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CC THIT B T NNG BNG CM NG V IN MI

1.

Gii thiu v t nng bng cm ng

C s vt l k thut ca t nng bng cm ng t nng mt vt dn in nh cm ng c thc hin da trn c s lm hp th bn trong vt nng lng in t xoay chiu. Khi bn trong vt dn in s cm ng cc dng in Foucaults. Chng t nng vt dn theo lut Jun..

T trng xoay chiu c cung cp bi cun dy (H.4.1). i vi vt th c t nng, cun dy ny ng vai tr nh l cun dy s cp ca mt MBA trong vt th t nng c xem nh l cun dy th cp ni ngn mch. T thng xoay chiu do cun dy sinh ra t l thun vi sc t ng v t l nghch vi t tr ca h thng. Khi bn trong vt th s cm ng s E E = 4,44. f. W. Trong : (V)

- f l tn s ca in p t ln cun dy (Hz)

- W l s vng dy. gi tr xc nh ca in tr vt dn, bn trong n s xut hin

TIU LUN MN HC IN CNG NGH

CC THIT B T NNG BNG CM NG V IN MI

cc dng in Foucaults I, chng sinh ra cng sut nhit. P = I2 r = E2 r / Z2 Nh vy, v bn cht t nng cm ng cng tng t nh t nng in tr. Thay v mc vt dn in trc tip vo mch in th y l do mi lin h in t.

1.1.

t nng cm ng (induction heating)

t nng cm ng l qu trnh t nng khng tip xc thng qua hin tng cm ng in t. y, i tng cn c t nng khng c tip xc v nhit i vi thit b t nng, m nhit s c sinh ra ngay trong bn thn i tng nh vo cc dng in xoy (eddy current) c cm ng trong i tng do thit b t nng to ra t trng bin thin theo thi gian. 1.2. Nhng u im ca t nng cm ng

- C tnh n nh ti u: mu (pattern) t nng c tnh lp li v n nh, to ra kt qu ng b. - Cc i ha sn lng: Tc t nng cao hn v nhit t l vi cng sut a vo khng b hn ch c th t ti gi tr lm nng chy kim loi v c th to ra plasma, vic t nng c th din ra rt nhanh (> 2000 C trong < 1 giy) - Nng cao cht lng sn phm: v sn phm khng tip xc trc tip vi la ngn hay thit b t nng, vic bin dng sn phm c gim ti a, d dng thc hin mi trng thi h hoc kn, sn phm cng c th c t trong mi trng kh bo v hoc chn khng loi b nh hng ca s oxy ha.
TIU LUN MN HC IN CNG NGH

CC THIT B T NNG BNG CM NG V IN MI

- Tng tui th g: cc b g khng b nh hng ca nhit v vic t nng ch tp trung vo i tng c t nng. - Thn thin vi mi trng: v khng c la ngn nn khng c kh c hi, nhit tha, v ting n. - Gim in nng tiu th: Hiu sut nng lng c th n 90%, so vi 45% ca cc l t hng lot. Hn na, v khng cn lm nng (warm-up) hay lm mt (cool-down) nn tn tht nhit trong thi gian ch l mc ti thiu. - c im quan trng ca t nng cm ng l kh nng iu chnh vng phn b ca dng in foucaults bn trong vt th ty thuc vo tn s ca ngun kch t. thm su ca t trng vo trong vt th t l nghch vi tn s. - Hiu qu truyn nng lng t trng ph thuc vo khe h khng kh gia cun dy v vt th. 1.3. ng dng ca t nng cm ng

- Hn kim loi mu (brazing): cn nhit cao hn hn st/thp, cho mi hn cng chc v dn in/nhit tt hn - X l nhit: (annealing/tempering), ti (hardening) kim loi - Nu chy (melting) - t nng s b (pre-heating) - Nhng ng dng ph thng khc: lin kt c hc, lm kn thy tinhkim loi, chn kim loi vo nha, hn (thng thng), m thic dy dn, c, th nghim vt liu, MOCVD (Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition, m ph kim loi bng hi, dng trong cng nghip ch to bn dn), lp rp chi tit, ...

TIU LUN MN HC IN CNG NGH

CC THIT B T NNG BNG CM NG V IN MI

2. L nung cm ng 2.1. L cm ng khng li st 2.1.1. Phn loi Theo tn s lm vic

- Thit b tn s cng nghip ly in t li hoc qua my bin p f = 50 Hz (l cm ng tn s cng nghip). Nhit cung cp cho l ph thuc vo ph thuc ch yu vo cng dng in chy qua cun cm ng v hiu in p t hai u cun cm ng. l ny lng nhit cung cp cho nguyn liu kim loi khng thy i theo tn s v f = 50 Hz . Nhng vic tng cng dng in c gii hn nht nh. Nu tng dng in qu ln th phi tng tit din dy dn, tng dn in tt v tng cng sut my bin p l V vy l cm ng tn s cng nghip vic cung cp nhit cho l l rt chm , dn n thi gian nu luyn l ko di . Do s dng l cm ng tn s cng nghip thch hp cho cc nu luyn thp ccbon cao, nu luyn kim loi mu , kim loi hoc hp kim d chy ( t < 1150 0) . c bit thit b l ny rt n gin , r tin , d thit k, d xy dng v khng cn thit b i tn s. Nhng tri li v tn s lm vic thp nn phi c dung lng t b cos rt ln , phi ghp song nhiu t nn gi thnh cao v tn hao in nng trong cc t l rt ln. - Thit b trung tn vi tn s lm vic 500 100000 Hz ( L cm ng trung tn ). y l l trung gian gia l cm ng tn s cng nghip v l cm ng cao tn . Nhit cung cp cho l nu chy kim loi vi tc nhanh , thch hp cho vic nu luyn cc loi thp cacbon hoc hoc cc loi thp hp kim trung bnh v cao. Thit b bin i tn s ca l c th s dng my pht tn s kiu quay hoc dng tiristor iu khin.

TIU LUN MN HC IN CNG NGH

CC THIT B T NNG BNG CM NG V IN MI

- Thit b cao tn vi tn s lm vic trn 10000 Hz ( L cm ng cao tn) thng dng n pht hoc thyristor. Nhit cung cp cho l vi tc rt nhanh, v tn s lm vic rt cao nn cm ng in t sinh ra trong cun cm ng l rt ln. Do nhit cung cp cho l nu chy kim loi l nhanh nht . Vic cp nhit nhanh nh vy ph hp vi cc cng ngh ti cc chi tit dng c my v nu luyn cc loi thp c nhit nu chy cao . Cng vic ti v nu luyn thp ph thuc hon ton vo tn s lm vic. t c tn s rt cao f = 100000 Hz th phi c thit b bin i tn s thch hp, thng ngi ta s dng cc loi bng n in t hai cc , ba cc hoc dng cac lnh kin bn dn thyristor. Theo phm vi ng dng

- Thit b tn s nu chy kim loi v hp kim. L cm ng loi ny c hai loi l l c li thp ( l mng ) v l khng c li thp ( l ni ) . L mng dung lng nh v hit thp dng nu chy kim loi mu. L ni c dung lng ni cng ln th tn s cng gim ( nung nng u ).

TIU LUN MN HC IN CNG NGH

CC THIT B T NNG BNG CM NG V IN MI

- Thit b nung phi cho rn, dp, cn. Phi cng ln th tn s lm vic cng nh. - Thit b ti b mt thng lm vic tn s cao. Lp ti cng mng th tn s lm vic cng cao. - Thit b nung, sy cht in mi v bn dn. 2.1.2. Ngun in cao tn Dng my pht in tn s cao c ch to di cng sut 0,5 1500Hz di tn s 500 8000 Hz i vi vi tn s di 500 Hz, ngi ta dng my pht ng b cc li c s cp cc ln v s vng quay cao v: f = 60.pn (Hz) Trong : p : s cp cc.

TIU LUN MN HC IN CNG NGH

CC THIT B T NNG BNG CM NG V IN MI

n : tc quay roto, vng /pht. ti u ha qu trnh cng ngh gia nhit, vic iu chnh dng kch t my pht l rt quan trng, nhm n nh in p my pht ra cp cho l cm ng nhm iu chnh cp in p theo tr s mong mun. Hon thin nht hin nay l dng b bin i kch t bng Thyristor, m bo chnh xc, n p 1% vi in p kch t ( 0 180 V) u im: - n gin v cu trc, - tin cy cao. - C th lm vic song song vi cc my pht, vn thp nht l khi cng sut ln. Nhc im: - C phn t kh sa cha. - Din tch lp t ln, lm vic n - Hiu sut thp khi ti nh, bi trn lm lnh phc tp khng thay i c tn s. 2.2. u im , nhc im ca l cm ng khng li st

u im:

TIU LUN MN HC IN CNG NGH

CC THIT B T NNG BNG CM NG V IN MI

- Luyn c hp kim c sch cao do khng c cc ngun bn. S thm H2 trong kim loi nh hn 40% so vi cc l h quang v l mc tanh . Kim loi luyn trong cc l cm ng khng li st khng c li st cha tp cht phi kim loi tng i t s oxi ha ca b l nh hn trong cc l khc do nhit thp v iu kin nung hin i hn. - Luyn c cc hp kim ng nht, thnh phn ha hc trong b l ng u do s so ln gy ra bi lc in ng. S so trn ng thi lm d dng cho vic tin hnh phn ng gia kim loi v x. - Kim loi luyn c nhit cao v t c nhit cc i trong ton b khi kim loi khng ch trong tng ring bit nh trong l h quang. - Kim loi chy rt t do nung kim loi t trong ra ngoi. iu ny c bit quan trng khi luyn hp kim c thm cht hp kim ha him v t cng nh khi luyn kim loi mu ( S chy Nikien, Crm, Vanadi, trong cc l cm ng khng li st nh hn hai ln so vi l h quang ) - Hiu sut ca bn thn l cao. - Nng sut cao do luyn nhanh. - Din tch l chim nh do kch thc ngoi nh hn so vi kch thc l khc. - iu chnh cng sut v nhit n gin , d dng trong phm vi rng. - C kh nng luyn trong chn khng hoc trong mi trng kh c bit. - iu kin lao ng nh nhng v hp v sinh.

TIU LUN MN HC IN CNG NGH

CC THIT B T NNG BNG CM NG V IN MI

- My pht mt lm vic yn tnh hn so vi ch lm vic khng n nh ca l h quang. - Khng tiu hao in cc. - Ch tiu kinh t k thut cao hn so vi l h quang v phng din ny vic so snh gi thp c luyn trong cc l cm ng v l h quang c tm quan trong c bit. - K tng i lnh, kh tin hnh phn ng gia kim loi v x do qu trnh tinh luyn kh . Nhc im ny l l c tnh chung ca l c li st cng nh khng c li st. Do x trong cc l ny khng c dng in chy qua v ch c nung bng nhit ca kim loi nu trong l. - Hiu sut ca ton b thit b thp do trong thit b cn c ngun tn s cao cng nh cn phi c cc t in . - Trang b i vi thit b ca l khng li st phc tp v t. - Yu cu nhn vin phc v c trnh cao. 2.3. ng dng ca ca l cm ng khng li st. Ch yu luyn thp cht lng cao v cc hp kim c bit khc c yu cu sch cao ng u v chnh xc v thnh phn ha hc. Ngoi luyn thp, l cm ng c s dng rng ri c gang thay cho l ng. Cc l nung thng dng: L nung trung tn, cao tn.

TIU LUN MN HC IN CNG NGH

CC THIT B T NNG BNG CM NG V IN MI

My hn cao tn ..

Hnh nh l nung thp, st ti ch

TIU LUN MN HC IN CNG NGH

CC THIT B T NNG BNG CM NG V IN MI

3. t nng in mi C s vt l ca t nng in mi l do cc dng in (dng in chuyn dch v dng in dn) chy qua cht cch in hoc bn dn khi t chng vo trong mt in trng xoay chiu tn s cao. u im ca n l ton b nng lng hp th trong lng vt th u c chuyn ht thnh nhit. Tu theo c im cng ngh, thit b t nng in mi c chia ra lm 3 loi:

TIU LUN MN HC IN CNG NGH

CC THIT B T NNG BNG CM NG V IN MI

Cc thit b loi1: c s dng trong cng ngh x l nhit cc sn phm c kch thc ln v khi cn t nng nhanh chng: sy si bng, len, sy g v cc sn phm lm t g, nung cc sn phm cch in, s, gm, hn cc chi tit nha Cc thit b loi 2: c s dng sy kh cc sn phm dng tm, bng nh vi si, tranh nh, giy, phim nha, cc ch phm ha dc, cc sn phm cao su. Cc thit b loi 3: y qu trnh t nng khng nht thit phi nhanh v u, v d lm tan cc sn phm ng bng, nung cc sn phm t gm th, sy tr, u S phn cc in t:

Nguyn t vt cht c biu din bng s chuyn ng ca cc electrons xung quanh ht nhn nguyn t. Di tc ng ca in trng E, nguyn t c th tr thnh cc lng cc cm ng vi thi gian dao ng ring vo khong 10-14 n 10-15 sec. Trong thi gian ny xc lp s phn cc in t.

TIU LUN MN HC IN CNG NGH

CC THIT B T NNG BNG CM NG V IN MI

S phn cc ho ion. c biu din bng s chuyn ng n hi ca cc ion trong mng tinh th ca cht cch in rn. Chu k dao ng ca mng l vo khong 10-12 n 10-13 sec. Thi gian phn cc ho cng vo khong . S phn cc ho ion nh hng Trong cc cht in mi, bn thn cc phn t l lng cc, khng ph thuc vo s c mt hay khng ca in trng bn ngoi. S phn cc trong trng hp ny c th hin s sp xp cc lng cc di tc ng ca in trng v c gi l s phn cc nh hng. S phn cc nh hng c tnh n hi v sinh ra trong cc cht in mi dng rn v dng lng.

Hnh nh: s phn cc nh hng ion ha

4. Cc thit b t nng in mi

Thit b t nng in mi c hia ra lm hai loi: thit b hot ng

TIU LUN MN HC IN CNG NGH

CC THIT B T NNG BNG CM NG V IN MI

tn s cao (f = 66KHz n 1000 MHz) v thit b hot ng tn s siu cao (f=1000 MHz v cao hn). Vic la chn thng s ca thit b c xc nh bi hng lot tnh cht vt l ca vt liu. L vi ba: l viba l ng dng thc tin ca phng php t nng in mi.

Gm 4 b phn chnh: nam chm in(magnetron), mch iu khin nam chm in(microcontroller), ng dn sng (waveguide), bung nu(usable space). i vi sng viba, thy tinh hay snh s c xem nh l trong sut nn sng

i xuyn qua, cn cc mt phng kim loi th ging nh nhng tm gng nn sng b phn chiu tr li.

TIU LUN MN HC IN CNG NGH

CC THIT B T NNG BNG CM NG V IN MI

Ph bc x in t (Electromagnetic(EM) Radiation Spectrum) l khi nim chung cho tt c cc dng khc nhau ca nng lng in v cc trng in t lin kt vi chng tri trong khng gian nh : Sng viba, nh sng nhn thy c, cc tia X, sng v tuyn v nh sng cc tm. Sng viba c bc sng di hn cc bc x t ngoi v hng ngoi nhng ngn hn cc bng tn pht thanh qung co VHF v UHF. Cc sng viba pht x ra c phn x li v b hp th do cc vt cn trn ng truyn sng, mc phn x v hp th ph thuc vo cht liu to nn vt cn . Cc sng viba truyn qua thy tinh v cht do b bt c vt th no cha nc hp th.

- B phn pht sng magnetron Magnetron l my pht sng cao tn( sng vi ba) c cng sut ln, sng vi ba c to ra t mt b dao ng in t v c khuch i nh magnetron hot ng nh mt n in t 3 cc. N gm mt hnh tr rng bng kim loi gm mt cc dng anode trong ngi ta t nhng l hng cng hng lm tng tn s t 50 Hz ln 2450 Hz . i vi mch cng hng tr s ca cun co bin v t in s xc nh tn s to ra. Tn s cng ln th tr s cc linh kin cng nh. c tn s tht cao th cun cobin phi gim thiu, c nh vy ta ni song song nhiu cun cobin.

TIU LUN MN HC IN CNG NGH

CC THIT B T NNG BNG CM NG V IN MI

Mch cng hng tn s cao l yu t cn bn ca tr rng. Tr rng c xp nhng l hng cng hng v chnh gia l m cc (cathode) trong 1 dy t nng. Bn trong magnetron l chn khng, gia in cc m v in cc dng ngi ta dng in th 2300 V to t trng. T trng ny lm di chuyn cc slectron t cc m sang cc dng. to ra v gi cho cc dao ng tn s tht cao cc in t phi di chuyn theo dng hcodale trc nhng l hng cng hng; ng i ny c c nh mt t trng to bi thanh nam chm m ng sc thng gc vi in trng E. Nng lng to bi magnetron c dn n h thng l. Cc sng vi ba c thu nhn bi mt b gp sng chnh gia l hng v c pht x bi mt anten trong b hng sng.

B hng sng

Dn truyn sng trong l vi ba: Trong mt l c in ngun nng lng bc x khng nhng lm vt cht b t nng m cn lm nng lun nguyn b l v tt c nhng g trong l nh khng kh, hp ng thc n v thc phm. B my l viba th khc, sng viba c phn chiu li bi cc thnh kim loi v i xuyn qua cc vt ng thc n. Cc sng viba tc ng v lm nng cc phn t cht bo, ng v nc ( thc phm cha t 65 n 70% l nc). Sng viba c to ra t mt b dao ng in t v c khuch i nh magnetron hot ng nh mt n in t 3 cc. Nng lng sng viba c

TIU LUN MN HC IN CNG NGH

CC THIT B T NNG BNG CM NG V IN MI

my pht l magnetron c truyn theo ng dn sng n qut pht tn c pht tn khp l v c vch kim loi phn x. Thc n c t nng nh cc phn t nc bn trong chuyn ng khi b kch thch bi t trng do sng viba to ra. Bung nng viba c cu to ging nh mt chic lng faray gip cho sng viba khng b lt ra ngoi v ca l bng knh d dng quan st thc n, c li dn in( mt li c kch thc nh hn bc sng 12 cm) sng viba khng lt ra ngoi.

u im: - Nu chin thc n rt nhanh so vi cc phng php nu n c truyn thng thng. - Cc phng php nu n c truyn dng nng lng dng nng lng t nng du, nc, khng kh. Cc l vi ba ch nu chn thc n nn ta s c li v mt tip kim nng lng. - Cc thc n cha m (protein) s ko b rm xm. - Hiu sut ca l vi ba l 64%.

TIU LUN MN HC IN CNG NGH

CC THIT B T NNG BNG CM NG V IN MI

- Thc n c nu chin trong l viba gi nguyn dinh dng, nhiu nghin cu cho thy nu chin thc n bng l viba gip thc n cn gi c nhiu vitamin, cc nguyn t vi lng, cht b dng hn cc phng php thng thng nh luc chin. Nhc im: - Tuy vy l nng viba c th nguy him nu s dng khng ng cch, h thng an ton b hng. - Cc nguy hi chung nht bao gm thc n cu to khng u, ch kh ch t, nn thc n s c nu chn khng u, vi trng v cc t chc siu vi trng c th pht trin mnh t 5oC n 60oC khng nn t nng cc bnh dng tit trng, cc chai ng sa nc, cc chai sa dng cho tr em, cc bt s ( v trong men s c oxit st d lm qu ti l nng),bng l viba. - kn ca l vi ba m khng c bo m th nng lng sng bin ra sc nng nn nu b mc phi s b phng, c khi bng su, st cao, thng tn ni dch hon, thng tn ni mt,. - Khng th cc a kim loi, c th to ra tia in, tia la, l bc u ca ha hon. - Khi hm bng l vi ba nhit bn ngoi thc n nng nhng bn trong li ca thc n khng nng git vi khun nh vi khun salmonella, campynobacter, listria v ni ngui cc mm c khng b dit. - Thc phm dng kh khng th c nu chn trong l vi ba, mun nu chn phi lm m hoc lm t thc phm.

TIU LUN MN HC IN CNG NGH

CC THIT B T NNG BNG CM NG V IN MI

Ti liu tham kho 1. Gio trnh in cng ngh Trng DHCN TPHCM 2. Tailieu.vn
3.

Youtube.

TIU LUN MN HC IN CNG NGH