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LI NI U
K thut sy ng vai tr v cng quan trng trong cng nghip v i
sng. Trong quy trnh cng ngh sn xut ca rt nhiu sn phm c cng
on sy kh bo qun di ngy. Cng ngh ny ngy cng pht trin
trong ngnh hi sn, rau qu v cc thc phm khc. Cc sn phm nng
nghip dng ht nh la, ng u... sau khi thu hoch cn sy kh kp thi,
nu khng sn phm s gim phm cht thm ch cn hng dn n tnh
trng mt ma sau thu hoch.
Cc nhu cu sy ngy cng a dng, c nhiu phng php v thit b
sy nhng thit b sy bng phng php in tr c s dng rng ri
nht. Phng php sy bng in tr l phng php s dng trc tip nng
lng in nng to ra ngun nhit nng theo nh lut Joule- lence.
i vi tng loi sn phm sy khc nhau th cn mt nhit khc
nhau. Do vic iu chnh v n nh nhit cho t sy cng ng vai tr
quan trng trong qu trnh sy v th trong tp n ny tm hiu v Thit
k mch iu khin nhit cho t sy bng in tr. Ni dung ca n
tt nghip ny gm 5 phn chnh sau:
Chng I:

Khi qut v t sy bng in tr.

Chng II:

Thit k mch ng lc.

Chng III: Thit k mch iu khin nhit .


Chng IV: n nh nhit ca t sy.
Chng V:

Thit k t in.

hon thnh n tt nghip ny em c s ch bo v hng


dn tn tnh ca thy gio: Trn Vn Thnh cng cc thy c trong B mn
Thit b in- in t, Trng H Bch Khoa H Ni.
Mc d bn thn c nhiu c gng nhng v thi gian v kin thc
cn hn ch nn khng trnh khi sai lm, thiu st. Knh mong cc thy c
to iu kin ch bo gip em ln sau khng cn gp phi.
SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

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TRNG HBK H NI

Em xin chn thnh cm n thy gio: Trn Vn Thnh tn tnh gip


em trong qu trnh hon thnh n. Em cng xin by t lng bit n su sc
i vi thy c gio trong b mn thit b in- in t v cc thy c gio
Trng H Bch Khoa H Ni tn tnh ging dy, gip to iu kin
trong sut qu trnh hc tp v rn luyn ca em n ngy hm nay, em
hon thnh c nhim v hc tp ca mnh.
H ni, ngy 31 thng 5 nm 2004
Sinh Vin

ng Thanh Hong.

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

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CHNG I: KHI QUT V T SY BNG IN TR.


Trong i sng v sn xut, yu cu v s dng nhit nng rt ln.
Trong cc ngnh cng nghip khc nhau, nhit nng dng nung, sy nhit
luyn nu chy cc cht,... l mt yu cu khng th thiu. Ngun nng
lng nhit ny c chuyn t in nng qua cc l in l rt ph bin
thun li.
T in nng c th thu c nhit nng bng nhiu cch. Nh hiu
ng Joule (l in tr), nh phng in (l h quang), nh tc dng nhit ca
dng xoy Foucault thng qua hin tng cm ng in t (l cm ng),...
1.1: KHI NIM CHUNG V PHN LOI.

1. Khi nim chung v l in tr:


L in tr l thit b bin i in nng thnh nhit nng thng qua
dy t (dy in tr). T dy t qua bc x, i lu v truyn dn nhit,
nhit nng c truyn ti vt cn gia nhit. L in tr thng dng
nung sy, nhit luyn, nu chy kim loi mu v hp kim mu...
2. Phn loi thit b sy:
Thit b sy l thit b nhm thc hin cc qu trnh lm kh cc vt
liu, cc chi tit hay sn phm nht nh, lm cho chng kh v t n mt
m nht nh theo yu cu. Trong cc qu trnh sy, cht lng cha trong
vt liu sy thng l nc. Tuy vy, trong k thut sy cng thng gp
trng hp sy cc sn phm b m bi cc cht lng hu c nh sn, cc vt
nh xi...
Phng php sy chia ra hai loi ln l sy t nhin v sy bng thit
b. Sy t nhin l qu trnh phi vt liu ngoi tri. Phng php ny s
dng ngun bc x ca mt tri v m bay ra c khng kh mang i (nhiu
khi c h tr bng gi t nhin).
SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

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Phng php sy t nhin c u im l n gin, u t vn t, b


mt trao i ln, dng nhit bc x t mt tri ti vt c mt ln (ti 1000
w/m2)
Tuy vy sy t nhin c cc nhc im l: thc hin c gii ho kh,
chi ph lao ng nhiu, cng sy khng cao, cht lng sn phm khng
cao, chim din tch mt bng ln...
Cc phng php sy nhn to c thc hin trong thit b sy. C
nhiu phng php sy nhn to khc nhau. Cn c vo phng php cung
cp nhit c th chia ra cc loi sau:
- Phng php sy i lu.
- Phng php sy bc x.
- Phng php sy tip xc.
- Phng php sy bng in trng dng cao tng.
- Phng php sy thng hoa.
Trong cc phng php k trn phng php sy i lu, bc x v
tip xc c dng rng ri hn c, nht l phng php sy i lu.
Mi phng php sy k trn c thc hin trong nhiu kiu thit b
khc nhau, v d: sy i lu c thc hin trong nhiu thit b sy nh:
thit b sy bung, sy hm, sy bng bng ti, thit b sy kiu thp, thit b
sy thng quay, thit b sy tng si, thit b sy thi kiu kh ng... Phng
php sy bc x c th thc hin trong thit b sy bc x dng nguyn liu
kh, dng dy in tr... Phng php sy tip xc c th thc hin trong cc
thit b nh: thit b sy tip xc vi b mt nng, thit b sy tip xc kiu
tay quay, thit b sy tip xc cht lng...
Mi loi vt liu sy thch hp vi mt s phng php sy v mt s
kiu thit b sy nht nh. V vy tu theo vt liu sy m ta chn phng
php sy v thit b sy cho ph hp t c hiu qu v cht lng sn
phm cao.

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

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1.2: CC YU CU CH YU I VI VT LIU LM DY T.

Trong l sy in tr, dy t l phn t chnh bin i in nng


thnh nhit nng thng qua hiu ng Joule. Dy t cn phi c lm t cc
vt liu tho mn cc yu cu sau:
- Kh nng chu nhit tt: khng b xi ho trong mi trng khng
kh nhit cao.
-Bn nhit cao, bn c hc tt, dy in tr khng c bin dng,
chng c th t bn vng di tc dng ca bn thn dy in tr.
- in tr sut ln: to cho dy in tr c cu trc nh khi cng p
ng mt cng sut theo yu cu, d dng b tr trong l.
- H s nhit in tr nh (, ): ngha l nhit cng cao th in r
cng ln.
- Kch thc hnh hc phi n nh: t thay i hnh dng nhit
lm vic.
-Cc tnh cht in phi c nh.
- D gia cng: ko dy, d hn, i vi vt liu phi kim loi cn p
khun c.
1.3: VT LIU LM DY T.

tho mn c cc yu cu trn, trong thc t rt kh c vt liu


p ng c. Nhng ngi ta chn mt s vt liu p ng c tt cc
yu cu chnh ch to dy in tr. Cc vt liu l ca hp kim Niken
v Crm, thng gi l Micrm. Hp kim ca Crm v nhm cacbonrun
[Sie]. Trong nhng l nhit thp, ch lm vic ngn th c th dng
thp xy dng lm in tr.

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

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I. VT LIU HP KIM.

1. Hp kim micrm:
Hp kim micrm c bn nhit tt v c lp mng xit crm
(Cr2O3), bo v rt cht, chu s thay i nhit tt nn c th lm vic
trong cc l c ch lm vic gin on. Hp kim micrm c c tnh tt
nhit thng cng nh nhit cao, do, d gia cng, d hn, in tr
sut ln, h s nhit in tr nh, khng c hin tng gi ho.
Nicrm l vt liu t tin, nn ngi ta c khuynh hng tm cc vt
liu khc thay th.
2. Hp kim st- crm- nhm:
Hp kim ny chu c nhit cao, tho mn yu cu cc tnh cht
in, nhng c nhc im l gin, kh gia cng, km bn c hc nhit
cao. V th cn thit ch trnh cc tc ng ti trng ca chnh dy in tr.
Mt nhc im na l hp kim st- crm- nhm nhit cao d b cc
xit st, xit SiO2 tc ng ho hc, ph hoi lp mng bo v ca cc xt
Al2O3 v Cr2 O3. V vy, tng l, ni tip xc vi hp kim ny phi l vt
liu cha nhiu Alumin (Al2O3 70%; Fe2O3 1%).
gin di ti 3040% gy ra kh khn khi lp t trong l, cn
trnh on mch khi dy gin di v b cong.
Lin X c, ngi ta ch to hai hp kim - 595 v - 626. Nhit
lm vic t 13000C. Chng l hp kim crm c hm lng ln, c
bin tnh bng mt lng nh cc kim loi kim th, nn tng do
10000C chng c bn cao.
Cc dy in tr c tiu chun ho khi sn xut. Dy in tr bng
hp kim: X13I04; OX23IOA; (- 595); OX27105A (- 626); X20H80,
c ng knh dy:

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

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2,2

2,5

2,8

3,5

4,5

5,5

6,5

7,5

8,5

9 (mm)

Dy in tr c tit din ch nht (a.b).


1.8

1.10

1,2.10

1,2.12

1,2.15

1,2.20

1,4.10

1,4.15

1,4.20

1,5.10

1,5.12

1,5.15

1,5.20

1,8.20

1,8.18

1,8.20

2.25

2.20

2.25

2,2.20

2,2.25

2,5.20

2,5.25

2,5.30

2,5.40

3.25

3.30

3.40 (mm)

Nhng kch thc c dng ph bin nht:


a. Dy in tr c dng xon l xo. ng knh dy 5; 5,5; 6; 6,5; 7 (mm).
b. Dy in tr dng li, cu trc kiu dch dc. ng knh dy: 8; 8,5; 9
(mm).
c. Dy c tit din ch nht, cu trc kiu dch dc: 2.20; 2,5.25; 3.30 (mm).
d. Trong cc l i lu tun hon hoc trong cc bun nung khng kh,
ngi ta dng cc dy dn in tr c ng knh: 3; 3,5; 4 v 4,5 (mm)
hoc dy bng c tit din: (1.10); (1,2.12); (1,5.15).

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

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SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

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Bng 1.1: c tnh vt liu ch to dy in tr.


Vt liu lm dy in tr

Nicrom
Thp
Hp
kim
Hp
kim
Hp
kim

- X20 H80
- X20 H80T
- X15 H60
- X25 H20
- X13 I04
- OX25 I05
- OX17 I05

595
(OX23I05A)
626
(OX27I05A)
Volffram, W
Molipden, Mo
Platin, Pt
St, Fe
Niken, Ni
* Nhng vl phi kim loi (**)
Silics (Cacborun)
Grafit

Trng lng
ring
200C, g/cm3
8,40
8,20
8,30
7,85

in tr sut
00C, 0,
mm2/m
1,100
1,270
1,100
0,900

H s nhit
in tr
.103
0,035
0,022
0,100
0,350

Nhit
chy lng,
0
C
1400
1400
1400
1400

Nhit lm
vic cc i,
0
C
1150
1200
1050
1100

7,20

1,260

0,150

1450

900

7,10

1,300

0,060

1450

1050

7,00

1,400

0,050

1450

7,30

1,350

0,050

7,20

1,420

19,34
10,20
21,46
7,88
8,90

Nhit lm vic 0C
Lm vic
Lm vic
lin tc
gin on
1050
1000
1050
1000
950
900
850
800
750

650

1200

1050

1000

1525

1250

1150

1100

0,022

1525

1300

0,050
0,052
0,098
0,090
0,065

4,300
5,100
8,950
11,300
13,400

3410
2625
1755
1535
1452

3000*
2200*
1400
400
1000

2,30

800 1900

1200

83

1500
2000
(2800)*

1250

1,60

Thay i
theo nhit
(h s nhit

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

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Cacbon (than)
Cripton (hn hp ca grafit,
cacbon v t st)

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1,60

10 60

1,00 1,25

600 2000

in tr m

2000
(2500)*

1800

Ghi ch: * Trong chn khng hoc trong mi trng kh bo v.


** Trng lng ring thay bng trng lng ng 1= 0 (1+ .t).

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

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II. VT LIU PHI KIM LOI:

1. Vt liu cacbonrun [SiC]:


Trong s cc vt liu phi kim loi c s dng lm dy t, l vt
liu cacbonrun. Cc thanh cacbonrun ch khc nhau v cu trc cng nh
phng php ch to. Cacbonrun chu c nhit 1350 14500C nn c
th m bo l t ti nhit 135014000C. in tr sut ca cacbonrun
ln hn nhiu so vi kim loi, chng t ti 8001900 mm2/m. V vy, cc
thanh cacbonrun thng c tit din ln. Cc thanh cacbonrun gin, tng
nhit khi nung, nn phi sy v nng nhit t t. in tr ca
cacbonrun gim khi nhit tng. Khi lm vic, thanh nung cacbonrun b gi
ho (in tr tng ln khi tng thi gian s dng). Sau 6080 gi lm vic
u tin, in tr tng 20%, sau tng chm hn.
V in tr tng dn do b gi ho, vy mun m bo cng sut cn
phi tng in p cp vo l (P=U2/R). L lm vic vi thanh nung
cacbonrun thng c my bin p nhiu nc iu chnh in p th cp.
Thi gian lm vic ca thanh nung cacbonrun l 10002000h khi nhit
l l 14000C. Nu nhit l cao hn 14000C th thi gian lm vic gim
xung. Nu nhit l l 120013000C th thi gian lm vic tng 23 ln
so vi 14000C. Do cc thanh nung b gi ho khc nhau, ta khng nn u
ni tip cc thanh nung cacbonrun li vi nhau. Cc thanh nung cacbonrun
thng c dng ng. Tit din hai u ln hn tit din thn 68 ln hn
ch s to nhit hai u.
2. Than v grafit.
Than v grafit c dng ch to dy t di dng thanh, ng, tm
hoc ni. Ta trn thm mt lng nh famt vo grafit tng bn,
nhng li gim nhit lm vic, tng in tr sut. Khi nung than v grafit

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

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d b xi ho trong khng kh, nn thng c dng trong cc l kh bo v


hoc tnh ton thi gian lm vic ngn.
3. Cripton.
Cripton l hn hp ca grafit, cacbon v t st. Chng c to ht
c ng knh 23 (mm). dng ht, xut hin in tr tip xc gia cc ht
nn in tr sut ca cripton ln hn in tr sut ca than hoc grafit. in
tr sut ca cripton ph thuc nhiu vo nn cht. Trong cc l th
nghim, nhit l t ti 18000C, cripton b chy dn khi lm vic, nhng
r tin v cu to ca l n gin.
1.4. CU TO DY T IN TR.

Vi phng php nung nng bng in tr, phn dy t lm hai loi l:


dy t h v dy t kn.
1. Dy t h:
y l dy t khng bc bo v.
a. u im ca loi ny:
- To nhit d.
- D b tr.
- Gi thnh r.
- D sa cha.
b. Nhc im:
- Chng hng, b n mn.
- Tnh an ton km.
- Trong mt s trng hp c nh hng ti cht lng ca sn phm. Dy
t h thng c qun theo kiu l xo (hnh 1.3) hoc kiu dch dc
(hnh 1.4).

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

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Hnh 1.3: Dy tit din trn qun kiu l xo

Hnh 1.4: Dy t b tr kiu dch dc


a. Dy in tr tit din trn qun kiu dch dc.
b. Dy in tr tit din ch nht qun kiu dch dc.
- Loi l xo hay dng cho dy t trn, tng cng cng, qun
dy t trn li, thanh bng gm chu la.
- Loi dch dc hay dng cho dy t dt (dy t bng), c trng
bng t s: m = a/b
2. Dy t kn:
C v bc bng thp quanh phn t nung nng.
a. u im:
- t b xi ho, h hng, thi gian s dng lu
- Trong mt s trng hp lm tng cht lng sn phm
- Tng hiu sut
SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

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b. Nhc im:
- Truyn nhit km hn dy t h
- To nhit khng cao
- Khi h hng khng sa cha c
- B tr kh
- Gi thnh t
c. Cu to: Xt loi dy t kn hnh ch U.
1. Kim loi
2. Lp ngn cch
3. Phn t nung nng
4. u ni
5. Ecu

Hnh 1.5: Cu to ca dy t kn hnh ch U.


- V kim loi lm bng thp CT 58 hoc thp khng r. (1CR18 Mig).
- Lp ngn cch gia phn t nung nng v v, m bo khng dn in,
dn nhit, dng bt thch anh, bt MgO,...
- Phn t nung nng: Trong iu kin to nhit kh, khi h hng kh sa
cha nn phi c lm bng vt liu tt, thng dng Cr2Ni80. Ngi ta
hn u ni trong nhng thit b nung nng vi u ra ni dy dn,
a in vo si t.
- Loi ny c dng ph bin trong nhng thit b nung nng trc tip
H2O, dung dch, du m,...,thit b sy.
- Trong sinh hot ta dng nung nng H2O, bp n, thng ARISTON.

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

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1.5: MT S L SY IN TR GIN TIP THNG DNG.

1. Thit b sy bung:
Thit b sy bung dng trong vic sy nhng vt liu dng cc, ht,... vi
mt nng sut khng ln lm v lm theo chu k. Bung sy c th c xy
bng thp tm, gia c cch nhit hoc n gin xy bng gch c lp
cch nhit hoc khng c.
Tc nhn sy trong thit b sy thng l khng kh nng hoc l khi
l. Khng kh c t nng nh calorife in hoc kh....khi. Calorife
thng c t trn nc hoc hai bn sn hoc bn ngoi bung sy.
Trong thit b sy bung gm hai loi: tc nhn sy lu ng t nhin v lu
ng cng bc. Vt liu sy c t trn xe gong, thun tin trong vic
vn chuyn cc xe gong th khong cch gia xe gong v tng bung s
cch nhau mt khong =50100 (mm). Vt liu sy b tr trn khay, c
ngha quan trng trong vn cht lng ca sn phm. Nu vt liu sy c
mt qu ln th tc nhn sy kh lu chuyn dn n thi gian sy ln v
vt liu kh khng u. Ngc li nu mt vt liu sy trn khay qu b th
iu kin truyn cht c tng cng v thi gian sy gim, cht lng sn
phm cao nhng nng sut khng cao. Do vy vic b tr vt liu sy trn khay
sy cng rt quan trng i vi cht lng sn phm sy v nng sut sy.
Thit b sy bung l mt thit b c s dng rng ri nht hin nay v:
c kt cu n gin, d vn hnh, vn u t t, thch hp vi cc x nghip b.

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

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Hnh 1.6: Thit b sy bun dng qut gi tp trung.


1: qut gi; 2: calorife; 3,4: ng phn phi; 5: ng thot kh.
*Kt cu ca bung l c trnh by trn hnh 1.7

Hnh 1.7: Cu to bung sy.


1- B tng ct st.
2- Bng thu tinh.
3- ng dn kh thi.
4- Gch .
5- Xe gong cha vt liu sy.
2. Thit b sy kiu hm:
Thit b sy kiu hm l mt trong nhng thit b i lu dng kh rng
ri trong cng nghip n dng sy cc vt liu dng ht, bt,... Vi nng
sut cao v c th d dng c gii ho, khc vi thit b sy bung tng m,
trong thit b sy hm vt liu sy gn nh c a vo v ly ra lin tc.

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

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Hm sy thng di 1015 m hoc ln hn. Chiu cao v chiu ngang


ca hm sy ph thuc vo xe gong v khay ti vt liu sy. Theo tiu
chum Vit Nam chiu cao ca hm sy t 12001400 (mm). Hm sy
thng lm bng gch c cch nhit hoc khng c cch nhit.
Trn hm sy thng lm bng b tng cch nhit. Tn tht qua nn
khong qm =10 (w/m2)15 (w/m2). Thit b chuyn ti l xe gong c kch
thc cao t 10001500 mm, di v rng t 5001000 mm. Trn khay b tr
t 1015 khay ti vt liu vi din tch mi khay trn di 1 m2, mt vt
liu trn khay b tr khong 25 kg/m2. xe gong dch chuyn c d
dng th khong gia hai thnh khay vi hai tng bn khong 50100 mm.
Tc nhn sy trong thit b sy hm thng l khng kh nng c gia
nhit t calorife kh, v calorife kh thng c b tr trn nc hm sy. Vn
thi m trong thit b sy n c thc hin nh mt ng thot m t trn
nc hm sy phn cui dn ra nh qut thi m.

Xe vt liu
vo

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

Xe vt
liu ra

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Hnh 1.8: Hm sy kiu Xnhimod- Ghiprodrep- 56 (Lin X c).


1- Calorife.
2- Knh dn kh nng.
3- Xe cha vt liu sy.
4- Qut gi.
5- ng thot kh.
3. Thit b sy dng bm nhit:
S nguyn l TBS dng bm nhit c biu din trn hnh 1.9
My nn tiu th nng lng Nb a mi cht lnh n gin nng.
y mi cht lnh to nhit Q1 ra khng kh lm cho nhit ca n tng ln
t t0, 0 n t1, 1. Khng kh nng qua vt liu sy lm bay hi m wh t vt
liu. Khng kh thot ra khi bung sy c nhit t2 m tng i 2
c qut 4 thi vo bung lnh mi cht lnh c a t gin nng qua van
tit lu 6 vo gin lnh. y mi cht ho hi ri c ht v my nn.

Nc
vo t'n,

Nc ra
t"
n

W h; nt'

Qu trnh sy bng bm nhit trn th I -d

Hnh 1.9: S nguyn l thit b sy dng bm nhit.

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TRNG HBK H NI

1-my nn, 2-gin nng (calorife), 3-bung sy, 4-qut gi, 5-gin lnh, 6van tit lu, 7-gia nhit bng in, 8-lm mt bng nc.
Khng kh trong bung lnh nh nhit Q2 cho gin lnh lm cho nhit
ca n gim t t2 xung t3 v tip tc gim n t4. Qu trnh lm lnh khng
kh 2-3-4 lm cho khng kh m tr nn qu bo ho, nc ngng t s c
thot ra ngoi (lu lng wh nhit tn). V nng sut lnh ca gin lnh
khng lm lnh khng kh t trng thi 2 n trng thi 4 nn ngi ta
phi dng nc b xung a vo lm mt khng kh. Lu lng nc lm
mt b xung l Gn nhit nc va t,nhit nc ra t. Qu trnh sy theo
chu trnh kn. Thit b lm vic theo chu k. u qu trnh sy nng lng
bay hi m t vt liu wh (kg/h) rt ln cn cui qu trnh sy wh gim
ng k (bng 1020% nng sut bay hi m u qu trnh sy). V vy cn
phi iu chnh ch ca bm nhit ph hp vi qu trnh sy. gim
khong iu chnh cng sut bm ngi ta b tr thm b phn gia nhit bng
in tr gia nhit b xung u qu trnh sy m bm nhit khng p
ng c. nhiu thit b sy dng bm nhit cng sut ca b gia nhit in
tr gn bng cng sut ca bm nhit.
4. Thit b sy bung dng ject:
Thit b sy bung dng ject (hnh 1-10) dng trong trng hp cn to
nn p lc y ng k ca kh. Nng lng tiu th ca h thng gi bng
ject xc nh bi tc cn thit cn to ra ming vi phun v tr lc
cn khc phc tun hon mi cht trong bung sy.

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

19

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

3
1

Hnh 1.10: Thit b sy bung kiu XNHIMOD


1 - Xe gong vt liu sy; 2 - Calorife; 3- Qut gi
4 - ng c in; 5 - ng thot kh;

5. Thit b sy kh ng:
S nguyn l ca thit b sy kh ng c biu din trn hnh 111. Mi cht sy l khng kh nng hoc khi c thi vo ng sy hnh tr
t thng ng. Vt liu t phu qua b phn cung cp a vo ng sy. Mi
cht sy thi vo vi tc cao y vt liu i ln ho trn vo mi cht. Mi
cht nng s gia nhit v sy vt liu.

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

20

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

Yu cu vt liu sy c dng ht khi lng ring nh kh c th


thi ln c. Nhng ht nh s c sy kh trc, nhng ht to kh chm
hn. Tt c hn hp vt liu v kh c a vo xycln, y thc hin qu
trnh phn ly vt liu kh ra khi kh thot. Kh thot c qut ht, ht ra
ngoi cn vt liu kh ri xung pha di cha v phu sau c a ra
ngoi vo ni ng gi bo qun. Ta thy sy kiu kh ng c cc c im
sau:
- Tc kh rt ln tu thuc vo kch c v khi lng ring ca vt
liu. Thng thng tc ny t 2040 (m/s).
- Vt liu sy thuc loi ht nh, kch c khng qu 10mm..
- Mi cht sy c th l khng kh nng hay khi tu thuc vt liu sy.
- Thi gian sy ngn (hng chc giy), v vy ch sy m t do.
m rng phm vi s dng ca kiu sy ny ngi ta b tr thm
phn trao i nhit- cht tip xc. Do vy c th dng sy cc vt liu khc
v sy c m lin kt.

Mi cht sy

Hnh 1-11: S nguyn l thit b sy kh ng:


SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

21

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

1-phu cha vt liu, 2-b phn cp liu, 3-ng sy, 4-xycln,


5-qut gi, 6-kho kh.

CHNG II: THIT K MCH NG LC.


2.1: S IU KHIN NHIT BNG TIP IM.

S khng ch nhit bng tip im (hnh 2.1). Mch lc c in


p cp t li 220/380 (v). Dng in cp cho l c o bng Ampek
thng qua bin dng.

1
RT

RC
2

R1

RT

RC

R0
R0
R0

RT

Hnh 2.1: S khng ch nhit l bng tip im.


* Nguyn l lm vic ca s :
Kho K dng chuyn i ch iu khin: v tr t ng (T) hoc
bng tay (T). ch khng ch nhit l t ng nh sau: khi nhit
thp (lc u cung cp in cho l) th tip im 1 ng v c duy tr bi
SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

22

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

Rc, cun dy rle RT c in, n 2 sng v tip im RT ng li cung cp


in cho cun dy cng tc t K, cng tc t K c cung cp in v cc
tip im K ng li cp in cho cc dy in tr R2. Khi nhit tng n
nhit cao (Tmax) th tip im 2 ng li cung cp in cho cun dy rle
Rc lm tip im RC m ra, RT mt in v tip im 2 c duy tr bi im
thng ng RT cun dy RT mt in lm cho K cng mt in lm ct cc
dy in tr R2 ra khi li in dn n nhit l gim xung dn khi n
nhit Tmin th tip im 1 li c ng li. S hot ng tr li nh
trc. n 3 dng bo hiu Aptmat c ng li. Tip im rle
nhit R1 dng bo v khi tip im 1 (Rc) b dnh khng ngt c.
Ngoi s iu khin nhit bng tip im trn cn c nhiu s
iu khin bng tip im khc.
2.2: GII THIU MT VI S IU CHNH IN P XOAY CHIU.

I. S iu chnh in p xoay chiu mt pha:


S iu chnh in p xoay chiu mt pha c trnh by trn hnh 2.14.
Hai tiristor u song song ngc cho php iu chnh in p xoay
chiu. V anot T1 ni vi catot T2 v anot T2 ni vi catot T1 nn trong mch
iu khin nht thit phi dng mt bin p xung c hai cun dy th cp,
cch ly vi nhau. Cc it c dng kho chn cc xung m.
Gi thit in p ngun l U= 2 .U.sint.

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

23

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

T1

T2

Hnh 2.14: S iu chnh in p xoay chiu mt pha


1. Trng hp ti R, thun tr l L=0.
UT1
i1
T1

it
T2
U
UT2

i1
Ut

UTB
Hnh 2.1.5: S iu chnh in p xoay chiu 1 pha vi ti thun tr.
Khi T1 m th mt phn ca na chu k dng in p ngun in t
ln mch ti, cn khi T2 m th mt phn ca na chu k m ca U c t
ln mch ti.
Gc m c tnh t im i qua tr zero ca in p ngun.
Dng in ti:

it =

2.U
sin
R
+ 2

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

24

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

Dng in ti khng c dng ca mt hnh sin. Khai trin Fourier ca


n gm thnh phn sng c bn v sng hai bc cao.
Thnh phn sng c bn ca dng in it lch chm sau in p ngun
U mt gc (hnh 2.1.6a).

/2

i1
1

i1

a) Ti R

i2

b) Ti L

iu ni ln rng, ngay c trng hp ti thun tr, li in xoay


chiu vn phi cung cp mt lng cng sut phn khng.
Tr hiu dng ca in p trn ti:

Ut =

2Usin .d = U.

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

2 2 + sin 2
2

25

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

Tr hiu dng ca dng ti: It =

U 2 2 + sin 2
.
R
2

Cng sut tc dng cung cp cho mch ti:

U 2 2 2 + sin
Pt = Ut.It =

R
2

Nh vy bng cch lm bin i gc t 0 n , ngi ta c th iu


chnh c cng sut tc dng t tr cc i P =

U2
n zer.
R

2. Trng hp ti R + L.
Khi = , Tiristor bt u dn dng, ta c phng trnh.
L.

di t
+R.i t = 2.U.sin( + )
dt

Nghim ca phng trnh ny l:


it =

2U
tg
. sin ( + ) sin ( ) e
Z

Trong :
Z=

R 2 + ( WL ) ; tg =
2

WL
R

C th coi it l kt qu xp chng ca hai dng in.

i t = i x1 + i q
i x1 =

2U
.sin ( + ) : L dng in xc lp
Z

2U

.sin
.e
iqd = (
) tg : l dng in qu , suy gim theo hm
Z

m. Nu = th iq = 0.
Ngi ta c th biu din tch bit hai dng in trn, ri suy ra dng
in ti it, hnh 2.17b.

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

26

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

Trong cc biu thc trn, = 0 ti gc to O' cch gc O mt gc


bng . Tiristor T1 phi c kho li trc khi cp xung m T2, nu khng,
th khng th m c T2, c th l .
UT1
i1

Ut

0
it

O'

UT2
R

Ut

ix1

Ut

T2

it

0
iq

Hnh 2.17: S ti R + L

II. S iu chnh in p xoay chiu ba pha:


S gm 3 cp Tiristor ghp song song ngc. Mi cp ni tip vi
mt pha ti. Mch ti c th u ku "Y" hoc ".
1. Trng hp ti thun tr u Y (hnh 2.18).
Gi thit in p ngun l i xng.
Ua =

2U.sin r

U b = 2U.sin
3

U c = 2U.sin
3

Cng sut tc dng cung cp cho mch ti:

U 2 2 2 + sin
Pt = Ut.It =

R
2

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

27

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

Nh vy bng cch lm bin i gc t 0 n , ngi ta c th iu


U2
chnh c cng sut tc dng t tr cc i P =
n zer.
R

Nguyn tc sau y gip ta v dng in p trn cc pha ti. Khi ch c


hai Tisiter hai pha m co dng chy qua th in p trn pha ti lin quan
bng mt na in p dy gia hai pha ang xt
Khi ba Tiristor ba pha cng m cho dng chy th in p trn cc
pha ti bng in p pha tng ng ca ngun.
Trn hnh ch trnh by in p ti pha A, k hiu Ua (i vi gc o l
im trung tnh ca ti).
Nu 0 600: Tiristor T5 dn dng t khi nhn c xung iu
U + Ub
khin m cho n khi = 600, tc l chng no U c a
2

cn >0 .

Nu 600 < 900: Tiristor T5 dn dng t khi nhn c xung iu


khin m cho n khi T1 bt u dn dng.
Nu 900 < 1500: Tiristor T5 ch dn dng t khi nhn c xung
iu khin m cho n = 900.
Trn hnh 2.18b trnh by dng in p ti pha A, gc m = 300. Tr
hiu dng ca in p ti pha A.

0<<

Khi

2
+
3
2
3
3
2

3 2

2 Usin d + 2 U sin + 6 d +

+
1
3
3
2
U a ' = 2
+
2

3
2
3 2

+
U
sin
d
2Usin
d

2
6

+
3
3

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

2Usin d

28

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

+
+
3

2
3
2U
3
32

2
2
2
2
2
2
Ua' =
sin .d + sin d + sin .d + sin d + sin .d


4
4

2
+
+

2
3
2
3
2

U a ' = U. 1

3 3
+
.sin 2
2 4
Ut

Ua

Ub

UAB/2

UA

Uc

0
= 60
T4

T1

T6

T3

T5

b'

T2

U
a'

UAC/2

UAB/2

UA U
AC/2

c'

0
= 60

Hnh 2.18: S ti thun tr u Y

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

29

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

2.3. THIT K MCH NG LC VI IN P 220/380 (V) XOAY CHIU.

Sau khi phn tch, nh gi cc s iu khin in p xoay chiu,


vi ti l dy t thun tr, c cng sut va phi nn ta chn s iu
chnh in p xoay chiu ba pha dng triac, ti u Y l hp l nht.
1. S ng lc: v dng in ca ti nh nn ta dng van ng lc l
triac. Vi ti u Y.
A

Ap

V
CM

A
A
A
R0

R2

R0

C2

R2

T1

C1

R1

T2

C1

R1

C2

C2

R2

C1

R0

T3

R1

Hnh 2.21: S mch lc

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

30

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

2. Tnh chn Triac.


Theo u bi ta c: P = 60 (KW) = 60.000 (W)

P = 3U d I d cos
V ti l dy t in tr nn cos 1.
P = 3U d I d cos = 60.000 (W)

Id =

60000
3.380

= 91,16 (A)

- in p qua triac l:
U T = 2U d = 2.380 = 537,4 (V)

- Dng in qua triac l:


Ivan = Im = 91,16 (A)
- Chn iu kin lm mt cho triac bng qut gio i lu khng kh
nn dng in lm vic (Ivl) ca triac c th c chn n 40% ca dng
in nh mc (Im) ca van (Ilv 40%Im). V vy ta c:
Ivan chn = 1,6.91,16 = 145,856 (A)
Uvanchn = 1,6.537,4 = 860 (V)
Ta chn van triac loi SSG300C100 c cc thng s sau:
Ummax = 1000 (V): in p nh mc (in p nh thng)
Immax = 300 (A): Dng in nh mc
Igmax = 400 (mA): Dng in iu khin max
Ugmax = 3,0 (V): in p iu khin max

Umax = 1,5 (V): St p trn van khi m

dU
= 100 (V/s): tc tng in p
dt
Tcpmax = 1250C: Nhit lm vic cho php max
Ipikmax = 3300 (A): nh xung dng in
SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

31

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

Irmax = 25 (mA): Dng in r max


Ihmax = 150 (mA): Dng in t gi
tmax = 10 (s): Thi gian gi xung iu khin max.
3. Tnh chn cc thit b bo v van:
a. Bo v qu nhit cho van:
Khi lm vic vi dng in chy qua van c st p, do c tn hao
cng sut P, tn hao ny sinh ra nhit t nng van bn dn. Mt khc van
bn dn ch c php lm vic di nhit cho php T0cp no , nu qu
nhit cho php th cc van bn dn s b ph hng. van bn dn lm
vic an ton, khng c chc thng v nhit, ta phi chn v thit k h
thng to nhit hp l.
- Tnh ton cnh to nhit
- Tn tht cng sut trn 1 triac:

P = U. Ilv = 1,5. 91,16 = 136,74 (W)


- Din tch b mt to nhit
SM =

P
KM

Trong P:

Tn hao cng sut

: c chnh lch nhit so vi mi trng.


Chn nhit mi trng Tmt = 400C. nhit lm vic cho php ca
triac Tcp0 = 1250C. Chn nhit trn cnh to nhit Tlv = 800C.

= Tlv - Tmt = 80 - 40 = 400C.


KM: H s to nhit i lu v bc x chn KM = 8 [W/m20C]
Vy S M =

P
136,74
= 0,43 (m2)
=
K M .
8.40

Chn loi cnh to nhit c 20 cnh, kch thc mi cnh l:


a x b = 11 x 11 = 121 (cm2)
Tng din tch to nhit ca cnh l:
SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

32

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

S = 20. 2. 11. 11 = 4840 (cm2) = 0,484 (m2)


Chn R0 = 1 ()

Hnh 2.22. Cnh to nhit ca triac.


b. Bo v qu in p cho van
in p trn van qu ln so vi in p nh mc ca van ta gi l qu
in p van.
bo v qu in p do qu trnh ng, ct cc triac c thc hin
bng cch mc R - C song song vi triac. Khi c s chuyn mch, cc in
tch tch t trong cc lp bn dn phng ra ngoi to ra dng in ngc gy
ra sc in ng cm ng rt ln trong cc in cm lm cho qu in p gia
hai u ni ca triac B1 v B2. Khi c mch R - C mc song song vi triac to
ra mch vng phng in tch trong qu trnh chuyn mch nn triac khng b
qu in p.
R1

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

C1

33

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

Hnh 2.23. Mch R - C bo v qu in p do chuyn mch.


Theo ti liu chn: R1 = 5,1 (), C1 = 0,25 F
- Bo v xung in p t li in, mc mch R-C nh hnh 2.24, nh
c mch lc ny m nh xung gn nh nm li hon ton trn in tr ng
dy.

R2

C2

R2

R2

C2

C2

Hnh 2.24. Mch RC bo v qu in p t li


Tr s R, C c chn theo ti liu: R2 = 12,5(), C2 = 4 F (ti liu
thit k in t cng sut).
c. Bo v qu dng in cho van.
- ptomt dng ng, ct mch ng lc, t ng bo v khi qu ti
v ngn mch triac, ngn mch u ra bin i, ngn mch ti.
+ Chn 1 ptomt c:
Im = 1,1I = 1,1. 91,16 = 100,276 (A) = 100 (A)
Um= 380 (V)
C 3 tip im chnh, c th ng ct bng tay hoc bng nam chm
in.
+ Chn cu dao c dng nh mc l:
Imcd = 1,1. I = 1,1. 91,16 = 100 (A)

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

34

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

4. Tnh chn dy dn.


Dy dn c chn theo iu kin pht nng nh sau:
K1. K2. Icp Itt.
Trong :
K1: H s k n mi trng t cp
K2: H s hiu chnh theo s lng cp t trong rnh
Icp: Dng in cho php ca dy dn c chn
Itt: Dng in tnh ton
I tt =

P
3.U

60000
3.380

= 91,16 ( A )

- Tra PL4.28 chn 4 dy dn ng 1 li c tit din F = 1 x 25mm2.


C Icp = 144 (A), cch in PVC do hng Lens ch to.
PL4.7 c r0 = 0,57, x0 = 0,062 (/km)
- Kim tra iu kin pht nng: K1. K2. Icp Itt
K1 = 0,85
K2 = 0,95: t 3 si cp cng rnh cp

0,85.0,95.144

1,2.91,16
(Bo v bng ptmt nhit)
1,5

116,3 > 72,93 (A). Vy dy dn chn tho mn iu kin pht


nng.

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

35

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

CHNG III: THIT K MCH IU KHIN NHIT


iu khin nhit ca l nhm mc ch to ra mt nhit thch
hp vi iu kin s dng l. Vic iu khin nhit bng cch iu chnh
in p v dng in cp cho si t, m vic iu chnh dng in v in p
l iu chnh gc m ca triac. Vic iu chnh gc m ca triac c thc
hin nh sau:
3.1. NGUYN L IU KHIN TRIAC (TIRISTOR)

Trong thc t ngi ta thng dng hai nguyn tc iu khin: thng


ng tuyn tnh v thng ng arcos thc hin iu chnh v tr xung
trong na chu k dng ca in p t trn Tiristor cng nh triac.
1. Nguyn tc iu khin thng ng tuyn tnh
Theo nguyn tc ny ngi ta dng hai in p.
- inp ng b, k hiu Us, ng b vi in p t trn hai u lc
ca Tiristor, triac thng t vo u o ca khu so snh.
- in p iu khin, k hiu Ucm (in p 1 chiu c th iu chnh
c bin ) thng t vo u khng o ca khu so snh.
Hiu in th u vo ca khu so snh l;
Ud = Ucm - Us.
Mi khi Us = Ucm th khu so snh lt trng thi, ta nhn c sn
xung ca in p u ra ca khu so snh, sn xung ny thng qua a hi
mt trng thi n nh, to ra 1 xung iu khin.
Nh vy, bng cch lm bin i Ucm, ngi ta c th iu chnh c
thi im xut hin xung ra, tc l iu chnh c gc .
Gia v Ucm c quan h nh sau:
=

U cm
ngi ta ly Ucmmax = Usm.
S sm

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

36

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

Us
Ucm

US
Ucm

t
0

X
t

Hnh 3.1. Nguyn tc iu khin thng ng tuyn tnh


2. Nguyn tc iu khin thng ng arccos
Theo nguyn tc ny ngi ta dng hai in p.
- in p ng b US, vt trc UAK = Umsint ca tiristor mt gc
/2 bng US = Um. cost.

- in p iu khin Ucm l in p mt chiu, c th iu chnh c


bin theo hai chiu (dng v m).
Nu t US vo cng o v UCM vo cng khng o ca khu so snh
th khi US = Ucm, ta s nhn c xung rt mnh u ra ca so snh khi khu
ny lt trng thi:
Umcos = Ucm.
Do :

U
= arecos cm
Um

Khi Ucm = Um th = 0.
Khi Ucm = 0 th =

Khi Ucm = -Um th = .

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

37

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

Nh vy, khi iu chnh Ucm t tr Ucm = +Um, n tr Ucm = -Um, ta c


th iu chnh c gc t 0 n .
Nguyn tc iu khin thng ng arccos c s dng trong cc
thit b chnh lu i hi cht lng cao.
Us
UAK
Us

UAK

Ucm

Xk

t
0

Hnh 3.2: Nguyn tc iu khin thng ng


3. S khi mch iu khin.
thc hin tt c vic iu khin Tiristor, triac th mch iu khin
bao gm cc khu c bn sau:

ng pha

So snh

Khuch
i

Hnh 3.3. S khi mch iu khin


Vi s ny nhim v ca cc khu nh sau:
- Khu ng pha c nhim v to ra in p ta Urc (thng gp l in
p dng rng ca tuyn tnh) trng pha vi in p anod ca Tiristor.

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

38

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

- Khu so snh c nhim v so snh gia inp ta vi in p iu


khin Uk, tm thi im hai in p ny bng nhau (Uk = Urc). Ti thi im
hai in p ny bng nhau th pht xung u ra gi sang tng khuch i.
Khu to xung c nhim v to ra xung ph hp m Tiristor. Xung
m Tiristor c yu cu: sn trc dc thng ng, bo m yu cu
Tiristor m tc thi khi c xung iu khin (thng gp loi xung ny l xung
kim hoc xung ch nht); rrng vi rng xung ln hn thi gian m
ca Tiristor, cng sut , cch ly gia mch mch iu khin vi mch ng
lc (nu in p ng lc qu ln).
- Vi nhim v ca cc khu nh vy ta tin hnh thit k, tnh chn
cc khu c bn ca ba khi trn. Chi tit v cc mch ny nh sau:
4. Thit k s nguyn l to ra cc khu:
a. Khu ng pha.
Mt s khu ng pha c trnh by trn hnh 3.4

-E

-E

B
D2

R1
U1

U2

R2

R2

R1
C

D1

Ur

U1

U2

a)

Ur

b)
-E

R1

R2

Tr

A
R2

R1
Uv

Ur

U1

c)
SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

U2

+
A1
-

C1
B

D1

R3

A2
+

Ur

d)
39

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

Hnh 3.4. Mt s khu ng pha in hnh


S hnh 3.4a l s n gin, d thc hin, vi s linh kin t
nhng cht lng in p ra khng tt. di ca phn bin thin tuyn tnh
ca in p ta khng ph ht 1800. Do vy, gc m van ln nht b gii hn.
Hay ni cch khc, nu theo s ny in p ti khng iu khin c t 0
ti cc i m t mt tr s no n cc i.
khc phc nhc im v di iu chnh s hnh 3.4a ngi ta
s dng s to in p ta bng s hnh 3.4b. Theo s ny, in p
ta c phn bin thin tuyn tnh ph ht na chu k in p. Do vy, khi cn
iu khin in p t 0 ti cc i l hon ton c th p ng c.
Vi s ra i ca cc linh kin ghp quang, chng ta c th s dng s
to in p ta bng b ghp quang nh hnh 3.4c. Nguyn l v cht
lng in p ta ca hai s b, c tng i ging nhau. u im ca s
c ch khng cn bin p ng pha, do c th n gin hn trong vic ch
to v lp t.
Cc s trn u c chung nhc im l vic m, kho cc Tiristor
trong vng in p ln cn 0 l thiu chnh xc lm cho vic np, x t trong
vng in p li gn 0 khng c nh mun.
Ngy nay cc vi mch c ch to ngy cng nhiu, cht lng ngy
cng cao, kch thc gn, ng dng cc vi mch vo thit k mch ng pha
c th cho ta cht lng in p li tt. Trn s hnh 3.4d m t s to
in p ta dng khuch i thut ton.

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

40

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

+E
R1
D1

D2
TrQ
Tr
R3

UAT

D4

R6

D3

+
A1
-

R2

C1
C

D5

R5

R4

A2
+

Urc

-E

e. S ng pha to in p ta c chu k

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

41

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

UA

UCL

UB

t
UC

t
Urc

s nguyn l hot ng ca hnh 3.4e.

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

42

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

S e c u im l n gin, kinh t, to c in p ra Urc rng


ca trong c chu k. Nhng nhc im l khong in p rng ca bng
khng nh khng iu khin c. Nhng i vi ti l dy t in tr th
khng cn cht lng in p iu khin cao nn c th dng c s ny.
Ngoi ra cn nhc im ca s ny na l in p tht sau transistor
khng phi l hnh sin.
+12(V)

VR1

U1

R1

Tr1
R4

A
D1
Uv

R2

Up1

+
A1
-

C1
B

D3

R3

A2
+

Urc

Up2

D2

Hnh 3.4.g. S ng pha to in p ta lin tip hai na chu k

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

43

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

U
UA

UCL

U1

t
UB

t
Uc

s nguyn l hot ng ca hnh 3.4 g.

in p chnh lu UA c so snh vi in p U1 ly trn bin tr


VR1. Ti thi im UA = U1 th i du in p ra ca khuch i thut ton
SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

44

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

A1. Kt qu l chng ta c chui xung ch nht khng i xng UB. y c


rng xung m caUB , phn dng UB tch phn qua A2 thnh in p
ta.
Trong vng lm mt xung iu khin, do khng c in p ta. Theo
Nguyn tc ny cng gim nh cng tt, m gc mt do U1 quyt nh. V
vy c th gim U1 c gc mt vi , sai s vi l hon ton cho
php.
Vic iu khin triac cn phi to ra in p ta c c chu k s dng
s ny l u im hn c.
b. Mt s mch thng dng lm khu so snh.

Urc

R3
Urc

R1

Tr
Ura

Uk

R1

Uk

R2

Urc

R1

A3
+

Ura

R2

Uk

R2

A3
+

Ura

Hnh 3.5. S cc khu so snh thng gp


a. Bng transistor; b. Cng mt cng o ca khuch i thut ton;
c. Hai cng ca khuch i thut ton
xc nh c thi im cn m Tiristor chng ta cn so snh hai
tn hiu Uk v Urc. Vic so snh cc tn hiu c th c thc hin bng

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

45

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

transistor (Tr) nh trn hnh 1.22a. Ti thi im Uk = Urc, u vo Tr lt


trng thi t kho sang m (hay ngc li t m sang kho), lm cho in p
ra cng b lt trng thi, ti chng ta nh du c thi im cn m
Tiristor.
Vi mc m bo ho ca Tr ph thuc vo hiu Uk Urc = Ub hiu
ny c mt vng in p nh hng mV, lm cho Tr khng lm vic ch
ng ct nh ta mong mun, do nhiu khi lm thi im m Tiristor b
lch kh xa so vi im cn m ti Uk = Urc.
KTT c h s iu kin v cng ln, ch cn mt tn hiu rt nh (c

V) u vo, u ra c in p ngun nui, nn vic ng dng KTT


trn hnh 3.5b,c rt thng gp trong cc s mch hin nay. u im ca
cc s ny l c th pht xung iu khin chnh xc ti Uk = Urc.
c. Mt s s khuch i thng dng
Vi nhim v to xung ph hp m Tiristor nh nu trn, tng
khuch i cui cng thng c thit k bng transistor cng sut nh m
t trn hnh 3.6a. c xung kim gi ti Tiristor, ta dng bin p xung
(BAX), c th iu kin cng sut ta dng Tr, diode bo v Tr v cun dy
s cp bin p xung. Khi Tr kho t ngt, mc d vi nhng s ny
khng c dng rng ri, bi v h s khuch i ca transistor loi ny
nhiu khi khng ln, khuch i c tn hiu t khu so snh a
sang.

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

46

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

+E
BAX
BAX

D
Tr1
R
Tr

Tr2

Uv

R
Uv

+E

a)

BAX

b)

Tr1
C
Uv

R
Tr2

c)

Hnh 3.7. S cc khu khuch i thng dng


a. Tng transistor cng sut; b. Bng s darlington;
c. S c t ni tng.
Tng khuch i cui cng bng s darlington nh hnh 3.7b thng
hay c dng trong thc t. s ny hon ton c th p ng c yu
cu v khuch i cng sut, khi h s khuch i c nhn ln theo thng
s ca cc transistor.
Trong thc t xung iu khin ch cn c rng b (c khong 10 - 20

s) m thi gian m thng cc transistor cng sut (ti a ti mt na chu k


0,01s), lm cho cng sut to nhit d ca Tr qu ln v kch thc dy qun

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

47

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

s cp bin p ln. gim nh cng sut to nhit Tr v kch thc dy


qun BAX chng ta c th thm t ni tng nh hnh 3.7c. Theo s ny, Tr
ch m cho dng in chy qua trong khong thi gian np t, nn dng hiu
dng ca chng b hn nhiu ln.
i vi mt s s mch, gim cng sut cho tng khuch i v
tng lng xung kch m, nhm m bo Tiristor m mt cch chc chn,
ngi ta hay pht xung chm cho cc Tiristor. Nguyn tc pht xung chm l
trc khi vo tng khuch i, ta a chn thm mt cng v (&) vi tn hiu
vo nhn t tng so snh v t b pht xung chm nh hnh 3.8.
T so snh

&

Ti khuch i

T chm xung
Hnh 3.8. S phi hp to xung chm
Mt s s khu to xung chm m t trn hnh 3.9.
Vi mch 555 to xung ng h hnh 3.9a. Cho ta cht lng xung kh tt
v s cng tng i n gin. S ny thng gp trong cc mch to
chm.
Trong thit k mch iu khin, ta thng s dng khuch i thut
ton. Do ng dng v linh kin, khu to xung chm c th s dng
khuch i thut ton nh cc s trn hnh 3.9b. Tuy nhin, y s
dao ng a hi hnh 3.9b c u im hn v mc n gin, do c s
dng kh rng ri trong cc mch to xung ch nht.

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

48

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

R1

7
R2

3 Ura

555

6
2

C1

5
1

C2

a)
R3

R1

A
+

A1
+

R2

R1

R4
A2
+

R2
c)

b)

Hnh 3.9. Mt s s chm xung


3.2. S IU KHIN

I. Chn mch iu khin.


a. Khu ng pha.
T nhng phn tch v u v nhc im ca mt s s ng pha trn
ta thy s ng pha to in p ta c chu k l hp l nht vi mch iu
khin triac, ti l dy t in tr khng cn cht lng in p cao (hnh 3.4g).
b. Khu so snh:
Ta chn s khu so snh song song cng mt cng o ca khuch
i thut ton. V s ny n gin, c h s khuch i v cng ln, pht
xung iu khin chnh xc.
c. Khu khuch i to xung
Gm b pht xung chm dng khuch i thut ton v mt cng AND
hai u vo. Mt u l tn hiu t khu so snh v mt u l t b pht
xung chm, u ra ca cng AND n b khuch i bng hai transistor ri
qua bin p xung to xung m thch hp cho triac.
S iu khin mt knh c trnh by trn hnh 3.10a v s biu
din in p ca mch iu khin c trnh by trn hnh 3.10b.
SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

49

UA

BA

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

Uf2

Uf1

D2

D1

VR 1

U1
R2

R1

-12V

+
A1
B

D3

R3

R4
+

A2

C1
C

Uk

VR 2

R5

R5

R5
+

R6

A3

R7

A4

E
AND

Hnh 10a: S o ieu khien mot pha tri ac

Tr1

+12V

C2

R8

R9

D4

R 10

Tr2

+12V

Tr3

Xk

BAX

D5

UA
T1

N TT NGHIP
TRNG HBK H NI

50

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

Ua

UA

Ua
U1

t
Urc
Uk

0
Uc
UD

UE

0
UF

0
Xk

t1

t2

t3

t4

t5

t6

t7

t8

Hnh 3.10b: Biu in pca mch iu khin


SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

51

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

* Nguyn l hot ng ca s iu khin mt knh.


in p chnh lu UA c so snh vi in p U1 ly trn bin tr
VR1. Ti thi im UA = U1 th i du in p ra ca khuch i thut ton
A1. Kt qu l to ra chui xung ch nht khng i xng UB, y c
rng xung m ca UB, phn dng UB tch phn qua A2 thnh in p ta
UC.
Trong vng lm mt xung iu khin, do khng c in p ta theo
nguyn tc ny cng gim nh gc cng tt, m gc do U1 quyt nh. V
vy c th gim U1 c gc mt vi , sai s mt vi l hon ton cho
php.
Phn in p ta Uc c ko ln trn trc honh bng in p ly t
VR2. Vic ko in p ta Uc ln trn trc honh ny ch nhm mc ch
in p iu khin Uk ng bin vi in p ra.
in p ta Urc c so snh vi in p Uk ti u vo ca A3. Tng
i s Urc + Uk quyt nh du in p u ra ca khuch i thut ton A3.
Trong khong 0 t1 in p Uk > Urc, in p UD m (UD < 0). Trong khong
t1 n t2 in p Uk < Urc lm cho UD dng (UD > 0). Cc khong thi gian
tip theo tng t lp li.
Mch a hi to xung chm A4 cho ta chui xung tn s cao vi in p
UE. Dao ng a hi cn c tn s hng chc KHz y ta chn 3KHz.
Hai tn hiu UD v UE cng c a vo khu AND hai cng vo khi
ng thi c c hai tn hiu dng UD, UE (trong khong t1 t2; t3 t4; t5 t6;
t7t8), chng ta s c xung UF. Cc xung ra UF lm m thng cc transistor
Tr2, Tr3. Kt qu l chng ta nhn c chui xung nhn Xk trn bin p
xung, a ti triac T.
* S mch iu khin 3.10a ch iu khin c mt triac (mt
pha), nh vy iu khin c in p xoay chiu c 3 pha theo yu cu th

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

52

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

Uc

UB

UA

BA

BA

BA

Uf2

Uf1

Uf2

Uf1

Uf2

Uf1

D2

D1

D2

D1

D2

D1

VR 1

VR 1

VR 1

R2

R1

R2

R1

U1

R2

R1

-12V

U1

-12V

U1

-12V

+
A1
-

+
A1
-

+
A1
-

D3

R3

D3

R3

D3

R3

R4

R4

R4

Tr1

Tr1

Tr1

A2

A2

A2

+12V

+12V

Uk

VR 2

VR 2

VR 2

R5

R5

R5

R5

R5

R5

R5

R5

R5

A3

A3

A3

R7

R6

A4

AND

AND

AND

R9

R9

R9

S o ieu khien ba pha triac

C1

C1

C1

+12V

C2

R8

R 10

+12V

D4

D4

D4

Tr2

Tr2

Tr2

Tr3

X k

BAX

Tr3

X k

BAX

Tr3

X k

BAX

D5

D5

D5

Uc

UB

UA

T3

T2

T1

N TT NGHIP
TRNG HBK H NI

ta phi dng 3 knh iu khin iu khin 3 triac ca 3 pha, s c m


t nh sau:

53

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

II. TNH TON CC THNG S CA MCH IU KHIN

Cc thng s ca mch iu khin c xc nh xut pht t yu cu


v xung m triac, nn khi ta tnh ton cc thng s trong mch th phi bt
u tnh t my bin p xung ri n cc khu k tip.
1. Tnh ton my bin p xung.
chng II ta chn triac c cc thng s sau
-

Mc st bin xung: Sx = 0,15

Dng in iu khin max: Igmax = 0,4 (A) = Ik

in p iu khin max: Ugmax = 3 (V) = Uk

Tc tng in p:

Thi gian gi xung iu khin: txmax = 10 (s)

in p ngun nui mch iu khin: U = 12 (V)

Tn s xung iu khin: fx = 3 Khz

du
= 100 ( v / s )
dt

U
T

W1

W2
Tx

Tx
a)

T
b)

Hnh 3.12.a. My bin p xung; b. th in p xung


* Tnh ton li thp my bin p xung.
V xung iu khin l xung chm c tn s cao nn gim tn hao do
dng in xoy sinh ra ta chn vt liu st t loi pherit, c dng hnh xuyn
lm vic trn mt phn ca c tnh t ho c B = 0,3 (T) v H = 30
(A/m), khng c khe h khng kh.
SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

54

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

- Thng thng t s bin p xung: m = 1 3, ta chn m = 3


- in p cun th cp ca my bin p xung: U2 = Uk = 3 (V)
- in p t trn cun s cp ca my bin p xung: U1 = mU2 = 3.3 = 9
(V)
- Dng in th cp ca bin p xung: I2 = Ik = 0,4 (A)
- Dng in chy trong cun s cp ca bin p xung
I1 =

I 2 0,4
=
= 0,133 ( A )
m
3

- t thm trung bnh tng i ca li st


tb =

B
Trong 0 = 1,25.10 6 9 ( H / m ) l t thm ca
0 H

khng kh.
Suy ra: tb =
-

B
0,3
=
= 8000 ( H / m )
0 H 1,25.10 6 .30

Th tch li thp cn c: V = Q.l =

tb . 0 .t x .fx .U1 .I1


B 2

1
1 1 1 1
Trong : Tx = T = . = .
= 0,167.10 3 ( s )
2
2 fx 2 3000
8000.1,25.10 6.0,16.10 3.0,15.9.0,133
Vy V =
= 3,332.10 6 m 2
2
0,3

( )

V = 3,332 (cm2)
Da vo bng 8.5 trang 57 ti liu hng dn thit k in t cng sut
ta chn mch t hnh xuyn c cc kch thc nh sau: V = Q. l = 0,49. 10,2
= 4,998 (cm2)
a = 6 (mm)
b = 8 (mm)
d = 25 (mm)
D = 40 (mm)
Q = 0,49 (cm2) = 40 mm2

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

55

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

L = 10,2 (cm2) = 1020 (mm2): Chiu di trung bnh mch t.

d D

b
Hnh 3.13. Hnh chiu li thp bin p xung
- S vng dy qun s cp bin p xung
Theo nh lut cm ng in t ta c:
U 1 = W1 .Q.

dB
B
= W1 .Q.
dt
tx

U1 t x 9.0,167.10 3
W1 =
=
= 103 (vng)
B.Q 0,3.49.10 6
- S vng dy th cp ca bin p:

W2 =

W1 103
=
= 35 (vng)
m
3

- Tit din dy qun s cp


S1 =

I1 0,133
=
= 0, 022 mm 2
J1
6

Chn mt dng in J1 = 6 (A/mm2)


- ng knh dy qun s cp

d1 =

4S1
4.0,022
=
= 0,17 ( mm )

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

56

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

- Tit din dy ng trn c d1 = 0,17 (mm); S = 0,0227 (mm2);


d1 = 0,19mm.
Tit din dy qun th cp.
S2 =

I 2 0,4
=
= 0,1 mm 2
J2
4

Chn mt dng in J2 = 4 (A/mm2). Theo ti liu thit k in t


cng sut
- ng knh dy qun th cp

d2 =

4.S 2
4.0,1
=
= 0,357 ( mm )

Chn dy ng trn c ng knh:


d2 = 0,38 (mm); S = 0,1134 9mm2), d2 = 0,42 (mm)
- Kim tra h s lp y

K l =

S1 .W1 + S 2 .W2 d12 .W1 + d22 W2 0,19 2.103 + 0,422.35


=
=
d2
252

d2
+
4

Kl = 0,0158.
Nh vy ca s din tch cn thit
2. Chn linh kin cho mch iu khin
- Chn diode.
Mt knh iu khin nh hnh 3.10a phi dng ti 3 diode, nh vy
lp c 3 knh iu khin cho 3 pha ta phi dng 9 diode.
Chn 9 diode loi ESM - 61c cc thng s sau:
Dng in cc i: Imax = 10 (A)
in p ngc: Un = 300 (V)
Nhit cho php: Tcp = 1750C
Tn hao in p trng thi m: U = 0,7(V)
- Chn cng AND

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

57

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

thc hin c 3 knh iu khin ta phi cn dng 3 cng AND.


Da vo ti liu hng dn thit k in t cng sut chn 1 IC 4081 h
CMOS. Mi IC 4081 c 4 cng AND, c thng s nh sau:
Ngun nui IC: Vcc = 3 12 (V), chn Vcc = 12 (V)
Nhit lm vic: t = - 40 800C
in p ng vi mc logic 1: U = 2 4,5 (V)
Dng in: I 1 (mA)
Cng sut tiu th: P = 2,5 (mW/cng)

Vcc
13

14 12 11

10

&

&

&

&

5 6

7
Vcc

Hnh 3.14. S chn IC 4081


- Chn khuch i thut ton
T mch hnh 3.10a cho mt knh iu khin ta dng 4 b khuch i
tht ton. Nn iu khin 3 knh ta phi dng 12 b khuch i thut
ton. Da vo ti liu hng dn thit k in t cng sut ta chn khuch
i thut ton cho mch iu khin l loi IC TL084, mi IC c 4 khuch i
thut ton nn ta chn 3 IC TL084 vi thng s nh sau:
in p ngun nui: Vcc = 18 (V)
Ta chn: Vcc = 12 (V)
Hiu in th gia hai u vo: Uv = 30 (V)

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

58

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

Nhit lm vic: t = -25 850C


Tng tr u vo: Rin = 106 (M)
Dng in u ra: Ira = 30 (pA)
Tc bin thin in p cho php:

14

13

12 11 10

dU
= 13 ( v / s )
dt

3 4

Ucc
Hnh 3.15: S chn IC TL084
3. Tnh ton cc thng s ca khu khuch i.

+12V
R10
BAX
D5

D4

R9

Tr2
Tr3

Hnh 3.16: S khu khuch i


Dng in trung bnh chy qua transistor (Tr3) l:

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

59

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

I tb = I ctr3 =

I 2 0,4
=
= 0,133 ( A )
m
3

Nh vy ta phi chn Tr3 sao cho Ictr3 > Itb


Da vo ti liu tra cu transistor Nht Bn ca cc tc gi Trn
Ngc Sn dch ta chn c Tr3 c cc thng s sau:
M hiu: 2SC118, cht liu SIP
in p: Ucb0 = 40 (V)
in p: Ueb0 = 3 (V)
Dng in cc i qua colector: Ictr3max = 500 (mA)
Lm vic ch xung iu kin cng sut
Cng sut cc i: Pcmax = 600 (MW)
Nhit cc i: t0C = 175 0C
Tn s gii hn: fmax = 150 (Mhz)
H s khuch i: 3 = 40
T ta c dng in lm vic colector ca Tr3 l
Ictr3 = I1 = 0,133 (A) = 133 (mA)
Dng in lm vic ca baz
I BTr3 =

I cTr3 133
=
= 3,325 ( A )
3
40

Da vo ti liu tra cu transistor Nht Bn ca tc gi Trn Ngc


Sn dch ta chn Tr2 c cc thng s:
M hiu: 2SC49, cht liu NPN
in p: Ucb0max = 120 (V)
in p: Ueb0max = 6 (V)
Dng in cc i qua colector: Icmax = 300 (mA)
Cng sut tiu tn colector: Pcmax = 600 (mW)
Tn s gii hn: fmax = 16 (Mhz)
H s khuch i: 3 = 60

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

60

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

Dng in lm vic qua cc baz ca Tr2 l: ta chn tr2 khi lm vic


thng hon ton, dn dng IcTr2 = 300 (mA) th dng IbTr2 l:
I bTr2 =

I cTr2 300
=
= 5 ( mA )
2
60

Vi Tr2 v Tr3 c chn nh vy th h s khuch i ca c h l:

= 1. 2 = 40. 60 = 2400
hn ch dng in a vo cc baz ca Tr2 ta dng in tr R9 sao
cho R 9

UG
12
=
= 2400 ( )
I b .Tr2 5.10 3

Trong : UG l in p cp cho cng AND.


Nh vy ta chn R9 = 2,4 (K)
Ta chn ngun cp cho bin p xung: E = + 12(V). Vi ngun E =
12(V) ta phi mc thm in tr R10 ni tip vi cc emittor ca Tr3 gim
p ng thi to dng in chy trong cun dy s cp my bin p xung. R11
c xc nh nh sau:
R10 =

E U 1 12 9
=
22 ( )
I1
0,133

4. Tnh thng s mch to xung chm


R8
-

A4

C2

R7
R6

Hnh 3.17. S mch to xung chm


Mch to xung chm c tn s ch fx = 3 Khz.

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

61

N TT NGHIP

fx =

TRNG HBK H NI

1
1
=
= 3Khz
T2 2Tx

Chu k ca xung chm: T =

1
= 2Tx
fx

Suy ra: T = 2. 0,167.10-3 = 334.10-6 (s) = 344 (s)

R
Ta c: T = 2. R8. C2. ln 1 + 2. 7
R8

Ta chn R6 = R7 = 33 (K) th ta c
T = 2,2. R8. C2 = 334 (s)
Vy R8. C2 =

334
= 151,8 ( s )
2,2

Chn t C2 = 0,1 (F) c in p U = 16 (V);

R8 =

151,8
= 1518 ( ) = 1,518 ( k )
0,1

thun tin cho vic iu chnh khi lp mch th ta chn R8 l bin


tr 2,2 K
5. Tnh chn tng so snh.
Urc

R5
A5
+

Uk

R5

Hnh 3.18. S khu so snh

Khuch i thut ton ta chn trc loi TL084.


Chn R 5 >

Uv
12
=
= 12 ( k )
I v 1,10 3

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

62

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

Trong : ngun nui Vcc = 12 (V) th in p vo A3 l Uv 12(V).


Dng in vo c hn ch Iv 1 (mA)
Do ta chn R5 = 15 (k) khi dng vo A3 l:

I max =

12
= 0,8 ( mA )
15.103

6. Tnh ton thng s khu ng pha

VR1

U1

R3

BA
Uf1 D1

R1

+
A5
-

Uv

D3

Tr1

R4

C1
-A
+ 2

Urc
C

Uf2
D2
Hnh 3.18. S mch ng pha
in p np v x t C1 l in p dng rng ca v c xc nh nh sau:
Thi gian nap c Tr = R4. C1 = 0,01 (s)
Chn t C1 = 0,1 (F) th in tr c xc nh nh sau:
R4 =

Tr
0,01
=
= 100.103 ( ) = 100 ( k )
6
C1 0,1.10

tin cho vic iu chnh khi lp rp mch R4 thng c chn l


bin tr ln hn 100 (k). Ta chn R4 l bin tr 200 (k).
V in p ra ca khu ng pha Urc = 12 (V) nn ta phi chn Tr1 sao
cho Uce > 12 (V)

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

63

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

Da vo ti liu tra cu transistor Nht bn chn Tr1 c cc thng s


nh sau:
M hiu: 2SC615, cht liu SIP
Lm vic ch xung
in p: Ucb0max = 45 (V)
in p: Ueb0max = 4 (V)
Dng in cc i qua colector: Icmax = 300 (mA)
Cng sut tiu tn colector: Pcmax = 600 (mW)
H s khuch i: 1 = 60
hn ch dng in vo cc baz ca Tr1 ta dng in tr R3 v c
tnh
R3 =

U r1
12
=
= 2,4 ( k )
br1 5.10 3

Chn in p chnh lu ti A l: UA = 9 (V)


in tr R2 hn ch dng in i vo mch iu kin thut ton A1.
Thng chn R1 sao cho dng vo khuch i thut ton Iv < 1 (mA). Do
ta chn R2 nh sau:
R1

UA
9
=
= 9 ( k )
I v 1.10 3

Ta chn R2 = R1= 10 (k)


Chn bin tr VR1 = 20 (k). dng ly ra in p U1.
* Tnh ton my bin p ng pha
1. Ta chn thit k my bin p dng cho c vic to in p ng pha
v to ngun nui. Chn kiu my bin p 3 pha 3 tr, trn mi tr c 5 cun
dy, 1 cun s cp v 4 cun th cp.
2. in p ly ra th cp my bin p lm in p chnh lu hai
na chu k lm in p ng pha v mt phn dng lm in p cp cho
ngun nui.

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

64

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

U f1,2 = U 2 =

UA
9
=
= 10 ( V )
K u 0,9

3. Dng in th cp my bin p ng pha


I2ph = 1 (mA)
4. Cng sut ngun nui cp cho my bin p xung
Pph = 3.U2ph. I2p = 3. 10. 1. 10-3 = 0,03 (W)
5. Cng sut tiu th 3 cng AND ca IC 4081 l:
P4081 = 3. 2,5 = 7,5 (mW) = 7,5.10-3 (W)
6. Cng sut tiu th ca 13 b khuch i thut to ta chn 3
ICTL084.
P084 = 3. 0,68 = 2,04 (W)
7. Cng sut BAX cp cho 3 cc iu khin Triac.
Px= 3. Uk. Ik = 3. 3. 0,4 = 3,6 (W)
8. Cng sut s dng cho vic to ngun nui ca 3 knh.
PN = 3 (Pph + P4081 + P084)
PN = 3.(0,03 + ,5.10-3 + 2,04) = 6,24 (W)
9. Cng sut ca my bin p c k n 5% tn tht trong my
S = 1,05. (Px + PN) = 1,05.(3,6 + 6,24) =10,332 (W)
10. Dng in th cp my bin p.
I2 =

S
10,332
=
= 0,086 ( A )
12.U 2 12.10

11. Dng in s cp my bin p.


I1 =

S
10,332
=
= 0, 0175 ( A )
3.U 1 3.220

12. Tit din tr ca my bin p c tnh theo cng thc kinh nghim
QT = KQ .

S
10,332
= 6.
= 1,57 cm 2
m.f
3.50

Trong :
KQ = 6: H s ph thuc phng thc lm mt
SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

65

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

m = 3: S tr ca bin p
f = 50: Tn s in p li
Chun ho tit din tr theo bng 7 ti liu hng dn thit k in t
cng sut.
QT = 1,63 (cm2)

Kch thc mch t l thp


dy = 0,2 (mm)

H h

S lg l thp l;
a = 12 (mm)

b = 16 (mm)

c
L

h = 30 (mm)
c = 12 (mm)

Hnh 3.19. Kch thc mch t bin p

13. Chn mt t cm B = 1 (T) trong tr ta c s vng dy s cp


l:
W1 =

U1
220
=
= 6080 (vng)
4,44.f.B.Q T 4,44.50.1.1,63.10 4

14. Chn mt dng in J1 = J2 = 2,75 (A/mm2)


Tit din dy qun s cp
S1 =

S
10,332
=
= 0,0057 mm 2
3.U 1 .J1 3.220.2,75

ng knh dy qun s cp.

d1 =

4.S1
4.0,0057
=
= 0,085 ( mm )

3,14

Chn d1 = 0,1 (mm) m bo bn c.


ng knh c k c cch in l: d1 = 0,12 (mm).
15. S vng dy qun th cp.

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

66

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

W2 = W1 .

U2
10
= 6080.
= 249 (vng)
U1
220

16. Tit din dy qun th cp


S2 =

S
10,332
=
= 0,0014 mm 2
12.U 2 .J 2 12.220.2,75

17. ng knh dy qun th cp.

4.S 2
4.0,0014
=
= 0,043 ( mm )

3,14

d1 =

Chun ho ng knh: d2 = 0,06 (mm)


ng knh dy c cch in: d2 = 0,08 (mm)
18. Chn h s lp y

'2
3,14
d1 .W1 + d'22 .W2
0,122.6080 + 0,062.249
Vi Kl = 4
= 4
= 0,2
c.h
12.3

19. Chiu di mch t.


L = 2.C + 3. A = 2.12 + 3. 12 = 60 (mm)
20. Chiu cao mch t
H = h + 2.a = 30 + 2. 12 = 54 (mm)
* Tnh chn 12 diode ca mch chnh lu ngun nui
- Dng in hiu dng qua diode
I DHD =

I2
2

0, 086
2

= 0,06 ( A )

- in p ngc ln nht m diode phi chu.


UNmax = 2. 2U 2 = 2. 2.9 = 25, 45 ( V )
- Chn diode c dng nh mc
Im Ki. ImD = 10. 0,06 = 0,6 (A)
SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

67

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

- Chn diode c in p ngc ln nht


UN = Ku. UNmax = 2. 25,45 = 50,9 (V)
Chn diode loi K208A c cc thng s sau:
+Dng in nh mc: Im = 1,5 (A)
+ in p ngc cc i ca diode: UN = 100 (V)
7. To ngun nui
Ta cn to ra ngun in p 12 (V) cp cho bin p xung, nui IC,
cu cn bng

7812
+12(V)
*

C4

C6

A
0
220V~ B
C

* c
C5
*

C7

* a
-12(V)
7912

Hnh 3.20. S nguyn l to ngun nui 12 (V)

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

68

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

Ta dng chnh lu cu 3 pha dng diode, in p th cp my bin p


ngun nui l U2 = 10 (V).
inp sau khi chnh lu cu 3 pha l;
U2 = Ku. U2 = 2,34. 10 = 23,4 (V)
n nh in p ra ca ngun nui ta dng 2 vi mch n p 7812 v
7912 c cc thng s sau:
in p u vo: Uv = 7 35 (V)
in p u ra:
Ura = 12 (V) vi IC 7812
Ura = -12 (V) vi IC 7912
Dng in u ra: Ia = 0 1 (A)
T C4, C5 dng lc thnh phn sng hi bc cao. Chn C4 = C5 = C6
= C7 = 470 (F); Uc = 35 (V)

CHNG IV: N NH NHIT .


4.1: MC CH N NH NHIT :

m bo c tnh n nh trong thi gian lm vic ca l sy in


tr (t sy) v nhit , ta cn thit k mch iu khin n nh nhit
theo ng yu cu ca ngi s dng. Mch iu khin phi m bo c
khong dao ng nhit m ngi thit k, s dng cho php.
4. 2: MT S CM BIN THNG DNG O NHIT .

1. Nhit in tr:
c tnh quan trng ca loi in tr ny l c nhy nhit rt cao
gp hng chc ln nhy ca in tr kim loi. Nhit in tr ny c th
c chia lm hai loi.
- Nhit in tr c h s nhit in tr dng.
- Nhit in tr c h s nhit in tr m.

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

69

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

V cu to nhit in tr c lm t hn hp oxit bn dn a tinh th


nh: MgO, MgAl2O4, Mn2O3, Fe3O4, CO2O3, MiO, ZnTiO4.
Nhit in tr c ch to di dng bt oxit, trn vi nhau theo t l
nht nh sau c nn nh dng v thiu kt nhit 10000C. Cc dy
ni kim loi c hn ti hai im trn b mt v c ph bng mt lp kim
loi. Cc nhit in tr c ch to vi cc hnh dng khc nhau. Cm bin
c kch thc nh, cho php o nhit ti tng im, ng thi o nhit
dung nh nn thi gian hi p nh.
Ph thuc vo loi nhit in tr, di nhit lm vic c th thay i
t vi tuyt i n khong 3000C. Hnh 4.1 trnh by cu to ca cc
nhit in tr c v bc thu ngn.

Hnh 4.1: in tr nhit v bc thu tinh.


Quan h gia in tr v nhit c chn theo biu thc.

1 1
I
R(T) = R0 ( exp
T T0
T0
2

Trong R0 l in tr nhit tuyt i T0. nhy vi nhit c


cho trc dng. R =

+
2

V nh hng ca hm m n in tr chim u th hn, nn ta c th


1 1
vit li biu thc nh sau: R ( T ) = R 0 exp p B
T T0

B qua nh hng ca B theo nhit , ta c nhy nhit c dng R


= -B/T2 gi tr ca B nm trong khong 30005000K.
V nhy nhit rt cao nn nhit in tr ny c ng dng pht
hin nhng bin thin rt nh ca nhit (10-410-3K). nhit thp
ngi ta s dng cc nhit in tr c gi tr nh 250C (v d 50 hoc
SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

70

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

100), trong khi o nhit cao cn s dng cc nhit in tr ln


(100500).
2. Cm bin cp nhit ngu:
a. Nguyn l lm vic.
B cm bin cp nhit ngu l mt mch c t hai hay nhiu thanh dn
in gm hai dy dn A v B. Ch ni gia hai thanh kim loi 1 v 2 c
hn vi nhau. Seebek chng minh rng, nu nhit cc mi hn t v t0
khc nhau th trong mch khp kn c mt dng in chy qua. Chiu ca
dng nhit in ny ph thuc vo nhit tng ng ca mi hn, ngha l
nu t>t0 th dng in chy theo hng ngc li. Nu mt u th gia hai
cc xut hin mt sc in ng (s) nhit.
Khi hai mi hn c cng nhit , v d bng t0 th s tng:
EAB = eAB (t0) +eBA (t0) = 0.
T rt ra c:
eAB (t0) = eBA(t0).
Khi t0 v t khc nhau th s tng:
EAB = eAB (t) + eBA(t0). Hay: EAB = eAB (t) eAB(t0).
Phng trnh trn l phng trnh c bn ca cp nhit ngu, ngha l
s ph thuc vo hiu s nhit ca mch vng t v t0. Nu t0 =const th:
EAB = eAB (t) C = f(t).

Vi C = eAB (t0) = const.


Nh vy bng cch o s ta c

t0

th tm c nhit t ca i tng o
vi t0 = const.

*Cch u dng c o vo mch b bin


nhit , c hai cch sau:

- Mi ni c nhit cn o.

1
- Mi ni c nhit cn o t v Hnh 4.2. S cp nhit ngu
SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

71

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

nhit chun t0. Tuy hai s mc c khc nhau, nhng s nhit s


nh nhau nu nhit u hn vi dy dn (bng nhau).
2
C

t0 t0

t0

1
1

Hnh 4.3: S ni cp nhit ngu.


T s hnh 4.3 ta c:
EABC (t, t0, t0) = eAB (t) + eBC (t0) + eCA (t0).
Nu nhit tt c cc mi hn l nh nhau th:
EABC ( t0) = eAB (t0) + eBC (t0) + eCA (t0) = 0.
Khi :
eBA (t0) = eBC (t0) + eCA (t0).
EABC (t, t0, t0) = eAB (t) + eBA (t0) = eAB (t) eAB(t0) = E (t,t0).
i vi mch trn hnh 4.3b th:
EABC (t, t1, t0) = eAB (t) + eBC (t1) + eBA (t0).
Nu tnh: eBC (t1) = eAB (t1) v eAB (t0) = - eAB (t0).
Th: EABC (t, t1, t0) = eAB(t) - eAB(t0) = E(t,t0)
Nh vy sut in ng nhit khng thay i khi a thm vo dy dn
th ba, vi iu kin nhit cc u nt l nh nhau :
Khi nhit ch ni 2,3 (hnh 4.3a) hay 3,4 (hnh 4.3b) khc nhau th
to ra s nhit k sinh cc mi ni dy.

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

72

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

3. Nhit in tr kim loi


Nhit in tr kim loi thng c dng dy kim loi hoc mng mng
kim loi c in tr sut thay i nhiu theo nhit . Da vo di nhit
cn o v cc tnh cht mi trng ngi ta thng lm in tr bng platin,
niken. i khi cng s dng ng v vonfram.
Platin c ch to vi tinh khit cao, cho php tng chnh xc
ca cc c tnh in ca n, ngoi ra platin cn tr v ho hc v n nh
tinh th, cho php hot ng tt trong di nhit rng t -200 +10000C.
Niken c nhy nhhit cao hn so vi platin. in tr ca niken
1000C ln gp 1,617 ln so vi gi tr 00C, trong khi i vi platin
chnh ny ch bng 1,385. Tuy vy niken c hot tnh ho hc cao, d b oxy
ho khi nhit tng do vy di nhit lm vic ca n hn ch di 2500C.
ng cng c s dng trong mt s trng hp v s thay i nhit
ca ng c tuyn tnh cao. Do hot tnh ho hc ca ng ln nn di
lm vic ca ng b hn ch di 1800C.
Vonfram c nhy nhit cao hn platin khi nhit di 1000C v
c tuyn tnh tt hn. T vonfram c th ch to cc si mnh, tuy nhin
p sut to ra khi ko si vonfram rt kh b trit tiu.
t c nhy cao, in tr phi ln, mun vy cn gim tit
din v tng chiu di dy. Tuy nhin c bn c hc tt cc nhit in
tr kim loi c tr s in tr R vo khong 100 00C. s dng cho mc
ch cng nghip cc nhit in tr c v bc tt, chng c va chm v
rung mnh.
u im c bn ca nhit in tr l n gin, nhy cao, n nh di
hn. Cc nhit in tr c chia thnh ba loi c bn : in tr kim loi, in
tr bn dn v nhit in tr.

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

73

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

4. Can nhit in tr
thun tin cho vic s dng cc
can nhit in tr c ch to. S

10

cu to ca n c m t trong hnh 4.4.


Dy in tr c qun thnh hai ng
song song trn tm mica 1 c kha rng
ca. Hai u ca dy in tr c hn ln
hai dy ni 4 bng bc (nu nhit o nh

hn 1000C th c th dng dy ng). Hai l


mica 2 c p hai pha l 1 cch in
dy in tr vi v. ng nhm 3 bo v

dy in tr v cc tm mica khi s tc
ng c hc. Hai dy dn c cch in

3
2
1

bng cc ng 5, cn u cui ca chng


c ni vi 2 ct u 8 ni mch vi
bn ngoi. V bo v bng kim loi 6 c
gn cht ln u ni 9 ca can nhit in

Hnh 4.4. S cu
to can nhit in tr
cng nghip

tr. H thng dy in tr, dy dn v ct


u c gn cht ln u ni qua tm lt cch in 7. Tm lt ny cn ng
vai tr ngn khng cho nc xm nhp vo trong lng can nhit in tr. 10
l np y ca can nhit in tr. Trong mt s can nhit in tr gim
qun tnh nhit ngi ta ghp thm cc l ua mng n hi vo gia cc l
mica tng kh nng truyn nhit t v bo v vo dy in tr.
Cc can nhit in tr c ch to phi c kh nng thay th v vy
thng gp cc can nhit in tr c ch to t ng v bch kim. C rt
nhiu loi can nhit in tr nhng thng gp nht l cc can nhit in tr
bch kim c k hiu : TC-50 (dtr R0 = 50) v TC - 1000 9hoc PT 100) c R0 = 100, v cc can nhit in tr ng c k hiu TCM-50, TCM100 (R0 = 50 ; R0 = 100)
SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

74

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

V chnh xc nhit k in tr bch kim c ch to theo hai loi :


loi 1v loi II. Loi I c sai s R0 = 0,05% cn loi II l 0,1%. Yu cu
v sai s ca h s nhit in tr =

dR
l 7.10-6/0C i vi loi I v
R.dt

1.10-5/0C i vi lai II.


Can nhit in tr ng c ch to theo loi II v loi III c sai s R0
l 0,1%, nhng sai s ca h s nhit in tr l 1.10-61/0C i vi loi II
v 2.10-6.1/0C cho loi III.
5. B nhit u t do.
iu kin chun khi xc nh c tuyn ca cp nhit in l nhit
u t do ca n bng 00C. Nhng trong cng nghip nhit u t do lun
lun khc 00C. Ngha l kt qu sc in ng o c lun lun nh hn sc
in ng chun. V vy, phi b nh hng ca nhit u t do t0. Theo
iu kin chun sc in ng sinh ra ca cp nhit u nng bng t l:
E(t,0) = e(t) - e(0)
Cn khi nhit u nng l t0 th: E(t0, 0) = e(t0) - e(0).
Nu nhit u nng l t v u lnh l t0 th sc in ng o c:
E(t,t0) = e(t) - e(t0)
Nh vy E(t,0) - E(t,t0) = e(t0) - e(0) =E(t0,0)
Suy ra: E(t,0) = E(t,t0) + E(t0, 0)
b nhit u t do, phi bit c gi tr ca n v dng bng
chun xc nh gi tr E(t0,0). Gi tr sc in ng chun E(t,0) s c xc
nh theo cng thc trn, ngha l bng sc in ng o c E(t,t0) cng
vi sc in ng b E(t0,0)
Trong cng nghip c th s dng cc thit b b t ng. Vai tr ca
cc thit b b ny l t ng to ra mt in p bng gi tr E(t0,0) mc
ni tip vi cp nhit in. Mt trong nhng thit b b l mch cu. Trong
R1, R2, R3 l cc in tr bng manganin l in tr c h s nhut in tr
SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

75

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

v cng b. Nh vy c th xem R1, R2, R3 khng thay i khi nhit mi


trng xung quanh thay i. Rb l in tr b c ch to bng dy ng.
Rb = R0(1 + t), vi l h s nhit in tr
Chn C1 = R2, R3 = R0 v R1R2 >> R0R3 c th xem dng in i qua
Rb khng i khi in tr ca n thay i. Ta c:
Uab = R. Rb - I. R3 = I. R0. .t0
Khi thit k ch to m bo: T.R0..t0 = E(t0,0)
A1

TB

A
t

t0

CN t1

dy dn b
Rb

R3

En +

R2

B
B

R1

Hnh 4.5. H thng o c cu b


Mch o c cu b c m t trong hnh 4.7. in tr b Rbv u t
do ca cp nhit in (ca dy b) c t trong bung kn bo m
n nh bng nhit mi trng.
E = E(t1) - E(t0,0) + Uab = E(t,0)
Bng gi tr in p ca cp nhit trong iu kin chun t0 = 00C.
6. Cu cn bng
Mch cu in tr c bn nhnh mc theo s sau.
Trong En l ngun cung cp cho cu, cn K l in k kim tra
trng thi ca cu. Trng thi ca cu c gi l cn bng nu kim ca in
k K ch khng ngha l Ubd = 0.
Lc I1 = I2; I3 = I4
Ta c I1R1 = I4R4; I2R2 = I3R3
Nh vy:

R1 R 4
hay R1 R3 = R2 R4
=
R2 R3

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

76

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

R4

R1

En

R2

R3
c

Hnh 4.6 Mch cu in tr


c gi l phng trnh cn bng ca cu. Nh vy nu R1 l in tr
cn o R3 v R4 l hai in tr c nh cn R2 l bin tr mu th khi cu cn
bng, gi tr in tr R1 s c xc nh theo cng thc:
R1 =

R4
R2
R3

chnh xc ca php o y ph thuc vo nhy ca in k K


v chnh xc ca cc in tr R2, R3, R4. Nhn chung s thay i ca in
p ngun En khng nh hng n chnh xc ca php o. Tuy nhin, nu
in p ngun qu thp th s nh hng trc tip n nhy ca in k
qua nh hng n chnh xc ca php o. in p ngun cng khng
c s dng qu cao nu in tr cn o l nhit k in tr trnh hin
tng nhit k in tr b dng in t nng.
7. Hin th s.
hin th nhit lm vic ta a in p n mt khu hin th s v
chuyn i tng t sang s, kt hp vi b gii m cho ra u ra l m
7 thanh 3

1
digital tng thch vi hin th LED. C th s dng trc tip vi
2

mch 7107 nh mt milivonmet vi gi tr ti a o c l 199,9 (mv).


Ngun cp cho vi mch l 5 (V)
SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

77

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

a. Cu to ca IC 7107
Chn 2 n 25 l cc chn ra iu khin b ch th s 7 thanh 3

1
2

digital. Trong chn 20 l chn


Polarty (phn cc tnh m, dng) ca

40

OSC1

d(x1)

39

OSC2

s 1 ni vi ngun +5(V)

c(x1)

38

OSC 3

b(x1)

37

Test

a(x1)

36

Ref High

f(x1)

35

Re f low

g(x1)

34

Ref

Chn 28: c tc dng nh b m

e(x1)

33

Ca pa ctor

Chn 29: t ng iu chnh v o

e(x1)

32

C omm on

Chn 30, 31: in p so snh

c(x10)

10

b(x10)

11

a(x10)

12

f(x10)

Chn 26: ni vi ngun - 5(V)


Chn 27: c tc dng l mch
tch phn

(in p o: chn 30 l cc (-), chan 31


l cc (+)
Chn 32: l chn chung (comon)
ca ngun in v xung.
Chn 33: b tch lu in dung t
in
Chn 34: ly li chun (Ref:
Reference)

ICL 7107

b ch th, chn 21 l chn ni t, chn

31

+Input

30

-Input

29

Outoze ro

13

28

Buffer

e(x10)

14

27

Integrator

d(100)

15

26

-5(V)

b(100)

16

25

g(x100)

f(100)

17

24

c (x100)

e(100)

18

23

g(x100)

a/b(100) 19
POLARITY(-) 20

22 a (x100)
21 Digital_GND

Chn 35: Ireflow: ly li chun


Hnh 4.7. S chn vi mch 7107

mc thp
Chn 36: Refhigh: ly li chun
mc cao

Chn 37: Test : kim tra n tn hiu hin th


Chn 38: OSC3
Chn 39: OSC2

cc chn ca b dao ng: Oscicator

Chn 40: OSC1


SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

78

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

-5V
0,22F
47k

21

20

22

19

23

18

24

17

25

16

26

15

27

14

28

13

29
30
0,01F
31
1M
32

ICL 7 107

0,47F

12
11
19

Cc u ra c a IC

* S hot ng

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

0,1 F

1k

100pF
100k

+5(V)

1k

Hnh 4.8. S hot ng ca ICL7107

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

79

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

4.3. THIT K MCH PHN HI N NH NHIT

1. To in p phn hi nhit .
L t sy c yu cu n nh nhit thp (105 1)0C nn ta chn khu
o nhit l cm bin nhit k in tr ng.
a. Thng s ca nhit in tr ng
- Khi nhit 00C th c in tr R0
-Khi nhit t0C th c in tr Rt
Rt = R0(1 + 4,25.10-3. T) ()
b. Nhit ca can nhit 200C
Theo nhit ban u ca vt trc khi a vo bung sy l 200C
nn y ta tnh theo nhit ca mi trng ban u l 200C.
Vy in tr ca ng 200C l:
Rt20 = R0 (1 + 4,25.10-3.t)
= 100 (1 + 4,25.10-3. 20) = 108,5 ()
c. in tr ca ng 1050C l:
Rt105 = R0 (1 + 4,25.10-3.t)
= 100 (1 + 4,25.10-3. 105) = 144,625 ()
y ta ly in tr ca ng 00C l 100 ()
gim sai s khi nhit in tr ng tng lc nhit tng ta dng
cu cn bng vi mc ch l lm cho dng in chy qua cu gn nh khng
i khi in tr tng so vi lc ban u Rt nhit mi trng.
cho cu cn bng nhit 00C ta chn cc in tr R1 = R2 = R3 =
R0 = 100 (). Trong R1, R2, R3 l cc in tr khng thay i theo nhit
.

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

80

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

Chn R = 5 (k) vi mc ch lm gim sai s dng in lc in tr


tng theo nhit .
d. in p ca nhit in tr.
R2

I1

I2

R3

in tr tng 00C

Rt

I3

= 100.

It

R t1

2R12 + 2R1 .R t
=
= R0
3.R1 + R t

R1

- Khi nhit l 00C.

Rtg1 = Rt1 + R = 5000 + 100


= 5100 ()

c
R

Dng in tng 0 C.
+5 (V)

I tg1

U
5
= cc =
= 0,98 ( mA )
R tg1 5100

Hnh 4.9: S cu cn bng

Khi nhit mi trng 200C.

2R12 +2R1 .R t20 2.1002 + 2.100.108,5


=
= 102,08()
Rt2 =
3R1 +R t20
3100 + 108,5
in tr tng 200C.
Rtg2 = Rt2 + R = 5000 + 102,08 = 5102,08 ().
Dng in 200C l:
Itg2 =

U CC
5
=
= 0,98(mA)
R tg2 5102,08

in p gia hai im a, c 200C l:


Uac2 =
Uac2 =

I tg2
2

. R

0,98
(Rt20 - R0) = 0,98 (108,5 - 100) = 4,165 (mV).
2

Khi nhit tng ln 1050C th ta c .

R t2

2R12 + 2R1 .R t
=
3.R1 + R t

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

81

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

2.100 2 + 2.100 2.144,625


=
= 110 ( )
3.100 + 144,625

in tr tng 1050C.
Rtg3 = Rt2 + R = 110 + 5000 = 5110 ()
Dng in tng 1050C.

I tg3 =

U cc
5
=
= 0,979 ( mA )
R tg3 5110

Sai s gia I1 v I3 l

I% =

I tg1 I tg3
I tg1

0,98 0,979
= 0,1%
0,98

in p gia hai im a v c 1050C l:


U ac3 =

I tg3
2

.R = 0,979(R t 05 R 0 )

= 0,979.(144,625 - 100) = 21,845 (mV)


Vy lc nhit 00C th cu c in p Uac = 0, khi nhit tng ln
nhit mi trng 200C th cu c in p Uac2 = 4,165 (mV), khi nhit
tng ln 1050C th cn c in p Uac3 = 21,845 (mV).
Cm bin nhit in tr ng c nhy l:
D=

21,845
= 0,2 (mV/10C).
105

Vi mch 7107 s dng y vi tn hiu vo thay i t 0 n 200


(mV). Mi mc lng t u ra l 1 s tng ng vi mt mc lng t
u vo l 0,1 (mV). Nhit in tr ng c nhy 0,2 (mV/10C) v o
c nhit ti a vn m bo c chnh xc l 1800C.
m bo s ch th trn bng s l nhit th khuch i thut ton
KT phi c h s K = 0,1/0,2 = 0,5. Khi nhit ca u ny l 1800C th u ra
ca khuch i thut ton KT s c in p l: U = 180. 0,2. 0,5 = 18 (mV)
Lc ny trn bng s xut hin s 180, tng ng vi 1800C.

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

82

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

UA

+5V

R 17

BA

R19

Uf2

Uf1

D2

D1

Rt

R 18

VR 1

R 16

U1

A7

R2

R1

-12V

R 16

+
A1
-

R14

R4

Ud

+12V

A6
Upht

Tr1

R 12

R 12

+
A2

A5

C1

R 11

C
VR 2

+12V

1k

R5

R5

R5

C2

A4

A3

R7

R6

R8

E
AND

ICL
7107

20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

R9

+5V

D4
Tr2

R 10

+12V

S o ieu khien mot pha co phan hoi nhiet o va hien th so

D3

R3

R 13

21
22
23
24
25
-5V
0,22 F 26
27
28
47k
29
0,47F
30
0,1 F
31
1M
32
33
0,1 F
34
35
36
200 mV
37
100F
38
24k
39
100k
40

Tr3

Xk

BAX

D5

UA

T1

a
f
e

f
e

+5V

N TT NGHIP
TRNG HBK H NI

83

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

* Hot ng ca s
in p phn hi nhit Uac c bin i qua khuch i thut ton
A7 c in p thch hp US a vo chn 31 ca ICL7107 hin th
nhit bng s. Ti thi im t sy c nhit mi trng 200C th cho
in p iu khin (Uk) l ln nht.
Uk = K(Ud - Upht) = Ukmax = 12 (V)
Ukmax ny c so snh vi Urc ti thi im hai in p ny bng
nhau th Triger A3 lt trng thi cho xut hin ra xung ch nht UD. UD ny
c a vo cng AND cng vi xung chm UE. Khi UD mc dng th
cng AND pht ra mt xung dng m Tr2 v Tr2 c ni tng vi Tr3 nn
Tr3 cng c m thng. Bin p xung to ra xung iu khin (Xk) m
Triac. Lc ny gc m nh nht ( = min 00).
Khi nhit tng ln, qua cm bin nhit in tr cho ra Upht tng lm
cho Uk = K (Ud - Upht) gim, lc ny gc m tng lm cho in p v dng
in t ln ti gim.
Khi nhit tng ln hn hoc bng 1050C th gc m l ln nht.
Khi nhit gim th Upht cng gim theo, lm cho Uk tng ln, gc gim
xung.
Nh vy qua cm bin nhit in tr to nn mt khong dao ng nh.
Khi dao ng lm cho nhit t thay i nhit n nh l 1050C.

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

84

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

+5V

R17

R 19

Rt

R18

R16

A7

R16

1k

R 14
+

Ud

+12V

A6

R 13

Upht

21
22
23
24
25
-5V
0,22F 26
27
28
47k
29
0,47 F
30
0,1 F
31
1M
32
33
0,1 F
34
35
36
200 mV
37
100 F
38
24k
39
100k
40

R12

R 12

ICL
7107

Uk

+5V

TX

a
e

g
c

b
c

S O PHAN HOI NHIET O CUA TU SAY

A5

R11

20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
d

a
f
e

f
e

+5V

g
c

Ua

T1

T2

Ub

Uc

T3

N TT NGHIP
TRNG HBK H NI

85

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

+ to ra in p ph hp cho ICL7107 hin th s ng ta dng


khuch i thut ton A7 c cc thng s sau:
H s khuch i: K = 0,1/0,2 = 0,5
K=

R15
= 0,5
R16

Chn R16 = 20 (k)


Suy ra c R15 = 0,5. 20 = 10 (k)
* in p phn hi nhit .
V in p Uac b nn ta cn khuch i ln mt i lng l:
U pht =

Chn

R13
.U S
R14

R13
= 20
R14

R14 = 10 (k), suy ra R13 = 20. R14 = 20. 10 = 200 (k)


Vy Upht = 4,165 . 0,5 . 20 = 41,65 (mV)
Trong : Upht l in p phn hi nhit 200C.
* To in p iu khin Uk c gi tr m so snh vi Urc:
Uk =

R11
( U d U pht )
R12

(V).

m c triac ti gc m nh nht ta chn in p Uk = Urc.


Ta c: Urc = 12 (V)
Ta ly: Uk = Urc = 12 (V) ti thi im Upht = 41,65 (mV).
Uk

R11
( U d U pht ) = K ( U d U pht )
R12

Hay K =

R11
U dk
=
R12 U d U pht

Ti lc Upht = 41,65 th ta c:

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

86

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

U dk
12.103
K=
=
= 12,5
U d U pht 1000 41,65
Chn R12 = 10 (k)
Suy ra: R11 = k. R12 = 12,5. 10 = 125 (k)
Trong :

Ud l in p t
K l h s khuch i

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

87

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

CHNG V: THIT K T IN
T in c thit k da vo m thut v k thut cng nghip, c
th hin bi cc yu cu sau:
Kch thc hp l so vi cc thit b cn lp
B tr linh kin hp l v khng gian.
Cc linh kin c b tr theo nguyn tc trng lng. Ngha l nhng
thit b nng c b tr di thp v nhng thit b nh c b tr trn cao.
Cc thit b c b tr theo nguyn tc to nhit. Ngha l nhng thit
b to nhit t c b tr di thp cn nhng thit b to nhit nhiu c b
tr trn cao.
C cc l thng gi cn thit, a s cc thit b in t cng sut cn
to nhit nhiu nn thng b tr qut lm mt thit b cn lm mt nht trong
trng hp ny l cc van bn dn, bi v cc van bn dn to nhit ln v rt
nhy cm vi nhit .
Mch iu khin c bo v tt, trnh nhit cao , ngi ta thng
b tr cch ly vi van bn dn v my bin p.
B tr theo nguyn tc chc nng, ngha l nhng thit b c chc nng
ging nhau thng c b tr gn nhau.
Cc thit b thao tc, o lng, tn hiu cn c b tr mt trc
hoc v tr thun tin.
Dy ni phi t trong mng dy hoc b li thnh b gn gng.
Thit b b tr ngay ngn c hng, c ct.
Hnh dng p, g lp thun tin
Mu sc hi ho khng qu sc s, khng qa ti, thng gp mu ghi
sng, mu trng ng hoc mu xanh nht

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

88

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

Da vo nhng yu cu nh nu ta c th b tr thit k t in nh
hnh v 5-1 v 5-2.
b
c

g
Q

VBD

MK

l
c

Ap

MBA

Hnh 5.1. S khi bn trong ca t in

a
Vd
V

a
A

b
A
b

NX

c
A
c

CM

1 1 1

Ap

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

89

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

Hnh 5.2. S khi mt trc ca t in


Cc kch thc ca t in c chn da vo kch thc lp t ca
tng thit b. Nh vy t s khi ca t in ta c th chn cc kch thc
nh sau:
a = 40 (cm)

e = 20 (cm)

c = 10 (cm)

f = 20 (cm)

d = 40 (cm)

g = 20 (cm)
i = 60 (cm)

T ta c th xc nh c cc kch thc.
b = i + 2. C = 60 + 2. 10 = 80 (cm)
h = 4c + f + e + d = 4.10 + 20 + 20 + 40 = 120 (cm)
Tt c cc thit b u g lp trn thanh st (gi ) v c nh bn
trong t.
Cc nt thao tc nh: nt nhn, nt xoy, n bo, ng th o in p,
dng in c b tr trn np (mt trc) ca t in.
mt bn ca t cn b tr mt qut lm mt triac v hai bn hng t
c cc l thng gi tng cng kh nng i lu ca khng kh.
Cc k hiu trn t in.
A: Ampe k o dng in cc pha ti
V: Vn k o in p cc pha ti v in p t.
1: n bo hiu in ngun
2: n bo hiu ptomt ng
3: n bo hiu trng thi lm vic
NX: Nm xoay iu chnh gc m
CM: Nt chuyn mch gia cc pha.
Ap: p tmt
M: Nt n lm vic
D: Nt n dng lm vic
VBD: Van bn dn
SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

90

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

MK: Mch iu khin


Q: Qut

KT LUN:
trn l ton b cc phn thit k, tnh ton cho Mch iu khin
nhit cho t sy bng in tr vi kin thc cn gii hn v tm hiu
cha rng v lnh vc chuyn ngnh nn n cha c ti u v cn c
nhiu sai lm, thiu st. Knh mong cc thy c ch bo v xy dng kin
thc thm em hon thnh kho hc mt cch tt nht. Em xin chn thnh
cm n cc thy c.

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

91

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

TI LIU THAM KHO


1. Ti liu hng dn thit k in t cng sut.
Tc gi: Trn Vn Thnh
2. in t cng sut
Tc gi: Nguyn Bnh
3. Trang b in - in t cng nghip
Tc gi: V Quang Hi
4. Trang b in - in t
Tc gi: V Quang Hi, Nguyn Vn Cht, Nguyn Th Lin Anh
5. C s t ng ho
Tc gi: Nguyn Vn Ho
6. Cc b cm bin
Tc gi: L Vn Doanh (ch bin)
7. K thut in t
Tc gi: Xun Th
8. Tra cu transistor Nht Bn
Tc gi: Trn Ngc Sn
9. S chn linh kin bn dn
Tc gi: Dng Minh Tr
10. K thut sy
Tc gi: Hong Vn Chc
Ngoi ra cn nhiu ti liu tham kho khc.

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

92

N TT NGHIP

TRNG HBK H NI

MC LC
Trang
Li Ni u ...................................................................................................... 1
Chng I: Khi qut v t sy bng in tr. ............................................. 3
1.1: Khi nim chung v phn loi. ............................................................ 3
1.2: Cc yu cu ch yu i vi vt liu lm dy t. ............................ 5
1.3: Vt liu lm dy t. ............................................................................ 5
1.4. Cu to dy t in tr. .................................................................... 12
1.5: Mt s l sy in tr gin tip thng dng. ................................... 15
Chng II: Thit k mch ng lc. ........................................................... 22
2.1: S iu khin nhit bng tip im.......................................... 22
2.2: Gii thiu mt vi s iu chnh in p xoay chiu. .................. 23
2.3. Thit k mch ng lc vi in p 220/380 (V) xoay chiu. .......... 30
Chng III: Thit k mch iu khin nhit.............................................. 36
3.1. Nguyn l iu khin triac (Tiristor) ................................................. 36
3.2. S iu khin ................................................................................. 49
Chng IV: n nh nhit . ...................................................................... 69
4.1: Mc ch n nh nhit : ................................................................ 69
4. 2: Mt s cm bin thng dng o nhit . ................................. 69
4.3. Thit k mch phn hi n nh nhit ................................................ 80
Chng V: Thit k t in.......................................................................... 88
Kt lun .......................................................................................................... 91
Ti liu tham kho ........................................................................................ 92

SV: ng Thanh Hong - KT - K44

93