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Thc hnh in cng ngh

TM HIU NGUYN L HOT NG CA MY HN Cc loi my hn dng MAG, MIG, TIC.

Hnh : S nguyn l hn trong mi trng kh bo v 1 Con ln cp li; 2 - Dy hn; 3 - u m hn; 4 - Kh bo v 5 - Vt hn Cc phng php hn trong mi trng kh bo v:

c im hn t ng trong mi trng kh bo v .

Kh hot tnh : CO2, N2, H2, Kh tr : Ar, He,


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Thc hnh in cng ngh Khi hn ngi ta c th s dng cc loi kh tr , kh hot ring bit hoc hp cht ca chng nh cc loi kh tr vi kh tr, kh hot tnh ny vi kh hot tnh khc hay kh tr vi kh hot tnh. Hn trong mi trng kh hot tnh dng cho thp cc bon, thp hp kim thp. Hn trong mi trng kh tr dng cho cc loi thp hp kim, kim loi mu nh nhm, Ti,...Nit dng cho hn hp kim ng 1. Ngun in c th l 1 chiu ni nghch, ni thun, xoay chiu. H quang trc tip v h quang gin tip. C th s dng h quang 3 pha. H quang 3 pha thng dng dng xoay chiu . 2. C th dng in cc khng nng chy (Thanh, grafit, vnphram -W), thng dng nht l in cc vnfram ni trc tip , dng mt chiu ni thun ( cc m ni vi que hn, cc dng ni vi vt hn); cn khi hn dy hn th ni nghch ( cc dng ni vi dy hn). 3. C th dng in cc nng chy (dy hn nng chy). Khi hn dng mt chiu bng day hn nng chy thng c ni nghch ( cc dng ni vi dy hn, cc m ni vi vt hn). 4. Tc cp dy c th n nh v c th thay i tu theo in p. 5. Phng php hn trong mi trng kh bo v rt a nng. C th hn bt k v tr no trong khng gian; m bo c kh ho, t ng ho qu trnh hn; cht lng mi hn c nng cao; ... 6. Hn trong mi trng kh c ng dng nhiu trong ngnh ng tu. - Hn trong mi trng kh CO2. 1. CO2 thng dng : loi 1 (99,5%CO2) Loi 2 (99%), Loi thc phm (98,5%). 2. CO2 thng dng trng thi lng v cho vo bnh c dung tch 40 lt v c khi lng khong 25 kg. 3. Trong ngnh ng tu thng dng dng mt chiu ni nghch. (P.7 Golochenko) . 4. Cho vo dy hn mt s cht (kim loi kim, kim th) s lm tng tnh n nh cho h quang hn v cho php hn c s dch chuyn dy hn nng chy theo dng nn lm gim s bn to. Dng xoay chiu thng lm cho h quang khng n nh v tng bn to.
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Thc hnh in cng ngh 5. Chnh v th m hin nay khi hn in cc nng chy trong mi trng kh CO2 thng dng dng mt chiu ni nghch. 6. Dy hn c cc loi theo tiu chun : 0,3 ; 0,5; 0,8; 1,0; 1,2; 1,6; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0 mm ( trang 25- 1962). Dy hn nh d = 0,5 - 1,2 mm Dy hn ln d = 1,2 - 3,0 mm. Kch thc git kim loi lng khi hn c ngn mch ( dgit > 1,5 dh ) khi khng ngn mch l ( dgit > 0,8 dh ) v khi chy thnh dng l ( d git < 0,8 dh ). 7. c tnh dch chuyn kim loi lng vo vng hn ph thuc : loi kh bo v; ch hn (cc ngun in, dng in hn Ih, Hiu in th hn : Uh, Vn tc hn : Vh, ng knh dy hn : dh, Lng kh tiu hao :Qh v chiu di ca li dy hn tnh t u mt ca u m hn : Ld.) 8. Hn trong CO2 c th dng dng mt chiu ni nghch, ni thun hay hn bng dng mt chiu. Trong thc t khi hn trong CO2 thng dng dng mt chiu ni nghch (cc dng ni vi m hn, cc m ni vi vt hn). V khi ni nghch h quang s chy n nh, to nn mi hn c hnh dng hp l v m bo cc tnh cht cn thit ca mi hn. Khi hn vi in cc ni thun h quang s chy km n nh hn v c xu hng to r kh v gim s ngu vo kim loi c bn. Khi hn dng xoay chiu s lm cho h quang chy km n nh v lng bn to nhiu. iu chnh dch chuyn kim loi lng c th s dng dng in xung tn s 50 - 100Hz. 9. T nhng phn tch trn hin nay ngi ta thng s dng dng mt chiu ni nghch ( cc dng que hn, cc m vt hn) hn trong CO2. Dng hn ph thuc S, dh v J mt dng in hn . Thng nhn J = 60 - 150 A/mm2. 10. Cht lng mi hn c th tho mn c ngay c khi hn di nc. 11. Hn trong mi trng kh bo v CO2 cho php t ng ho d dng.

Thc hnh in cng ngh Gii thiu My hn ESAB LAG 400: MIG/MAG I. Thng s my hn:

II. U0=18-46V X I U 3 50Hz U 220V 380V 415V 3 60Hz U 220V 440V 550V 70A/15V-400A/36V 60% 400A 34V 52A 30A 28A 52A 26A 21A 80% 355A 32V 42A 24A 22A 42A 21A 17A 100% 315A 30V 34A 20A 15A 34A 17A 14A

Hnh 1.1:Mc thng s ca my hn U0=18-46V in p ra lc khng ti My hn hot ng hai tn s 50Hz v 60Hz vi nhng cp in p khc nhau. Th gi tr dng in hn thay i theo cp in p . V d: 3 50Hz : li in 3 pha tn s 50Hz: 220V :phn s cp u theo hnh

Hnh 1.2 380V : phn s cp u theo hnh

Thc hnh in cng ngh

Hnh 1.3 415V: phn s cp u theo

Hnh 1.4 Phn u ni pha s cp ca my bin p (s cp qun bn trongdy ng, th cp bn ngoi bn ngoi dy nhm) my bin p qun theo hnh tr

Hnh 1.5 phn s cp Gi tr: X=60%; I=400A; U=34V tng ng vi (-A) X=80%; I=355A; U=32V tng ng vi (-b) X=100%; I=315A; U=30V tng ng vi (-c)

Thc hnh in cng ngh

Hnh 1.6 phn th cp III. Cu to my hn ESAB LAG 400: MIG/MA Chia lm hai phn: phn c v phn in: Phn c bao gm v my, dy hn, qut lm mt, h thng quay dy thit b di ng bnh Phn in chia lm hai phn: mch ng lc v mch iu khin Mch ng lc my bin p hn, b diode cu hnh tia ba pha Mch iu khin bao gm cc tip im bi hai nm iu khin ( off-4) v (110) my bin p hn ba pha c u theo hnh sao in p vo 380V.

Hnh 2.1: bn ngoi my hn ESAB LAG 400


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Thc hnh in cng ngh

Hnh 2.2: Mt phn bn trong 1. Phn c: v my hn lm nhim v bo v my hn , qut lm mt my hn khi my bin p hn hot ng, bn bnh xe l di chuyn my hn mt cch thun tin, c cu iu khin dy hn gip cho vic hn cc vt nhng v tr . 2. Phn ng lc bao gm cu ch my bin p hn,cotactor K8 v my bin p K9 b nghch lu cu diode Mch iu khin bao gm hai nm iu khin th(off-4) v tinh (1-10) (K32) K4, K30. IV. Nguyn l hot ng ca my bin p hn: Bng trng thi:

Thc hnh in cng ngh

Hnh 3.1 Khi nm iu chnh th v tr off cc tip im K32 trng thi m lm cho mch khng c in, cho d nm iu chnh tinh bt k v tr no i na vn h mch.

Hnh 3.2
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Thc hnh in cng ngh Khi nm iu chnh th sang v tr t 1 n 4 lm cho mch ng li cc tip im (1-2;3-4) K32 ng lun cp in cho K9, K8. V tr th s 1 cc tip im (5-6;8-9(;10-11;12-15;14-17;21-16) ca K32 ng li. K9 c in ,K8 ng li(1-2;3-4;5-6) .nm iu chnh tinh v tr 1 cc tip im (28-29;2-1;22-25) ca K4 ng. Lc ny cun s cp c s vng dy nhiu nht in p ra l ln nht dng hn nh nht (hnh 3.3) qun dy s cp s gim s vng dy t t khi ta iu chnh nm vn tinh t v tr 1 cho n 10 cc hnh cn li dng in s tng t t v in p gim dn vi tr s nh.

Hnh 3.3 Mch s cp c ni theo hnh tam gic.


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Thc hnh in cng ngh V tr th hai khi iu chnh tinh k4 sang v tr th haitip im (28-29;2-1;2225) m ra tip im (30-29;6-1;18-25) ng li

Hnh 3.4 Mch s cp c ni theo hnh tam gic. K32 v tr 2

K4 v tr 1 V tr th s 1 cc tip im (5-6;7-23;10-11;13-27;15-27;14-17:31-19;31-21) ca K32 ng li. K9 c in ,K8 ng li(1-2;3-4;5-6) .nm iu chnh tinh v


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Thc hnh in cng ngh tr 1 cc tip im (28-29;2-1;22-25) ca K4 ng. Lc ny cun s cp c u theo hnh sao.

Tng t ta c K4 v tr 2: mch s cp c u ni theo hnh sao.

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Thc hnh in cng ngh

K32 v tr 3

K4 v tr 1 V tr th s 1 cc tip im (6-23; 7-23; 8-9; 10-27; 13-27; 12-15; 14-31; 19-31; 1621) ca K32 ng li. K9 c in ,K8 ng li(1-2;3-4;5-6) .nm iu chnh tinh v tr 1 cc tip im (28-29;2-1;22-25) ca K4 ng. Lc ny cun s cp c u theo hnh sao

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Thc hnh in cng ngh

Tng t ta c K4 v tr 10. Mch s cp u hnh sao.

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Thc hnh in cng ngh

K32 v tr 4 K4 v tr 1 V tr th s 1 cc tip im (6-23; 7-23; 23-9; 10-27; 13-27; 27-15; 14-31; 19-

31; 31-21) ca K32 ng li. K9 c in ,K8 ng li(1-2;3-4;5-6) .nm iu chnh tinh v tr 1 cc tip im (28-29;2-1;22-25) ca K4 ng. Lc ny cun s cp c u theo hnh sao

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Thc hnh in cng ngh

Tng t cho K4 v tr 10

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Thc hnh in cng ngh

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Thc hnh in cng ngh

Th cp

ng h hin th dng hn v p

Hnh3.15 V.Ngun in v c tnh ca my hn My bin p c ch to c in khng tn ln cun dy th cp ni vi in khng ngoi k hn ch dng in hn, v qun theo hnh tr v th ng c tnh hn rt dc, cun dy s cp ni vi ngun in, cun th cp qua chnh lu ni vo in khng K ri ni ti que hn . my bin p lm vic ch ngn mch ngn hn dy qun th cp. m bo an ton in in p th cp khng ti ca my hn nh hn 100V (U0=18-46V) iu chnh dng hn ta c th thay i s vng dy cun s cp ca my bin p hn(k32 v K4) hoc thay i in khng (K12) a) Hn h quang bng dng in xoay chiu:
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Thc hnh in cng ngh tn s 50Hz. H quang chy khng n nh v dng in xoay chiu lun c tr s bin i nhng c u im l tin li, gi thnh r, thit b n gin v d bo qun. b) H quang bng dng in mt chiu: Qu trnh hn c nhiu u im hn so vi hn h quang dng in xoay chiu, song thit b phc tp v gi thnh t. Cng dng ngn mch phi nh nhm nng cao tui th ca my hn. Thng ch cho php: I = (1,3 1,4)Ih I: Dng in ngn mch. Ih: Dng in hn khi h quang chy n nh.

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Thc hnh in cng ngh

ng cong 1 - Dng u tng dng cho hn t ng trong mi trng kh bo v. ng cong 2 - Dng U khng thay i (hu nh khng tng khi I tng) dng cho hn in x, hn t ng trong mi trng kh bo v. Bi v khi hn trong mi trng kh bo v, kim loi dy hn chy thnh dng to nn dng ngn mch lin tc, dng in hn tng nhanh lm nng chy day hn nhanh v lin tc. Ch ny ph hp vi lai dy c dh = 0,5 - 1,2 mm ng cong 3 - Dng cong dc thoai thoi dng cho hn t ng v bn t ng di lp thuc c tc cp dy hn khng i. Vic cp li dy hn theo nguyn l t ng iu chnh (tc l khi I tng, Uh gim lm cho nhit lng Q = UIt gim kt qu
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Thc hnh in cng ngh dy chy chm li, phc hi chiu di ct h quang. ng cong 4 - Dng cong dc dng cho hn h quang tay v hn t ng di lp thuc (khi m tc cp dy ph thuc ch hn. Khi Uh thay i, nhng Ih thay i t nn ch hn n nh hn Kt hp cc dng c tnh ng v ng c tnh tnh ca h quang ta s thy chng giao nhau ti 2 im A v B (ti Ungun = Uh quang) Ti im B hiu in th cao gy h quang nhng v dng in nh khng u duy tr s chy n nh ca h quang. Thc vy nu v mt l do no lm cho dng in gim xung th hiu in th h quang s tng ln v lc Uhq > Ung, c ngha l hiu in th ca ngun khng gy h quang nn n tt. Ngc li, nu tng dng I th Ung > Uhq ; in th tha Ung - Uhq l nguyn nhn gy nn s tip tc tng dng in cho n khi t c gi tr im A. Nh vy khi I tng hoc I gim ti im A c s phc hi li iu kin n nh ca h quang (Uhq = Ung)

Ch khng ti : khi mch ngoi h: Ih= IKT = 0 Utc = Ih . (Rtc +Xtc) Xtc = 2 . . f . L trong
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U2 = Ukt = U20.

Khi lm vic :Uh = U20 - Utc.

Thc hnh in cng ngh U2 in p s cp U20 in p th cp f - tn s dng in L - H s t cm ca b t cm Rtc - in tr thun ca b t cm; Xtc - Tr khng ca b t cm. Khi dng in tng, t thng qua b t cm tng (ph thuc vo khe h ca mch t b t cm) lc hiu in th hn s gim. Ch ngn mch : Rt -T tr ca b t cm R - in tr mch hn r - in tr cun th cp (R+r 0.001 m) U in th ri trn cun th cp Wtc - s vng dy ca b t cm

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