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TRNG I HC S PHM K THUT TP.

HCM KHOA: C KH NG LC B MON: CONG NGH NHIT - IN LNH

TI:

SY CHN KHNG V THIT B SY


Nguyn Ngoc Trnh MSSV: 09213034 Nguyn Ngc Mn MSSV:08213020 Trong Nht Ton MSSV:08213036 Mnh H MSSV:08213 Bi Hong inh MSSV: GVHD: Ths. Ths . Nguyn L Hng Sn

NOI DUNG:
1

GiI THIU K THUT SY CHN KHNG

CU TO & NGUYN L HOT NG

MT S THIT B SY CHN KHNG

TI LIU THAM KHO

LI NI U
p ng yu cu s dng trong v ngoi nc, cht lng sn phm c bit l cc loi nng sn v lm sn sy kh cn phi tun theo nguyn tc thng mi quc t. chnh l cc yu cu v cht lng kht khe nh hnh dng kch thc v th tch sn phm; mu sc sn phm; nng v, cht thm v cc cht khc; s thm nc thm kh tr li ca sn phm sy; m cui t c ty theo nhu cu s dng v bo qun sn phm. So vi nhiu phng php sy khc, phng php sy chn khng lun l mt phng php c th p ng y cc yu cu cht lng trn y v l phng php rt ngn c thi gian sy mt cch ng k, do phng php c p dng cho sy nhng vt liu kh chm, kh sy, c yu cu cht lng sy cao.

LI NOI AU
Bi ng lc chnh trong sut qu trnh sy chn khng chnh l chnh p sut, c to bi bm chn khng v cc thit b km theo khc nh thit b ngng t, cc vt liu chn khng c bit v cc dng c o, kim tra chn khng cho php tnh ton chn la t c chn khng su, to nn chnh p sut ln gia p sut hi nc bo ha trn b mt vt v phn p sut hi nc trong mi trng t vt sy. Mt khc, iu kin chn khng thp, nhit ha hi ca nc s rt thp, lm tng cng qu trnh thot m trong vt, do vy phng php sy chn khng c th tin hnh sy nhit thp hn hn nhit mi trng. V th sn phm sy chn khng khng b tc ng gy bin tnh ca nhit cao v lun gi c gn nh y cc tnh cht c trng ban u. Do sn phm sy kh bng phng php ny gi c lu di v t b tc ng bi cc iu kin bn ngoi.

GiI THIU K THUT SY CHN KHNG


Da vo tc nhn sy hay cch to ra ng lc qu trnh dch chuyn m m chng ta c hai phng php sy: phng php sy nng v phng php sy lnh.

1. Phng php sy nng


Trong phng php sy nng, tc nhn sy v vt liu sy c t nng. Do tc nhn sy c t nng nn m tng i gim dn n phn p sut hi nc pam trong tc nhn sy gim. Mt khc do nhit ca vt liu sy tng ln nn mt hi trong cc mao qun tng v phn p sut hi nc trn b mt vt cng tng theo cng thc

Pr p0

exp(

2Ph P0 Pr

Nh vy, trong h thng sy nng c hai cch to ra chnh phn p sut hi nc gia vt liu sy v mi trng. Cch th nht l gim phn p sut ca tc nhn sy bng cch t nng n v cch th hai l tng phn p sut hi nc trong vt liu sy.Nh vy, nh t nng c tc nhn sy v vt liu sy hay ch t nng vt liu sy m hiu phn p gia hi nc trn b mt vt (pab) v phn p ca hi nc tc nhn sy (pam) tng dn n lm tng qu trnh dch chuyn m t trong lng vt liu sy ra b mt v i vo mi trng. Da vo phng thc cp nhit cho vt liu sy ngi ta phn ra phng php sy nng ra cc loi nh sau H thng sy tip xc Trong h thng sy tip xc, vt sy c trao i nhit vi mt b mt t nng. B mt tip xc vi vt sy c th l b mt vt rn hay vt lng. Nh ngi ta lm tng s chnh lch p sut hi nc. Cc phng php thc hin c th l sy kiu trc cn, sy kiu l quay, sy du,...

H thng sy bc x
Tac nhan say

Vat lieu say


3 2
Khong kh vao

San pham
S o cau tao thiet b say bc xa oi lu

Vt sy c nhn nhit t ngun bc x m dch chuyn t trong lng vt ra b mt v t b mt m khuch tn vo mi trng. Ngun bc x thng dng l n hng ngoi, dy hay thanh in tr. Sy bc x c th tin hnh trong iu kin t nhin hay trong bung kn.

H thng sy dng in cao tn


H thng sy ny s dng nng lng in c tng s cao lm nng vt sy. Vt sy c t trong t trng in t do vy trong vt xut hin dng in v dng in ny nung nng vt cn nung. H thng ny thng sy cc vt mm v thi gian nung ngn. u im ca phng php sy nhit cao + Thi gian sy bng cc phng php sy nng ngn hn so vi phng php sy lnh. + Nng sut cao v chi ph ban u thp. + Ngun nng lng s dng cho phng php sy nng c th l khi thi, hi nc nng, hay cc ngun nhit t du m, than , rc thi,... cho n in nng. + Thi gian lm vic ca h thng cng rt cao.

Nhc im ca h thng sy nhit cao


+ Cc vt sy khng cn c cc yu cu c bit v nhit . + Sn phm sy thng hay b bin mu v cht lng khng cao.

2. Phng php sy lnh


Khc vi phng php sy nng, to ra s chnh lch p sut hi nc gia vt liu sy v tc nhn sy, ngi ta gim phn p sut hi nc trong tc nhn sy bng cch gim dung m trong tc nhn sy v m tng i ().

Theo cng thc:

pa

Bd 0 .622 d

Phn p sut ca mi trng khng kh bn ngoi gim xung, chnh p sut ca m trong vt sy vo mi trng xung quanh tng ln. m chuyn dch t trong vt ra b mt s chuyn vo mi trng. Nhit mi trng ca sy lnh thng thp (c th thp hn nhit d ca mi trng bn ngoi, c khi nh hn 0oC).

a. H thng sy lnh nhit t > 0


Vi nhng h thng sy m nhit vt liu sy cng nh nhit tc nhn sy xp x nhit mi trng, tc nhn sy thng l khng kh c kh m bng phng php lm lnh hoc bng cc my kh m hp ph, sau n c t nng hoc lm lnh n cc nhit yu cu ri cho i qua vt liu sy. Khi do phn p sut hi nc trong tc nhn sy b hn phn p sut hi nc trn b mt vt liu sy m m t dng lng bay hi i vo tc nhn sy. Nh vy, quy lut dch chuyn m trong lng vt v t b mt vt vo mi trng trong cc h thng sy lnh loi ny hon ton ging nh trong cc h thng sy nng. iu khc nhau y l cch gim pam bng cch t nng tc nhn sy (d = const) tng p sut bo ho dn n gim m tng i . Trong khi , vi cc h thng sy lnh c nhit tc nhn sy bng nhit mi trng th ta s tm cch gim phn p sut hi nc ca tc nhn sy pam bng cch gim lng cha m d kt hp vi qu trnh lm lnh (sau kh m bng hp ph) hoc t nng (sau kh m bng lnh).

b. H thng sy thng hoa

Phng php sy thng hoa c thc hin iu kin nhit v p sut thp. Ch lm vic thp hn im ba th ca nc (t = 0,0098oC, p = 4,58mmHg). Qu trnh sy c thc hin trong mt bung sy kn. Giai on u l giai on lm lnh sn phm, trong giai on ny do ht chn khng lm p sut trong bung sy gim, m thot ra chim khong 1015%.

Vic bay hi m lm cho nhit vt liu sy gim xung di im ba th, c th lm lnh vt liu trong bung lm lnh ring. Giai on tip theo l giai on thng hoa, lc ny, nhit trong bung sy ch thng hoa.

m trong vt di dng rn s thng hoa thnh hi v thot ra khi vt. Hi m ny s n bnh ngng v ngng li thnh lng sau thnh bng bm trn b mt ng. Trong giai on ny nhit vt khng i. Giai on sau cng l giai on bay hi m cn li. Trong giai on ny nhit ca vt tng ln, m trong vt l m lin kt v trng thi lng. Qu trnh sy giai on ny ging nh qu trnh sy cc thit b sy chn khng thng thng. Nhit mi cht trong lc ny cng cao hn giai on thng hoa. u im ca phng php sy thng hoa l nh sy nhit thp nn gi c cc tnh cht ti sng ca sn phm, nu dng sy thc phm s gi c cht lng v hng v ca sn phm, khng b mt cc vitamin. Tiu hao nng lng bay hi m thp. nhc im l gi thnh thit b cao, vn hnh phc tp, ngi vn hnh cn c trnh k thut cao, tiu hao in nng ln., s lng sn phm cn sy b gii hn , khng th tng nng sut v kch thc bung sy qu ln, cc thit b cho bung chn khng cng cn c kn. Du bi trn cho cc my mc hot ng cng l loi c bit, t tin v kh kim thay th, b sung.

c. H thng sy chn khng


H thng sy chn khng gm c bung sy, thit b ngng t v bm chn khng. Vt sy c cho vo trong mt bung kn, sau bung ny c ht chn khng ( p sut ln hn 4,56 mmHg). Lng m trong vt c tch ra khi vt v c ht ra ngoi.

Nhit trong bung sy dao ng xung quanh nhit ngoi tri. Phng php ny phc tp bi kh nng gi bung chn khng, th tch lun gii hn n mc no . Chnh v vy phng php ny khng c s dng ph bin nh cc phng php khc m ch c s dng sy cc vt liu, dc liu qu him, vi s lng nh.

3.PHNG PHP SY CHN KHNG


Phng php sy chn khng c p dng sy cc loi vt liu c cha nhiu hm lng tinh du, hng hoa, dc phm; cc nng sn thc phm c yu cu nhit sy thp nhm gi nguyn cht lng v mu sc, khng gy ph hy, bin tnh cc cht; v c bit phng php sy chn khng c dng sy cc loi vt liu kh chm kh sy (nh g si, g gi...), cc loi g qu nhm mang li cht lng sn phm sy cao p ng c cc yu cu s dng trong v ngoi nc, rt ngn ng k thi gian sy,v c bit l c kh nng tin hnh sy nhit sy thp hn nhit mi trng.

CU TO & NGUYN L HOT NG CU TO Mt h thng sy chn khng thng c cu to t bung sy, thit b ngng t v bm chn khng.

NGUYN L HOT NG

Nguyn l c bn ca phng php sy chn khng l s ph thuc vo p sut im si ca nc. Nu lm gim (h thp) p sut trong mt thit b chn khng xung n p sut m y nc trong vt bt u si v bc hi s to nn mt dng chnh lch p sut ng k dc theo b mt vt, lm hnh thnh nn mt dng m chuyn ng trong vt liu theo hng t trong ra b mt vt.

iu ny c ngha l mt p sut nht nh nc s c mt im si nht nh, do vy khi ht chn khng s lm cho p sut trong vt gim i v n mc nhit vt (cng l nhit ca nc trong vt) t n nhit si ca nc p sut y, nc trong vt s ha hi v lm tng p sut trong vt v to nn mt chnh lch p sut hi p = (pbh- ph) gia p sut bo ha hi nc trn b mt vt v phn p sut hi nc trong mi trng t vt sy, y chnh l ngun ng lc chnh to iu kin thc y qu trnh di chuyn m t bn trong vt ra ngoi b mt bay hi ca qu trnh sy chn khng. V y, di iu kin chn khng, qu trnh bay hi din ra nhanh chng v qua qu trnh kh vt s rt nhanh, thi gian sy gim xung ng k. Bn cnh , nh ch sy nhit thp (c th thp hn nhit mi trng) nn nhiu tnh cht c trng ban u: tnh cht sinh hc, hng v, mu sc, hnh dng ca sn phm c gi li gn nh y . Sn phm sy chn khng bo qun lu di v t b tc ng bi mi trng.

THIT B SY CHN KHNG


C hai loi h thng sy chn khng c bn c phn bit theo phng thc gia nhit cho vt liu nh sau

THIT B SY CHN KHNG KIU GIN ON: T SY


T sy chn khng l mt thit b sy n gin nht, c dng hnh tr hoc hnh hp ch nht, c cp nhit bng hi nc, nc nng hoc si t in tr. Vt liu c xp vo khay v cho vo t sy t trc tip ln ngun nhit hoc c cp nhit bng bc x. Trong thi gian lm vic t c ng kn v c ni vi h thng to chn khng (thit b ngng t v bm chn khng). Vic cho liu vo v ly liu ra c thc hin bng tay. T sy chn khng c nng sut nh v hiu qu thp nn n c s dng ch yu trong phng th nghim.

THNG SY C CNH Y :
tng kh nng truyn nhit chuyn khi, sn phm trong thng sy c o trn nh trc gn cnh o 3. Thng sy hnh tr di c hai lp cha v ti cht ti nhit (hi nc hoc nc nng).Trc v cnh o c th i chiu quay theo nh k (5n8 pht) tng s o trn u n v chng bt dnh theo chiu quay. Ngoi cc cnh o cn c cc ng o ph 5 ph v s vn cc v o u theo chiu dc thng sy. Nng sut thng sy ph thuc vo tnh cht, m ban u ca vt liu, nhit ca cht ti nhit v chn khng.
3 1 2 4 7

6 1-thng sy 2-A nhit 3-cnh o 4-ca tip liu 5-ng o ph 6-ca tho phm 7-ng ni vi thit b ngng t

cc thng sy ny, tip liu v tho sn phm phn ln c c gii ha. Hi th bc t sn phm c dn qua b lc ti thit b ngng t. i vi hi nc thng dng thit b ngng t dng phun tia, cn vi nhng loi hi cn thu hi th dng thit b ngng t b mt. ht kh khng ngng ngi ta thng dng bm chn khng vng nc. Nguyn liu cho vo thng sy tt nht khong 80% th tch thng

THIT B SY CHN KHNG LIN TC


Qu trnh sy chn khng lin tc c th c thc hin theo cc nguyn l: + Thng quay, bng ti, thp cho cc vt liu dng ht. - Vi nhng vt liu dng ht thng sy trong cc thp sy chn khng - i vi vt liu ri, c th sy lin tc bng thit b sy chn khng bng ti.
10 1 2 6 5 4 8 4 11

3 9 7 12

S thit b sy chn khng khng bng ti 1- phu tip liu 2-Tang cp liu 3-b dn ng bng ti 4-ca quan st 5-dn cp nhit 6-ng dn hi cp nhit 7-bng ti 8-con ln 9-con ln 10-ca ht chn khng 11-vt tho sn phm 12-thng tho sn phm

+ L cun cho cc vt liu dng dch nho. - Vi loi vt liu lng c dnh t cao, c th s dng thit b sy chn khng l cun. L cun quay quanh trc nm ngang c t nng t bn trong bng hi nc. L quay c mt vng th vt liu cng c sy kh v c tay gt gt khi l cn v ti vo vt ti hay tang tho liu lin tc m vn m bo chn khng - Vi nhng vt liu dng bt nho ngi ta s dng thit b sy chn khng hai l cn. Bt nho c cp vo khe ca hai l cn ngc quay chiu nhau, b cun v cn mng ln b mt hai l cn, bn trong gia nhit bng hi nc. Vt liu trn l quay gn c mt vng th kh v c dao gt vo vt ti v ti ra ngoi

Hnh: Thit b sy chn khng mt l cn


n thit b ngng t

1.ng dn liu vo 2.L sy 3.Bung chn khng 4.Ca quan st 5.Dao gt 6.Vt tho v sy b sung sn phm.

+ Sy phun chn khng i vi cc vt liu lng c nht khng cao

S h thng sy phun chn khng

1 0 1 4

3 2

6 5

7 8

1.Thng cha 2.Bm 3. B lc 4.Thng trung gian 5. Bm 6.Thit b gia nhit 7. Bung sy phun 8.Vt tho sn phm 9.Bm chn khng 10.Thit b thu hi sn phm

Trong h thng sy phun chn khng ny, dch lng c gia nhit s b thng cha c bm bm qua b lc 2, sang thng trung gian 4, sau c bm cao p 5 y qua thit b trao i nhit 6 v phun vo bung chn khng 7. y m c bc hi trong diu kin chn khng, sn phm c lm kh hoc kt tinh ri xung v c vt ti 8 ti ra ngoi. Nhng ht vt liu kh nh b cun theo hi m c tch bng xyclon 10, cn hi m c ht qua thit b ngng t v bm chn khng ra ngoi
3

Trong h thng sy phun chn khng ny, dch lng c gia nhit s b thng cha c bm bm qua b lc 2, sang thng trung gian 4, sau c bm cao p 5 y qua thit b trao i nhit 6 v phun vo bung chn khng 7. y m c bc hi trong diu kin chn khng, sn phm c lm kh hoc kt tinh ri xung v c vt ti 8 ti ra ngoi. Nhng ht vt liu kh nh b cun theo hi m c tch bng xyclon 10, cn hi m c ht qua thit b ngng t v bm chn khng ra ngoi.

Mt s dch lng c nht khng cao c sy lin tc di dng mng mng trong chn khng Trong thit b ny, dch c vi phun phun ln b mt thit b hnh tr to thnh mng mng v c cp nhit bng o nhit t pha bn ngoi vo. Vi phun quay quanh trc to mng lin tc. Mng c sy kh v c dao gt 2 gt khi b mt dn xung y v tho ra ngoi qua cc c cu tho liu lin tc v kn. B mt thit b va gii phng c phun tip mng mi v tip tc chu trnh trn. Thi gian sy c th hiu chnh bng s vng quay v gc lch gia v phun v dao gt

MT S THIT B SY CHN KHNG PH BIN:


Vt liu s dng trong k thut chn khng phi p ng y cc yu cu chuyn dng. chn khng thu c trong h thng ph thuc rt ln vo tnh thm kh, nh kh v p sut hi bo ha ca cc vt liu. Cc vt liu s dng trong k thut chn khng l thu tinh, s, kim loi v hp kim, cao su chn khng, nha teflon, cc loi m bi kn v cc loi du chn khng.

1.THY TINH,S
Thu tinh l mt vt liu rt thng dng trong k thut chn khng v n c nhng u im: hu nh khng thm v nh kh,c th nung nng n nhit cao (300n400oC) trong qu trnh loi kh, c th hn vi nhau v trong trng hp cn thit c th hn vi kim loi. Khi nng chy, thu tinh c th to ra nhng hnh dng bt k. Ngoi ra thy tinh cn l vt liu cch in tt, to iu kin lm vic vi nhng hiu in th cao trong cc dng c ca h thng thit b chn khng. Song thu tinh cng rt dn nn khng th to cc thit b chn khng c kch thc ln. Thu tinh c chia lm hai loi: Loi d nng chy (c nhit chuyn sang trng thi do 490 n 610oC v h s n nhit anpha= (82 dn92)10-7 1/oC); loi kh nng chy (c nhit chuyn sang trng thi do 555803oC v h s n nhit anpha= (39 n 49)10-7 1/oC. Ngoi ra cn c thy tinh thch anh (c nhit chuyn sang trng thi do rt cao 1500oC v h s n nhit = 5,8.10-7 1/oC.

Thu tinh dng trong cc h thng chn khng cn c tin hnh x l gim mc nh kh ca n bng cch lm sch b mt. Cc b mt c c ra bng cc dung dch axit long sau trung ha trong kim v ra k trong nc kh ion. nhng ni phi chu nhit cao v ti trng c hc ln, thu tinh c th c thay bng s. S hu nh khng thm thu kh vi p sut ln hn 10-9mmHg. S chn khng c chia lm hai loi: x xp v x c. S thng c dng nhiu trong k thut in t trng v lm chn n in t.

2.KIM LOI & HP KIM :


Kim loi v hp kim c s dng rng ri trong k thut chn khng ch to cc loi bm, van, cc thnh thit b v c bit l cc thit b cng nghip c kch thc v nng sut ln. Tuy nhin kim loi s khng p ng c yu cu kn tuyt i v c cu trc tinh th, c cc ng mao dn v cc vt rng nt, t bit cc chi tit c hoc cn ngui. Cc kh c th r hoc khuych tn qua cc thnh kim loi . Tuy vy cc thit b cng nghip vn c ch to t kim loi, v chng c th t c yu cu bn vng. Hn na cc h thng thit b cng ngh ny u lm vic iu kin chn khng khng cao v lun c h thng chn khng ht lin tc lng kh r qua thnh
.Nhng kim loi c s dng nhiu ch to cc thit b chn khng l thp t cacbon v chu n mn, ng, nhm v cc hp kim ca chng. gim hin tng nh kh cn s dng nhng kim loi c tnh chu n mn cao, v cc xit kim loi hp th kh mnh v nh ra trong qu trnh to chn khng. Hin nay ngi ta hn ch hin tng nh kh ca cc kim loi bng cch gia cng cc b mt nhn bng v x l ty ra xng v axton.

ng c th lm vic vi p sut khng nh qu 10-10mmHg, vi nhit t -253oC n 600oC. ng c tnh truyn nhit v dn nhit tt, thng dng lm cc dng ng ni, tm m v cc thit b truyn nhit. ng cn c th ghp ni vi thy tinh, thp X18H10T.

Nhm c nhit nng chy thp (660oC), c bn n mn, do cao, d hn v thng c dng trong k thut chn khng lm cc ng dn, thn thit b, cc bch ni trong cc thit b lm vic vi p sut 10-5mmHg. Nhm c th bc hi trong chn khng to cc mt gng c h s phn x cao. Nhm khng bn khi tc dng vi thy ngn, v vy khng nn s dng n trong cc h thng chn khng c thy ngn.

Vnfram l kim loi c nhit nng chy cao nht v c p sut hi bo ho thp nht. V vy n c dng lm cc in cc c ti trng ln, cc si t trong cc n v trong cc thit b cp nhit. Vnfram c h s n nhit gn vi thu tinh, nn c dng gn vo thu tinh trong cc n v cc thit b in t. Vnfram c th hn vi cc kim loi khc trong l hyr nu c c niken ha trc v dng cc vy hn c nhit cao nh vng - niken, niken, ng niken v platin. Niken - molipen cng l cc kim loi c nhit nng chy cao, c h s n nhit gn thy tinh nn thng c dng ghp vi thy tinh lm cc in cc.

Vng, bc thng c dng phi trn lm vy hn nhit cao. Thy ngn c dng rt rng ri trong k thut chn khng, trong cc dng c o v bm chn khng. Tnh cht c bit ca thy tinh l nhit bnh thng n tn ti trng thi lng v bn vi n mn.

CC CHT BI TRN & TRT KN :


Trong k thut chn khng s dng mt s cht bi trn cc ch ghp ni theo phng php nt mi hoc b mt nhn bng v trt kn nhng ch ni c nh. Cc cht bi trn v trt kn phi c p sut bo ha thp, bn vi vng nhit lm vic, t ho tan cc cht kh, c th ha tan v ty sch bng mt vi dung mi. Cc cht bi trn thng l nhng dn xut ccbua hyr nng thu c bng chng ct trong chn khng. p sut hi bo ho ca chng nhit 20 oC khong 1.10-5 n 1.10-7 mmHg. Cht bi trn cng b kh du nn phi nh k ra v bi li. M bi trn phi c bo qun trong l kn, v tip xc lu chng c th ho tan mt t khng kh v nh vo h thng chn khng khi bi trn. Dung mi ho tan v ra chng l benzen v xng. Cc cht trt kn rn thng l nhng cht dng trt nhng ch c nh, bt ng vi p sut bo ha thp, khng ha tan v thm thu kh, ng rn sau khi ngui hoc bay ht dung mi.

M HNH TH NGHIM THIT B SY CHN KHNG THC T

MT S SN PHM TH NGHIM THIT B SY CHN KHNG

KT LUN TI
V phng php sy chn khng

Vi u im ca phng php sy chn khng l c th tin hnh sy nhit thp (c th thp hn nhit mi trng), sn phm sy th nghim (c rt, tha l, g thng) ca ta c m bo t cc yu cu khc khe v cht lng, c bit nhn thy rt ngn c thi gian sy mt cch ng k. C th l rt ngn c 10 n 15% thi gian khi sy rau qu, v rt ngn c hai ngy khi sy mu g dy 40mm

Sn phm sy bng thit b sy chn khng cho cht lng tt, m ra trin vng ng dng vo thc t Vit Nam ta.

TI LIU THAM KHO


+ Cc ti liu v k thut chn khng. + Cc ti liu v k thut sy v sy chn khng. + Cc ti liu v vt liu m.