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THIT K N MN HC

TI

THIT K L IN TR

1. u thit k : Thit k l in tr 2. Ngi thc hin : H v tn Lp Kho Gio vin hng dn Nm thc hin : Nguyn Vn Khnh T ng Ho 1 47 Phm Quc Hi 2006

THIT K N MN HC
TI

THIT K L IN TR

1. Cc s liu cho trc : Nhit l Cng sut nh mc Tn hao nhit in p ngun li 400 - 600 ( C) 40 ( kW ) 10 ( kW ) 3*380 ( V )
0

2. Ni dung cc phn thuyt minh v tnh ton : Chng 1 Gii thiu chung v l in tr Chng 2 Chng 3 Chng 4 Kt lun 3. Cc bn v : Bn v tng th ton b s nguyn l mch thit k (c mch lc v mch iu khin ) trn giy v k thut kh A2. Gii thiu v mch iu p xoay chiu ba pha Thit k v tnh ton mch lc Thit k v tnh ton mch iu khin

MC LC Li m u ............................................................................................. 1 Chng 1: Tng quan v cu to v nguyn l lm vic ca l in............................................................. 2 1. Gii thiu chung v l in........................................................ 2. Gii thiu chung v l in tr .................................................. 3. Cu to l in tr ...................................................................... Chng 2: Gii thiu chung v mch iu p xoay chiu ba pha .......................................................... 1. Mch iu p xoay chiu ................................................................... 2. Quan h gia gc iu khin v cng sut ra ti ............................... Chng 3: Thit k v tnh ton mch lc ......................................... 1. Tnh ton chn van bn dn ............................................................... 2. Tnh ton bo v van bn dn ............................................................ Chng 4: Thit k v tnh ton mch iu khin ............................ 1. Nguyn l chung ca mch iu khin .............................................. 2. Thit k v tnh ton mch iu khin ............................................... 2-1. Khu ng pha ......................................................................... 2-2. Khu to in p rng ca (Uta) ............................................. 2-3. Khu so snh ............................................................................ 2-4. Khu pht xung chm .............................................................. 2-5. Chn cng AND ...................................................................... 2-6. Khu khuch i xung v bin p xung................................... 2-7. Khu phn hi .......................................................................... 2-8. Khi ngun .............................................................................. Kt lun ................................................................................................... Ti liu tham kho...................................................................................

LI NI U
Trong thc t cng nghip v sinh hot hng ngy, nng lng nhit ng mt vai tr rt quan trng. Nng lng nhit c th c dng nung nng, sy kh... V vy vic s dng ngun nng lng ny mt cch hp l v c hiu qu l rt cn thit. L in tr c ng dng rt rng ri trong cng nghip v p ng c nhiu yu cu thc tin t ra. l in tr, yu cu k thut quan trng nht l phi iu chnh v khng ch c khit ca l. y cng chnh l yu cu ca n mn hc in t cng sut m em c giao. n c thc hin di s hng dn tn tnh ca thy gio Phm Quc Hi. n c chia thnh ba phn chnh sau: 1. 2. 3. Gii thiu s lc v cu to v nguyn l hot ng ca l in Thit k v tnh ton mch lc. Thit k v tnh ton mch iu khin. v l in tr.

CHNG 1- TNG QUAN V CU TO V NGUYN L LM VIC CA L IN


I-Gii thiu chung v l in
1 - nh ngha L in l mt thit b in bin in nng thnh nhit nng dng trong cc qu trnh cng ngh khc nhau nh nung hoc nu luyn cc vt liu, cc kim loi v cc hp kim khc nhau v.v... - L in c s dng rng ri trong cc lnh vc k thut : + Sn xut thp cht lng cao + Sn xut cc hp kim phe-r + Nhit luyn v ho nhit luyn + Nung cc vt phm trc khi cn, rn dp, ko si + Sn xut c v kim loi bt - Trong cc lnh vc cng nghip khc : + Trong cng nghip nh v thc phm, l in c dng st, m vt phm v chun b thc phm + Trong cc lnh vc khc, l in c dng sn xut cc vt phm thu tinh, gm s, cc loi vt liu chu la v.v... L in khng nhng c mt trong cc ngnh cng nghip m ngy cng c dng ph bin trong i sng sinh hot hng ngy ca con ngi mt cch phong ph v a dng : Bp in, ni nu cm in, bnh un nc in, thit b nung rn, sy in v.v... 2 - u im ca l in so vi cc l s dng nhin liu L in so vi cc l s dng nhin liu c nhng u im sau : - C kh nng to c nhit cao - m bo tc nung ln v nng sut cao - m bo nung u v chnh xc do d iu chnh ch in v nhit - Kn - C kh nng c kh ho v t ng ho qu trnh cht d nguyn liu v vn chuyn vt phm

- m bo iu khin lao ng hp v sinh, iu kin thao tc tt, thit b gn nh 3 - Nhc im ca l in - Nng lng in t - Yu cu c trnh cao khi s dng

II-Gii thiu chung v l in tr


1 - Nguyn l lm vic ca l in tr L in tr lm vic da trn c s khi c mt dng in chy qua mt dy dn hoc vt dn th s to ra mt lng nhit theo nh lut JunLenx : Q=I2RT Q - Lng nhit tnh bng Jun (J) I - Dng in tnh bng Ampe (A) R - in tr tnh bng m T - Thi gian tnh bng giy (s) T cng thc trn ta thy in tr R c th ng vai tr : - Vt nung : Trng hp ny gi l nung trc tip - Dy nung : Khi dy nung c nung nng n s truyn nhit cho vt nung bng bc x, i lu, dn nhit hoc phc hp. Trng hp ny gi l nung gin tip. Trng hp th nht t gp v n ch dng nung nhng vt c hnh dng n gin ( tit din ch nht, vung v trn ) Trng hp th hai thng gp nhiu trong thc t cng nghip. Cho nn ni n l in tr khng th khng cp n vt liu lm dy nung, b phn pht nhit ca l. 2 - Nhng vt liu dng lm dy nung a) - Yu cu ca vt liu dng lm dy nung Dy nung l b phn pht nhit ca l, lm vic trong nhng iu kin khc nghit do i hi phi m bo cc yu cu sau : + Chu nng tt, t b xy ho nhit cao + Phi c bn c hc cao, khng b bin dng nhit cao + in tr sut phi ln + H s nhit in tr phi nh + Cc tnh cht in phi c nh hoc t thay i 6

+ Cc kch thc phi khng thay i khi s dng + D gia cng, d hn hoc d p khun b)- Dy nung kim loi m bo yu cu ca dy nung, trong hu ht cc l in tr cng nghip, dy nung kim loi u c ch to bng cc hp kim Crm-Nhm v Crm-Niken l cc hp kim c in tr ln. Cn cc kim loi nguyn cht c dng ch to dy nung rt him v cc kim loi nguyn cht thng c nhng tnh cht khng c li cho vic ch to dy nung nh : + in tr sut nh + H s nhit in tr ln + B xy ho mnh trong mi trng kh quyn bnh thng Dy nung kim loi thng c ch to dng trn v dng bng c) - Dy nung phi kim loi Dy nung phi kim loi dng ph bin l SiC, grafit v than.

III-Cu to l in tr
I- Nhng yu cu c bn i vi cu to l in 1 - Hp l v cng ngh Hp l v cng ngh c ngha l cu to l khng nhng ph hp vi qu trnh cng ngh yu cu m cn tnh n kh nng s dng n i vi qu trnh cng ngh khc nu nh khng lm phc tp qu trnh gia cng v lm tng gi thnh mt cch r rt. Cu trc l m bo c cc iu kin nh th mi coi l hp l nht. iu ny c bit quan trng trong khi nhu cy v l in vt xa kh nng sn xut ra n. 2 - Hiu qu v k thut Hiu qu v k thut l kh nng biu th hiu sut cc i ca kt cu khi cc thng s ca n xc nh ( kch thc ngoi, cng sut, trng lng gi thnhv.v... ). i vi mt thit b hoc mt vt phm sn xut ra, nng sut trn mt n v cng sut nh mc, sut tiu hao in nung v.v... l cc ch tiu c bn ca hiu qu k thut. Cn i vi tng phn ring bit ca kt cu hoc chi tit, hiu qu k thut c nh gi bng cng sut dn ng, m men xon, lc v.v... ng vi trng lng, kch thc hoc gi thnh kt cu. 3 - Chc chn khi lm vic

Chc chn khi lm vic l mt trong nhng ch tiu quan trng nht ca cht lng kt cu ca cc l in. Thng cc l in lm vic lin tc trong mt ca, hai ca v ngay c ba ca mt ngy. Nu trong khi lm vic, mt b phn no khng hon ho s nh hng n qu trnh sn sut chung. iu ny c bit quan trng i vi cc l in lm vic lin tc trong dy chuyn sn xut t ng. Ngay i vi cc l in lm vic chu k, l ngng cng lm thit hi r rt cho sn xut v khi ngng l t ngt ( ngha l ph hu ch lm vic bnh thng va l ) c th dn n lm h hng sn phm, lng ph nguyn vt liu v lm tng gi thnh sn phm. Mt ch tiu ph v s chc chn khi lm vic ca mt b phn ca l in l kh nng thay th nhanh hoc kh nng d tr ln khi l lm vic bnh thng. Theo quan im chc chn, trong thit b cn ch n cc b phn quan trng nht, quyt nh s lm vic lin tc ca l. Th d : dy nung, bng ti v.v... 4 - Tin li khi s dng Tin li khi s dng ngha l yu cu - S nhn vin phc v ti thiu - Khng yu cu trnh chuyn mn cao, khng yu cu sc lc v s do dai ca nhn vin phc v. - S lng cc thit b him v qu b hao mn nhanh yu cu ti thiu - Bo qun d dng. Kim tra v sa cha tt c cc b phn ca thit b thun li. - Theo quan im an ton lao ng, iu kin lm vic phi hp v sinh v tuyt i an ton. 5 - R v n gin khi ch to V mt ny yu cu nh sau : - Tiu hao vt liu t nht, c bit l cc vt liu qu v him ( cc kim loi mu, cc hp kim c hm lng niken cao v.v... ) - Cng ngh ch to n gin ngha l kh nng ch to phi sao cho ngy cng t nht v tn dng c cc thit b, dng c thng thng c sn trong cc nh my ch to gia cng. - Cc loi vt liu v thit b yu cu ch to phi t nht. - S dng n mc ti a cc kt cu ging nhau v cng loi d dng i ln v thun tin khi lp rp. 8

- Chn hp l cc dng gia cng ph hp vi iu kin ch to ( c, hn, dp ). B cc chi tit v cc khu gia cng c kh khng hp l. 6 - Hnh dng b ngoi p Mi kt cu ca thit b, vt phm, cc khu v cc chi tit phi c hnh dng v t l cc cnh ph hp, d coi. Tuy vy cng cn ch rng, bn ca kt cu khi trng lng nh v hnh dng b ngoi p c quan h khng kht vi nhau. Vic gia cng ln cht nh sn c vai tr c bit quan trng i vi hnh dng b ngoi ca l in. Song cng cn trnh s trang tr khng cn thit. II - Cu to l in tr L in tr thng thng gm ba phn chnh : v l, lp lt v dy nung. 1 - V l V l in tr l mt khung cng vng, ch yu ch ti trng trong qu trnh lm vic ca l. Mt khc v l cng dng gi lp cch nhit ri v m bo s kn hon ton hoc tng i ca l. i vi cc l lm vic vi kh bo v, cn thit v l phi hon ton kn, cn i vi cc l in tr bnh thng, s kn ca v l ch cn gim tng tht nhit v trnh s la ca khng kh lnh vo l, c bit theo chiu cao l. Trong nhng trng hp ring, l in tr c th lm v l khng bc kn. Khung v l cn cng vng ch c ti trng ca lp lt, ph ti l ( vt nung ) v cc c cu c kh gn trn v l. - V l ch nht thnng dng l bung, l lin tc, l y rung v.v... - V l trn dng cc l ging v mt vi l chp v.v... - V l trn chu lc tc dng bn trong tt hn v l ch nht khi cng mt lng kim loi ch to v l. Khi kt cu v l trn, ngi ta thng dng thp tm dy 3 - 6 mm khi ng knh v l l 1000 2000 mm v 8 12 mm khi ng knh v l l 2500 4000 mm v 14 20 mm khi ng knh v l khong 4500 6500 mm. Khi cn thit tng cng vng cho v l trn, ngi ta dng cc vng m tng cng bng cc loi thp hnh. 9

V l ch ngt c dng ln nh cc thp hnh U, L v thp tm ct theo hnh dng thch hp. V l c th c bc kn, c th khng tu theo yu cu kn ca l. Phng php gia cng v l loi ny ch yu l hn v tn. 2 - Lp lt Lp lt l in tr thng gm hai phn : vt liu chu la v cch nhit. Phn vt liu chu la c th xy bng gch tiu chun, gch hnh v gch hnh c bit tu theo hnh dng v kch thc cho ca bung l. Cng c khi ngi ta m bng cc loi bt chu la v cc cht dnh dt gi l cc khi m. Khi m c th tin hnh ngay trong l v cng c th tin hnh ngoi nh cc khun. Phn vt liu chu la cn m bo cc yu cu sau : + Chu c nhit lm vic cc i ca l. + C bn nhit ln khi lm vic. + C bn c hc khi xp vt nung v t thit b vn chuyn trong iu kin lm vic. + m bo kh nng gn dy nung bn v chc chn. + C bn ho hc khi lm vic, chu c tc dng ca kh quyn l v nh hng ca vt nung. + m bo kh nng tch nhit cc tiu. iu ny c bit quan trng i vi l lm vic chu k. Phn cch nhit thng nm gia v l v phn vt liu chu la. Mc ch ch yu ca phn ny l gim tn tht nhit. Ring i vi y, phn cch nhit i hi phi c bn c hc nht nh cn cc phn khc ni chung khng yu cu. Yu cu c bn ca phn cch nhit l : + H s dn nhit cc tiu + Kh nng tch nhit cc tiu + n nh v tnh cht l, nhit trong iu kin lm vic xc nh. Phn cch nhit c th xy bng gch cch nhit, c th in y bng bt cch nhit. 3 - Dy nung Theo c tnh ca vt liu dng lm dy nung, ngi ta chia dy nung lm hai loi : dy nung kim loi v dy nung phi kim loi. 10

Trong cng nghip, cc l in tr dng ph bin l dy nung kim loi.

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CHNG 2 GII THIU CHUNG V MCH IU P XOAY CHIU BA PHA


I - Mch iu p xoay chiu ba pha : Nh ni trn, cng sut ra ti ca l c tnh theo cng thc: P = 3. U f2 Rt

Nh vy, thay i cng sut a ra ti , ta c th thay i Rt hoc U f . Tuy nhin, trong thc t, ngi ta thng chn cch thay i U f c th thay i cng sut ra ti. Khi c sn mt ngun in xoay chiu, c th thay i in p ra ti ta c th dng b iu chnh in p xoay chiu ( AXC ) dng van bn dn. Vic iu chnh in p ra ti da theo nguyn tc tng t nh cc b chnh lu tc l thay i im m ca van so vi im qua khng ca in p ngun, v vy cn gi l phng php iu khin pha (thay i gc m van ). Do diot ch c th dn dng theo mt chiu m ta li yu cu in p ra ti l xoay chiu nn trong mch iu p xoay chiu ngi ta khng dng diot m dng triac v y l loi van bn dn duy nht cho php dng in xoay chiu i qua n. Tuy nhin, do triac khng thng dng bng thyristor nn thc t ngi ta thng dng s 2 thyristor u song song ngc nhau thay cho

triac nh hnh di : Cc van T1, T2 ln lt dn dng theo 1 chiu xc nh nn dng qua cp thyristor u song song ngc ny l dng xoay chiu. Cc van thyristor c pht xung iu khin lch nhau gc 180 in m bo dng qua cp van l hon ton i xng.

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Mt u im ca vic s dng hai van thyristor u song song ngc nhau thay th cho triac trong nch iu p xoay chiu l kh nng iu khin m v kho thyristor d dng hn nhiu so vi triac. Ta c th dng in p ra ca mch iu p xoay chiu :

Cc mch iu p xoay chiu c nhc im c bn l trong qu trnh iu chnh, mch lun lm vic ch dng in gin on, c dng dng in v in p ra ti u khng sin nn ch ph hp vi cc ti loi in tr nh l in tr , bng n loi si t v...v... Dng in s lin tc v ng thi tr thnh hnh sin hon chnh ch khi in p ra ti ly bng in p ngun. Nh vy, khi iu chnh trn ti nhn c mt di n sng hi hnh sin. Mc d vy, vi ti l in tr thun ca l in tr th vic dng in p ra ti khng sin cng khng nh hng n ch lm vic ca l. Cc mch iu p xoay chiu khng ph hp vi ti dng cm khng nh bin p hoc ng c in,... nn ch dng khi phm vi iu chnh in p khng ln. Trong thc t cng nghip, cc mch iu p xoay chiu thng s dng l cc mch iu p xoay chiu ba pha, ti mc hnh sao( Y ) hoc ti hnh tam gic ( ). Qu trnh lm vic ca mch iu p xoay chiu ba pha phc tp hn nhiu so vi mch mt pha v y cc pha nh hng mnh

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sang nhau v n cn tu thuc vo nhiu yu t nh s u van, gc iu khin c th, tnh cht ti... Hnh trn l s thng dng nht, l s c su thyristor u thnh ba cp song song ngc. II - Quan h gia gc iu khin v cng sut ra ti Khi phn tch hot ng ca s ta cn xc nh r xem trong cc giai on s c bao nhiu van dn v nh cc quy lut di y ta c th c c biu thc in p ca tng giai on, t mi tin hnh tnh ton. Di y l cc quy lut dn dng ca van trong mch iu p xoay chiu ba pha: Nu mi pha c mt van dn th ton b in p ba pha ngun u ni ra ti. Nu ch hai pha c van dn th mt pha ngun b ngt ra khi ti, do in p a ra ti l in p dy no c van ang dn. Khng th c trng hp ch c mt pha dn dng. Da vo quy lut dn dng ca van trong tng giai on m ta c th xy dng c th in p ra ca mch iu p xoay chiu ba pha. Tip theo, t nhng biu thc in p ca tng giai on ta li c th tnh ton c cc i lng cn tnh nh in p, dng in, cng sut... Ta xt hot ng ca mch iu p xoay chiu ba pha dng su thyristor u song song ngc, ti thun tr u hnh sao trn v dng th quan h gia cng sut ti v gc : Cng sut ti l : P = 3.I 2 .R trong I l tr s hiu dng ca dng in ti. Dng in ny bin thin theo hai trong ba quy lut dn dng ca van nh sau : Nu mi pha c mt van dn ( hay ton mch c ba van dn) : i= U dm sin( + ) 3R

Nu ch c hai van dn (hay ton mch c hai van dn ) : U dm sin( + ) 2R l bin in p dy. i=

trong :

U dm

l gc lch pha gia in p v dng in giai on ang xt.

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Tu thuc vo gc iu khin m cc giai on c ba van dn hoc hai van dn cng thay i theo. Ta thy c ba khong iu khin chnh : 1) Khong dn ca van ng vi = 0 60 : Trong phm vi ny s c cc giai on ba van v hai van dn xen k
o

nhau nh th di y :

Da vo th ta c th xc nh c biu thc lin quan gia cng sut ra ti P v gc iu khin : P = 3.I 2 .R


2 /3 2 3 + 2 2

d +

d +
3

d +

2 3

+ 2

d +

d)

= 3U ( sin
dm

sin

sin

sin

sin
2 3

2 3

2 3U dm sin 2 = [ + ] (1) R 6 4 8

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2) Khong van dn ng vi = 60 90 o : Trong phm vi ny lun ch c cc giai on hai van dn. Ta c th in p ra di :

Da vo th ta c th xc nh c biu thc lin quan gia cng sut ra ti P v gc iu khin : P = 3.I 2 .R 3U 2 =


5 + 6 3 dm 5 + 6 3

sin 2 4

+ 2 3

d +

sin 2 4 d] +
2 3

2 3Udm 3 3 cos 2 ] (2) = [ + sin 2 + R 12 16 16

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3) Khong van dn ng vi = 90 150 o : Trong phm vi ny ch c cc giai on hai van dn hoc khng c van

no dn xen k nhau. Ta c th in p ra nh di : Da vo th ta c th xc nh c biu thc lin quan gia cng sut ra ti P v gc iu khin : P = 3.I 2 .R
3U 2 sin 2 d + dm [ = R + 4 2 3

sin 2 d] 3 +
2 3

2 3U dm 5 3 1 cos 2 + sin 2] = [ + R 24 4 16 16

(3)

Theo ba biu thc (1), (2), (3) v cho cc gi tr khc nhau v ly P = 0 l 100% ta c bng cc gi tr v th biu din quan h gia cng sut ra ti P v gc iu khin :

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0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

P% 100 98,6 95,6 90,2 81,8 70,6 57,16 42,8

90 100 110 120 130 140 150

P% 29,3 18,1 9,7 4,3 1,3 0,1 0

Nhn xt : cng sut a ra ti l ln nht khi gc iu khin = 0 nhng vi =30 th cng sut ra ti cng xp x khi = 0. Trong mch iu p xoay chiu ba pha su thyristor u song song ngc ti thun tr u tam gic, dng in p tng pha cng nh vy. Tuy nhin, do ti u tam gic nn khi mch c ba van dn th in p ri trn in tr ti l in p dy, khi mch c hai van dn th in p ri trn in tr ti gia hai dy l in p dy cn in p ri trn hai in tr cn li bng mt na in p dy.

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CHNG 3 THIT K TNH TON MCH LC


I - Tnh chn van bn dn Trong mch iu p xoay chiu ba pha dng cho l in di y ta s dng mch iu p xoay chiu ba pha su thyristor u song song ngc, ti thun tr u sao. Cc biu thc th hin quan h gia cng sut ra ti P v gc iu khin : Vi = 0 60 o : P=
2 3U dm sin 2 [ + ] R 6 4 8

Vi = 60 90o :
2 3U dm 3 3 cos 2 ] P= [ + sin 2 + R 12 16 16

Vi = 90 150o :
2 3U dm 5 3 1 cos 2 + sin 2] P= [ + R 24 4 16 16

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Cng sut nh mc ca l in l Pdm = 40 (kw) Tn hao ca l in P = 3 (kw) Trong thc t, l in c th coi l h tiu dng in loi mt, ngha l ngun cung cp cho l in l n nh. Tuy nhin, m bo hiu qu cng nh s an ton trong hot ng ca l in, ta s chn mt lng cng sut d tr cho l in phng trng hp in p ngun v mt l do no b st p . Ngoi ra, trong qu trnh hot ngcua mnh, l in cng chu thm mt s tn tht khc nh tn tht trn cc van bn dn, tn tht trn ng dy... nhng do khng ng k so vi tng tn tht v nhit ca l nn ta c th b qua. Khi = 0 th in p ra ti l hnh sin hon ton v ng thi cng sut ra ti cng t cng sut ln nht P = Pmax v vy m bo b cc tn hao ni trn ta chn cng sut ln nht ca l ng vi khi gc iu khin = 0 l : P = Pmax = 50 (kw) Da vo cng thc (1) ta tnh c cng sut ra ti khi = 0
2 Udm P max = 2R t 2 380 2 = 1,444 () U dm Rt = = 2Pmax 2.50.103

ta xc nh c dy in tr ca l c gi tr l 1,444 (). T y, da vo cng ngh ch to ta c th tin hnh thit k chi tit cho dy in tr c th m bo c cc yu cu kinh t k thut ca l in. Tip theo, ta tin hnh chn van thng qua cc thng s k thut ca van l in p ngc ln nht, dng trung bnh qua van ... Nh ni trn, hot ng ca mch iu p xoay chiu cng tng t nh mch chnh lu, c th l mch iu p xoay chiu ba pha su thyristor u song song ngc c nguyn l hot ng trong mt chu k cng ging nh nguyn l ca mch chnh lu ba pha hnh tia. V vy, ta c th hon ton p dng cc thng s chn van ca mch chnh lu ba pha hnh tia cho mch iu p xoay chiu ba pha su thyristor u song song ngc. C th : in p ngc ln nht trn van :

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U ng max = 6U f = 2U dm U ng max = 2.380 = 537 (V) Nhn xt : khi gc iu khin = 0 in p ra ti l hnh sin v nh vy, dng trung bnh qua van lc ny l ln nht. T y ta c th xc nh c gi tr dng in trung bnh qua van. I tb max = 1 I max sin 2 0 U f max [ cos ( cos 0)] 2R 220. 2 = 68,6 (A) .1,444

(do ti thun tr nn i trng pha vi u ) I tb max = I tb max =

Khi chn van ta phi ch n iu kin lm mt cho van v khi hot ng, van to nhit rt ln nn iu kin lm mt cho van s nh hng n hiu qu cng nh tui th ca van. Nu van hot ng trong iu kin c lm mt bng khng kh nh cnh tn nhit th van c th lm vic tt vi 25% dng nh mc. Nu van lm vic trong iu kin lm mt bng qut gi cng bc th van c th chu c n 30 60% dng nh mc. Nu lm mt bng nc th van c th chu c n 80% dng nh mc. Thng thng trong cng nghip th van phi c lm mt ti nht l bng khng kh c qut gi cng bc. Trong nhim v thit k l in ny th dng qua van khng qu ln nn ta c th chn ch lm mt cho van bng khng kh c qut gi cng bc. Ta chn cc iu kin thch hp van c th chu dng ti 40% dng nh mc ca van. Khi : I tb max 68,6 = 40% 40%

I tb=

= 172 ( A ) chn gi tr ca in p ngc ln nht trn van, ta s chn thm h s d tr in p k u = 1,6 2 ta chn : k u = 1,6

U ng = k u . U ng max = 1,6 . 537


21

= 860 (V) T cc gi tr ca I tb v U ng , tra trong s tay ta chn c van C358 do hng G.E ca M ch to vi cc thng s sau : U ng = 500 1200 ( V ) I tb = 225 ( A ) di = 200 dt max ........ Kt lun, trong mch iu p xoay chiu ba pha dng cho l in ny ta cn dng su van thyristor C358 do hng G.E ca Nht Bn ch to. II - Tnh ton bo v van bn dn Trong qu trnh van hot ng th van phi c lm mt van khng b ph hng v nhit v vy ta tnh ton ch lm mt c th cho van ri. Tuy nhin, van cng c th b hng khi van phi chu tc tng dng, tng p qu ln. trnh hin tng qu dng, qu p trn van dn n hng van ta phi c nhng bin php thch hp bo v van. Bin php bp v van thng dng nht l mc mch R, C song song van bo v qu p v mc ni tip cun khng hn ch tc tng dng. Do ti ca l in l ti thun tr nn khi van c tn hiu iu khin m th dng qua van s tng t ngt vi tc tng dng rt ln s gy hng van. V vy, ngi ta cn phi mc vo trc van mt cun dy hn ch tc tng dng. Cun dy c dng l mt cun khng bo ho c c tnh l: khi dng qua cun khng n nh th in cm ca cun khng hu nh bng khng v lc ny cun dy dn in nh mt dy dn bnh thng. Ta c mch nh hnh v:

tnh ton gi tr ca cun khng ta xt qu trnh qu trong mch: di dt Ta thy rng tc tng dng ln nht l: U f = i.R + L.

22

di U max = f dt L m bo an ton cho van ta phi chn L sao cho di/dt max phi nh hn tc tng dng chu c ca van, hay l: di dt max < 200 A/s

Uf < 200 A/s L


220. 2 Uf = = 1,555 H 200.10 6 200.10 6

L >

Ta chn cun khng bo ho c gi tr l 1,6 H, loi li khng kh v in cm nh. Sau khi tnh ton bo v chng tc tng dng ta tnh ton bo v qu p cho van. Ngi ta chia ra hai loi nguyn nhn gy nn qu p: 1 - Nguyn nhn ni ti: l do s tch t in tch trong cc lp bn dn. Khi kho van thyristor bng in p ngc, cc in tch ni trn i ngc li hnh trnh, to ra dng in ngc trong thi gian rt ngn. S bin thin nhanh chng ca dng in ngc gy nn sc in ng cm ng rt ln trong cc in cm, vn lun lun c ca ng dy ngun dn n cc thyristor. V vy, gia ant v catt ca thyristor xut hin qu in p. Ta c

th th hin qu trnh bin thin ca in p v dng in trn van: 2 - Nguyn nhn bn ngoi: nhng nguyn nhn ny thng xy ra ngu nhin nh khi ng ct khng ti mt my bin p trn ng dy, khi mt cu ch bo v nhy, khi c sm st ...

23

bo v qu in p do tch t in tch khi chuyn mch gy nn ngi ta dng mch RC u song song vi thyristor nh hnh di:

Thng s ca R, C ph thuc vo mc qu in p c th xy ra, tc bin thin ca dng in chuyn mch, in cm trn ng dy, dng in t ho my bin p ...Vic tnh ton thng s ca mch R, C rt phc tp, i hi nhiu thi gian nn ta s s dng phng php xc nh thng s R, C bng th gii tch, s dng nhng ng cong c sn. Cc bc tnh ton nh sau: - Xc nh h s qu p theo cng thc: k= v i U imp b.U im

U imp l gi tr cc i cho php ca in p ngc t trn diot

hoc thyristor mt cch khng chu k, tra trong s tay tra cu. U im l gi tr cc i ca in p ngc thc t t trn diot hoc thyristor. b l h s d tr an ton v in p, b = 1 2 - Xc nh cc thng s trung gian: (k) , R *max (k) , R *min (k) C* min bng cch tra trong th trong s tay tra cu - tnh ho. - Xc nh in lng tch t Q = f( trong s tay tra cu xc nh. - Tnh ton cc gi tr ca R, C theo cng thc: di ), s dng cc ng cong cho dt di dt max khi chuyn mch nh phn tnh ton cun khng bo

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. C = C* min

2.Q Uim LU im R R * LU im max 2Q 2Q

R* min

trong L l in cm ca mch RLC Tuy nhin, trong thc t, khi tnh ton thit k bo v van th rt kh c th c y tt c cc ng cong c tnh cn thit nn ngi ta thng chn gi tr ca R, C theo kinh nghim: R = 20 100 ( ) ; C = 0,4 1 ( F ) Vi dng qua van nh, ta chn gi tr R ln, C nh.Vi dng qua van ln, ta chn gi tr R nh, C ln. Theo tnh ton, dng qua van bng 68,6 A khng phi l ln nn ta chn gi tr ca R, C nh sau: R = 100 C = 0,47 F ( cc gi tr chun) Ngoi ra, trong mch lc cng cn c thm cc thit b bo v ngn mch, qu ti ... nh ptmt, cu ch ... mi pha v cu ch trc mi van tng cao tnh an ton cho mch. Ta c mch hon chnh nh di :

25

26

CHNG 4 THIT K V TNH TON MCH IU KHIN


I. Nguyn tc chung ca mch iu khin

1. Thyristor ch m cho dng chy qua khi tho mn hai iu kin : UAK > 0 IG > 0 Khi thyristor chuyn sang trng thi dn th cc iu khin khng cn tc dng. Thyristor ch tr v trng thi kho nu dng in IA < IH. ( IH : dng in duy tr ) 27

Chc nng ca mch iu khin : + iu chnh c v tr xung trong phm vi na chu k dng ca in p t ln A-K ca thyristor. + To ra c cc xung diu kin m thyristor, rng xung tx c tnh theo biu thc :
tx = IH di / dt

di/dt : tc bin thin dng ti. 2. Cu trc mch iu khin thyristor. UAK : in p iu khin ( in p mt chiu ). Ut : in p ta ( ng b vi in p A-K ca thyristor ). Hiu in p | Uk Ut | a vo khu so snh. (1) : lm vic nh mt trig. u ra nhn c mt chui xung ch nht. (2) : khu to xung. (3) : khu khuch i xung. (4) : khu bin p xung. Thay i Uk c th iu chnh c v tr xung iu khin tc l iu chnh c gc . 3. Nguyn tc iu khin. C hai nguyn tc : a. Nguyn tc iu khin thng ng tuyn tnh : Uk + Ut a n u vo ca mt khu so snh bng cnh lm bin i Uk ta c th iu chnh c thi im xut gin xung tc l iu chnh c gc . Khi Uk = 0 ta c = 0 Khi Uk < 0 ta c > 0 Quan h gia v Uk nh sau :
= U dk
U t max

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Ta ly Ukmax = Utmax. b. Nguyn tc iu khin thng ng arccos. Nguyn tc ny dng hai in p : in p ng b Ut vt trc in p A-K ca thyristor mt gc bng /2. ( Nu UAK = Asint th Ut = Bcost ). UAK c th iu khin c theo hai hng dng v m. Ut + Uk c a n u vo khu so snh . Khi Ut + Uk = 0 ta nhn c mt xung u ra ca khu so snh. Uk + Bcos = 0 = arccos( -Uk/B ). Thng ly B = Ukmax. Khi Uk = 0 th = /2. Nguyn tc ny c s dng trong cc thit b chnh lu cht lng cao. Nhn xt : Yu cu ca iu p xoay chiu ba pha c th dng nguyn tc iu khin thng ng tuyn tnh v n n gin v p ng c yu cu mch lc. Tn hiu phn hi l sens nhit bin tnh hiu nhit thnh tn hiu in, bao gm s cu R9, R10, R11, R*, En. Tn hiu in ny c a qua b khuch i ( R12, R13, R14, IC A5 ), sau c a vo b PI gm Ut, R15, C3, R17, u ra l Uchun ( U1, U2, U3, U4, U5, U6_).

II. Tnh ton mch iu khin. A.Nguyn l hot ng ca s . Cp ngun 220V cho cun s cp my bin p ng pha. in p phn th cp l in p ng pha. Ta ch ly in p U21, U22 dn gii : U21 c so snh mc in p 0V, qua D1 ch ly xung vung U1 . U22 c so snh mc in p 0V, qua D1 ch ly xung vung U2.

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U1 v U2 c a qua b to in p rng ca ( gm R3, R4,R5, R6, D1, D2, D3, A3, T1,T2 ), u ra s nhn c in p rng ca U3. Uk c so snh vi U3 qua A4, cho xung ch nht vung. Xung ch nht vung ny qua D4 ch ly xung ch nht dng U4. Uk c th thay i, khi nhit tng | Uk | gim, gc pht xung ln ln lm in p u ra ca thyristor gim v ngc li, khi nhit gim | Uk | gc pht xung gim i lm in p u ra ca thyristor tng. ( Khu phn hi in p l phn hi m n nh mt in p nht nh, tng ng vi mt nhit nht nh ). Xung U4 v xung chm Ux c a qua con AND. u ra AND l xung chm. Xung chm ny c qua T3, T4 mc alinhtn khuych i cng sut ( khuych i dng ). a xung qua bin p xung BAX, cho rng xung v bin xung nh mong mun. B pht xung chm l a hi t dao ng gm R11, R12, R13, C2 v IC A4, qua D6 ly xung chm dng. Trong mch iu khin ta chn ton b IC l TL084 c cc thng s : Vcc = 15V P tiu th = 680 MW Rin = 106 M U1 = Urabh = 13 (V) U2 = Urabh = 13 (V) it trong mch iu khin l loi 1N4009 c cc thng s : Ilvmax = 10 A Ungc = 25 V Um = 1 V it Zenner l loi BZD23-C9V1 c cc thng s : UDZ = 9 V

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1. Khu ng pha.

U21 = 10 2 sint (V) U22 = -10 2 sint (V) Cho qua b so snh so vi in p 0V. Tn hiu ra nh hnh v ( b so snh o ).

31

Ch : Ilv < 1 mA do : U21/R1 < 1 mA R1 > 10/1 = 10 K Ta chn R1 = R2 = R1 = R2 = 15 K

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2. Khu to in p rng ca ( Uta ).

- Nguyn l hot ng : + Trong na chu k u : U1 < 0 , U2 > 0. U1 < 0 nn T1 kho. Khi t C1 c np in p UC1. U2 > 0 qua it D1 v n nh in p UD3. UC1 v UD3 c a qua b tr c in p ra l U3. + Trong na chu k sau : U1 > 0 , U2 < 0. U1 > 0 nn T1 dn. UC1 phng in qua T1. in p trn t C1 nhanh chng tr v 0. U2 < 0 nn UD3 = 0 V. Do vy U3 = 0 V. Ta c th ca khu to in p rng ca nh hnh v :

33

- Tnh ton mch : + Trong na chu k u : IET2 = ICT2 = (E UD2 UBE) / R5. UC1 =
1 I CT 2 dt = (ICT2.t) / C1 = [(E UD2 UBE).t] / (R5.C1). C1

* Khi t = T/2 th UC1 = 9 V do : [(E UD2 UBE).T/2] / (R5.C1) = 9 V Vi E = 15 V, UD2 = 9 V, UBE = 0,6 V R5.C1 = 0,006 Ta chn C1 = 0,47F R5 = 12,766 K. Chn R5 = 13 K V UD3 = 9 V nn U3 = UD3 UC1 = (ICT2.t) / C1. Chn R6 = 3,3 K, IR6 = IR7 = UD3 / 2.R6 = 9 / 6600 = 1,36 mA. UR7 = U2 - UD1 UD3 = 4,3 V. ( UD1 = 0,7 V ) R7 = UR7 / IR7 = 3,16 K. Vy ta chn R7 = 3,3 K Chn R3 = 10 K. IET2 = ICT2 = (E UD2 UBE) / R5 = 0,09 mA IBT2 = ICT2 / . 34

Chn T2 l 2N2904.

Chn R4 = 5 K.

3. Khu so snh. in p rng ca U3 v Uk a vo cng m A4. Khi | U3 Uk | = 0 th trig lt trng thi v c u ra U4 l chui xung ch nht. Chn R8 = R9 = 10 K Chn R10 = R8//R9 = 5K Tn hiu in p nh hnh v :

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4. Khu pht xung chm

- Nguyn tc hot ng : Khi UC2 t ngng lt, s chuyn trng thi. p c gi tr ngc li vi gi tr c. Sau in p trn UC2 thay i theo hng ngc li v tip tc cho ti khi cha t ngng lt khc. UN = |Ung| = Umax = 13V

36

Ung = -Umax Ungt = Umax = R11/( R11 + R12 )


dU N U U N = max dt R13C 2

UN(t) = Umax = (1 (1 + e-t/R13C2))

|UN(t)| = |Ung| = |Ungt| Khi T = 2R13C2ln(1+2R11/R12). Chn tn s khu pht xung chm : f = 10 KHz. R11 = R12 T = 2,2R13C2 = 1/(10.103) R13C2 = 45,5.10-6 Chn C2 = 0,02F R13 = 2,27K. Ta chn R13 = 2,2 K Chn R11 = R12 = 10K 5. Chn cng AND.

Chn IC CMOS l IC4081 c 4 cng AND c cc thng s sau : Vcc = 3 - 15 V. Ta chn Vcc = E = 15 V. Cng sut tiu th : 2,5 nW / 1 cng. 37

Ilv < 1mA in p ng vi mc lgic 1 l 2 - 4,5 V. Tn hiu in p ra nh hnh v :

6. Khu khuch i xung v bin p xung.

Utc = Ugk = 2,5 V Itc = Ig = 0,25 A Thng th t s ca my bin p xung l k = 2 3. Chn k = 2 T ta c Isc = Itc / k = 0,125 A 38

Usc = Utc.k = 5 V Isc = ICT4 Chn T3 l C828 c h s 3 = 10 30. Chn T4 l 2N1613 c h s 4 = 80 Ly 3 = 10 IET3 = ICT4 / 3 = 0,0125 A Chn UBT4 = 0,7 V R16 = UBT4 / IBT4 = 56 IBT3 = ICT4 / 3. 4 = 15,625 A. Ta c UBT3 = UBET3 + UBT4 = 0,6 + 0,7 = 1,3 (V). V Us = 2 4,5 V nn ta chn in p st trn UR15 = 1 V R15 = UR15 / IBT3 = 64 K R14 (E - Usc) / Isc = 80 . Ta chn R14 = 57 7. Khu phn hi. - S o nhit trong l ly tn hiu ra l in p Et :

Trong s trn : R20, R18, R19 l in tr Manganin. R17 l in tr thay i theo nhit c lm bng Cu hoc Ni 00C cu c tnh ton cn bng, lc ny Et = 0. Khi nhit mi trng thay i cu mt cn bng. Lc ny gi tr ca R17 cng thay i lm xut hin trn hai u A,B mt in p U.

39

Mt khc nhit thay i nn hai u nhit k xut hin mt in p Et sao cho Et = U. V vy mV k vn ch 0 V. Ta dng cp nhit in Platin Platin Ri (90% l Pt, 10% l Rh) o lu di vi nhit l 1000 12000C. Khong 1000C th tng 0,64 mV. Ta c th quan h gia Et = f(t0C) Nhit nh nht l 8000C. Tra th ta c Et = 5,1 mV. Nhit cao nht l 10000C. Tra th ta c Et = 6,4 mV. in p o c trn mV k l nh nn ta phi khuch i in p. - Khu khuch i in p phn hi :

Uph = - Et.R22 / R21 Ta chn R21 = 1 K, R22 = 40 K. Uph = (- 0,212) (-0,256) V Chn R23 = R22//R21 = 1 K

40

To in p iu khin :

UD9 = 9 V Ta c ( E UD9 ) / R24 1mA. Ta chn R24 = 3,3 K Rv = 0 1,5 K IR27 + IR25 = - IC3 - IR26 Uph / R27 + Ud / R25 = - C3.( dUC3 / dt ) UC3 / R26 UC3 = - ( R26.Uph / R27 + R26.Ud / R25 ) - C3.R26( dUC3 / dt ) Chn R26 = R25 = 36 K R26 / R27 = 35 R27 = 1 K Chn C3 = 0,47 F R26.C3 = Uk = - (Ud k.| Uph |) - (dUC3 / dt)

41

Tn hiu in p ra nh hnh v :

7. Khi ngun.

IC n p loi UA7815 c cc thng s l : Ungng = 35 V Ira = 0 1,5 A E = 15 V IC n p loi UA7915 c cc thng s l : 42

Ungng = 40 V Ira = 0 1,5 A -E = -15 V UMNmin = 18 V, ta thng chn UMN = 21 V Ta c UMN = Ua.2,34 = 10.2,34 = 23,4 V tho mn iu kin chn C4, C5 l t lm phng 330 F 25 V S to in p E co cc thng s tng ng hon ton tng t.

8. Tnh ton bin p ngun nui.

Chn : U2 = U21 = Udf = 10 V I2 = Idf = 1 mA Cng sut my bin p ng pha Pf =6 Udf .Idf=0,06W C 21 khuch i thut ton nn ta chn 6 IC TL084, 6 con AND nn ta chn 2 IC 4081. TL084 c Ptth=680mW, AND 4081 cPtth=2,5nW Vy cng sut tiu th 6 IC TL084 v AND 4081 l P8IC = 6.0,68+8.2,5.10-9 = 4,08 W

43

Cng sut bin p cp cho 6 cc iu khin l Px = 6UgIg = 6. 2,5 . 0,25 = 3,75 W. Cng sut s dng cho vic to ngun nui : P = Pf + P8IC + Px = 0,06 + 4,08 + 3,75 = 7,89 W. Cng sut my bin p c k n 5% tn tht trong my S = 1,05.P = 1,05.7,89 = 8,28 W Dng in th cp my bin p I2 = S/6.U2 = 8,28/(6.10) = 0,138 A Dng in s cp my bin p I1 = S/3.UA = 8,28/(3.220) = 12,54 mA

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Kt lun
Sau mt hc k thc hin n vi s hng dn tn tnh ca thy gio hng dn Phm Quc Hi v cc thy gio trong b mn T ng Ho X Nghip Cng Nghip, em hon thnh n mn hc in T Cng Sut vi ti thit k l in tr v t c mt s kt qu sau : 1 - Hiu c v cu to v nguyn l hot ng ca l in ni chung v l in tr ni ring. 2 - Vn dng c nguyn l hot ng ca mch iu p xoay chiu ba pha vo mch thc t. 3 - Bit cnh thit k v tnh ton mch lc. 4 - Bit cch thit k v tnh ton mch iu khin. Kt qu m phng cho thy mch lc v mch iu khin hot ng tt p ng c nhng yu cu thc t t ra. iu chng t tnh ng n ca mch thit k. Kt qu ny c th l c s cho vic ng dng thit k mch trong thc t. Tuy nhin, do thi gian c hn v trnh cn hn ch, n ny khng trnh khi nhng thiu st. Em xin chn thnh cm n gio vin hng dn Phm Quc Hi v cc thy gio trong b mn tn tnh gip em hon thnh tt n ny.

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TI LIU THAM KHO


1. in t cng sut Nguyn Bnh Nh xut bn khoa hc v k thut - 1995 2. Phn tch v gii mch in t cng sut Phm Quc Hi - Dng Vn Nghi Nh xut bn Khoa hc v K thut - 1997 3. in t cng sut ln ng dng Nguyn Bnh NXB i hc v Gio dc chuyn nghip - 1985 4. iu khin t ng Phm Cng Ng Nh xut bn Khoa hc v K thut - 1998 5. L in B mn l luyn kim Trng i Hc Bch Khoa H Ni -1971 6. L in Lng Vn Trng i Hc Bch Khoa H Ni - 1993 7. Trang b in - in t my cng nghip dng chung V Qui Hi - Nguyn Vn Cht - Nguyn Th Lin Anh Nh xut bn gio - 1996 8. S chn linh kin bn dn Dng Minh Tr Nh xut bn Khoa hc v K thut - 1997

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