You are on page 1of 54

Mn hc

iN CNG NGH
1. Mc tiu hc phn: Sau khi hon tt hc phn, sinh
vin cn phi nm c cc qu trnh v thit b in
nhit. Bit ng dng cc thit b gia cng in ha in
vt l in c in ng.
2. Nhim v sinh vin: tham d hc, tho lun, kim tra,
lm bi tp, thi
3. Ti liu: gio trnh in cng ngh, trng HCN
Tp.HCM
4. Tham kho:
Nguyn Chu Hng, in cng ngh, NXB HQG,
2004.
Bolorov A.B, Equipments of electrotechnology, Kev
Visha Schola, 1979.
5. Tiu chun nh gi: thi gia hc phn v thi kt thc
hc phn
Chng 1
C S VT L K THUT CA iN NHIT
1. Tng quan v in Nhit
in nhit l qu trnh cp nhit cho cc vt liu v sn
phm khc nhau nh nng lng in
u im
Thu hp phm vi s dng mi trng xung quanh trong
cng tc
iu chnh nhit chnh xc, mt dng nhit cao
Kh nng kim tra, iu chnh ngun nng lng tiu th
chnh xc
C kh nng cp nhit cho cc vt liu v sn phm
trong mi trng kh c thnh phn ha hc khc nhau,
trong chn khng
To ra nhit t bn thn vt th cn t nng
Tit kim nguyn liu t
Chng 1
C S VT L K THUT CA iN NHIT
2. Cc bin php bin i nhit in
t nng nh in tr
t nng nh cm ng
t nng nh in mi
t nng nh h quang in
t nng nh plasma
t nng nh chm tia electron
t nng nh tia laser
3. Vt liu s dng trong l in
Gch chu la
Vt liu cch nhit
Vt liu chu nhit
Chng 2
CC THIT B T NNG BNG iN TR
1. Bn cht vt l ca in tr
Cc phn t mang in chuyn ng di tc dng ca
in trng s va chm vi cc phn t vt cht sinh ra
nhit.
Mc cn tr dng in c c trng bi

20,
R
20
: in tr sut, in tr ca vt liu 20
0
C

T,
R
T
: in tr sut, in tr ca vt liu nhit T
o L h s nhit in tr

T
=
20
[ 1 + o (T T
20
) ] R
T
= R
20
[ 1 + o (T T
20
) ]
Cng sut pht nng v nhit nng
2. Cc phn t in tr t nng
c im: in tr sut ln, h s nhit in tr nh, tui th
cao
Phn loi:
Nhit thp (500-700
0
K): trao i nhit bng i lu
Nhit trung bnh (900-1300
0
K): trao i nhit bng i
lu v bc x
Nhit cao (1500-2300
0
K): trao i nhit bng bc x
Vt liu ch to phn t t nng: nicrome (hp kim Ni v
Cr), hp kim ca thp+nicrome+nhm; carbonrundum (SiC)
dng thanh; Silic molibden (MoSi
2
); gm
3. L in tr
L nung: gin tip v trc tip. C th
phn loi nh sau:
Nhit : thp (900-1000
0
K), trung
bnh (1000-1600
0
K), cao (>1600
0
K)
hoc
Theo ch lm vic: lin tc v chu
k (l bung t, l ng, l chp, l
nng, bng truyn,)
L nu chy: dng ni v dng bung
dng ni: ni lm bng gang, t b
trong mt v hnh tr, cc ch trng
oc nhi vt liu cch nhit. Hiu sut
(55 55)%
Dng bung: th tch ln hn dng
ni, dng nu v c nhm. Hiu sut
(60 65)%
4. Trang b in l in tr
P = 1KW vi MW. Khi P > 20KW dng ngun 3 pha,
cos=1, i khi dng thm MBA l

Mch ng lc: MBA l, MBATN, thit b ng ct ngun, c
cu truyn ng, kh c in bo v

Mch iu khin: gm cc thit b iu chnh v o lng
nhit . Nhit l c khng ch cch thay i cng sut.
Cng sut thay i bng cch
iu chnh th: i ni song song, ni tip cc phn t t
nng, Y/A
iu chnh tinh: dng MBATN hoc iu chnh xung dng
in qua phn t t nng
iu chnh dng in: ng ct ngun theo chu k, khng
ch dng bng linh kin in t cng sut
Chng 3
CC THIT B HN TiP XC
1. Bn cht vt l v phn loi
Hn tip xc l qu trnh hnh thnh s ni cng kim loi nh dng
in chy qua mi ni. Khi kim loi b nng chy v khi c p lc
nn gia hai chi tit ni, nh qu trnh dn nhit trong bn thn vt
th kim loi, vng nng chy b ngui nhanh chng v ng cng
u im: mi hn tt, tin cy, c th thc hin t ng ha
nhit lng sinh ra khi c dng chy qua mi hn:
R
t
(t): in tr tip xc gia hai chi tit hn
R
ct
(t): in tr ca chi tit hn
T: t/gian dng in chy qua mi hn
Thit b hn c 2 phn chnh:
- Phn in: gm my bin p vi kt cu c bit, h thng mch
vng dn in qua mi hn v thit b iu khin ng ct dng
in hn.
- Phn c cu truyn ng in cc: to ra xung lc p cc chi tit
hn vo vi nhau
1. Bn cht vt l v phn loi
Phn loi: hn ni, hn im, hn ln
2. Hn ni u
L phng php hn tip xc, cc chi tit c ni ghp vi
nhau qua mt ct tit din ca chng. C 2 phong php
Phng php hn
Hn nng chy
Lin tc
Khng lin
tc
Hn in tr
3. Hn im
t hai chi tit hn chng ln nhau, nm gia cc in cc c
p cht bng lc p P v khi cho dng in chy qua, cung cp cho
ch tip xc nhit lng cn thit lm cho nng chy kim loi to ra
mi hn

Thi gian cn thit cho mt mi hn ph thuc vo b dy vt hn,
tnh cht vt l ca kim loi hn, cng sut thit b hn, lc p t ln
ch tip xc, c th dao ng t phn ngn giy (hn kim loi mu)
ti vi giy
3. Hn im
chu trnh kt hp gia dng in I v lc p P thc hin cho
mt mi hn im
3. Hn im
Bin php thc hin
4. Hn ln
Nguyn tc lm vic nh my hn im. C th iu khin dng
qua in cc bng cch:
in cc chuyn ng lin tc nhng dng in truyn qua theo chu k
ph thuc vo on ng, thi gian v khong cch gia cc mi hn

in cc ln khng lin tc v dng in chy qua cng khng lin tc


in cc ln lin tc v dng in chy qua in cc cng lin tc.

4. Trang b in my hn tip xc
Ph thuc vo ngun cung cp, c cc dng sau:
My mt pha tn s cng nghip hoc tn s gim thp
My mt chiu vi dng in chnh lu bn th cp
My ba pha tn s thp vi b bin i thyristors
4. Trang b in my hn tip xc
Ph thuc vo ngun cung cp, c cc dng sau:
My dng tch lu nng lng (dng t in)
Chng 4
CC THIT B T NNG BNG CM NG V iN MI
1. C s vt l k thut ca t nng bng cm ng
Da trn c s
cm ng in t,
to ra dng in
Foucaults trong vt
th, vt th b t
nng theo nh lut
Joule
u im so vi t nng bng in tr
Tc t nng cao hn v nhit t l vi cng sut a vo
khng b hn ch c th t ti gi tr lm nng chy kim loi v c
th to ra plasma
D dng iu khin cc ch sinh nhit thch ng i vi nhiu
qu trnh cng ngh khc nhau
D dng thc hin mi trng thi h hoc kn, trong mi trng
kh bo v v trong chn khng.
Kh nng iu chnh vng phn b ca dng in Foucaults bn
trong vt th ty thuc vo tn s ca ngun kch t. thm su
ca t trng vo trong vt th t l nghch vi tn s.
Hiu qu truyn nng lng t trng ph thuc vo khe h
khng kh gia cun dy v vt th.
Nng sut lm vic cao, m bo iu kin lao ng v sinh v an
ton
u im so vi t nng bng in tr
c im cun dy kch t (s cp)
Thng c dng hnh ng solenoid.
Gi tr in p trn mt vng dy c th nm trong khong t 20
175V n 400 600V, thm ch ln n 1000V
Dng in cun dy dao ng t vi trm n vi ngn amperes.
Mt dng in trung bnh l vo khong 20 A/mm
2
.
Tn hao nng lng khong (20 30)% cng sut tiu th ca
thit b.
Cun dy kch t c th c lm mt bng cc bin php cng
bc.
c im vt th t nng
C th cc trng thi rn, lng hoc plasma.
Bn trong vt th t nng, t trng xoay chiu c xu hng
chng li cc dng in cm ng Foucaults v y chng ra b mt
bn ngoi ca vt th. V vy t nng cm ng v bn cht l t
nng b mt
2. Thit b nu chy bng cm ng
Dng rnh: rnh cha kim loi nng chy
c xem nh cun dy th cp ngn mch ca
MBA. Trong hp th t 90 95% nng lng
in a vo trong l. Dng in I
2
chy trong
rnh kim loi thng c gi tr ln, nn khi tc
ng tng h vi t trung s sinh ra lc in
ng. Lc theo chiu hng knh so vi dng
chy kim loi gy ra p lc ln ln thnh ca
rnh. Lc dc theo chiu di ca rnh gy ra s
chuyn ng ca kim loi nng chy. iu ny
to ra kh nng loi tr s t nng cc b kim
loi bn trong rnh v lm tng cng sut cm
ng.
2. Thit b nu chy bng cm ng
Dng ni: kim loi c
t nng ti nhit nng
chy t trng xoay chiu do
cun dy 1 sinh ra. Khi i
qua kim loi, t trng xoay
chiu s lm cm ng bn
trong cc dng in
Foucaults (H.4.5).
Cc l cm ng dng ni
c ch to c dung tch
khc nhau
3. L nung cm ng
Dng xuyn sut: lm
vic theo chu k v lin
tc
Thit b nung lin tc
c th nung cng mt
lc nhiu chi tit bng
t trng dc hoc
ngang.
Cc thit b nung lin
tc c hiu sut cao, kt
cu cun dy ph thuc
vo hnh dng v kch
thc ca chi tit nung
Cun dy kch t c
th c dng tit din
trn, van, hnh ch
nht hoc hnh vung
3. L nung cm ng
Dng nung b mt:
Nung b mt chi tit bng cm ng Foucaults phn b khng
ng u bn trong chi tit nung. Mt dng in phn ln s tp
trung b mt ngoi ca chi tit.
Nung nng b mt chi tit bng phng php cm ng cho php
gim ng k chi tit v nng lng.
Chi tit nung c in tr sut cng cao th hiu sut t c
cng ln, v d khi nung thp, hiu sut c th t ti q = 0,7 0,9,
cn khi nung kim loi mu q < 0,5
4. C s vt l ca t nng in mi
C s vt l ca t nng in mi l do cc dng in (dng in
chuyn dch v dng in dn) chy qua cht cch in hoc bn dn
khi t chng vo trong mt in trng xoay chiu tn s cao.
Phng php ny cho hiu qu cao v ton b nng lng hp th
trong lng vt th u c chuyn ho thnh nhit. Thit b t nng
in mi tn s cao c th c chia ra lm 3 loi
Loi 1: c s dng trong cng ngh x l nhit cc sn phm c
kch thc ln v khi cn t nng nhanh chng : sy si bng, len,
sy g v cc sn phm lm t g, nung cc sn phm cch in, s,
gm, hn cc chi tit bng nha v polyme.
Loi 2: c s dng sy kh cc sn phm dng tm, bng nh
vi si, tranh nh, giy, phim nha, cc ch phm ha dc, cc sn
phm cao su.
Loi 3: y qu trnh t nng khng nht thit phi nhanh v u, v
d lm tan cc sn phm ng bng, nung cc sn phm t gm th,
sy tr, u
5. Thit t nng in mi
Phn loi: thit b hot ng tn s cao (f = 66kHz n 1000
MHz) v thit b hot ng tn s siu cao (f=1000 MHz v cao
hn)

Cc thit b t nng in mi thng c: my pht tn s cao,
h thng bo v v to tn hiu, h thng t nng

Cc thit b t nng in mi c th chia ra thnh 3 nhm:
Sng trung (f = 0,3 3.1 MHz);
sng ngn (f = 3 30 MHz);
sng mtre (f=30 300MHz)
Cc thit b sng trung: ng dng trong vic t nng cc vt th
in mi c h s tn hao in mi ln. My pht tn s c hiu sut
kh cao (0,5 0,6), cng sut ln n hng trm kW, s t nng
din ra P
0
thp
(0,01 1,0 W/cm
3
) vi thi gian ko di (hng chc gi). in p t
ln t t tng i cao (10 15kV)
5. Thit b t nng in mi
Cc thit b sng ngn: p dng cho vt liu c h s tn hao
in mi loi trung bnh, hiu sut t ti 0,4 0,55. Cng sut
my pht vo khong vi chc kW, P
0
= 1 100W/cm
3
.
Cc thit b sng mtre: c hiu sut t 0,3 0,4. c p
dng i vi cc vt liu c h s tn hao thp P
0
= 0,1
3W/cm
3
. Thi gian t nng khong mt vi giy.
Ngun pht tn s cao: Nguyn tc ch yu l bin i dng
in ba pha tn s cng nghip v dng dng in mt pha tn
s cao
Chng 5
THIT B T NNG BNG H QUANG iN
1. Cu trc ca s phng in h quang
S phng in h quang c c trng bng mt in
(10
2
10
6
A/cm
2
), nhit (3 5).10
3 o
K. H quang pht sinh to
thnh vng la chi la v c phn bit thnh cc khu vc r
rt.
Cc khu vc: Vt cathode (khong 20V), vt anode (10-20)V
v thn h quang. Kch thc vt cathode v anode rt nh nn
xem thn h quang di bng khong cch in cc
1. Cu trc ca s phng in h quang
in p phn b trong cc
vng ca h quang
U
hq
= AU
c
+ AU
a
+ E
h
. Al

Trong :
AU
c
- in p ri trn cc
vt cathode


AU
a
- in p ri trn cc
vt anode
E
1
- cng in trng
trn thn h quang
Al - chiu di ca thn h
quang.
2. L luyn kim h quang
in cc gm: in cc kh
nng chy v in cc nng
chy.

in cc nng chy s
dng ch yu trong hn h
quang, nu chy kim loi v
hp kim trong l h quang.

in cc kh nng chy s
dng trong l h quang chn
khng, bung t plasma
in cc khng tiu hao
1- u gn in cc c lm mt
bng nc; 2- u in cc Wolfram
2. L luyn kim h quang
Phn loi:
L h quang tc ng trc tip

L h quang tc ng gin tip

L h quang chn khng
2. L luyn kim h quang
L h quang tc ng trc tip: h quang chy gia lp vt liu
cn c t nng v in cc. Nhit sinh ra nhiu qu trnh
nh do vng vt cathode v anode, do dng in chy qua kim
loi, bc x nhit, i lu v dn nhit
2. L luyn kim h quang
L h quang tc ng gin tip: h quang chy bn trong cc
lp vt liu cn c t nng, trao i nhit ch yu nh bc
x nhit
2. L luyn kim h quang
L h quang chn khng: h quang chy trong mi trng kh
tr hoc trong hi kim loi p sut thp
Tu theo dng nguyn liu, cc cht ph gia, thnh phn kim
loi, c th nh ra cc ch lm vic ca l v cc giai on
khc nhau ca qu trnh cng ngh, v vy kt cu l h quang,
cc thnh phn v s cung cp in i hi cng phi c cc
yu cu c bit:
Kh nng iu chnh cng sut mt cch linh hot.
m bo s n nh ca p sut trong l.
Kh nng thch nghi v p ng nhanh ca h thng
truyn ng in.
Kh nng hn ch v bo v s c xy ra trong l, nht l
s c ngn mch dng in pha thng xuyn xy ra trong
qu trnh nu chy kim loi.
Thi gian nu chy chim khong 50% ton b qu trnh
luyn kim, chi ph nng lng t (60 80)%
2. L luyn kim h quang
Trang b in l luyn kim h quang:

Yu cu
iu chnh cng sut linh hot

n nh p sut trong l

H thng truyn ng in thch nghi v p ng
nhanh

Hn ch v bo v s c
Trang b in l luyn kim h quang
Phn cao p (6, 10, 15, 35KV): gm c dy ni, cc kh
c in ng ct mch in ng lc, khng in, cun
dy s cp ca MBA l.
Phn h p: thanh ci, dy dn mm ni n h thng
in cc, chu dng in cao (trn 100KA), ch to t bng
ng mng hoc ng, c lm mt bng nc
Cc khng in dng hn ch dng in ngn mch,
cng vi cc mch bo v khc
Cc thng s in ca h thng cao p v h p thc
hin thng qua MBA o lng
C mt h thng t ng iu chnh cng sut.
Cc h thng nhn lnh iu khin gm: h truyn ng
in cc, b i nc ca MBA, hay cc b bin i cng
sut
Tn ti mt di dng in lm vic vi ch lm vic
ti u
L luyn kim h quang
3. L h quang chn khng
L h quang chn khng dng nng cao cht lng kim
loi, nh vic gim hm lng tp cht, v kh ha tan cha
trong kim loi

Ch yu dng chp kim loi qu him nh: Titan, wolfram,
Tantal, molybden, thp cht lng cao

in cc l cc kim loi cn c luyn, truyn ng nh
thy lc, hay ng c in

C mt cun dy dng to t trng dc, lm h
quang chuyn ng nhng khng chm vo thnh l, v h tr
qu trnh chy ca h quang, iu ny gip cho ci thin cu
trc kim loi nng chy trong chu
3. L h quang chn khng
Chng 6
CC THIT B HN H QUANG
1. C s vt l k thut ca hn h quang
Hn h quang l qu trnh to ra s lin kt cc chi tit nu
chy chng nh h quang. y l mt trong cc qu trnh
cng ngh ph bin c ng dng nhiu trong ch to my
v trong xy dng.
Nhit lng cn thit lm nng chy kim loi nhn c s
phng in h quang gia kim loi hn v in cc (que hn)
in cc (que hn) s b nng chy v ng li trn chi tit cn
ni, hnh thnh chu kim loi nng chy, khi ngui s to ra mi
hn vng chc.
Lp x xung quanh que hn gip cho h quang chy bn vng,
cht x c to ra t nhiu thnh phn c nhng chc nng v
c tnh c bit: SiO
2
, TiO
2
, P
2
O
5
, CaO, MnO, FeO, BaO, MgO,
NiO
1. C s vt l k thut ca hn h quang
Que hn c ng knh c chun ha v c ch
to dng trong nhiu ng dng khc nhau. Chng hn,
thc hin mi hn cho mt ti trng trung bnh, que
hn c hm lng cacbon thp v ng knh c th l:
2.5 mm 3.2 mm 4.0 mm 5.0 mm
Hn bng 50 90A 90 140A 140 190A 180 240A
Hn ng,
hn trn
50 80A 80 130A 120 170A 160 210A
Que hn thp
khng r
2.5 mm 3.2 mm 4.0 mm
Hn bng 50 80A 80 110A 110 140A
Hn ng,
hn trn
40 70A 70 100A 100 130A
2. Ngun cung cp nng lng h quang
Ngun cung cp v h quang cn t iu kin n
nh:
0 > =
dI
dU
dI
dU
S
h n
S: h s n nh
U
h
: in p duy tr h quang.
U
n
: in p ngun in cung
cp.
c tnh ngoi ca MBA hn cng dc th s bin
thin ca dng in hn cng t khi c s thay i
nh ca chiu di h quang v h quang cng chy
bn vng. Nghi l dng v p ca MBA hn c th
iu chnh trong phm vi rng, ng thi tng tr
ca MBA hn mang tnh tr khng.
2. Ngun cung cp nng lng h quang
V d:
2. Ngun cung cp nng lng h quang
Dng in hn ( thng thng) c iu chnh bng
cch: u thm in khng vo cun th cp, tng in
khng tn ca bn thn MBA hn, hoc b tr cun
khng iu chnh trong mch t ca MBA
V d: c tnh
ngoi ca my bin
p hn khi thay i
in khng nh
sau
2. Ngun cung cp nng lng h quang
V d: c tnh ngoi ca my bin p hn khi
thay i cc thng s
2. Ngun cung cp nng lng h quang
V d: c tnh ngoi ca my bin p hn khi
thay i cc thng s
2. Ngun cung cp nng lng h quang
Biu thc dng ngn mch th cp ca MBA hn:
o o

.
.
.
.
2 2
1
2
1
1
2
W
R e
W
W
W
R U
I
n
= =
e : s vng /volt
R

: t tr tn ca MBA
o : h s tn t
Dng ngn mch th cp ca MBA hn c th iu
chnh bng cch:
Thay i ng thi s vng dy th cp v t
tr
S dng shunt t, lm thay i khe h khng
kh o thay i t tr
Thay i ng thi s vng dy th cp v t
tr
Thay i v tr cun dy s v th cp
Chng 7
CNG NGH V THIT B DNG NGN LA PLASMA
1. Khi nim v Plasma
Trong cc iu kin bnh thng cht kh v hn hp
kh nh: khng kh, kh argon, helium, CO
2
khng
dn in. S dn in xy ra khi trong mi trng kh,
ngoi cc phn t, nguyn t trung ho cn xut hin
cc phn t mang in nh cc electrons, cc ions
dng hoc m, khi cht kh tr thnh plasma.
Plasma l trng thi th t ca vt cht (ngoi cc
trng thi rn, lng v kh) c c trng bng s c
mt ca cc phn t mang in trong mi trng cht
kh.
1. Khi nim v Plasma
S chuyn ho cht kh thnh plasma phi tri
qua mt vi giai on nh sau
Qu trnh phn ly: hnh thnh cc nguyn t
Qu trnh ion ha cht kh
(nh tc ng ca nhit , cc tia v tr o, , |,
tia cc tm, tia laser, in trng v t trng)
1. Khi nim v Plasma
to ra ion, cc nguyn t trung ho cn phi
nhn c nng lng t bn ngoi vt
qua lc ht Coulomb gia cc in t (electrons) v
ht nhn.
Nng lng ny khi cung cp cho electron s sinh
ra ng nng ln ion ho nguyn t trung ho
khi va chm vi n.
Cc hnh thc ion ho cht kh ch yu sau y:
Ion ho t nhin
S t pht x electron
S pht x electron nhit
S ion ho do va p
2. C ch to ra ngn la Plasma nhit thp
Cng ngh dng ngn la plasma l lnh vc
cng nghip tr tui pht trin mnh m vo u
nhng nm 1950.
Cc thit b to ngn la plasma nhm mc ch
phc v cho cng ngh to lp ph b mt kim
loi c kh nng chu ng c nhit cao,
bn vng v chu mi mn. Plasma cn c
ng dng nhiu trong cng ngh ph b mt chi
tit mt lp chu nhit, chng oxy ha.
2. C ch to ra ngn la Plasma nhit thp
thu nhn plasma c th s dng thit b to
plasma (plasmatron). Phn ng plasma ha hc c
th thc hin c theo hai cch:

a cc thnh phn to plasma vo trong khu
vc c s phng in h quang, thit b plasma
hot ng kt hp vi cc cht phn ng.

a cc cht phn ng vo trong lung
plasma bn ngoi vng phng in, s dng
bung phn ng l cc ng tr c gii nhit,
trong din ra s trn ln dng plasma vi cc
cht a vo.
2. C ch to ra ngn la Plasma nhit thp
Cc bin php thu nhn plasma nh sau:
Gy n dy dn in trong mch in.
Tia la in
S phng in vng quang cao tn.
S phng in n mn.
S phng in h quang.
thu nhn c plasma trong cc thit b
plasma, ta s dng cc cht kh (mi trng to
plasma) chng c th l kh mt hoc nhiu thnh
phn. Kh mt thnh phn c th l argon, helium,
nitrogen, hydrogen. Kh nhiu thnh phn c th
nhn c trong cc mi trng khc nhau nh:
mi trng oxy ho.
3. Thit b to Plasma nhit thp
L thit b k thut in, trong vic t
nng kh to plasma c thc hin nh
s phng in. Cc b phn ch yu ca
plasmatron l:
in cc,
Bung phng in,
B phn to ra lung plasma,
H thng u phun ngn la plasma,
H thng iu khin s phng in h
quang
3. Thit b to Plasma nhit thp
3. Thit b to Plasma nhit thp