vc ng dng: Cng ngh dng ngn la plasma l lnh vc cng nghip tr tui pht trin mnh m vo u nhng nm 1950. Trong nhng nm , khi k thut khng gian c ch ti, ngi ta to ra nhng thit b cng ngh phc v cho mc ch ny. Cng vi cc loi ng c phn lc c sc y mnh m, ngi ta nghin cu v ch to ra cc thit b to ngn la plasma nhm mc ch phc v cho cng ngh to lp ph b mt kim loi c kh nng chu ng c nhit cao, bn vng v chu mi mn. thu nhn plasma c th s dng thit b to plasma theo cc s nguyn l khc nhau. Phn ng plasma ha hc c th thc hin theo hai cch: a cc thnh phn to plasma vo trong khu vc c s phng in h quang, thit b plasma hot ng kt hp vi cc phn ng. a cc cht phn ng vo trong lung plasma bn ngoi vng phng in, s dng bung phn ng l cc tr c gii nhit, trong din ra s trn ln dng plasma vi cc cht a vo. C th phn loi cc bin php thu nhn plasma nh sau: Gy n dy dn in trong mch in Tia la in S phng in vng quang cao tn S phng in n mn S phng in h quang Hin ti bin php th nm c ng dng rng ri v c nhng u im sau y: Kh nng thu nhn plasma chy lu di vi hiu sut cao t cc cht rn, lng khi c thnh phn ha hc khac nhau. Khn nng thu nhn plasma trong iu kin chn khng v trong mi trng p sut cao. Kh nng s dng cc ngun in tiu chun. c im ca mt vi cht kh to plasma c a ra di y:

Argon: Kh ny c gi tr entapi thp, khng thch hp vi vai tr lm plasma mt thnh phn. Argon c tnh dn in tt trong iu kin nhit cao. V vy i hi in trng duy tr h quang thp. Argon l mt trong cc cht qu him v c s dng ch yu trong cc trng hp cn ti vai tr tr ha hc ca n. Nitrogen: Thng c s dng lm cht kh to plasma mt thnh phn. Tnh dn in v dn nhit trong iu kin nhit cao Nitrogen tng i tt. V vy n to iu kin thun li duy tr h quang. Helium: C tnh cht v in tt hn so vi kh Argon. Tuy nhin, v gi thnh cao nn kh Helium s dng trong cc thit b to plasma rt hn ch. Hydrogen: L cht kh to plasma c entopi cao. in trng cn thit duy tr h quang trong mi trng Hydrogen cao hn kh Argon. Tnh dn nhit tt hn so vi mt vi loi kh khc. Kh Hydrogen tng i r. Tuy nhin trong mi trng nhit cao, Hydrogen thng c tc ng ph hy i vi cc in cc. V vy n thng c s dng kt hp vi Argon. IV. Chng I: Khi nim: in nhit xut hin trong nhiu qu trnh cng ngh khc nhau ca sn xut cng nghip. ngha ch yu ca n l vic cp nhit cho cc vt liu v sn phm khc nhau nh nng lng in. u im ca phng php cp nhit nh nng lng in l: C kh nng thu hp phm vi s dng mi trng xung quanh trong cng tc. iu chnh nhit chun xc, to ra dng in tp trung vi mt cao v to c nhit trng cn thit trong khng gian cp nhit. C kh nng kim tra nghim ngt v iu chnh chnh xc ngun nng lng tiu th. C kh nng cp nhit cho cc vt liu v sn phm nm trong mi trng khi c cc thnh phn ha hc khc nhau v trong chn khng. C kh nng to ra nhit t bn thn vt th cn t nng. Ngoi ra qu trnh in nhit cho php tit kim nguyn liu t v gim s lng nhn vin phc v. C cc bin php bin i in nhit nh sau: t nng nh in tr: Theo nh lut Joule, khi c dng in chy qua vt dn in, tn hao nng lng trong vt dn in chuyn ha di dng nhit, ta ra mi trng xung quanh. Bin php ny c th s dng trong cc thit b nhit tc ng trc tip v gin tip. t nng nh cm ng: Dc trn c s bin i nng lng trng in t thnh nhit nh vic gy ra trong vt th cng tun th theo nh lut Joule. t nng nh dung mi: Khi vt th cch in hoc bn dn c t trong in trng tn s cao, xut hin hin trng phn cc. Tn hao do cc dng in dn v chuyn dch s chuyn ha thnh nhit. t nng nh h quang in: y vt th c t nng l do h quang in cng nh do s trao i ion-electron cc in cc.

t nng nh plasma: Khi cht kh b ion ha do nhit ca h quang hoc do t trng hoc in trng tn s cao, c th nhn c plasma nhit thp dng trong cp nhit cho cc vt khc nhau. t nng nh chm tia electrons: Nhit nng sinh ra y l do chm tia electrons c gia tc bng in trng va p ln b mt vt th. t nng nh tia laser: B mt vt th c t nng khi hp thu lung nh sng n sc mt cao, gi l tia Laser do my pht laser to ra.