Bill Evans and the Craft of Improvisation Volume I by Austin Andrew Gross

Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy Supervised by Professor Robert Wason and Professor Matthew Brown Department of Music Theory Eastman School of Music University of Rochester Rochester, New York 2011

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Copyright © 2011 Austin Andrew Gross

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Curriculum Vitae ! Austin Gross was born in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, and grew up in Emmaus,

Pennsylvania. He attended West Chester University from 2000 to 2004 as a member of the Honors Program, graduating summa cum laude and earning a Bachelor of Music with a double major in Music Education and Music Theory and Composition. He earned a Master of Arts in Theory at the Eastman School of Music in 2007. During the 2010-2011 academic year, he taught at Franklin & Marshall College in Lancaster, Pennsylvania.

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Acknowledgements ! It is a pleasure to be able to thank three mentors who have shaped my perspective,

initially in classes and later in my work on this project. Some of the ideas for this study were first fostered during my time in Robert Wason’s seminar on Bill Evans. As an advisor, his comments both early on in the project as well as in its final stages have helped shape my understanding of the relationship between jazz theory and practice. I have appreciated his keen insights and his encouragement along the way. ! I am also grateful to have had Matthew Brown as a teacher and advisor. He

provided crucial support while I worked to frame the theoretical issues. His method of inquiry into musical processes have left their mark on me as well as on this work, and his thoughtful support has always been a welcome constant. I will always look back fondly on our many conversations together. ! Dariusz Terefenko’s classes on keyboard techniques helped to stimulate an

interest in the bridge between performance and theoretical ideas, where understanding is achieved in part by working toward a true fluency in the language of music, not only by making statements about it, but by speaking it as well. His model and inspiration in this area helped to shape the essence of this work. His sensitivity as a reader helped to bring the work to its present form, and I am also thankful to him for his generosity in proofreading my transcriptions. I have taken many of his suggestions. ! My mom and dad, Charlotte and Jeffrey, have served and continue to serve as

wonderful parents. Their endless support and unswerving devotion have filled me with a sense of meaningful place, purpose, and direction.

v ! My sister, Ellen, has been my musical counterpart and friend for as long as I can

remember. Having a lifelong musical companion and friend as a kind of birthright is a wonderful way to go through life. ! For her immeasurable support, strength, and love, I am eternally grateful to my

wife, Jaclyn.

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Abstract ! Patterns have a long and deep history in the tradition of improvisation. Jazz

musicians often use the tonal frameworks of tunes from the Great American Songbook as plans for their improvisations. On top of these tonal plans, players may draw from a set of memorized licks. The present study mediates between these two levels of structure by codifying specific melodic frameworks at the level of the phrase in the solos of jazz pianist Bill Evans. Analyses show that Evans utilized the same melodic frameworks in different performances, but used them to create new melodic lines. These frameworks provide specific ways of navigating the voice-leading strands of a tune, often referred to as guide tones in the study of jazz harmony. At the same time, they allow the performer the flexibility and freedom to create new melodic material in each performance, since they can be elaborated in different ways. ! Although Evans left no extant descriptions of his own structural models for many

of the tunes he played, his repeated performances of certain tunes throughout his career offer a way to determine the melodic models used in his solos. The present study compares different performances of the same tune with one another, as a performance family, codifying melodic frameworks that occur across each set of performances. In addition, since many of the underlying phrase models of standard tunes occur across the repertoire, comparisons can be made between Evans’s performances of different tunes. Wherever the fixed aspects can be understood as governing the variable aspects, the fixed elements can be conceived as structural frames for the solo. ! Acknowledging the existence of such cross-performance structures provides

insight into one kind of knowledge that a player can have when approaching a jazz

vii performance, and aligns with the study of expert behavior by cognitive psychologists. At the same time, positing such structures blurs the traditional distinction between composition and improvisation. In Evans’s case, comparing multiple performances of the same tune provides one way to distinguish learned from improvised behavior, illuminating a level of invariant structure that mediates between the global tonal plan and local licks. Since they exist at the level of the phrase and are neither as general as a tonal plan nor as succinct as licks, these melodic frameworks can be useful in jazz pedagogy as a fruitful starting point for aspiring improvisers.

viii Table of Contents Volume I Introduction! Part I: The Craft of Improvisation! Chapter 1: Improvisation as Problem-Solving! Chapter 2: Determining the Syntax and Deriving the Models ! Part II: Tunes ! Chapter 3: “Autumn Leaves” ! Chapter 4: “Beautiful Love” ! Chapter 5: “Alice in Wonderland” ! Chapter 6: “My Romance” ! Chapter 7: “I Should Care” ! Chapter 8: “Sweet and Lovely” ! Conclusion! Works Cited! Discography! Copyright Permissions! Volume II Note on the Transcriptions! List of Transcribed Performances ! Transcriptions! iii iv 1 1 13 14 48 95 96 129 178 191 196 208 219 221 225 226 .

ix List of Tables TABLE 1: List of Performances! TABLE 2: List of Interviews ! 9 11 .

2: Formal Plan of First A Section of “How About You” ! EXAMPLE 1.5: Example of a “Top-Flight” Solo on “How About You” ! EXAMPLE 1. 1-4! EXAMPLE 2.8: “Top-Flight” and “Simple” Solos with Analysis! EXAMPLE 1. Op.5: Basic Melodic and Harmonic Framework of “I Love You.3: Tonal Plan of “How About You” ! EXAMPLE 1. 6. mm.9: Evans’s “Vague” and “Approximate” Solo with Analysis! EXAMPLE 1.” mm.9: Contrapuntal Reinterpretation of V as ii-V Progression! EXAMPLE 2.8: Expanding V chords into ii-V motions in the B section of “Rhythm Changes” in Bb major! 70 EXAMPLE 2.2: Schumann. 1-8! EXAMPLE 2. 1-9 ! EXAMPLE 2. “Im wunderschönen Monat Mai.x List of Examples EXAMPLE 1.1: Basic Melodic and Harmonic Framework of “How About You” ! 21 EXAMPLE 1.6: Evans’s phrase shifts in “Who Can I Turn To” Solo! 65 EXAMPLE 2. No.4: Evans’s First Eight Measures of “How About You” ! EXAMPLE 1.6: Demonstration of working simply on “How About You” ! EXAMPLE 1.” mm.4: Deep Middlegrounds in Two Types of Deceptive Openings! 22 23 24 27 28 28 30 31 33 44 53 55 56 59 EXAMPLE 2.3: Schumann.10: Diagram of typical jazz resources and processes ! EXAMPLE 2.7: Demonstration of a vague solo on “How About You” ! EXAMPLE 1. 1.” by Cole Porter ! 61 EXAMPLE 2.7: Alternate approaches to beginning a solo on “Autumn Leaves” ! 67 EXAMPLE 2.): “Top-Flight” and “Simple” Solos with Analysis! EXAMPLE 1.8 (cont. Mazurka. “Ich will meine Seele tauchen.1: Chopin.10: Reharmonizing a Chain of Dominants by Reharmonizing Suspensions ! 71 72 .

16: Setting of 5-1 line within the context of the 2-1 and 5-4-3 lines ! 79 EXAMPLE 2.23: Derivation of V/V of V! EXAMPLE 2.17: 5-1 descending line over dominant-to-tonic motions ! EXAMPLE 2.32: Dominant Break in D minor! EXAMPLE 2.i Progression! EXAMPLE 2.30: Adding Voice-leading Strands to a circle-of-fifths sequence! EXAMPLE 2.11: Common Practice Period Behavior of Scale Degree 7 in DominantTonic Cadences! 75 EXAMPLE 2.22: Pedal 5 elaborated with Arch Contour! EXAMPLE 2.12: Jazz Behavior of Scale Degree 7 in Dominant-Tonic Cadences! 75 EXAMPLE 2.20: 5-1 Ascent as Single Line! 80 81 82 82 EXAMPLE 2.i Progression with Added Voices! EXAMPLE 2.14: Essential Voices of Melodic Closure in Evans’s Right-Hand Improvised Lines ! EXAMPLE 2.V .15: Polyphonic Origins of Example 2.26: b5-1 line over V/V .21: 5-1 Ascent Model with upper pedal on scale degree 5 and chromatic passing tones ! 83 EXAMPLE 2.33: Dominant Seventh Chord Expansion (C7)! 83 84 85 86 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 .27: b5-1 line over V/V .13: Jazz Behavior of Scale Degree 2 in Dominant-Tonic Cadences! 76 EXAMPLE 2.19: 5-1 Ascent in Major! EXAMPLE 2.18: Polyphonic Setting of Models! EXAMPLE 2.16! 78 79 EXAMPLE 2.25: Considering off-tonic openings as abbreviations of tonic openings ! EXAMPLE 2.V .28: Creating a circle-of-fifths sequence by dominant extension! EXAMPLE 2.xi EXAMPLE 2.31: Tonic Break in C major! EXAMPLE 2.24: Possible Model behind Example 2.29: Creating a circle-of-fifths sequence in a jazz setting! EXAMPLE 2.23! EXAMPLE 2.

10: Contrapuntal Derivation of ii-V Progression (Reproduction of Example 2.2! EXAMPLE 3.4: Derivation of “C” Section of “Autumn Leaves” from A Section Counterpoint! 101 EXAMPLE 3.9)! 108 EXAMPLE 3.1: Basic Melodic and Harmonic Framework of “Autumn Leaves” ! 98 EXAMPLE 3.14: Birdland 4/30/60: IA: pickups to 1-4 (pickups to 1-4)! EXAMPLE 3.8: Parsing of A Sections of “Autumn Leaves” ! EXAMPLE 3.13: Portrait in Jazz (Take 2): IA: 1-4 (1-4)! EXAMPLE 3.16: Portrait in Jazz (Take 2): IA’: pickup measure through 1-4 (pickup to 8-13)! 114 EXAMPLE 3.15: Birdland 3/12/60: IA: pickups to 1-4 (pickups to 1-4)! 108 111 111 112 113 EXAMPLE 3.12: Delay of 5-1 Descent! EXAMPLE 3.5: Linear Underpinning of Melody of “Autumn Leaves” ! 102 EXAMPLE 3.2: Voice-leading strands of A Sections of “Autumn Leaves” ! EXAMPLE 3.22: Setting of 5-1 Descent in G minor! 116 116 116 117 117 118 .9: Triadic Settings of 5-1 Descent! 104 106 106 EXAMPLE 3.17: Portrait in Jazz (Take 2): IIA’: 1-4 (41-44)! EXAMPLE 3.19: Birdland 3/19/60: IIIA: 1-4 (65-68)! EXAMPLE 3.6: ii-V-I arpeggiated patterns as a method for navigating guide-tone lines! 103 EXAMPLE 3.3: Melodic Underpinning of Melody of A Sections of “Autumn Leaves” ! 100 100 EXAMPLE 3.21: Birdland 3/12/60: IIIB: 5-8 (85-88)! EXAMPLE 3.xii EXAMPLE 3.20: Portrait in Jazz (Take 2): IIIB: 5-8 (85-88)! EXAMPLE 3.7: Reproduction of Example 3.18: Portrait in Jazz (Take 2): IIIA: 1-4 (65-68)! EXAMPLE 3.11: Jazz Settings of 5-1 Descent! EXAMPLE 3.

V .31: Portrait in Jazz (Take 2): IA: 5-8 (5-8)! EXAMPLE 3.29: Portrait in Jazz (Take 1): IIIA: pickups to 5-8 (pickups to 69-72)! EXAMPLE 3.1: Basic Melodic and Harmonic Framework of “Beautiful Love” ! 130 EXAMPLE 4.V .i! EXAMPLE 3.27: Birdland 4/30/60: IA: 4-8 (4-8)! EXAMPLE 3.25: Portrait in Jazz (Take 1): IIA: 5-8 (37-40)! EXAMPLE 3.36: Portrait in Jazz (Take 1): IA’: 5-8 (13-16)! EXAMPLE 3.23: Alternate Settings of 5-1 Descent in G minor! EXAMPLE 3.34: Portrait in Jazz (Take 2): IIIA’: 5-8 (77-80)! EXAMPLE 3.V .V .38: Birdland 3/12/60: IIIA’: 5-8 (77-80)! EXAMPLE 3.33: Birdland 4/30/60: IA’: 5-8 (13-16)! EXAMPLE 3.24: Examples of D-Delay with Encircling! EXAMPLE 3.xiii EXAMPLE 3.40: Setting of 3rds and 7ths over V/V .32: Birdland 4/30/60: IIA: 5-8 (37-40)! EXAMPLE 3.35: Portrait in Jazz (Take 2): IIIA: 4-8 (68-72)! EXAMPLE 3.28: Birdland 3/19/60: IIIA’: 5-8 (77-80)! EXAMPLE 3.26: Birdland 3/19/60: IA: 5-8 (5-8)! EXAMPLE 3.41: Typical Evans voicings for V/V .2: Voice-leading of “Beautiful Love” ! EXAMPLE 4.39: Portrait in Jazz (Take 1): IVA’: 5-8 (109-112)! EXAMPLE 3.43: Examples of V/V .3: Lead-in! 131 132 .37: Birdland 3/12/60: IIA: 4 into 8 (36 into 40)! EXAMPLE 3.i! 119 120 120 121 121 121 121 121 122 122 122 123 123 124 124 124 125 125 125 EXAMPLE 3.30: Birdland 3/12/60: IA’: pickups to 5-8 (pickups to 13-16)! EXAMPLE 3.i Chromatic Scaffold ! 127 EXAMPLE 4.i.42: Evans’s Scaffold for V/V . as at the opening of the B Section of “Autumn Leaves” ! 126 EXAMPLE 3.

13.8-b with octatonic line! EXAMPLE 4.4: Generic Fingering Plan for Lead-in Paradigm! EXAMPLE 4.20: Gestural Similarities! EXAMPLE 4.14: Reproduction of Second Excerpt in Example 4.16: Mixing Paradigms in D Minor: 5-1 ascent and a 5-1 descent! 147 EXAMPLE 4.5: Fingering Plan for Example 4.8-a! EXAMPLE 4.8: 5-1 Descent Paradigms ! EXAMPLE 4.3.11: Octatonic Notes’ Relationship to A7 chord! EXAMPLE 4.9: Excerpts based on Paradigm 4. with analysis! EXAMPLE 4.13: Arpeggiation! EXAMPLE 4. Excerpt 2! EXAMPLE 4.17: Excerpts using a 5-1 ascent paradigm! EXAMPLE 4.xiv EXAMPLE 4.24: Double b7-b6-5 Complex! 147 148 149 151 152 152 154 155 EXAMPLE 4.3.23: Interpretation of Double b7-b6-5 Complex in D minor! EXAMPLE 4.26: 5-1 Descent in F major! EXAMPLE 4.19: Prolongation! EXAMPLE 4.12: Excerpts based on Paradigm 4.25: Rhythmic Tension utilizing the Underlying Pitch Framework! 156 EXAMPLE 4. Excerpt 1! EXAMPLE 4.21: Gestural Similarities Realigned ! EXAMPLE 4.22: Structural Similarities! EXAMPLE 4.6: Fingering Plan for Example 4.15: 5-1 Ascent Paradigm! 134 134 134 136 137 139 140 141 142 144 145 146 EXAMPLE 4.18: Prolonging 5! EXAMPLE 4.7: Alternate Approach for Lead-in of “Beautiful Love” ! EXAMPLE 4.10: Excerpts based on Paradigm 4.27: 5-1 Descent in F major with Scale Degree 6 Prefix! 157 157 .8-b! EXAMPLE 4.

36: Registral Transfer of 5-1 Descent in F major! EXAMPLE 4.49: Unfolded Thirds Traversing an Octave! EXAMPLE 4.31: Eb-D Prefix to 5-1 Descent in F major ! EXAMPLE 4.38: Rhythmic Alterations to 5-1 Descent! EXAMPLE 4.43: Paradigm 1a! EXAMPLE 4.45: Paradigm 1b! EXAMPLE 4.51: 5-1 Descent over measures 9-12 of the A sections ! 175 176 177 .48: Excerpts using a linear descent in one register (Paradigm 1 or 1b)! 174 EXAMPLE 4.41: Final eight measures of “Beautiful Love” (with pickup)! EXAMPLE 4.35: C-Bb-A-G-F canon derived from parallel sixths! EXAMPLE 4.47: Other Examples utilizing Paradigm 1a or Paradigm 1a/b ! 160 161 161 162 163 164 165 166 166 167 168 169 169 170 171 171 172 EXAMPLE 4.42: Paradigm 1! EXAMPLE 4.39: Composite Paradigm! EXAMPLE 4.40: Concatenation of Paradigms! EXAMPLE 4.30: Upper Neighbor of Upper Neighbor on 5-1 Ascent in F major! 159 EXAMPLE 4.28: 5-1 Ascent in F Major! 158 EXAMPLE 4.46: Paradigm 1a/b! EXAMPLE 4.34: Embedded Paradigm! EXAMPLE 4.29: Upper Neighbor of Upper Neighbor on 5-1 Descent in F Major !158 EXAMPLE 4.50: Registrally Transferring a Motive while Maintaining Fixed Lines! EXAMPLE 4.37: bvi Complex in F major! EXAMPLE 4.32: 5-1 Chromatic Ascent in F major! EXAMPLE 4.44: Chorus IA: 8-13: Sections using Paradigm 1a ! EXAMPLE 4.33: Phrase preceding Example 4.32! EXAMPLE 4.xv EXAMPLE 4.

8: B Sections in “Alice in Wonderland” ! EXAMPLE 6.5: b5-8 chain through circle-of-fifths ! EXAMPLE 7.6: “I Should Care”: 1A’: 1-4 (17-20)! EXAMPLE 7.xvi EXAMPLE 5.5: Pedal 5 on opening of A Sections in “Alice in Wonderland” ! 179 181 182 183 184 EXAMPLE 5.2: Lead-in to solo from “My Romance” (Take 1) from Waltz for Debby! EXAMPLE 6.9: Chordal members in Evans’s left.4: Alternate Approach for A Sections of “Alice in Wonderland” ! EXAMPLE 5.3: Left-hand voicing structures for chain of dominants! EXAMPLE 7.7: Other examples of 1-b5 openings to A sections ! EXAMPLE 7.4! 186 188 192 193 194 194 195 EXAMPLE 7.5: Realignment of Example 6.2: Reharmonization of the opening of “I Should Care” ! EXAMPLE 7.3: Evans’s Solos at the Opening of “My Romance” ! EXAMPLE 6.4: Lead-in! EXAMPLE 7.1: Basic Melodic and Harmonic Framework of measures 1-4 of “I Should Care” ! 196 EXAMPLE 7.3: Opening of A Sections in Evans’s Solos on “Alice in Wonderland” ! EXAMPLE 5.6: Model for measures 5-8 of A sections of “Alice in Wonderland” ! 185 EXAMPLE 5.4: Structural Similarities at Temporal Distance of One Measure! EXAMPLE 6.and right-hand lines ! 197 197 198 200 202 203 204 204 .2: Opening of Evans’s Solos on “Alice in Wonderland” ! EXAMPLE 5.8: Reproduction of Example 7.3! EXAMPLE 7.7: Model for measures 9-16 of A sections of “Alice in Wonderland” ! EXAMPLE 5.1: Structure of the melody of “Alice in Wonderland” ! EXAMPLE 5.1: Basic Melodic and Harmonic Framework of “My Romance” ! EXAMPLE 6.

xvii EXAMPLE 7.10: Right-hand lines and typical left-hand voicings for mm. 1 into 5! 213 EXAMPLE 8.2: Structure used in A sections in the third chorus: mm.7: Structure used in A sections in the third chorus. 5-8! EXAMPLE 8. A sections: mm.3: Interpretation 1 of Evans’s Structure! 206 210 211 212 EXAMPLE 8.6: Interpretation 3: Combination of Interpretation 1 and Interpretation 2! 215 EXAMPLE 8. 5-8! EXAMPLE 8.1: Tonal Diagram of the A Sections of “Sweet and Lovely” ! EXAMPLE 8. 1-4 of “I Should Care” ! 205 EXAMPLE 7.11: Diminished Seventh Chords over Dominants! EXAMPLE 8. mm.10: Third chorus.8: Third chorus. 1-4! EXAMPLE 8.4: Excerpts utilizing the Dom7/Dim7 Chordal Pairing Paradigm in Evans’s Third Chorus. mm.5: Interpretation 2 of Evans’s Structure! 214 EXAMPLE 8. A sections ! 216 216 218 .

! Yet the task of codifying Evans’s melodic techniques can prove to be a much more elusive task than that of cataloging his voicings. Although the technique for building melodic lines lies at the heart of every jazz player’s craft. it seems unlikely that any jazz pianist could have achieved such a formidable reputation without the ability to play stellar melodic lines as well. Shortly after his passing in 1980. Following the bebop revolution.1 Introduction ! Bill Evans is widely cited as one of the most influential pianists in jazz history. Evans’s reputation remained strong. through performances and recordings with later trios in the 1960s and 1970s. the knowledge involved in constructing melodies cannot often be as easily explained or discerned as can the knowledge of chordal voicings. He developed this approach further in his trio with bassist Scott LaFaro and drummer Paul Motian. however. ! While jazz players find Evans influential. jazz pianists ranked Bill Evans as their own favorite jazz pianist. with all three players striving for a more interactive and nuanced approach. Kind of Blue (1959). While chordal voicings can be tabulated by simply 1 Cited by Gioia 1997: 302. But while these voicings may be central to Evans’s playing. 1961. Unfortunately. . they also simply enjoy listening to him.1 One reason for his influence and appeal is surely his left-hand voicings. this trio dissolved following the tragic death of Scott LaFaro just days after the group’s famous Village Vanguard performance of June 25. These innovative sonorities created a lush cushion for his right-hand lines as well as for the solos of the other members of the group. Evans helped to establish a more subtle aesthetic through his contributions to Miles Davis’s album.

this knowledge is often treated with reverence. usually existing over successive chords. melodies are multi-faceted. it carried a lot of economic power. sociologist Richard Sennett describes knowledge as it relates to economic gain in this period as “knowledge capital. for craftsmen in the medieval guild system. from a historical perspective it is perhaps fitting that Evans sometimes referred to his work as a craft. Evans himself claimed that knowledge was a key to his development. secrecy of knowledge meant selfpreservation. but by being very analytical. both in keeping authority over the workshop as well as maintaining the ability to sell one’s wares. For this reason. and proceeding 2 3 See Evans 1966. remarking often that he had attained his level of success not by being innately talented. Since it has a direct bearing on a craftsman’s success. knowledge was one of the crucial components to being a master.2 Craftsmanship entails not only technique. . utilizing a specific rhythmic setting. 4 Sennett 2008: 63.” 3 Since keeping this knowledge from one’s competitors meant staying in business.4 ! While the guild system no longer exists as it once did. the knowledge involved in craft is still valued highly by practitioners in different fields. ! For example. In fact. and often elaborating multiple strands of counterpoint. ! Since this melodic knowledge seems elusive. Because of this. Sennett 2008: 57. but also knowledge about basic materials and the way that they can be combined and developed. a youth had to take an oath upon becoming an apprentice.2 labeling the distance of notes from a chordal root as well as their registral placement. See also Aikin 1980: 54. stating that he would not divulge the secrets of his master.

Evans kept a rather tight lid on his own precise solutions to practical problems. determining what this knowledge consisted of for Evans is a difficult task. Harry recounted that on one visit Bill was reluctant to show him a set of chord voicings. we might do well to examine them and consider some of his solutions. . He even refrained from sharing some of his own discoveries with his brother. ! But like the medieval master. Working to understand these problems as they relate to Evans’s work can lead to discoveries about some of the ways that he solved them. 5 The idea that Evans’s success was built on his knowledge suggests that Sennett’s “knowledge capital” has a broader applicability. Because of this. In fact. 7 Evans 1966: 35:43-36:34. However.6 ! Yet while he appreciated the process of self-discovery. Harry.7 Since Evans already tackled some of these problems as they relate to jazz improvisation. as Harry explained.” a viewpoint he described as naive. 5 6 Evans 1966: 11:40-12:53. Evans also noted that he considered students who wanted to learn everything on their own to be trying to “circumvent the great problems of music.3 through a step-by-step learning procedure. and can provide a springboard for further creativity and discovery in this area. but from the fact that he wanted his brother to be able to find the same enjoyment that he had found through the process of discovery. whether compositions or improvisations. he left few descriptions about how he structured many of his own musical creations. While he frequently advocated an analytical approach. Evans 1966: 36:51-39:31. Bill’s reluctance stemmed not from his desire to withhold knowledge for his own gain or power. even after a few days of prodding.

Like Smith. These tunes are commonly referred to as standards. or collectively as The Great American Songbook. Barry Kernfeld includes longer note-sequences. Evans adapted the harmonic progressions of these standard tunes for use as tonal plans for his improvisations.” 8 ! Near the opposite structural extreme. because of their practical importance in providing a framework for a solo. a player can utilize strands of voice-leading as guiding lines for a solo. Paralleling this approach. Like many other players. As with most jazz players of his time. Kenny’s formulas are also short in duration. In his own work on Bill Evans. One of these is the tradition of using memorized licks. In fact. these lines are often referred to in the study of jazz harmony as guide tones. Barry Kenny offers an alternative approach to finding local gestures in Evans’s playing. Steve Larson has shown 8 See Smith 1983. . in citing “formulas” in John Coltrane’s solos. Specifically. which he called “formulas. See Kernfeld 1983. they provide concise modules by which to construct a melody within the given tonal framework. Gregory Smith used a variant of this approach in codifying short melodic units in Evans’s playing. For example. songs that were written for Broadway plays and movies from the 1920s to the 1960s. on a more global level. It is important to note that other researchers have used the word “formula” to refer to longer units than Smith and Kenny. the aspiring improviser confronts many options for navigating these tonal plans.4 ! To know what Evans did. it is useful first to examine his own musical inheritance. See Kenny 1999. When used. ! But how does one create a solo from such a tonal plan? In the jazz tradition and in jazz pedagogy. Evans relied heavily on a body of popular songs as vehicles for his improvisations. these memorized figures can help to create a convincing solo in the style.

how are the licks to be strung together to create a convincing whole? When should a phrase commence and when should it end? If using a guide-tone approach. even when starting out. 2005. the jazz player seeking a unique voice must confront the issue of authorship. and 2006.9 ! Both approaches have their strengths and weaknesses. While jazz players may decorate a guide-tone line in creating their solo. the framework of these contrapuntal strands is created not by the improviser but by the authors of the original tune. as both of these pedagogical approaches rely heavily on pre-composed units. In fact. Guide tones. In addition. many of these licks came from the bebop vocabulary of the late 1940s and early 1950s. licks provide a way for players. utilizing either of these two approaches begs some questions. ! Yet for an aspiring improviser. on the other hand. They can also be used as motives. They are also flexible. how is the guide-tone line to be parsed to make individual phrases? Additionally. provide overall coherence by acting as an overarching model. whereby a player alters a lick throughout a solo to create a sense of overall coherence. to create an idiomatic solo in the style. how is the time to be filled out before the chords move? Also. In addition. In an approach based on a repertoire of licks. rather than superseding either of them. 1998. the present approach suggests that melodic frameworks offer a way to incorporate aspects of both approaches into a single packet of information. This packet can itself be useful because it exists at the level of the phrase. allowing the actual musical surface to be crafted during the moment of performance.5 how some of Bill Evans’s solos derive from the deeper patterns inherent in the underlying tonal plan. 2002. many of the licks that jazz players use are part of a common vocabulary within the jazz community. For Bill Evans. As noted. the models presented here are more specific than guide-tone lines in that they often navigate 9 See Larson 1997-98. these two approaches are not mutually exclusive. 10 .10 ! However.

Methodology ! I codified the models presented in this study through analyses of Evans’s recorded work. aspiring improvisers do not have to worry about how to divide up a larger structure or how to build a coherent phrase from more local gestures. then. and are thus flexible enough to incorporate different motives. from which I compared solos from different performances of the same tune. The analyses were based on transcriptions I made of Evans’s solos. Since the frameworks are already parsed into phrases. In this way. these models focus on an area of structure that mediates between the songs written by songwriters and the licks used by the larger jazz community. they provide a more general outline from which to play than in the tradition of licks. The way a player parses and navigates the structure of a prewritten tune gives rise to a sense of authorship at a middle level. I grouped each set of performances of a tune together into a performance family. ! Codifying models at the level of the phrase offers a fertile starting point for beginners. and used his comments along with claims from cognitive science to help interpret some of the findings. Ultimately. they also serve a pedagogical purpose. The performances selected centered on his work from the early 1960s. At the same time. then. these models mediate between local and global concerns.6 between different voice-leading strands. Because of similarities in these solos. Ultimately. At the same time. these phrase models offer a direct approach for an improviser to create novel solos in a performance. while these models provide a structural vantage point from which to understand aspects of Evans’s work. By comparing Evans’s solos from the different performances in a performance .

it frames some of the issues for learning to play jazz by reconfiguring a model from cognitive science developed by John Sloboda and adapted by Matthew Brown. as well as his demonstration of different approaches that a beginner might take in learning to improvise. Thus. using a consistent melodic framework across performances blurs the distinction between improvisation and composition. but at the same time are more general than the local licks that many improvisers use in their own playing. suggesting that the model invoked depends upon the context. Then. Rather than debating whether a traditional tonal model or an adapted jazz model works best to explain a certain kind of musical passage. ! Naturally. this study advocates a nuanced approach. Whereas traditional tonal models may work in certain . Chapter 1 follows this line of thinking by considering improvisation as a form of problem-solving. Chapter 2 outlines some of the specific tonal issues involved in playing jazz.7 family. It investigates Evans’s own comments on creating music in jazz. ! Adding theoretical substance to these issues. but are flexible enough to be elaborated differently in different performances. these models seem closer to coming from Evans himself. melodic frameworks that Evans used consistently in different performances of the same tune become apparent. Overview ! Evans spoke of learning to create music as a kind of problem-solving. These melodic frameworks are more specific than the tonal framework that would be common to many players’ performances of the tune. These consistencies suggest that certain component parts of each performance family are actually composed units.

each chapter covers a different tune. I transcribed his solos from different performances of the same tune. ! To study Evans’s playing in this way. but varied them in different ways. thus showing how Evans maintained certain structures in different performances. but with different realizations.8 instances. By doing this. . the chapter proceeds by showing some of the basic melodic frameworks found in Evans’s performances. with the disc number listed as well for multi-disc releases. Often alternate takes of performances issued on CD re-releases of an album are considered against the originally released version. They are grouped by tune. Here. listed below in Table 1. since they emerge in different performances of a tune. ! These models provide a basis for the analyses presented in Chapters 3 through 8. After laying out some of these issues. they may fall short elsewhere. Evans’s mental models become more readily apparent. constitute the musical source material for Part II of this work. In most cases. the album or CD re-issue on which the tracks were released. The transcriptions for Evans’s solos on these performances are included in Volume II of this work. and the CD track number. I selected performances on six tunes that exemplify certain aspects of Evans’s technique. along with the date that each performance was recorded. each of these chapters includes analyses from multiple performances of a single tune. From these transcriptions. These performances.

When playing with bassist Eddie Gomez. Edition 1! ! ! ! How My Heart Sings ! ! ! ! ! Bill Evans at Town Hall! ! ! ! Secret Sessions [Live at the Village Vanguard]! Secret Sessions [Live at the Village Vanguard]! Secret Sessions [Live at the Village Vanguard]! Getting Sentimental! ! ! ! ! Waltz for Debby [Live at the Village Vanguard]! Waltz for Debby [Live at the Village Vanguard]! Explorations ! ! ! ! ! ! ! In many ways. Take 2! ! 60/3/12! ! ! 60/3/19! ! ! 60/4/30! ! ! 66/3/unlisted! ! ! 80/9/8! ! ! Beautiful Love ! 60/3/12! ! ! 61/2/2. Evans’s approach changed greatly over the years. Take 2! Sweet and Lovely ! 61/2/2! ! ! List of Performances Album! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! CD Track (Disc) 6 5 2 (3) 2 3 1 4 9 8 (1) 5 (8) 3 4 3 6 1 (6) 8 2 1 9 (1) 14 (4) 8 (7) 1 6 7 9 Sunday at the Village Vanguard! ! ! Sunday at the Village Vanguard! ! ! Secret Sessions [Live at the Village Vanguard]! Portrait in Jazz! ! ! ! ! Portrait in Jazz! ! ! ! ! The 1960 Birdland Sessions! ! ! ! The 1960 Birdland Sessions! ! ! ! The 1960 Birdland Sessions! ! ! ! Secret Sessions [Live at the Village Vanguard]! The Last Waltz [Live at Keystone Korner]! ! The 1960 Birdland Sessions! ! ! ! Explorations ! ! ! ! ! ! Explorations ! ! ! ! ! ! Bill Evans at Town Hall! ! ! ! Secret Sessions [Live at the Village Vanguard]! Paris Concert. Take 1! ! 61/6/25. Just over half of the performances considered in this work come from Evans’s work with his first trio. Evans often let Gomez have the spotlight.9 TABLE 1: List of Performances ! Date (yr/mo/day) ! ! ! ! ! Alice in Wonderland ! 61/6/25. with LaFaro and Motian. letting the tune pass without soloing himself. Take 1!! ! 61/2/2. These are supplemented by . Take 1! ! 61/6/25. Take 1! ! 59/12/28. Take 2! ! 66/11/12! ! Autumn Leaves ! 59/12/28. with long rubato introductions prefixing many later performances. Take 2!! ! 66/2/21! ! ! 68/2/4! ! ! ! 79/11/26! ! I Should Care ! 62/6/5! ! ! ! 66/2/21! ! ! 66/7/3! ! ! ! 67/5/26! ! ! 70/4/18! ! ! 78/1/15! ! My Romance ! 61/6/25. though.

Surely much could be gained from comparing these tunes with Evans’s ballads. his comments can help to frame the analytical findings from the transcriptions. but the similarity of tempo and harmonic rhythm makes it easier to compare one tune with another. ! While his recorded work provides a way to cross-analyze multiple performances of a tune. this study also focuses on recordings that maintained a medium to medium-up swing tempo. Table 2 provides a list of interviews used in this study.10 additional performances of the tunes from later years. Evans’s comments in interviews provide insight into his general approach to acquiring and cultivating the knowledge required for producing a jazz solo. since the figures that Evans used differ when playing swing than when playing ballads. and in one case by performances of another tune altogether (“I Should Care”). the interviews that Evans gave throughout his career offer insights into his own thinking about jazz improvisation. ! Besides emphasizing Evans’s work with LaFaro and Motian. . where he abandoned some of the bebop inflections of his uptempo lines. Because of this. Whereas his recorded work contains the residue of the decisions that he made.

Marian McPartland’s Piano Jazz. demonstrating different approaches to learning to solo as well as a professional-level performance that a beginner might work toward. 1968 1972 1976 McPartland. New York: Oxford University Press. Recorded November 6.” In All in Good Time. 1978. 43. No. 1976. ! Also notable is his 1966 interview with his brother. 7 (February 1972). Harry Bibliographic Information The Universal Mind of Bill Evans: Jazz Pianist on the Creative Process and Self-Teaching. 10. Rhapsody Films. providing demonstrations at the piano.” Contemporary Keyboard. Marian Aikin. 50-52. His interview with her in 1968 finds him talking about general music education. Videorecording. Vol. 6 (June 1980). Len 1977 Spector. No. 24-26. “Bill Evans. “Bill Evans: New Intuitions. 1991. Bill spoke candidly about his own development.” Contemporary Keyboard. 1987.” Down Beat: The Contemporary Music Magazine. “Bill Evans: For Twenty Years A Major Voice In Jazz Piano. first as a pianist and then as a jazz musician. Vol.” Crescendo International. this 1966 interview provides glimpses of learning stages while his later 1978 interview with McPartland provides only . and he offered further comments in 1978 on learning to play jazz. Vol. Les Lyons. 7-8. Vol. In this educational video. 3. 44-45. Marian Tomkins. on sale February 26. “Bill Evans. Audio Recording. In this way. 1976). 54-55.11 TABLE 2: List of Interviews List of Interviews Year 1966 Interviewer Evans. 10. Michael 1978 1980 McPartland. “Bill Evans Today. He offered advice for the beginning jazz player as well. 6. Harry. Jim ! Evans seemed to be the most forthcoming when talking to fellow pianist Marian McPartland. 105-111. Genius. 3 (March 1977). No. 36-37. 12-13. 5 (March 11. No.

12 professional-level. this interview provides a wonderful springboard for learning about the craft of improvisation as practiced by Bill Evans. while both provide valuable information. we can understand improvisation as a form of problem-solving. . With these comments from the master craftsman himself. Thus. It therefore serves as a focal point in the next chapter. goal performances. ! Because of this. the 1966 interview with Harry offers a rare overview of Evans’s own development and learning process. and work toward seeking solutions to these problems in continuing the development of the craft. offering some of the guiding principles framing the analytical findings in the remainder of the work.

13 Part I: The Craft of Improvisation .

1 2 See especially Evans 1966. his comments in interviews. Pressing makes this point.1 And although Evans left little in the way of pedagogical works. each “new” performance would arise in part by the performer reassembling or modifying previously composed material.14 Chapter 1: Improvisation as Problem-Solving ! The act of improvising a solo and the act of learning how to improvise a solo are two very different tasks. provide a body of work by which to study his improvisational process. This knowledge can then inform the way others learn the process of jazz improvisation. Like many activities. since no performer is free from the effects of previous training and study. But specifying what knowledge a jazz player is utilizing while improvising can be an elusive task. an improvisation would most likely contain some previously composed material. where the performer forges a new work different from any previously heard work. an improvisation exists as a creation of the moment. See Pressing 1984: 345. On the one hand. in part because the very idea of learned improvisation presents a paradox. ! Understanding Evans’s working process and examining the resulting musical products can provide valuable insights into how successful jazz solos can be structured. or by using procedures learned prior to the performance. On the other hand. Jazz pianist Bill Evans claimed to have learned to solo by using analytical rigor and by solving problems one at a time. and advocated just such an approach when advising others. . 2 Because of this. coupled with the results of his mental processes as encapsulated in his recorded output. learning to craft a successful jazz improvisation takes much more time than the time one has to improvise it.

In doing so. Berkowitz 2010: xv. other players use them during performance simply as elements of the style. On a more local level. How are the licks to 3 In his study of improvisation in the classical tradition. Thus. it may or may not have been composed by the performer. .15 ! Since some of the musical material of an improvisation predates the improvised performance. discerning the improvised from the composed can become quite difficult. and supplement this pre-performance material during the performance? A consideration of these two areas can help to determine what kinds of knowledge is required for the task of improvisation in jazz. First. Aaron Berkowitz poses the questions of what knowledge is required. which are written not by the performers but by earlier composers. and how it is cultivated. the licks. eventually reaching a point of common currency. For instance. as well as how this knowledge is acquired and cultivated. The jazz player adapts the harmonic plan to use as a framework for the solo sections of the piece. that recur throughout the jazz repertoire may have been created by other performing musicians. or formulas. In seeking a better understanding of the improvisational process. he models his own inquiry of knowledge in improvisation on Chomsky’s inquiry of knowledge in language. The previously composed material may exist at different levels of organization in the piece depending upon the musical tradition. how does the performer adapt or create the material that exists prior to the performance? Second. alter. In addition. how it is acquired. two areas must be considered. embellish. jazz musicians often utilize the largescale harmonic plan of the “standard” tunes of the Great American Songbook.3 ! Compounding the issue is the fact that there are multiple layers to each of these domains. ! Yet the gulf that exists between the large-scale level of the harmonic plan of the standard and the local licks can seem vast to a beginning improviser. But such difficulties should not preclude investigation. how does the performer combine.

Evans paraphrased the famous maxim of knowing one’s problem as the first step in solving it. or voice-leading strands. since the notes of the voice-leading strands move only as each chord moves to the next.” McPartland 1978: Track 10 (0:00-0:49). noted that Bill was reluctant to 4 When speaking of the task before someone learning to improvise. he rarely offered specific information about the actual musical decisions he made and why he made them. saying that students should recognize at the beginning that “knowing the problem is 90% of solving it. ! Ultimately.4 Specifically. they may well have been the byproduct of other processes in his work in trying to find fruitful ways to construct a phrase while navigating the tonal syntax. its usefulness decreases as the harmonic rhythm slows. Evans’s brother.” and that “the problem is to be clear and get down to basic structure. These melodic frameworks are embellished in different ways. his years of practice and performance resulted in their repeated use. many of Evans’s solos exhibit consistently used melodic frameworks at the length of the phrase. as a skeleton for a solo may be a start. Harry. . I will suggest that one of the problems that Evans solved was how to bridge this gap between global structures and local figures.16 be arranged? How are the chord changes to be navigated? While the common approach of using guide tones. indeed. While it would be difficult to ascertain the degree to which these models were or were not conscious for Evans. Hints of Evans’s Solo-Building Process ! Although Evans spoke many times about the type of learning approach he advocated. thereby freeing Evans from the task of having to create large-scale structures during performance and allowing him instead to focus on the precise melodic content. These melodic frameworks acted as specific guides by which to create new melodic material. resulting in his improvised lines.

while Evans’s comments provide a general idea of the way in which he approached musical problems. 8 Cited in Pettinger 1998: 178. Steve Larson has shown how Evans’s comments and demonstrations at the piano from a 1978 interview with Marian McPartland demonstrate some of his techniques of tonal construction and phrase displacement. But while Evans offered information in these discussions about the knowledge that he found essential for jazz performance. not to put it in terms that were so theoretical. he provided less commentary about how he acquired and cultivated this knowledge. ! Earlier in his career. see McPartland 1978.6 Since this interview occurred near the end of his career. See Larson 1998 and Larson 2006. For the original interview. though. For instance.17 show him a particular set of chord voicings because Bill didn’t want to deprive him of the enjoyment of finding his own solution. The few comments that he does provide when demonstrating at the piano in interviews can then help to frame these analytical endeavors. ! Fortunately. . one rarely hears him divulging his solutions and how he arrived at them. this performance can be understood as demonstrating aspects of his idea of the goal state of a jazz performance.5 Thus.” 8 5 6 Evans 1966: 36:56-39:31 (see especially 38:30-39:31). evidence for some of Evans’s solutions can be found by examining his recorded performances. 7 Pettinger 1998: 178. and since Evans claimed that he was showing what he would be thinking about while playing. Evans offered insights about his own development in an interview with his brother.7 Bill stated that he and his brother decided to make a program that would “go into the psychological things you have to go through to master this nebulous craft. Harry. yet had found something missing in them. The two brothers had watched the available educational films on jazz.

building on top of basic skills rather than trying to approximate a goal performance from the very beginning. true way.18 ! During the interview. He warned that an approach that approximates the “product” can’t progress because it builds on top of confusion.9 ! Here. but it must be entirely true and entirely real and entirely accurate.. You can’t take the whole thing.[some people] tend to approximate the product rather than attacking it in a realistic. Evans suggested that a beginner must begin simply.. And I think this is a very important thing. And to approximate the whole thing in a vague way gives one a feeling that. These included one professional-level performance and two performances that he claimed a beginner might play. Evans spoke about the approach that a beginning improviser might take in moving toward a professional-level performance.. .. suggesting that the process of learning to improvise consisted of finding solutions to a body of problems: ! I think the problem is that. locating simple patterns on which one can build would seem to align with Evans’s own approach and advice to others wishing to learn how to improvise. They would rather approximate the entire problem than to take a small part of it and be real and true about it. He played solos that he suggested exhibited different skill levels and different approaches. ! But it is true of any subject that the person that succeeds in anything has the realistic viewpoint at the beginning in knowing that the problem is large and that he has to take it a step at a time and he has to enjoy the step-by-step learning procedure.. he advocated a focused analytical approach. Evans moved to the piano to demonstrate immediately after making this statement. and ultimately you’re going to get so confused that you’ll never find your way out. at any elementary level.they’ve more or less touched the thing. Because these performances 9 Evans 1966: 11:40-12:53. but in this way you just lead yourself toward confusion. that you must be satisfied to be very clear and very real and to be very analytical at any level.. regardless of how elementary. Specifically. In doing so. ! Fortunately for posterity.. he provided a more exact sense of the learning process as he understood and practiced it. Thus.

creating a three-piano 10 McPartland 1978: Track 8 (2:52-3:13). 230 onto 236. In this way. Like many of the tracks on this album. . The second performance shows what he thought a beginner should not do: approximate the goal performance from the beginning. he had overdubbed two piano tracks onto his initial piano track. and thus exists as a first step toward the goal. Evans improvised on the framework of “How About You. He then provided two ways that one might attempt to move toward this goal. they can provide a more detailed picture of the stages of the learning process than in Evans’s later interview with McPartland.10 An analysis of his improvisations proceeds fruitfully by traversing the same path. The first involves working “simply” and “honestly” with the framework. offering this as an exemplar that a beginner might work toward.” a tune that he had recorded three years earlier for the album Conversations with Myself. without working on the problems involved in soloing in any logical or organized way.19 exhibit different skill levels. ! Before embarking on an examination of his solos. Finding “the most fundamental structure”: “How About You?” ! For his demonstration in the interview with his brother. though. but in his view still stands on its own as a successful solo because of the integrity of the approach. one can work toward finding the basis for some of the steps that Evans took in determining what to play. ! After first playing a few measures of the melody of the tune to orient listeners. Evans performed what he claimed would be a professional-level performance. it is appropriate to consider Evans’s statement that when improvising he first found “the most fundamental structure” and worked from there. Quoted by Larson 1998: 219.

Gene Lees. “His mind obviously was working in three dimensions of time simultaneously. As his friend. and that he had in mind a particular arrangement of the tune as he planned to perform it. because each Bill was anticipating and responding to what the other two were doing. However. noted that during the recordings it became clear that Evans knew what the whole was going to sound like from the beginning.” 11 Evans’s ability to record the initial tracks with future tracks in mind indicates that he knew the structure of the tune quite well. As Lees poetically put it. Evans altered the harmonic framework of the standard version to create a more regular and active harmonic rhythm over which to solo. Babes on Broadway. Bill Right. in which she co-starred with Mickey Rooney.20 performance. ! “How About You?” was one of many tunes that Evans played from the Great American Songbook. there seemed to be three Bills. Evans’s working procedure indicated that he was playing the tune based on an idea of its structure that he had crafted in his own mind. and Bill Center. explained. whether from the movie in which it was featured or from other jazz 11 See Lees 1988: 158-159. The quote is from 159. Judy Garland introduced the song in the 1941 movie. . which Lees named based on the location of the track in the stereo mix: Bill Left Channel. who sat in the control booth at the studio while Evans recorded the multi- track performances for Conversations with Myself. in essence pre-planning a three-performer arrangement of the piece as he intended to perform it. as commonly occurs with the adoption of these tunes as vehicles for jazz solos. It would be difficult in many cases to know where Evans learned a particular tune. ! Lees. which consists of tunes that were written as features for Broadway plays or for movies.

each A section also exhibits aspects of a sentence. Evans’s performance differed even from standard jazz renditions of the tune. The version of “How About You?” shown in Example 1. In many cases.” “Beautiful Love.1. Publications.” . though.” “Alice in Wonderland. Each of these two A sections could then be further broken down into four-measure units. an adaptation of a fake book version. 1996. 1994. with two four-measure units of a basic idea followed by an eight-measure continuation (4 measures + 4 measures + 8 measures = 16 measures). 12 EXAMPLE 1.” and “Our Love is Here to Stay. 2001. 278.1: Basic Melodic and Harmonic Framework of “How About You” ! The 32-measure form of “How About You?” divides into two halves. 13 For example.21 performances. Yet as is common in many AA’ tunes from the Great American Songbook.13 12 This version of “How About You?” is an adaptation of that presented in The World’s Greatest Fakebook. other AA’ standards with sentential structures include “My Romance. presents one possible representation of the mental model that jazz performers would have when playing this work. creating an AA’ structure (16 measures + 16 measures). Warner Bros.

F .( ii .22 ! In the 1966 interview with his brother. EXAMPLE 1.I .D7!Gm7 . 5. where the end of each four-measure unit points toward the beginning of the next four-measure unit. Evans played only on the first half of the tune.E7! A! ! Utilizing the beginning and end points of these subphrases as points of tonal articulation. 9-12! ! ! ! Subphrase 4 mm. 13-16 III#! ii . the opening fourmeasure unit begins on tonic and ends on ii-V. which itself functions as the beginning of a motion back to tonic. As shown in Example 1.V )! F Am7(b5) . where a linear 6-b6-5 (D-Db-C) occurs in an upper voice over Gm7-Bbm7-F in the third four-measure phrase.V! ! Gm7-C7! ! Subphrase 2! Subphrase 3! ! mm.2: Formal Plan of First A Section of “How About You” Subphrase 1! ! mm. which points to the tonic chord that begins the second four-measure unit in m. In the basic model presented above. 5-8! mm. playing either the first 16-measure A section or only the first eight measures.2. The frameworks for his phrases in these performances depart from the basic structural models of the phrases outlined above.V Gm7-C7 I ( ii . This motion passes through the tonic and continues through a chromatically inflected circle-of-fifths motion to A major: FBm7(b5)-E7-AM7. 1-4! I! F! ii .Bm7(b5) . the overall motion from F major to A major over the span of the first 16 measures can be parsed into local units of tonal motion.Bbm . the model solos Evans played in his demonstration exhibit linear features .V )! ii ivb . The second four-measure phrase ends with a gesture that initiates a harmonic departure to ii.

While these reharmonizations must work locally. His improvised lines also connect many of the registral transfers inherent in the tune.3: Tonal Plan of “How About You” ! As will be shown. where notes of a given voice-leading structure are resituated in a new harmonic . Evans’s performances also include reharmonizations of the basic harmonic framework outlined above. as shown in Example 1.23 that provide coherence for the entire solo. EXAMPLE 1.3.

3 above. his reharmonizations actually exist as a linear process. his choices also take into account the surrounding voice-leading. an alteration which fundamentally changes the traditional opening of the piece as shown above in Example 1. ‘I like New York in June. . This process of restringing lines is rooted in the deeper harmonic goals and arrivals noted in Examples 1.24 context. In this way. Yet even in this “reminder” performance.4: Evans’s First Eight Measures of “How About You” 14 Evans began by saying: “We all know this song. Thus. Evans’s Performances of “How About You?” ! Evans introduced the tune by noting that listeners would already be familiar with the piece. both Evans’s reharmonizations as well as his solo lines operate from a single structural principle in that they both connect or extend local linear segments within the contrapuntal-harmonic syntax of the tune.1.14 He then played the opening measures to call the piece to mind for those watching the program. EXAMPLE 1.2 and 1. since his harmonic changes arise out of linear motions. How about you?’” Evans 1966: 13:01-13:06. he employed one of his standard opening harmonic gambits.

” see Larson 1998.” both of which he also played in F major and thus move to A major before the bridge (each of these two tunes has an AABA form). but Evans performed it in C major. thus creating a harmonic plan different from that shown above in Example 1. 3. Evans chose to use the tune “The Touch of Your Lips” to demonstrate how he navigated certain aspects of pitch structure. may have constituted a tune family 15 The #IV7 chord may be either a half-diminished seventh chord. as in this excerpt. but with a series of approach chords beginning with Bm7(b5) that lead into the ii chord in m.16 These tunes. jazz players today typically begin “Stella by Starlight” with a #iv7(b5) chord.” See Chapter 7. This off-tonic opening on #iv7(b5). . In his 1978 interview with Marian McPartland.25 ! Here. which here leads to the opening ii of a ii-V motion. such as Cole Porter’s “I Love You” and his own “Waltz for Debby. He would have been familiar with this key movement from other tunes that he played. His performance begins not with a tonic chord (F major). is a standard Evans reharmonization technique. in these performances Evans played only over the first A section (16 measures). or a dominant seventh chord. As another example. Evans utilized his reharmonization of the basic structure of the tune.1. Relative to the scope of this study. but as a pulling back from the ii-V goal of this first four-measure unit. which ends with a move from I to III# (from F major to A major). Evans also used this reharmonization technique in his performances of “I Should Care. ! Although “How About You” is a 32-measure AA’ form. each with a motion to III#.15 This opening chord functions not simply as a reharmonization of the opening F chord. 16 For a Schenkerian reading of Evans’s performance on “The Touch of Your Lips. “The Touch of Your Lips” also utilizes a motion from I to III# across the first A section of an AA’ form.

some aspects of the internal tonal structure of this 16-measure unit also parallel those of “The Touch of Your Lips. . which occurs in m. 17 Along with the overall motion to III# over the course of the first A section. In the second case. Evans played three solos on the opening A section. working “simply” and “honestly” “with the framework. as this solo approximates the exemplary performance from the very beginning without building up to it from a simple model like the second solo.26 for him. 18 Evans describes his performance this way at 13:46-13:57. one that he had worked hard on and thus one on which he felt comfortable demonstrating his solutions. he showed what not to do.1 serves as ii-V of Gm7). but what he thought many young performers try to do.17 ! After playing a few measures of the melody of “How About You” with his chord changes.” 18 In the third case. he played a solo that he suggested a beginner might hear a professional play. In the first case.” Both melodies utilize a motion from scale degree 1 down through scale degree 7 to scale degree b7 in m. he demonstrated a solo that a beginner might take. thereby offering this as an exemplar of a “top-flight” performance. 9 (the Am7(b5)-D7 progression at the end of Example 1. 7 in outlining the beginning of a tonicization of ii.

27 EXAMPLE 1.5: Example of a “Top-Flight” Solo on “How About You” .

6: Demonstration of working simply on “How About You” EXAMPLE 1. that one can’t possibly build on this because it would be building on top of confusion.28 EXAMPLE 1. one . Thus. where he demonstrates an “approximation” of the “top-flight pianists” accomplished in a “vague” way.7: Demonstration of a vague solo on “How About You” ! Evans’s says after his final performance on the tune.

he personally liked to work things out first before performing them live with his trio. But what knowledge is encoded in the simple solo. . See Pettinger 1998: 24. in this interview Evans shows how to lay out a simple structure that can then be elaborated into a more ornamented solo. Indeed. while his trio had had only a few rehearsals throughout its many years together. For an overview of Salzer’s life and work. whose theory curriculum was designed in large part by Schenker student Felix Salzer.20 Following this lead. See Larson 1998: 239n. 19 20 McPartland 1978: Track 10 (1:05-2:10).29 assumes that he would advise building on top of the “simple” solo. ! Comparing the “simple” solo with the “top-flight” solo gives us a sense of what kinds of things Evans may have thought about from the very beginning when learning to play jazz. and how might one build on it to reach the topflight solo? The idea of building on a simple framework to create a more elaborate “surface” may have come to Evans in part through contact with Schenkerian thinking during his classes in the mid-1950s at the Mannes College of Music. Evans may have modeled some of his own ideas of structure on Schenker’s notion of levels. possibly using Schenker’s descriptive analytical procedure as a prescriptive compositional tool. and from comparing his previous two performances of a beginner working simply and of the top-flight pianists it becomes clear that this would consist of adding ever more elaboration to a simple framework. he told Marian McPartland that. one might imagine that Evans’s private work on a tune may have first amounted to something like the “simple” solo he presented here. Along these lines.19 Thus. ! Evans suggests that a beginner could then “build on” the simple solo. as well as from the very beginning of working on a new tune. Steve Larson makes a similar point when he suggests that some of the ways that Bill Evans comments about his own music may be a result of his training at Mannes. see Koslovsky 2009.

30 EXAMPLE 1.8: “Top-Flight” and “Simple” Solos with Analysis .

3. Here. the opening F-(G-E)-F-E-D third with leap to A-G 21 21 The G (scale degree 2) is only in Evans’s rendition of the tune. which continues down through the A to E. . moving through the different inner voices shown in Example 1. After the initial A- D-F arpeggio. a chromaticization of the F-E-D movement in the tune. 2 reminiscent of the double neighbor figure at the opening of the original melody (F-G-E-F).): “Top-Flight” and “Simple” Solos with Analysis ! The “top-flight” solo opens with buried references to the tune. Evans connects the D-to-A ascending leap in m. 3 of the melody by using a D-C-Bb-A line ornamented with a registral transfer from the D up to the C.8. the opening F moves through a descending registral transfer through Eb to D. but does not appear in fake book versions of the tune.8 (cont. As shown in the top staff of Example 1. Thus. the culminating F initiates a blues-inflected upper neighbor figure (F-GAb-G-Gb-F) into m.31 EXAMPLE 1.

Then. as he embeds a descending chromatic tetrachord. Also absent is the registral transfer in m. ! In addition. aspects of the “simple” solo constitute part of the framework for the top-flight solo. make it ill-suited as a starting point on which to build? 22 The use of motivic repetitions (see mm. Rather than operating only on a chordby-chord level. and how could one build upon it or upon its principles to construct the advanced solo? In the simple solo. with the final E in m. then. Evans’s solo sets a pedal against the contrapuntal process underlying the tonal motion: the parallel tenths in his left hand. prefaces the Eb in m. ! Since Evans offered this performance as an exemplar that a beginning improviser would work towards.3. ! Significantly. 9-11) gives a sense of melodic coherence to navigating the line from the melody of the tune. Evans’s chromatic inflection of E into Eb in m. both in the original melody and in Evans’s solo at this point. landing on C in measure 11 before the modulation from F major to A major. of what does the “simple” solo consist. 9-13 remains as the linear path into the A major area.32 becomes a ninth in Evans’s top-flight solo: F-(G-Ab-G)-Eb-D-C-Bb-A-G-F-E as he moves down linearly through the registral transfers shown in Example 1. It begins with a pedal tone over the opening descending bass line. 2 of the top-flight solo. 7. However. 7. then. . 5-13. Evans’s “simple” solo exhibits a structural balance. a pedal F replaces the long descents of the exemplary solo.22 Thus. the A-Ab-G-F-E line from mm. ! What aspects of Evans’s “approximation” performance. from F down to C. his solo line mimics the earlier chromatic descent in the bass. Evans uses this same descending ninth line from F to E over mm. 13 reharmonized in the motion to A major.

For example.9: Evans’s “Vague” and “Approximate” Solo with Analysis This “vague” solo approximates the advanced solo in its use of figures but without the firm structural underpinnings of the advanced solo and the simple solo. 3-5 lands squarely on an F major chord. certain goal tones arrive at odds with the underlying harmony. Evans plays only a few measures. not to be regained. the Ab that culminates the upper-register D-C-Bb-A-Ab line in mm. the A-Ab in the upper register in mm. while this solo contains figural approximations of the top-flight solo. it lacks the structural pillars on which to build. In addition. short linear motions disappear quickly into lower registers without continuation. and thus doesn’t even make it to the modulation to A major. But even in this short excerpt. For example.33 EXAMPLE 1. Thus. . as though he doesn’t want to dwell too long on an example of what not to do. 1-2 quickly descends.

some of these structures may also be shared between different tunes. it is clear that in Evans’s view a player creates a solo on a particular harmonic plan not merely in the moment of performance.23 As with any craft. Because Evans suggested that he liked to prepare a tune before doing it in public. I’d say.24 ! This statement by Evans. See Larson 2005. and years more to reach a level of mastery. all these years. Acquiring and Cultivating the Knowledge to Create a Solo ! From these comments. and it wasn’t until. but through years of study and practice.34 ! As can be seen from comparing the “simple” solo with the “top-flight” solo. . in contradistinction to the approximation solo. Describing his own development. and played at home and maybe four or five nights a week and as much as possible for all these years. jazz improvisation takes years of practice for a player to reach a level of competence. maybe I was 28 or something like that that I began to feel a degree of expressive ability--the ability to now let out my feelings freely through some sort of a craft--and this was in the simple area of the popular idiom. along with others from this 1966 interview. Evans 23 This view aligns with that of Steve Larson in his discussion of improvisation and composition. the early stages of Evans’s work on a tune and the procedure he advocated for a beginner consisted of establishing a melodic framework from which to build a solo. As noted earlier. Additionally. Evans said: I started playing professionally when I was thirteen. his way of thinking in levels of structure may have been conceived in part from his Salzerian-influenced Schenkerian training at Mannes. because many chord progressions occur in multiple tunes. 24 Evans 1966: 30:35-31:04. these kinds of structures would presumably be shared between different performances of the same tune. help give us a sense of the task of learning improvisation as Evans set it before himself.

! Evans spoke often of the study during this formative period as a kind of musical problem-solving.27 25 26 Evans 1966: 28:24-28:53. Evans could recall quite clearly the very moment that he began his study of improvisation. but of acquiring the ability to create music at the piano. ! Now the whole process of learning the facility of being able to play jazz is to take these problems from the outer level in.35 recounted earlier in the interview that he had begun playing the piano at the age of 6. or to change the harmonies. and be able to substitute one harmony for another. Now. you know. and so on. so that I could remember the harmony and be able to play without music. See McPartland 1987: 108-109. and so on and so on. Evans continued by describing some of the steps he took to enact the transition from improvising a bell tone to being able to improvise melodic material through multiple choruses of a popular tune: . and to stay with it at a very intense conscious concentration level until that process becomes secondary and subconscious. ! Evans recounted that the drive to improvise had struck him one night when he was playing “Tuxedo Junction” in a band. when that becomes subconscious. and Schubert “intelligently” and “musically. Evans 1966: 11:40-12:53. 27 Evans 1966: 29:46-30:34. Since he was familiar with the practice of playing bell tones from other arrangements.26 And. 29:46-30:34. .and then I started to learn about changes and harmonics and how a tune was built harmonically. and this is what happened of course.. and by the age of 13 had acquired the ability to play notated masterworks by Mozart. although it may be difficult for some performers to define the beginning and ending points for any such period. the fifteen-year development from age 13 to 28 is not of learning to play the piano.” 25 Thus..” Having described this initial point of departure. McPartland 1978: Track 10 (0:00-0:49). to improvise. he decided to put in a little extra bell tone which had not been “indicated” in “Tuxedo Junction. one by one. then you can begin concentrating on that next problem which will allow you to do a little bit more. Beethoven.

This process of internalization allows the performer to focus instead on the expressive aspects of the music. One of the goals for performers in practicing scales for hours every week is to attain the necessary mind-hand coordination that will allow for the specific fingerings or positions of the scale to be achieved in performance without conscious effort. musicians will be familiar with the idea of subconscious music-making from the notion of practicing scales. The grammatical rules that children learn.” 29 From his comments here. Evans’s description of learning to improvise in a step-by-step way. some of which is cited by Larson 1998. relegating the solutions to each successive problem to the subconscious. Evans discusses “structure” in his interview with Marian McPartland. intellectual way. they help us to clarify what at times seems a discrepancy between comments he made in other interviews. While the idea of subconscious improvising may sound strange. relating to the structure of the music. as well as by Benjamin Givan in describing the debate between “formalist jazz criticism” and “humanistic alternatives” by “‘new’ musicologists” and ethnomusicologists (2003: 73-77. and McPartland 1978: Track 10 (0:00-2:28).28 but at other times stressed that one should think of jazz as a kind of feeling rather than analyzing it “as an intellectual theorem. he advocated approaching musical problems in a focused.36 ! These statements reveal two very important facets about his improvisatory process. ! Furthermore. and that that end is the expressive ability that he talks about. it becomes clear that this focus on structure is a means to an end. More on this discussion appears below. First. aligns with findings in cognitive science and expert behavior. either explicitly in a classroom setting or implicitly from imitating their elders when they are young. 29:46-30:34. help them to construct well-formed 28 29 See Evans 1966: 11:40-12:53. ! Evans’s comments also align with the goals of learning language. At times. the quote appears on 77). This passage is used by Peter Pettinger at the opening of a chapter in his biography of Evans (1998: 107). .

known as a “problem space. “In a sense. the performer can now focus on the expressive content of the performance. where motor functions can be handled automatically. Basically.” 32 30 31 Pressing 1988: 139. Pressing 1988: 139. psychologist Jeff Pressing cites studies that show that in musical improvisation a feeling of ‘letting go’ accompanies increased fluency. when speaking a language in which one is fluent. ! Evans’s awareness of his own development in learning to improvise and his descriptions of this development also align with the information processing model used in cognitive science to explain expert behavior.30 This of course parallels the way that Evans described his own development in relegating certain solutions to these problems to the subconscious. The grammatical rules do not occupy conscious attention. the performer is played by the music. in his study of Debussy’s working processes when writing Iberia. As Pressing puts it. in an article on some of the cognitive aspects of improvisation.” 31 And. . controlled processing changes to automatic motor processing. and focusing on the next level of problems.37 sentences. invokes this model to show how a composer moves from a starting state to a goal state through the constraints of the musical system. the focus during the sentence is usually not so much on where to place a gerund or how to conjugate a verb. 32 For an overview of this work as it relates to musical creation. ! Similarly. but rather on the expressive content one wishes to convey. Matthew Brown. as Evans would have it. Still. see Brown 2003: 1-10. but rather act as a kind of filter of which one is barely ever aware.

one can also invoke the notion of a problem space at the level of a given tune... In an interview with Jim Aikin. invoking and modifying structures that were realized prior to the performance. Evans himself suggested that. Evans cites learning to substitute one harmony for another or to change a longer string of harmonies as one of the initial steps in his learning to play jazz. ! As it relates to jazz improvisation.38 ! In navigating this problem space. . Search strategies consist of learned pathways through the problem space. The successful solutions then exist as search strategies. while he strove to play new melodic material in each performance. thinking of this short chord progression as a problem space.33 Discovering what works and what does not work helps the player to establish search strategies: when a familiar chord sequence arises in a newly presented tune. Evans stated that: Evans: Our solos are different every time. the composer uses search strategies. which can then be reused in a similar context toward moving from the starting state to the goal state. he would keep the structure the same. Thus. The improviser is expected to create new melodic material in the solo sections of the form during each performance. the performer can invoke a learned search strategy for navigating the progression. Notably. 33 As noted above. ! While these local progressions can be construed as problem spaces. The first of these might be in the formative period of learning to play jazz and to improvise in a jazz style. trying different avenues to find successful solutions. This could mean utilizing search strategies for these points across the entire tune. the idea of a problem space exists on at least two levels. The composer creates these search strategies by using discovery procedures. the performer moves from a restricted set of avenues for achieving a jazz performance to a greater set of avenues.

Quoted by Larson 1998: 219. but that must be: I find the most fundamental structure. of course.34 ! It is difficult to state precisely what Evans meant by “structure. When I was with Miles. that happens. but ideally it would be entirely fresh. and then I work from there. and when things are right. the form would be the same. where Evans reroutes his goals but maintains the structural points. though. . And. so that gradually it becomes less improvised. I don’t know what someone else would think is entirely new.37 What might help to further elucidate Evans’s particular treatment of tunes. maybe certain key structural notes or motifs or whatever. I try to accept the challenge and use the discipline in my playing to be fresh. 230 onto 236. would be entirely new. that can happen. You can’t always be fresh. 37 Larson 1998. regarding different types of structures: 34 35 Aikin 1980: 54.35 Immediately after this. That’s a way to approach a solo. Evans: Yeah.39 Aikin: Chick Corea once said that when he plays a solo over a period of time it tends to settle itself. but the melodic and rhythmic content. the theoretical thing. because the structure I would keep pretty much the same. where he would develop a way of approaching a solo. architectural thing. or whatever. he would keep in. 36 McPartland 1978: Track 8 (3:12-3:26). or between the strong structural points differently. Evans reiterated that he meant “the abstract. he would do songs that way. The period I went through after Scott was killed was more like that. Evans himself put it in just this way: I always have in any thing that I play an absolutely basic structure in mind. McPartland 1978: Track 8 (2:52-3:13). is the statement Evans makes right before the above quote.” 36 ! Larson goes on to show how Evans’s comments about and demonstration of “structure” on “The Touch of Your Lips” can be read as articulating a Schenkerian understanding of the tune. Quoted by Larson 1998: 219. Now.” Steve Larson has suggested that Evans’s notion of the “basic structure” of a tune can correspond with strong structural points in the tune. if it were a really high-level performance. Now I can work around that differently. like. and you rely on professionalism and craft to carry you through.

Now. to borrow from CD reissue terminology. ! Luckily. in the absence of comments from Evans about other tunes that he played.. Evans performed certain tunes multiple times over the course of his career. then.. These “alternate takes” of a tune. indicating it. say on this tune. McPartland: You mean you’re talking about..” See McPartland 1978: Track 8 (from 3:24) through Track 9.what I think the student should keep in mind is having a complete picture of the structure as he’s playing. and many of these performances have been captured on recordings. Evans: Well. In this way. like. of the tune and also as [sic] the structure as he wants to indicate it. seeing what his “preplanned” structures were by comparing one improvisation in a performance on a certain 38 39 McPartland 1978: Track 8 (2:32-2:53).. pre-planning in a sense? Evans: Well. .. pre-planning a basic structure. Evans’s ideas of structure may be more clearly assessed from analyzing multiple performances of a specific tune. it becomes difficult to differentiate between pre-planned and improvised aspects in performances on other tunes.39 Unfortunately. can provide a window of insight into the aspects of Evans’s tunes that stayed the same from one performance to another. McPartland: You mean of the tune. rather than analyzing a tune and then analyzing an Evans improvisation on that tune.38 ! Evans stressed a distinction here between the structure of the tune and particular ways of navigating the structure of the tune. yes. Evans demonstrates setting up a dominant pedal point at the opening of “The Touch of Your Lips” as a “plane” or a “bottom” “out of which the rest of the tune will spring.. He also demonstrated ways of “pre-planning a basic structure” that help to articulate the superordinate plan of concatenated choruses that comprise a complete performance.40 Evans: .

one can get a glimpse of some of the features of this process from a . and different search strategies for the “Beautiful Love” family of performances. or of multiple performances over a chord progression that is common to different tunes. In some cases. bass solo. he may have used certain search strategies in both performance families where a certain structure occurs in both tunes. These performances can then be grouped into a unit and compared. ! A performance family.g. piano solo.. then. Mapping the Knowledge Required to Create a Jazz Solo ! While it is certainly not possible to outline all of Evans’s techniques as he understood them. trading. such as standard chord progressions. These similarities would exist because certain aspects of the performance would have been created from a common mental scheme from which Evans drew during the performance. which could have consisted of both an overarching plan for the performance (e. head. is any set of performances on a given tune that contain certain similarities. These search strategies emerge through comparison of different performances of the same tune. over years of practice on the tune as well as other tunes with similar musical structures. head out) as well as more local events like the melodic frameworks to be outlined here.41 tune to another improvisation in a different performance of that same tune. Thus. Evans may have adopted certain search strategies for the “Autumn Leaves” family of performances. Evans would have created the aspects of this mental scheme. both with respect to one another as well as with aspects of the tune itself. ! In this way. Evans’s multiple performances on a tune which share certain characteristics exist as one performance family.

to reconstruct Sloboda’s chart of composition for the jazz process. one would consider the starting state for a performance to be a jazz standard rather than a theme. Thus. which was subsequently adapted by Matthew Brown in his study of Debussy’s Iberia. along with the fact that Evans performed many of the same tunes 40 I am indebted to Matthew Brown for suggesting that his adaptation of Sloboda’s chart of the compositional process could be modified in this way.” 41 Of course. 42 McPartland 1987: 109. ! Evans knew these standards intimately. From this we can understand that Evans called tunes that he himself had spent a lot of time practicing.” at which Evans laughed and said: “That’s right. when she mentioned to him in their 1978 Piano Jazz session that she thought she remembered him saying that “practicing one tune for twenty-four hours is better than practicing twentyfour tunes in an hour.” McPartland 1978: Track 10 (0:47-0:59). but that the interaction between trio members was more spontaneous. This musical theme is molded into intermediate forms and finally to a final form by using superordinate formal models as well as “a repertoire of compositional devices. provides a way to conceptualize how the composer’s knowledge and working processes influence the different stages of the piece as it is developed. 43 McPartland 1978: Track 10 (1:05-2:11). My further adaptation of Brown’s chart serves to frame the discussion of Evans’s improvisational method as outlined here. near the end of his career. He told Marian McPartland in a 1968 interview that he found it “much better to spend thirty hours on one tune than to play thirty tunes in one hour. that while his trio “may have had four rehearsals” over their almost 20-year existence. he himself didn’t perform tunes with the trio that he wasn’t familiar with.42 model proposed by psychologist John Sloboda for studying the compositional process.40 ! Sloboda states that a composer very often begins with a musical theme as his or her starting state. . saying that he liked to be familiar with a tune before performing it in public. from a 1968 interview she did with Evans. the starting point for a jazz performance is very often a jazz standard. McPartland may have been referring to this statement. 41 Sloboda 1985/1999: 118-119. 43 These comments.” 42 And. I think so. Sloboda’s chart. although he told Marian McPartland ten years later. Yeah.

44 This is all the more remarkable considering that placing a bass solo up front was a rather unconventional arrangement for jazz combo groups at the time. ! Evans’s understanding of the superordinate constraints within each performance family also seem to have been rather fixed. it remains to be seen what aspects of Evans’s solo sections were “pre-planned. Additionally. and would have practiced them in great detail before performing them in public. For example. as did Evans’s eight-measure introduction. . certain aspects of the “Autumn Leaves” head arrangement remained quite consistent across the years. the head) were quite consistent across Evans’s career. suggest that he knew the tunes he played quite well. then. at least within each trio..e.43 throughout his career. yielding a format of intro-head-bass solo-head. ! Having seen that the overarching formal plan of the performance and the bookend sections of that form (i. one might reconceive of Sloboda’s chart for Evans’s process of jazz performance as follows: 44 Eddie Gomez’s frequent features during his time with the trio meant that Evans didn’t always solo on a tune.” Evans certainly used familiar jazz licks throughout his solos. ! Ultimately. but I will also suggest that Evans navigated specific types of phrases in remarkably consistent ways. with the head moving directly into the bass solo before Evans would solo. over a twenty-year period. and that these melodic frameworks can be understood as search strategies influencing his conception of a tune. the form of the trio’s recorded performances of “Autumn Leaves” remained remarkably consistent. Evans does not solo during the “Autumn Leaves” performance on Jazzhouse (1969). For example.

44 EXAMPLE 1. if indeed his “studio” play was different from his “unrecorded gig” play. Box C includes the final performances.harmony .counterpoint E Superordinate constraints on form (global level) B “Pre-planned” outline A2 Tune . the rounded boxes. which includes both aspects of the superordinate form of concatenated choruses.10: Diagram of typical jazz resources and processes45 A1 Tune . Evans’s pre-planned structure. The A boxes comprise information from the tune. whether for a regular gig. 46 Evans fan Mike Harris recorded Evans many times at the Village Vanguard. this chart is an adaptation for jazz practice of the model offered by John Sloboda (1985/1999: 118) and subsequently adapted by Matthew Brown (2003: 9) for the realm of classical composition. Evans would not have altered his play in any way. .Studio ! Like Sloboda’s chart and Brown’s adaptation of it. Not knowing that he was being recorded. show stages of the work.Gig recorded for album .46 or a studio recording. a gig which Evans knew would be recorded. presented here on the right. These recordings have been released on the 8-CD set Secret Sessions. 45 As noted above. The A boxes lead to box B. as well as on Getting Sentimental. as well as some of the phrase models that will be presented in this study. apparently without Evans’s knowledge.Gig .melody D1 General stylistic knowledge F Repertoire of compositional devices (phrase level) D2 General tonal knowledge G Jazz licks/formulas (local) C Performances .

” 47 he also recommended heavy doses of practice.48 Thus. boxes D1 and D2. but dividing that box into two boxes. as well as notes 42 and 43. Sloboda included tonal and stylistic knowledge in one box. and G consist of knowledge of musical structures that exist across a broader repertoire. as shown here. Whereas many jazz players quote the melody of a tune directly. See above discussion. shows that tonal characteristics affect certain aspects while stylistic characteristics affect others. while box F influences the material generated in box C. This knowledge. Evans claimed that he did not do this frequently. Evans commented on the idea of referring to the melody of a tune: 47 48 Evans 1966: 29:43-29:48. in turn. boxes E. during this early period. whereas the phrase models suggested here are more generally formed by general tonal knowledge. Generally. which focuses mainly on Evans’s early recordings. the fact that box C is both a musical entity (the work resulting from the performance) as well as a musical process (performing that entity) suggests that this musical process of working on the piece through performance could also influence box F. this study.45 ! Whereas boxes A. generally supports this claim. and C comprise stages of the piece. even though jazz style influences certain aspects of these models. . B. Taking an exact view of melodic quoting. However. F. an idea I call structural paraphrase. Near the end of his career. ! While Evans suggested that he learned mostly “on the job. it is the stylistic characteristics of jazz within a tonal context that affect knowledge of licks and formulas. ! One of the more interesting connections in the diagram above is that of box A2 to box F. many of which would have been common to other players as well. he often used the structural outline of a melody as a frame for an improvised line. rests upon the more general knowledge in the leftmost column.

I don’t do that so much any more. He also suggests this when he notes that a player should have a “complete picture of the structure. leading to a line from box A2 to box F rather than to box G. and no recreative performer can avoid small variations specific to each occasion. ! Evans tells us as much when he notes how he learned to change the harmonies of a tune. F. Conversely. it would be difficult to imagine a performance where the performer did not draw upon elements from previous practice or on knowledge about other musical pieces or structures. and I would vary that as I pleased. exerting an influence.” (1984: 346) Pressing includes a continuum listing different artistic traditions and the “% improvisation” of each. as would have been the case if Evans simply quoted the melody of the tune verbatim. and G) in place prior to the performance. based on knowledge of how tunes were built harmonically. It’s there in spirit.49 This statement corroborates the musical evidence.46 Aikin: Do you refer back motivically to the tune in your solos? Evans: Not very often. ! Suggesting that jazz performers operate in this way provides an overview of jazz improvisation. These limits are never obtained in live performance because no improviser (even in ‘free’ improvisation) can avoid the use of previously learned material. Pressing notes that: “There is a continuum of possibilities between the extreme hypothetical limits of ‘pure’ improvisation and ‘pure’ composition. but simultaneously problematizes the distinction between composition and improvisation. in fact. I sort of feel that the essential melody is always there. for quite a few years I would move out of the melodic implications of the tune when I improvised. When I first started to play jazz. Naturally. it would seem that any performance contains both composed and improvised aspects. it becomes more difficult to delineate between the two realms.50 Thus. there is some degree of improvisation in all performance because certain performance components can only be specified to some degree.” not only of 49 50 Aikin 1980: 54. has noted a kind of continuum on which all performance takes place. (1984: 347) . With these fixed search strategies (boxes E. Jeff Pressing. I would only accept the harmonic structure.

any attempt to completely reconstruct the discovery procedures Evans engaged to enact these search strategies. . Where similar structural features operate in comparable musical situations. or to define all of the search strategies with exact precision. If Evans is “pre-planning a basic structure” in other tunes. we will investigate how the melodic frameworks can be understood with respect to the given harmonic plan of the standard. ! The remainder of this study investigates the melodic frameworks Evans used in different performances. In covering this ground. as he recommends for others and demonstrates in part on “The Touch of Your Lips. we may be peering into the improvisational workshop of Bill Evans. Yet some of these search strategies can be determined by locating their residue in recordings.47 the tune but also of the tune as the player wants to indicate it. as well as some of the techniques that Evans used to embellish these structures in performance. would be impossible.” of what does this “basic structure” consist and how is it to be distinguished from the structure of the tune itself? ! Of course.

it covers a lot of ground. often depended upon the type of phrase model underlying the given phrase. setting up the discussion of some of Evans’s solutions in the second part of the chapter. or may determine the length of a phrase differently in different solos. I will posit that Evans used both traditional models as well as adapted. seem at first to be fundamentally at odds with the models of tonal music of the common practice period. and that the type of model he used. Although tonal jazz obviously grows out of traditional tonality historically. the present chapter begins with an examination of this underlying syntax. In addition.48 Chapter 2: Determining the Syntax and Deriving the Models ! Bill Evans crafted his improvised melodic lines on specific frameworks derived from the contrapuntal and harmonic syntax of tonal jazz. In considering the nature of these frameworks and their use. often suggesting that a nuanced approach can provide a more accurate picture of some concepts than an approach that advocates defining concepts in just one way. ! Perhaps the most difficult aspect of understanding jazz syntax from a traditional theoretical perspective lies in determining the extent to which jazz models should be conceived as variants of traditional tonal models. jazz models in his playing. . certain aspects of jazz practice. while historically traceable from traditional models. Evans may treat a chord within a certain kind of chord progression differently in different solos. such as the rarity of bare triads and the frequency of off-tonic openings. For instance. In doing so. The examination of these issues in the first part of the chapter provides the groundwork for a problem space. may in certain cases be considered as distinct from those traditional models. whether of a traditional or a more jazzoriented nature. Here I will argue that certain jazz phrase models.

Larson 2005. thus requiring a change to the system. Larson 1998: 216. he did not consider it acceptable for tonic chords. and how the theoretical systems developed for each overlap and differ. For example. C-E-G-A as I in C major). because the rule systems for harmonic coloring differ from those of melodic closure.2 While theorists may admit some of these new 1 See Larson 1997-1998. in examining the syntax as practiced by Evans. see Forte 1995. we must define some of the similarities and differences between jazz syntax and traditional tonal syntax. and Martin 1996. For a concise explanation of the use of the added sixth chord in Rameau’s theory. Gilbert 1997. . often stratifying them between hands. While Rameau admitted the added sixth chord on the predominant under double emploi. Larson 2006.1 By a broad definition of “tonality. we can then clarify how Evans used each of these two types of syntax.49 ! Thus. As we will see. see Harrison 1994: 93-94. For analysis of the standards that jazz players use as vehicles for improvisation. the rules that govern Evans’s right-hand melodic lines differ in specific situations from those that govern his left-hand accompanying lines. While the pitch material of jazz is certainly rooted in traditional tonality. Tonality: Historical Product or Unchanging Principle? ! Much has been written about the relationship between tonal theory as applied to the common practice period and tonal theory as applied to jazz. Larson 1998. certain adaptations may be difficult to reconcile with basic premises of the older system. and Terefenko 2004.g. 2 See Strunk 1985: 99-100. using more traditional tonal models (though with adaptations) in his right hand while using more distinctly jazz-oriented models to create his left-hand voicings..” there is certainly a “tonal” kind of jazz. but differences arise when trying to articulate whether what seems a “new” feature can be reconciled to the traditional system or whether it cannot. With this distinction outlined. one commonly accepted alteration in jazz from the common practice period is the use of the tonic added sixth chord (e.

and the way we think of it is independent of its own existence and course of development. whether a historically evolving system or a fixed. ! In trying to define norms of behavior in music. for models of tonality. we look for models. nature does not make neighbor tones or chromaticize pitches.3 While our knowledge about objects in nature. While Western music theory has offered many ideas about the nature of tonality. see Brown 2005. Such a loop is not present in the same way between our knowledge of the natural world and that world itself. the implications of these new “concessions” on other aspects of the system are not always made apparent. universal system. will provide a platform for the larger theoretical discourse. similar to the way a jazz player might think of improvisation over a standard tune. like trees. or about physical properties. ! Trying to understand a class of objects such as jazz pieces. Some of these concessions will be addressed specifically here. Thus. must admit that humans make alterations to “nature’s material. if composers gradually change their conception of what is possible in a tonal work. does not influence these objects or properties. a kind of loop exists between what one knows and what one produces. A brief note about the nature of tonality. our knowledge about tonality is used both to understand tonal pieces as well as to create tonal pieces. On the role of nature in tonality.” such as minor tonic chords. humans do. Schenkerian theory offers a convenient point of comparison because of the way it conceives of a tonal syntax as models and transformations.50 features. who feels that tonality is a natural system because of the hint given to humans from the overtone series. this also changes the new works they create. In addition. can be problematic because the body of knowledge is about norms of behavior. since the natural world is at its most elemental level not of our own production. . And while some features of jazz practice may be 3 Even Schenker. like gravity. Thus. See Schenker’s Harmony. which exist at a further historical distance from the class of objects originally studied under the body of knowledge of traditional tonal theory.

! Schenkerian theorists of jazz admit as much when they allow for new features. as noted above. such that its models certainly originated as . depending upon which model one chooses as a basis. some models may have changed significantly. it is important to proceed from the idea that some features of jazz can be analyzed with regard to both traditional Schenkerian theory. it need not always be an either/or debate. or leave some out. “jazz theory” may offer a different set of models for specific types of passages. a multivalent viewpoint offers explanations that fit within both the Schenkerian system as well as a modified tonal-jazz system. closed system. as well as with regard to other types of models. While acknowledging that the music developed historically. since Schenkerian theory analyzes the type of tonality from which jazz evolved. while philosophical in nature. Instead of picking one or the other. and other new models may have been adopted. is included here to justify the multivalent approach adopted in describing some of the principles outlined below. While jazz developed from principles of tonality. deriving any given model may take a number of paths. But while it is clear that jazz has some distinct features. ! The above discussion. certain jazz features may be “derived” in different ways. making a finite. and some of which may be different. Making such choices can at times be rather difficult. depending upon the chosen model. some of which may be held in common with Schenkerian theory. which may utilize seventh chords and off-tonic openings in non-traditional ways. like the tonic added sixth chord.51 explained through models from Schenkerian theory. Considering that different types of music use tonal characteristics differently. Put concisely. Here triadic Schenkerian models with tonic chords before and after will be considered against modifications of these models. Rather.

4 a historical approach to tonality can inform analysis of Evans’s playing. utilize a more traditional tonal model in attaining closure on the tonal goal of the phrase. ! In defining jazz syntax as practiced by Evans and examining some of the ways that he navigates this syntax. and their implications for tonal syntax. The current work is less comprehensive than Terefenko’s. or. . who identifies fourteen phrase models in the body of standards. the following discussion proceeds by:5 1) examining some of the issues involved in parsing phrases in jazz music. Chapter Overview ! While some other authors have situated jazz harmony within its own sphere. more commonly. we may still consider that new models may explain certain passages more efficiently because they operate at a closer conceptual distance to the music. Evans may use different syntactic principles in his left hand than in his right hand: his left-hand voicings utilize standard jazz voicings and counterpoint. while his right-hand lines either use these jazz voicings to advantage. See Terefenko 2004. 4 5 See Strunk 1979 and Martin 1988. the present work focuses on describing the phrase models of compelling passages in Evans’s playing. who studies the repertoire of standards as a whole. 2) identifying some of the different uses of the ii-V-I progression and the different types of phrase models that may include it. The discussion of phrase models here builds on work by Dariusz Terefenko. and thus require fewer caveats and changes than older models would. At times. Rather. 3) discussing the implications of certain alternate chordal types and jazz reharmonization techniques on traditional voice-leading models.52 adaptations of older models. These domains are used in different ways.

engaging the difficult issue of determining the number of essential voices. on-tonic beginning. However.1: Chopin. No. see Burstein 1988. one can infer an opening tonic chord in positing the preparation of the 4-3 suspension over the dominant. Mazurka. in some cases the initial tonic may seem to be omitted. in which we can understand a lone pickup note as encapsulating an upbeat. 1. 6. Marvin 2001. In such cases. one may posit that the initial tonic chord has been suppressed. such that the tonic chord doesn’t appear or doesn’t appear in full. 1-4 ! In this Chopin mazurka. but still defines the counterpoint and the harmonic sense of the phrase. . Such is the case in the three examples presented below. Since the same melodic figure and harmonic progression occur again on the mediant (A major) moving into measures 3-4. and further application. and Burkhart 1990.6 In cases where the tonic chord does not appear in full. 6 An encapsulation of Schenker’s views on off-tonic openings can be found in Sections 244-246 of Der freie Satz. When is an off-tonic opening really an off-tonic opening? ! Traditional theory holds that closed tonal phrases begin on tonic and end with a dominant to tonic motion. For others’ interpretations of Schenker’s work. Op. mm. one may invoke the notion of a tonic signifier. 5) articulating some of Evans's solutions for navigating these basic phrase models. Burstein 2005. EXAMPLE 2.53 4) defining different jazz phrase models using a polyphonic setting.

In “Ich will meine Seele tauchen. in the second half of the first phrase (mm. before the introduction of the ii6/5 chord that initiates the ii-V-i motion. D over the ii6/5 chord in D major) that was only inferred at the opening of the song.54 and this suspension is prepared.” the pickup-note B in the voice presumably represents an opening B minor tonic sonority. B. the B does receive consonant preparation at the end of measure 2. and by parallelism one could posit a similar setting for the opening. 3-4).1. but that the other chord tones have been omitted. As was also the case in Example 2. ostensibly unsupported. one may posit by parallelism that the opening suspension has been prepared in a similar manner. leading to its dissonant placement as a 7th in measure 3. the next vocal phrase parallels the first in the key of the relative major. seemingly off-tonic openings also occur on predominant chords. Additionally.. .e. Two famous examples come from Schumann’s Dichterliebe cycle. with the B minor goal of the first phrase now serving as the consonant support for the seventh (i. ! While the Chopin mazurka’s first down-beat sounded a dominant chord.

.2: Schumann.” mm. Here. moves between the two relative keys of F# minor and A major. “Ich will meine Seele tauchen. an opening C#-B suspension occurs over D (scale degree b6) in F# minor.” the song that opens Dichterliebe. 1-9 ! Schumann’s “Im wunderschönen Monat Mai.55 EXAMPLE 2.

tonal theorists would assume that the C# is set consonantly while on the upbeat. which again suggests in the immediate term an F# minor reading because of the preceding C# dominant seventh.3: Schumann. Fig. over a dominant chord in F# minor. and globally. Since the song ends on a C# dominant seventh chord. the song has an off-tonic opening at two different levels. starting in 7 The opening Bm chord is reinterpreted when the voice comes in as a predominant in A major. if one conceives of this piece in A major. and that the first four measures exist as a C#7 prolongation. though. Schenker would presumably view this as a bridge into the next song. 1-8 ! Presumably. ! Thus. See Der freie Satz. both locally.” mm. either with an F# minor chord if viewing the first phrase locally. considering the way the pickup note is prepared into the second two-measure unit (measures 3-4). where the C# dominant of the first four measures is interpreted as a global III# that moves to V of A through the B minor predominant.56 EXAMPLE 2. starting on the Bm6/5 chord. but whose first phrase ends with a motion in A major (what seems a half cadence for the voice is answered quickly by a confirming V-I in the accompaniment). . or possibly with an A major chord if viewing the progression globally. “Im wunderschönen Monat Mai.7 Alternatively. rather than as a predominant in F# minor (see measure 5). 110. Schenker’s interpretation of these opening eight measures is of a C#-B-A motion as a 3-2-1 soprano in the context of A major. c2. one might assert that the opening pickup note is set similarly. whose opening starts with an A-C# dyad.

57 F# minor; or on the III# Stufe, C#, of A major. Since this piece begins the Dichterliebe cycle, its unclear tonal nature, both on a local level (lack of a clear initial tonic chord) as well as a global level (what is the presumed opening tonic chord that would support the vocal pickup, C#?), create a fantastic sense of ambiguity to mirror the fact that the poet withholds what the girl says in reply to the boy’s admission of love for her. ! These excerpts all utilize a non-tonic chord on the first downbeat, with an

ostensibly unsupported tone suspended into the opening measure. This suspended tone sets up a 4-3 suspension in the Chopin mazurka, prepares the 7th of the chord in “Ich will meine Seele tauchen,” and sets up a 7-6 suspension in “Im wunderschönen Monat Mai.” Although in each case the pickup note sounds alone and thus receives no consonant support, conceiving of the pickup note as an encapsulation of the tonic chord allows the position that each of these pickup notes does in fact receive consonant support, and thus each suspended tone is prepared by an inferred opening tonic. 8 Furthermore, considering that in each of the above examples the pickup note does receive consonant support in the following phrase, whether in the same key or another, inferring consonant support for the opening tone becomes even more tenable.9 ! In the Chopin mazurka and Schumann’s “Ich will meine Seele tauchen,” a pickup

note was assumed to exist as an encapsulation of a tonic chord. In “Im wunderschönen Monat Mai,” the opening pickup could have a plenitude of interpretations, either from a global view (the piece in A major), a local view (the opening measures in F# minor), or a parallelism with the second two-measure unit (preparing the C# suspension with C#

8

In “Im wunderschönen Monat Mai,” C# fits either F# minor, the local tonic, or A major, the global tonic according to Schenker’s reading. See Schenker’s Der freie Satz, Fig. 110, c2. 9 As noted above in the discussion of “Im wunderschönen Monat Mai,” this consonant support in the second iteration of the phrase (into measures 3-4) is over a dominant in F# minor, not a tonic.

58 dominant support). The song, “Im wunderschönen Monat Mai,” then, may offer a true off-tonic opening, whereas the other two cases merely offered examples where the opening tonic chord was encapsulated in a single note and set in a weak metric position. ! In Schenkerian theory, many openings that ostensibly begin off-tonic can be

subsumed under Schenker’s notion of an auxiliary cadence. However, determining a model for understanding auxiliary cadences in Schenkerian theory is problematic because of differing opinions about fundamental aspects of off-tonic openings. For instance, William Rothstein claims that an opening tonic in an auxiliary cadence is not to be interpreted as having been delayed. On the other hand, L. Poundie Burstein and William Marvin suggest that in such cases the initial non-tonic chord would displace the tonic chord, thereby delaying its arrival in the piece. 10 ! While differences in scale separate the global prototype of the Ursatz from the

local prototype of the phrase model, William Marvin’s twofold distinction of “deceptive openings” for entire pieces,11 conceived at a more local level, can help to clarify two distinct types of phrase models that each seem to begin off-tonic.

10 11

See Rothstein 1981: 122-128, Burstein 1988 and 2005, and Marvin 2005. See also note 18. See Marvin 2005. In pieces that omit the opening tonic (auxiliary cadence pieces) as well as in pieces that delay the initial tonic, Marvin refers to “deceptive openings.” See especially page 10.

59 EXAMPLE 2.4: Deep Middlegrounds in Two Types of Deceptive Openings

!

Example 2.4 illustrates two prototypes for pieces with off-tonic openings. The

first set of cases are subsumed under Schenker’s notion of auxiliary cadences, where a piece that begins with a non-tonic chord is assumed to begin with an implied tonic that has been suppressed.12 The second set of cases delay an initial tonic, and thus are not, properly speaking, auxiliary cadence pieces. ! Since the prototype for auxiliary cadence pieces operates for the entire piece,

suggesting an exact analog to local phrases can seem tenuous, or even spurious. Thus, while the metaphor is certainly not exact, I find the differentiation presented in Example 2.4 to be helpful in clarifying the different settings of ii-V-I progressions in some jazz phrases. By analogy, taking this distinction to a local level, I will argue that certain jazz phrases may be like auxiliary cadences in that they omit or suppress an opening tonic, while others may simply displace (and hence delay) an opening tonic. ! Considering the nature of off-tonic openings in jazz is essential because of the

frequent use of ii-V-I progressions. Where the ii-V-I progression begins a phrase, does the ii-V motion expand a tonic, where an initial tonic sonority functions as an upbeat or

12

See Schenker, Der freie Satz, S. 244; Burstein 1988 and 2005; and Marvin 2001 and 2005.

60 as an implied point of initiation? Or, does the ii-V motion delay a tonic, pushing back the opening tonic to the third measure of a four-measure phrase?13 Complicating the issue, certain ii-V-I progressions within a tune may be understood differently depending upon the setting provided by the player,14 or may vary from one instance to another, whether during the performance of the original melody or during a solo. While some authors suggest that ii-V-I is in fact a phrase model in jazz and can occur without the opening tonic at the beginning of a tune,15 examining the varied uses of the ii-V-I progression, whether as a complete phrase model or as part of a larger unit, can help to provide insights into Evans’s own varied treatment of this standard progression.

Some Different Settings of the ii-V-I Progression in Jazz Phrases ! In trying to articulate the different ways that ii-V-I progressions may be used in

phrases in tonal jazz, and whether these phrases can begin “off-tonic,” we should first consider two types of situations that can occur with regard to the ii-V-I progression’s placement within a phrase. In the tune, “I Love You,” for example, the opening ii-V-I is preceded by a tonic sonority at the end of the verse, on the pickup note. Thus, if performing the tune with the verse, the opening phrase model is I-ii-V-I, with the initial

13

The ii-V-I progression’s uses in jazz are many, where it may occur both within phrases as well as between phrases. Terefenko suggests that the ii-V-I progression’s uses in jazz include: 1) “tonal closure at the end of a tune” 2) “modulatory links to secondary key areas” 3) “local tonicizations” 4) “harmonic alterations” Then, while citing Martin (1988), he states that: “Arguably, the origins of this progression are contrapuntal and result from forward and/or backward projections of the triad.” (Terefenko I: 18) 14 Evans noted in an interview with Marian McPartland that he would consider starting a tune over a dominant pedal. He demonstrates this on “The Touch of Your Lips,” and also uses the technique to open the final performance of the interview, “I Love You,” a tune which will be discussed at greater length below. McPartland 1978. 15 Terefenko includes ii-V-I as a phrase model, as well as phrase models with other types of non-tonic openings. See Terefenko 2004, Vol. II: 63, 64, 66, 75.

61 tonic being condensed into a pickup note. Thus, we have two tonic chords, one at the beginning of the phrase on the pickup and one at the end of the phrase, with contrapuntal motion between them.

EXAMPLE 2.5: Basic Melodic and Harmonic Framework of “I Love You,” by Cole Porter 16

16

This rendition of “I Love You” has been adapted from the version presented in The Standards Real Book. Petaluma, CA: Sher Music Co., 2000.

62 ! However, the third A section of “I Love You” presents a different scenario. This

A section occurs immediately after the bridge in the AABA form. The end of the bridge contains a ii-V progression, reestablishing the global key for the return of the final A section. On a deep level, this motion at the end of the bridge exists as a Schenkerian interruption. Thus, the first part of the form (the AAB of the overall AABA form) culminates in a dominant, and the tonic returns at the beginning of the final A section to initiate the final descent to scale degree 1. ! Here, then, because of the dominant that occurs at the end of the B section, and

the subsequent ii-V-I that begins the A section, this final A section of the form is not immediately preceded by an implied tonic. Rather, coming from the dominant at the end of the bridge, the initial tonic has been delayed, occurring first in measure 3 of the final A section.17 Thus, here the ii-V-I motion operates as a contrapuntal displacement, resulting in a delay of the initial tonic of the phrase, not as a contrapuntal expansion between two tonics, as was the case in the opening four-measure unit of the first A section.18

17

For another example of an interruption with an ensuing tonic-delay via a dominant, see Schenker’s Fig. 138 in Der freie Satz. In this analysis of a Bach minuet, Schenker shows the dominant at the interruption slurred to another dominant, one which delays the initial tonic of the second part of the form. The idea that the tonic is delayed is clearly shown from one level to the next. 18 In a section of his dissertation entitled “Rhythmic Structure of the Auxiliary Cadence,” Burstein notes: While an auxiliary cadence is similar to an anticipation in a tonal sense, it is not necessarily similar to an anticipation in a metric sense. An anticipation must begin in a rhythmically weak position, but the opening of an auxiliary cadence may be accented in relation to its final chord. An auxiliary cadence may function metrically like a suspension or an accented neighbor tone, so that its final chord is retrospectively realized to be present on a deep rhythmic level from the outset of the progression. (Burstein 1988: 53) Marvin (2001: 145) agrees with Burstein on this point, such that both contradict William Rothstein, who interprets Schenker as saying that the tonic is not, in fact, delayed in an auxiliary cadence. See Rothstein 1981: 123, and Burstein 1988: 51n-52n. Here it seems that Burstein may actually be discussing not auxiliary cadences proper, but what Marvin refers to as “deceptive openings” that are not actually auxiliary cadences. See note 11. For additional analytical discussions on pieces that utilize auxiliary cadences, see Charles Burkhart’s analyses of two songs from Schumann’s Liederkreis, Op. 39. Burkhart 1990.

63 ! Thus, depending upon its location within the larger form, a ii-V-I progression

within a phrase can be set in at least two different ways. One may infer that any pickup in the tune or that a soloist may play introduces a tonic sonority, such that the progression is a closed motion in the tonic, moving from an initial tonic state to a final tonic state. Alternatively, we may consider that the ii-V motion delays the opening tonic, such that the phrase contains only one tonic chord, which has been pushed to measure 3 of the phrase (in a four-measure phrase). One case where such an interpretation may be necessary is after a Schenkerian interruption, as noted above in “I Love You.” ! Nevertheless, there are cases in which the piece does not start with a pickup note.

Such situations may occur when the opening verse is omitted, when jazz players improvise over the chord changes without including an opening tonic gesture, or when jazz players write their own tune without a verse.19 In these cases, one may consider that an initial tonic has been suppressed and the opening progression is really (I)-ii-V-I, or that the initial tonic has been delayed, where “I” becomes prefixed with ii-V, resulting in ii-VI. The first scenario assumes two tonic chords contrapuntally connected, while the second scenario assumes one tonic chord with dominant preparation, or a dominant approach.20 Determining which of these two scenarios is occurring at different junctures in a piece helps shape our idea of the phrase boundaries, and thus helps to determine the phrase model.

19 20

Evans’s own composition, “Peri’s Scope,” begins on a ii chord without a pickup. Brown (1989: 108-110) explains that one may repeat a note and then create a new Stufe (i.e., harmonize the repeated note) either prior to or following the original Stufe. It follows that if such a non-tonic Stufe starts a phrase, the phrase would begin off-tonic. The creation of a dominant preparation for a local tonic chord could presumably be created in such a way, with a prolongation of local scale degree 5 backwards. This parallels the model for dominant prefixes in jazz harmony as articulated by Strunk, although Strunk’s forward-pointing arrows, from the dominant to its respective “tonic” chord, could be reversed to backwardpointing arrows to more clearly show the way he generates them, in accordance with his description in the prose (his arrows point to the chord to which the dominant is “applied”). See Strunk 1979: 7-8.

. like a suspirans figure. such that instead of beginning on a strong hypermetric beat and ending on a weak hypermetric beat. in the tune “Who Can I Turn To?”. and ends on a strong hypermetric beat into measure 5 and in measure 9 of the form.21 A player may utilize the tonic chord that ended the previous phrase as an initiation point for the next phrase.64 ! Determining the phrase model used becomes increasingly difficult when considering that the jazz soloist changes the melody when soloing. but rather as interior parts of a phrase that includes the beginning of the next four-measure unit. as at the opening of the melody of “I Love You.6. While one may assume that jazz players might tend to think in the four-measure blocks of changes into which many fake book versions are laid out. an AA’ form. each eight-measure unit consists of a sentential structure: 2 + 2 + 4. Such a phrase shift can alter the metric setting of the phrase. the phrase begins on a weak hypermetric beat. as back-related dominants.” does a tonic state initiate the phrase. or may begin directly in the new tonal area. creating a phrase displacement with respect to the original melody. Evans may treat the ii-V motions that occur at the end of some of the four-measure units not as termination points of local units. ! Alternatively. or has the initial tonic been delayed? Such a decision influences how one conceives of the phrase model that organizes the phrase. Thus. 21 This should become evident from the ensuing discussion. For example. Without an opening pickup note. the opening 2+2+4 grouping (or 4+4 if considering the opening two units as one) may become in Evans’s hands a shifted unit. they don’t always play this way. However. a performer may even shift the phrase boundaries by reinterpreting a ii-V-I progression. as shown in the top staff of Example 2.

” both recorded on the same day during the Portrait in Jazz sessions. ! In his solo in two different performances of “Autumn Leaves. Evans presented two very different treatments of the opening phrase.6: Evans’s phrase shifts in “Who Can I Turn To” Solo ! Therefore. and there are certainly aspects that would be universal. “Autumn Leaves” begins with an eight-measure A . which contains the original melody.65 EXAMPLE 2. or between an improvised chorus and the head. Such alterations can change our perception of the phrase model being used. The phrase spans may differ from one improvised chorus to another. different performances and different choruses may contain phrases in slightly different positions. while it may seem expedient to consider the phrase structure of each chorus as common to all performances.6 above. as shown in Example 2.

Because the tune ends in G minor. consisting of a diatonic circle-of-fifths progression culminating in the global tonic. the opening chord progression is Cm7-F7-BbM7-EbM7-Am7(b5)-D7-Gm. Bb. G minor. we can also interpret the opening four-measure unit as a ii-V-I motion in the key of the relative major. of what jazz players call a turnaround: a series of harmonies that lead back to the chord that opens the form. the motion from the end of the form to the beginning is also a circle-of-fifths motion. Of the two recordings of “Autumn Leaves” released on the CD reissue of Portrait in Jazz. . Evans utilizes the first of these strategies at the opening of his Take 1 solo and the second of these strategies at the opening of his Take 2 solo. with the closing G minor chord leading to the opening Cm7 chord.22 However. albeit brief. thereby preparing the opening Cm7 with its own dominant. or 2) as a ii-V-I motion in Bb without any Gm prefix. because of the chord qualities and metric placement of the opening chords of the form (Cm7-F7-BbM7). VI in G minor) to a ii-V-i in the home key: Am7(b5)-D7-Gm. ! These two interpretations suggest that this opening unit through measure 4 of the form can be conceived in at least two ways: 1) as a motion from the G minor area that ends the previous formal unit into the local area of Bb. 22 This would be one instance. Evans often utilized a G7(#5) chord as a chromatic propellant to bridge this formal juncture. moving through Eb as a pivot (IV in Bb.66 section. Thus. with one chord per measure.

with the ii7 chord functioning as a reharmonization of non-chord tones of the dominant.16 and the surrounding discussion below. F. F sits squarely over ii7 (Cm7). Eb. While this is literally what is happening. whenever scale degree 5 is prolonged into the tonic area and then descends. with a beginning clearly in Bb major. passing tone. and falls through a passing seventh. as local scale degree 5. the F seems to function as a chord tone. then moves down stepwise through chord tones D and Bb. See Example 2.67 EXAMPLE 2. within the Cm7 area. Eb. The note. here F appears as a chord tone while Eb and G are double neighbor tones. linear motion into a point of closure. to D. then. 23 Alternatively. thus functioning with D as an encircling of the chordal goal tone. chord tone or as an unstable. one could say that the F is prolonged into the Bb area. a motion into the local tonic area of Bb. . In Take 2.23 ! Here.7: Alternate approaches to beginning a solo on “Autumn Leaves” ! In the Take 1 excerpt. a line descends a sixth from G over Gm to Bb over EbM7 (the local IV chord in Bb). In the Take 2 excerpt. the phrase model one chooses determines which notes are chord tones and which notes are not. where 5-4-3 occurs as a line of closure. because of the idea of contrapuntal. can be set both as a stable. however. 24 This contrapuntal interpretation of the jazz practice of expanding a V chord into a ii-V unit is outlined in the discussion below.24 Thus. the F on the upbeat occurs as a passing seventh in the G7(#5) chord in moving from G to Eb. In Take 1. with suspensions occurring as well (note the Bb over the F7). this is considered a variant of a 5-4-3 motion into the tonic area from the dominant area.

! Jazz phrases that begin “off-tonic” certainly developed in part from the concept’s Classical-music origins. This can affect the decision of what the chord tones are. the EbM7 to Dm7 motion disallows consonant preparation of the seventh of the Dm7 chord. Vol.25 However. landing on strong hypermetric beats rather than weak hypermetric beats. “Jazz Transformations of the ii7-V7-I Progression. or whether a larger chordal sequence is at work. in the second A section of “I’ve Got You Under My Skin.7. Additionally. Available Online: http://www. 26 For example. and an analysis of a solo must take into consideration which of these possibilities are being utilized by the player. A ii-V-I progression that begins an A section can have a different interpretation based on where it occurs in the form.” a ii-V-I progression in Eb moves to a ii-V-I progression in C major. . as we saw regarding the F in the Cm7 area in Example 2. there are multiple issues that arise.68 ! Ultimately. an analysis of the phrase structure of a standard must take into account different possibilities. the jazz tradition frequently omits the opening verse that would have offered tonic preparation for the off-tonic opening.” Additionally.org/v1/CRJ-JazzTransformations. Third. then. some jazz reharmonization 25 See also Terefenko’s explanation of the derivation of the ii-V-I progression as an alternate stride bass within the dominant harmony. a player’s interpretation of phrase boundaries may affect how we understand a chord progression. While the culminating C major functions as a local V of Fm for the final ii-V-I before the bridge. for instance whether a ii-V is an expansion of a V.” don’t begin with an opening melodic pickup note. such as “Alice in Wonderland” and Evans’s own “Peri’s Scope.crj-online. the insertion of some ii-V-I progressions in the middle of a tune do not allow for the preparation of the seventh from a consonance. where downbeat initiations of phrases in the tune were shifted into suspirans-like figures in the solo.” Current Research in Jazz. Second. they may in some cases differ. as we saw in Example 2.6 above.php. 26 Finally. while the phrase boundaries may match those of the original melody of the tune. 1 (2009). as we saw in “I Love You. some jazz tunes. First.

and we understand the ii-V motion as having delayed the arrival of that tonic. while not always assumed as a previous temporal element. may not always imply a previous tonic.27 ! Because of these issues. with a motion from tonic back to tonic. at times the ii chord may arise from a prior. The Nature of Some ii-V Motions ! Standard jazz practice allows for the expansion of a V chord into a ii-V motion. ! In summary. not as always having come from something that is missing. the ii chord indicates a conceptual tonic without necessarily coming from a temporally prior. “I” is an underlying tonal element. William Marvin makes this same case in a paper on different kinds of off-tonic openings: some “offtonic” pieces may start with an implied tonic (Schenker’s auxiliary cadence pieces). This can occur in different contexts. delaying its arrival. implied tonic. I will suggest that a progression that begins without a tonic. implied tonic. One such case of pulling back chords will be discussed below. while other times an opening ii-V may delay the initial tonic.69 procedures work backward from the tonic at the end of a phrase. Thus. but more as a goal-oriented motion into the tonic chord. then. while others may delay the initial tonic. See Marvin 2005. is still always a prior element in the generation of a tune in the Schenkerian sense. but one spot where jazz players frequently utilize 27 28 See Martin 1988. it implicates itself as ii. thereby implying the key of its respective tonic. In other words. an initial ii can be understood as pointing toward something.28 In both cases. The tonic. Because of its frequency as a model for jazz openings. such as a ii-V-I progression. when we hear an opening minor seventh chord. rather than from an initial tonic. . Rather. jazz ii-V-I progressions may exist not as a suppression of I-ii-V-I into (I)-ii-V-I.

especially Examples 1 and 2 on pages 148 and 150. respectively. “Jazz Transformations of the ii7-V7-I Progression. “I Got Rhythm. Op.php.” an AABA form. See Dariusz Terefenko. Available Online: http://www. 39.org/v1/CRJ-JazzTransformations. .” the chord changes of the Gershwin brothers’ song.8: Expanding V chords into ii-V motions in the B section of “Rhythm Changes” in Bb major Function Chord (in Bb) V Chord Expanded as ii-V V/V/V/V D7 Am7-D7 V/V/V G7 Dm7-G7 V/V C7 Gm7-C7 V F7 Cm7-F7 While we can explain this chordal alteration in different ways. taking a historical approach.” Current Research in Jazz. 30 Dariusz Terefenko. See Burkhart 1990. Vol.70 this reharmonization technique is in tunes built on “Rhythm Changes. one approach would be to understand the alteration as contrapuntal in origin.30 as follows: 29 See Strunk 1979: 13-14. with each dominant becoming a ii-V: EXAMPLE 2.” from Liederkreis. Jazz players commonly expand this circle-of-fifths progression of dominants into a series of ii-V motions. the D7-G7-C7-F7 chord progression may be elaborated as follows. showing a II chord in the prolongation of a V chord. playing the 5th of the dominant chord (scale degree 2) on strong beats rather than the conventional weak-beat placement. Burkhart utilizes a similar approach in his analysis of Schumann’s “Mondnacht. with suspended tones over a dominant being reharmonized. 1 (2009). The B section of Rhythm Changes consists of a chain of four dominant chords that lead back to the tonic at the beginning of the final A section of the form.29 Considering that the B section in “I Got Rhythm” functions as a goal-directed circle-of-fifths sequence to return to the Bb tonic.crj-online. suggests that the ii-V progression in jazz may have originated in part from stride pianists alternating the normal root-5th motion in the bass.

resulting in a ii7-V7 progression in Bb major.71 EXAMPLE 2.9: Contrapuntal Reinterpretation of V as ii-V Progression ! ! Example 2.9b includes suspended tones.8 can be reconfigured along these same lines.9c then shows these same upper voice strands. . as a reharmonization of 4-3 suspensions. thereby creating a Cm7 chord. ! Example 2. creating a 4-3 suspension and a 9-8 suspension. These suspensions displace the lines of alternating sevenths and thirds that occur in the voice-leading in a chain of dominants. Example 2.9a begins with a dominant seventh chord. Example 2. but with the suspensions placed over an alternate bass note.

Fig. . 32 For example. as in a scale degree 3-4-3 motion over I-V-I.10: Reharmonizing a Chain of Dominants by Reharmonizing Suspensions ! This reharmonization technique includes one extremely significant caveat: notes can be harmonized as the seventh of a chord. is harmonized as a seventh at the middleground. Der freie Satz. the issue of seventh chords is problematic in Schenkerian theory.31 he also sometimes harmonizes an upper neighbor as the seventh of a chord. and 177. Sections 170. See the discussion in Der freie Satz. but of determining how any such 31 Schenker does include exceptions to this when he says that a passing seventh may be transformed into a consonance. The issue is not simply that of determining the nature of any such seventh chord. and the corresponding note on p.2. an upper neighbor. 61. 62.2. see Schenker. While Schenker posits that the seventh chord arises as a passing phenomenon. For example. 62.72 EXAMPLE 2. In Figure 42.4.32 Because of such exceptions. then made “consonant” at the local level. 176. scale degree 4. as well as Schenker’s own writings on the subject. Schenker shows a prolonged Bb7 sonority across the development section of Beethoven’s Opus 81a. See also note 30 in the present work. 42. specifically see p. in Fig. harmonized locally as part of a IV chord (Schenker explains the passage this way in Section 170 (p. 62)).

include the fact that a note in a voice-leading strand can be harmonized as the seventh of a chord. This quote appears on page 207. I: 13-14) The idea that the ii7 is independent and that it requires preceding consonant preparation may at times conflict. The behavior of the 7th in the context of a typical jazz progression is controlled and prepared by the preceding consonant interval. (Terefenko 2004. These two a priori propositions. that is. seventh chords will be permitted as sonorities here. the prototypes and transformations will look a lot like tonal transformations. .” 34 In light of this viewpoint.73 seventh chord can be treated. since it combines harmonic and melodic dimensions of the progression controlled by the rules of voice leading. and Straus 1997. and because the notion of tritone substitutions in jazz assumes a reinterpretation of the 3rd and 7th of the chord (thus.35 The complete implications of this.33 ! In his own review of this debate. In some cases. a large body of literature exists on whether traditionally “dissonant” structures can be prolonged. Since the goal of any theory of music is to efficiently model the rules of practice for a repertoire of pieces. similar to Schenker’s own views on the 33 34 See Morgan 1976. we can try to represent them as a system of prototypes. and levels. Larson 1997. “chordal seventh”). Also. the 7th constitutes the primary extension. are fundamental in the jazz syntax. Vol. transformations. while broader than can be taken up here. The notion that the ii7 is a reharmonization of tones of a dominant may help to alleviate this discrepancy in the cases where it exists. the independent role of the ii7 and the required presence of primary extensions within chordal formations. but there is no reason to suppose that they will always be analogous. a fundamental chord member whose mandatory presence conveys the quality of chords. 35 Terefenko states: The function and treatment of the 7th is more relaxed in jazz than in Common-Practice music. any discussion of jazz syntax should take into account the empirical evidence from the jazz repertory. In jazz. For instance. Matthew Brown concludes that: “Once we have discovered appropriate laws of voice leading and harmony for each repertory. ! The reharmonization technique discussed above is standard jazz parlance. Straus 1987. Brown 2005: 202-208.

36 as well as tonic added-sixth chords. bII (a tritone substitution). a chord labeled as “V” may be V. . such as a passing tone or an upper neighbor. not as a label for three pitch classes (scale degrees 5. I use the symbol “V” as functional category for dominants. is partially defined by two upper voices. converging on the tonic scale degree. 38 In the examples to follow. from scale degree 7 and scale degree 2. Thus.38 36 37 See Martin 1988. One of these. in the jazz examples. While jazz analysts typically admit chordal sevenths as primary chordal tones. as noted above. scale degree 7. depending upon the context.74 subject. and Larson 1998: 216. ascends to scale degree 1. Jazz Voicings: Undermining Traditional Tonal Closure ! Having examined the practice of expanding a V chord into a ii-V motion. with a 5-1 motion in the bass. See also Forte 1995. the seventh chord may arise in other ways as well. See Strunk 1985: 99. ! A perfect authentic cadence in the common practice period. and 2). or either of these chords with added notes.37 the effect of these and other chordal accretions on traditional voice-leading models of tonal closure is not always immediately evident. 7. it remains to be seen whether the lines of counterpoint in the traditional tonal cadence behave similarly in jazz practice. See also note 32.

However. unless the 7-1 motion occurs in the melody of the tune. where scale degree 2 holds to become a ninth over the tonic. Rather. the resolution of the leading tone to the tonic does not often occur in jazz voiceleading.11: Common Practice Period Behavior of Scale Degree 7 in Dominant-Tonic Cadences ! In jazz practice. as in a 13th-9th voice-leading chain. it often remains on scale degree 7 or moves down to scale degree 6. such that the leading tone over the dominant does not always resolve up to 1. .12: Jazz Behavior of Scale Degree 7 in Dominant-Tonic Cadences Thus. EXAMPLE 2. such that it may either be 2 to 2. the V-I motion is frequently adorned with additional tones. however.75 EXAMPLE 2. or 3 (or b3) to 2. ! Of course. scale degree 2 also partakes in the closure to the tonic scale degree. this 2-to-1 strand of traditional tonal cadences is altered in jazz.

and scale degree 2 may displace what would be scale degree 1 in the tonic chord.” I would suggest that they should be considered additions displacing traditional triadic voices rather than suspensions. then. the fact that scale degree 2 doesn’t resolve to 1 either at cadences or at the end of a piece seems to assume a normative model that rarely occurs in the repertoire under study. or 6 on the tonic chord. the absence of scale degree 1 as an upper-voice tone in the final tonic chord of a cadence further precludes the possibility of defining tonal closure by way of an upper-voice convergence on scale degree 1. If one views these additional tones. this motion from 39 Additionally. such as 2 over the tonic chord. as “non-chord tones. 7. While the concept arguably acquires historical significance less because the root is often absent and more because the root is not the lowest-sounding note. since the model should empirically be rules gleaned from the body of work under study. while some may claim that the 3-2 and 2-2 strands are variants of the 2-1 line by the process of suspensions. Evans’s voicings are in fact often truly “rootless. ! Evans’s playing also problematizes traditional notions of tonal closure. Since the bass may either move from 5 to 1 or from b2 to 1 (as in a tritone substitution. . the only upper voice that always must resolve in a specific way in a dominant to tonic cadential motion in jazz is scale degree 4 moving to scale degree 3.39 ! Since scale degree 7 may move to scale degree 1. Evans is renowned for implementing what have been called “rootless” left-hand voicings. Such a claim flies in the face of the scientific method espoused by those who claim its validity.76 EXAMPLE 2. one is left to find another essential voice to define cadential closure.” Ultimately.13: Jazz Behavior of Scale Degree 2 in Dominant-Tonic Cadences ! Without these essential voice-leading motions of traditional cadential closure. since the preparations and resolutions required in the suspension model do not commonly occur in the practice of the body under study. bII7 to I).

14. Frequently. including Evans’s left-hand chord-voicing lines. with a motion from 3 down to 1. his right hand solo lines often provide traditional functional closure in the upper voice on scale degree 1. his right-hand improvised lines often behave quite differently.77 scale degree 4 to scale degree 3 emerges as the essential voice-leading motion of jazz cadences. Evans culminates the end of a four-measure improvised phrase with a descent to scale degree 1. Thus. or as a rhythmic displacement of the scale degree 3-2-1 line. shown below in Example 2. These voices may double another line occurring in Evans’s left-hand voicings. while this is the case with jazz harmony in general. specifically: 5-4-3.” and his left hand’s essential line of closure is a scale degree 4-3 motion. This 3-2-1 motion over the tonic area can be conceived as either a kind of motion to an inner voice from scale degree 3 down to scale degree 1. ! The essential upper voices for melodic closure in Evans’s improvised lines over a dominant are motions into scale degree 3 and into scale degree 1. and 7-1. while Evans’s left hand provides tonal “color” via the addition of what are traditionally labeled as “non-chord tones. Thus. 2-1. ! However. . This can occur either at the moment the dominant chord moves to the tonic. or once the tonic area has arrived. Evans’s right-hand improvised lines often utilize these traditional lines of closure.

two descend: 2-1 and 5-4-3. 5-4-3 and 2-1).14. and Evans’s solutions for navigating ii-V-I phrase models grow out of this basic voice-leading model. ! Inverting the bottom line from Example 2. Example 2. his righthand melodic lines often close by landing on scale degree 3 or scale degree 1 in stepwise fashion.14 places scale degree 5 in the soprano. the crossover into the tonic area occurs through a combination of these two lines (i. Evans frequently utilizes a descending 5-1 motion within the local key area. Thus. in accordance with the typical voice-leading motions of traditional tonal practice. landing on scale degree 3 or scale degree 1. . Expanding the Diatonic Model of Cadential Closure into a Four-Measure Phrase Model ! In achieving a sense of tonal closure at the end of a four-measure phrase. Thus. as shown in Example 2.15.78 EXAMPLE 2.e. Of the three voiceleading strands outlined above in the top staff of Example 2.14 offers a model for tonal closure for diatonic ii-V-I progressions.. although the chords that Evans plays in his left hand make use of tones not commonly considered as part of chordal entities in traditional tonal theory.14: Essential Voices of Melodic Closure in Evans’s Right-Hand Improvised Lines ! ! Therefore.

Where the descent occurs into scale degree 1 at the beginning of the tonic area. Thus. ! In this way.79 EXAMPLE 2.15: Polyphonic Origins of Example 2. However. as shown in Example 2. ! These models differ from the traditional notion of guide tones. because these motions may be delayed. the 5-1 line has been pulled apart.16-b is occurring with a delay.16-b. the 5-1 descent line can be parsed in different ways based on the single underlying model. or whether Example 2. from two voice-leading lines into one improvisational guiding line. a motion from 5 down to 2 occurs in the dominant area.16-a. The models noted above. as in Example 2.16-a is occurring. it may be difficult at times to determine whether Example 2.16: Setting of 5-1 line within the context of the 2-1 and 5-4-3 lines ! When the line lands on scale degree 3. the present work will point out 5-1-line descents without spending much time detailing which one of the above two prototypes is actually governing a specific section. since guide tones consist of strands of voice-leading. on the other hand.16 ! EXAMPLE 2. a motion to the inner voice scale degree 1 may still occur within the tonic area. move . In either case.

some of whose other chord tones have been displaced. the interpretation offered here posits that some of the chordal tones of the dominant enter late.40 EXAMPLE 2. ! In addition to these two models. . See Forte 1995: 11. Such cases may be difficult to distinguish. with non-chord tones moving into chord tones over the dominant. Rather. scale degree 5 may be held as a pedal through the dominant area and into the tonic area. but with the V chord expanded into a ii-V motion. appearing late. thereby delaying the initiation of the 5-1 descent. the motion between inner voices provides a more specific framework for Evans than the more sparse guide tone lines.17 shows these models set within a dominant-to-tonic motion. Forte suggests that scale degree 5 occurs too soon. the descent from scale degree 5 to scale degree 1 begins in the tonic area. but (I)-ii-V-I. ! Since a V chord can be expanded into a ii-V motion. Thus. such as “Alice in Wonderland” or Evans’s own “Peri’s Scope. Forte’s idea of “compression.9. such that scale degree 5 is in place but that other notes of the dominant are delayed.17: 5-1 descending line over dominant-to-tonic motions 40 Reconceiving a ii-V progression as an expansion of the V chord. anticipating the upcoming dominant. In this case. where the opening 5 may possibly be understood as being compressed into the opening ii chord.80 between these voice-leading strands. In this way. moving from one voice of a chord to another. allows a different interpretation of the so-called ii11 chord (with scale degree 5 above a ii7 chord) than offered by Allen Forte. with scale degree 5 occurring over a dominant. with the rest of the I chord omitted. may be applicable in cases where the phrase model is not ii-V-I.” as beginning in the way outlined here.” though. the idea presented here can be understood as a reversal of Forte’s. these three models for 5-1 descents can occur within ii-V-I progressions. as derived above in Example 2. Example 2. but one could interpret tunes that open with scale degree 5 over ii7.

81 While Example 2. with scale degree 5 held. In such cases. and c) 5-line where 5 holds over tonic. b) 5-line which lands on 1 over tonic. a possibility in Example 2. Although the ii-V area has been derived from the dominant. he may use upper and lower neighbors to scale degree 5. can be considered as a delay of Example 2.18 presents polyphonic settings of the models shown in Example 2. which lands on 3. from his openings on scale degree 5. then moves through 3 to 1. even though his lines often begin with scale degree 5 set up as a relatively stable tone. EXAMPLE 2. or may surround scale degree 4. noting the voice-leading of these models with respect to the ii chord.7 and the surrounding discussion.17-a.17. Evans frequently does move through the local chord tones of the ii chord. the ii-V-I progression may be embedded in a larger phrase model.18-b.18-a and Example 2. Thus. since Evans’s lines often do utilize the ii-V-I as a . as shown in Example 2.18: Polyphonic Setting of Models ! As noted above in Example 2.17-c. However. we will assume each of these as a basic model: ! ! ! a) 5-line which lands on 3 over tonic. ! Example 2.18-c. scale degree 5 may not be a chord tone.

.82 phrase model. the model appears as follows: EXAMPLE 2. EXAMPLE 2. and thus not a chord tone in the ii-V dominant area. or whether it comes from the ii-V motion that delays the tonic in a dominant approach scenario.20: 5-1 Ascent as Single Line ! The model is frequently adorned with an upper pedal on scale degree 5 as well as chromatic passing tones. ! Evans also sometimes effects tonal closure with an ascending line from scale degree 5 up to scale degree 1. determining whether the excerpt begins with an implied tonic chord can change the interpretation of whether the opening scale degree 5 is a holdover from the initial tonic. then closes on scale degree 1 over the tonic.19: 5-1 Ascent in Major ! As a single line. This line moves from scale degree 5 through scale degree 7 over the dominant area.

21: 5-1 Ascent Model with upper pedal on scale degree 5 and chromatic passing tones ! ! Evans occasionally uses a 5-1 descending line across longer spans. In such cases. . the opening phrase prolongs scale degree 5.83 EXAMPLE 2. This may be ornamented through octave transfers as well as arpeggios to other chord tones.22: Pedal 5 elaborated with Arch Contour ! Evans often alters this framework through delays. notably in tunes that have deeper 5-1 lines themselves. Evans frequently utilizes these devices to create an arch contour at the opening phrase of a solo. such as “Alice in Wonderland” (see Chapter 5). EXAMPLE 2. This will be examined in greater detail below.

In this way. On the other hand. where the dominant is expanded into a ii-V motion. 64.23: Derivation of V/V of V ! In Example 2. EXAMPLE 2. assuming a suppressed opening tonic. the tritone of the dominant seventh chord has been displaced by another tritone a half step above. see Schenker’s interpretation of V/V motions as presented in his Harmony. especially pages 60-66 and Example 49 (56) on p. the discussion centered on a diatonic transformation of the dominant-tonic motion. the above progression would occur as an abbreviation of the following:41 41 For another discussion of the #4-4 voice-leading strand. . Another possible mode of expansion would be to expand the dominant chord chromatically.84 Chromatic Progressions: Tonal Closure ! The above discussion noted how Evans made use of traditional forms of tonal closure in his right-hand melodic lines even while sometimes abandoning these traditional lines in his left-hand voicings in favor of other “color” tones. by extending the lines of voice-leading back from the dominant.23-b.

then shows a suspension of scale degree 1 in Example 2.24-d.23 could potentially be seen as an abbreviation of the first system of Example 2.24-b.23 ! Example 2. then a chromaticization of the top line in Example 2.24-c.24 assumes a I-V-I model.23. Example 2. Example 2.23 and Example 2.24 begins with a closed harmonic progression (I-V-I). as in Example 2.24.85 EXAMPLE 2.23 assumes a V-I motion as a model.24 work from two different models. ! The first system of Example 2. it presents no dissonant intervals strung back from a chord. and also assumes that tritones are intervals that can be harmonized. Although still maintaining that notes can be harmonized by seventh chords. as follows: . thus allowing seventh chords as diatonic sonorities. and finally a reharmonization of the resultant tones in Example 2.24: Possible Model behind Example 2. where the tonic is delayed. ! Example 2. and takes a more Schenkerian-oriented approach.

EXAMPLE 2.27 show the setting in minor.23 as a normative procedure. one can derive “back from” a tonic. Since Evans frequently used the V/V . Thus. I adopt the dominant extension principle used in Example 2. In this way.25: Considering off-tonic openings as abbreviations of tonic openings ! However.26 and 2. though. Examples 2. Here. .23. a scale degree b5-4-3 motion leads into the tonic. dominants can be extended back from a tonic. Thus.i Progression ! 42 This is in keeping with other writings on jazz harmony. without inferring a preceding tonic state. In a V/V . not just “between” tonics.42 ! The above discussion noted how Evans frequently utilized 5-1 descending and ascending lines as models for his improvised solos. Evans often modified the 5-1 descent into a b5-1 descent.26: b5-1 line over V/V . as shown in Example 2.I progression in minor.86 EXAMPLE 2.V .V . See specifically Martin 1988. followed by a motion into the inner voice scale degree 1. in jazz practice the method for creating chains of dominants aligns more closely with the procedure shown in Example 2. setting scale degree 5 over the opening V/V would result in a harsh dissonance. such that a preceding tonic state is not always assumed. In such cases.V .I progression.26.

the opening scale degree 5 is flatted to fit the voice-leading model. 43 Some jazz authors refer to a #9th as a b10th. making a 13th-#9th chain. Thus. ! Additionally. This chromatic inflection fits the underlying tonal model while at the same time evoking the blues 5th of the key so commonly used in jazz.87 Thus. In such cases. In this way Evans’s use of “blue” notes arises from deeper structural principles. bringing the jazz voicing principles he uses to color his left-hand chord voicings into his right-hand improvised lines. thus creating another arch contour as described above. Evans often employed a polyphonic setting in his right hand. recognizing its status as a blues third occurring simultaneously with the major third. . Evans often utilized an ascending arpeggio over the opening V/V. balanced by a descending arpeggio over V.27: b5-1 line over V/V . the voicing arpeggios serve as a kind of prefix to the tonal closure brought about by the 5-1 descending line that occurs within the tonic area.43 EXAMPLE 2. This arch contour then frequently leads into a 5-1 descent within the tonic area.V . an additional line of counterpoint may also appear above the two chains of 3rds and 7ths.i Progression with Added Voices ! With these voice-leading strands as a model.

defining a “circle-of-fifths” sequence in jazz by its 3rd and 7th tritones rather than its root motion models the idea of tritone substitution as jazz players explain it: each tritone interval in the upper voices has two possible bass-note harmonizations.88 Chromatic Progressions: Sequences ! Extending the chain of dominants over a larger span can result in a circle-of-fifths sequence that culminates in a tonic chord at the end of a four-measure phrase. making G#’s enharmonic equivalent Ab the seventh. As with Brown’s protocol. Thus. Matthew Brown derives sequences from lines of counterpoint rather than from bass or root motion. the opening tritone G#/D tritone in Example 2. or may have Bb as its bass note. 44 Brown’s procedure aligns quite well with traditional jazz practice. . EXAMPLE 2.28: Creating a circle-of-fifths sequence by dominant extension ! In his explication of tonality. and making 44 See Brown 2005.28 may have E as its bass. making G# the third and D the seventh.

allowing sevenths as chordal tones in dominants allows us to construe the idea of tritone substitution in the way conceived and practiced by jazz musicians. as shown in Example 2.30. this is not the only possible setting for the contrapuntal lines presented in the soprano. . while tritones are not typically considered plausible chordal intervals. ! Thus.45 EXAMPLE 2.29-c.29: Creating a circle-of-fifths sequence in a jazz setting ! Adding voice-leading strands to the fundamental 3rd-7th and 7th-3rd lines shown in the top staff of Example 2. 45 For another overview of the idea of tritone substitutions. and thus a multitude of bass lines is possible by choosing between combinations. Evans creates a densely polyphonic texture with diminished seventh chords in the right hand.28 creates a bass line that makes a “circle-of-fifths” sequence. Thus. each tritone has two possible bass notes. As noted above. 7th-3rd.89 D the third. while utilizing his classic 3rd-7th. and #9th-13th voicings in the left hand. while Example 2. see Martin 1988: 10-11.

30: Adding Voice-leading Strands to a circle-of-fifths sequence ! The diminished seventh chords in the right hand constitute a filling-out of the chord by saturating the upper voices with notes from the octatonic collection that jazz players would typically utilize in soloing over a dominant seventh chord. 46 Evans uses this approach in other cases as well. Chapter 14: 109-124. chords which occur over another chord. The Jazz Piano Book. where the last two measures of the 32-bar form of the head or the previous soloist’s final chorus become the introduction to the next player’s solo. the challenge is often to create a dynamic motion into the beginning of the solo. see Mark Levine.. the diminished seventh chords in the right hand can be conceived as upper structures. 1989. CA: Sher Music Co. . this incoming break can 46 For an overview of upper structures.90 EXAMPLE 2. While the end of the form usually lands on tonic. where he utilizes this idea over a longer dominant area. but which in effect merely present a way to play certain chordal extensions of the base chord. In such cases. Especially important as a formal unit is the “break” leading into the opening chorus of one’s solo. he would also need to be able to play material to bridge the gap between the end of one chorus and the beginning of the next. Parsed in this way. Petaluma. Chordal Expansions ! While the models presented above showed some of Evans’s solutions for playing over tonal phrase models within the confines of 32-bar song form.33. one of which is presented below in Example 2.

In so doing. . the “time” often stops.48 47 48 This is conceptually similar to Schenker’s idea of an initial ascent (Anstieg). which may then initiate a line or fall to scale degree 5.91 either maintain that tonic or imply a dominant. Evans made use of both of these possibilities.31: Tonic Break in C major Type 2a: Dominant Lead-in ! Alternatively.Dm/A . This consistency helps to prevent hesitation during a break. which is a very exposed moment for a player and a very important formal moment in the rhetoric of one’s solo. Evans may utilize a dominant break. or A . EXAMPLE 2.47 Over some breaks. Type 1: Tonic ! Evans’s breaks typically make use of an ascending gesture. he may imply a tonic arpeggio to decorate scale degree 1. “Time” in this context refers to the walking bass line and the consistent drum groove. In a break. thereby giving the new soloist space for the solo to begin. creating a break (hence the name). Many of his lines here make use of a consistent hand position pattern. The bass player and drummer may stop playing. alternating V5/3-V6/4-V5/3.A. as though setting up a potential energy for his lines to eventually fall. he may imply pedal 6/4 chords.

2009. Personal Communication. like “Sweet and Lovely. Thus. offering a hand-position plan that allows for fluency in this exposed moment of performance. This creates a parallelism. These may occur in tunes that utilize blues-influenced progressions. the model for this break is both conceptual as well as physical. See also note 2 in Chapter 8.32: Dominant Break in D minor ! Example 2. both musical and otherwise. For an overview of the hand as it relates to craft. leading into one’s solo without the support of the rhythm section. with the viio7 chord that jazz players associate with a dominant seventh chord sounding underneath the displaced 49 For a personal account of the development of the hand in jazz piano playing. September 10. Because of this consistency of hand position.49 Type 2b: Embellished Dominant Arpeggio ! Above we noted Evans’s use of a tonic arpeggio to expand a tonic chord. 50 I am grateful to Robert Wason for suggesting that the chord changes at the opening of “Sweet and Lovely” exist as an abbreviated 12-bar blues progression. see Sennett 2008: 149-178.” a plan he uses consistently across multiple performances. the break exists not only as a series of 5/3-6/4-5/3 motions over an inferred dominant pedal.92 EXAMPLE 2. and uses b9 as upper neighbor to the root of the chord.” 50 with an opening I7 chord that we hear functioning as V7/IV as it moves to IV in bar 5. see Sudnow 1978/1993/2001. . He also utilizes dominant arpeggios to expand dominant chords. Evans also created a shadow line a major seventh above the chord tones. but also as a pattern of ascending hand positions complete with pivots.32 shows plausible fingerings for one of Evans’s models for the break in “Beautiful Love. Here.

93 lower chromatic neighbors to this chord (which now appear a major 7th above). Thus, on a C7, a C#o7 chord in the lower register will be shadowed in an upper register by a Co7 chord, the tones of which are chromatic lower neighbors to the C#o7, but displaced by an octave. This entire collection comprises the octatonic scale, also known as the diminished scale, that players often use when soloing over this dominant seventh chord. However, Evans’s layout of this collection is less scalar in nature and more harmonic, parsed as it is into two superimposed diminished seventh chords.

EXAMPLE 2.33: Dominant Seventh Chord Expansion (C7)

! With the right hand consisting of a diminished seventh chord over an underlying dominant base, as shown above in Example 2.33, this model exists as an expansion of any one of the dominant chords presented in Example 2.30.

Conclusion ! Above, we have examined three phrase models,

a) ii-V-I

94 b) V/V-V-I c) Chain of dominants into a tonic.

In addition, we have outlined methods of chordal expansion, either on the tonic or on the dominant, which may occur as the opening measures of a phrase or as a connective between choruses. We have then seen how Evans’s solutions for navigating these chordal patterns derive from the polyphonic lines of the chordal patterns themselves, or how he adds or modifies these lines. The following chapters offer case studies, with each chapter examining a tune that Evans played, noting how these basic solutions are utilized in the same contexts again and again, but with different local-level elaborations. ! Thus, what Evans brings to an improvisation is not merely the chordal framework

with its constituent guide tone lines, nor is it simply a fixed set of “licks.” Rather, he brings a set of models for how to navigate the syntax, models that are fixed enough to allow the performer a degree of consistency between performances, but flexible enough to allow for the development of new melodic material through elaboration.

95

Part II: Tunes

96

Chapter 3: “Autumn Leaves” Tune Structure and Typical Improvisational Approaches ! The last chapter outlined a set of models that Evans used to navigate the tonal

syntax of the tunes that he played. These models now serve as focal points for the next few chapters, offering a way to frame Evans’s improvised lines. Since these models navigate the tonal syntax of the tune, each analysis begins with an analysis of the tune used as a vehicle for the improvisation. These tunes constitute part of the body of tunes commonly referred to as “the Great American Songbook,” or as “standards,” which consists of popular songs from the early- and mid-20th century that have been adopted as vehicles for jazz performance. ! These tunes can often be parsed into local units of tonal motion, one of the most

common of which are ii-V-I progressions. Even where ii-V-I motions do not exist in the original tune, jazz players frequently interpolate them in reharmonizing the tune to help delineate local tonal areas.1 Because of this, ii-V-I motions pervade the standards repertoire.2 At times, these ii-V-I progressions exist as byproducts of a larger tonal motion. However, since jazz players learn to play over ii-V-I progressions, and thus to parse phrases in this way, both methods can be considered as procedural goals for an improviser. Thus, on the one hand, a player may isolate ii-V-I progressions and treat
1

Dariusz Terefenko has defined the different phrase types that occur in standard tunes, codifying them into 14 distinct phrase types. See Dariusz Terefenko. Keith Jarrett’s Transformation of Standard Tunes. 2 Volumes. Ph.D. Dissertation. Eastman School of Music, 2004. 2 Although the version of “Autumn Leaves” presented here, from The New Real Book, consists of many iiV-I progressions, the original lead sheet of a tune would often not have had such a predominance of ii-V-I progressions. Thus, the fake book rendition of “Autumn Leaves” presented here differs from the original version, but represents a kind of general tune framework for “Autumn Leaves” that captures many facets that would be common to the jazz community’s conception of the tune. The ii-V-I progressions are one way that a jazz player can parse the piece, and, as will be argued here, therefore exist as distinct zones in which the player can utilize player-specific techniques, as will be discussed here, or more general techniques used by a community of players.

97 them as local key areas, melodically articulating the motion into each local tonic. Or, on the other hand, a player may play a longer phrase spanning a larger, more global tonal motion. ! “Autumn Leaves,” a tune that Bill Evans played frequently throughout his career,

provides a good case in point. While each of the opening two eight-measure phrases is a “circle-of-fifths” sequence3 that culminates in the global tonic, G minor, each of these first two eight-measure phrases can also be parsed into two four-measure phrases, each with its own distinctive ii-V-I progression: a ii-V-I progression in Bb major precedes a iiV-i progression in G minor.

3

“Circle-of-fifths” is the common name for this sequence, but here I will make use of Matthew Brown’s method for deriving sequences, as outlined in his Explaining Tonality: Schenkerian Theory and Beyond. In this view, the circle-of-fifths motion in the bass is considered as the byproduct of the motion in the upper voices, set in this way to avoid parallel fifths or octaves with the upper voices, rather than the generator of the harmonic progression. However, the name “circle-of-fifths” remains a succinct way to express the sequence’s identity.

98 EXAMPLE 3.1: Basic Melodic and Harmonic Framework of “Autumn Leaves” 4

!

When improvising over the first eight measures of “Autumn Leaves,” one could

conceive of these as two concatenated ii-V-I progressions, the first in Bb major and the second in the relative key of G minor, or one could consider the entire eight-measure span as one directed movement toward G minor. As noted above, jazz players often learn specific patterns to play over ii-V-I progressions, and thus would probably consider each four-measure unit as a distinct tonal area, while a Schenkerian analyst would more likely claim that the Bb chord progression is a byproduct of voice-leading within the global key of G minor. Even if the Bb major area is considered as merely a “passing key” en route to G minor, in keeping more closely with Schenkerian theory, one could still improvise a melody over this area as though Bb were the tonic temporarily, thereby articulating the Bb chord as the point of tonal arrival of the first four measures.
4

This rendition of “Autumn Leaves” has been adapted from the version presented in The New Real Book. Petaluma, CA: Sher Music Co., 1988.

99 ! To articulate a method for playing over the tune not by local ii-V-I progressions,

but rather by making use of aspects of the goal-directed motion toward G minor, one would need another kind of scaffold. Here, the contrapuntal framework delineated by the harmonic progression could serve as this goal. In his own study of Evans’s work, Gregory Smith dismissed the “melodic” aspect of what he called the “melodic-harmonic framework,” saying that Evans only played the melody on the opening and closing chorus of the performance, what many call “the head.” 5 However, rather than saying that this leaves only with the “harmonic” aspect, and describing this harmonic aspect merely as a “recurrent cycle of...pitch collections,” as Smith did, thereby abandoning any sense of logical progression through these tones, the underlying framework of the counterpoint inherent in the harmonies could be utilized as a scaffold for improvisation. ! Such a viewpoint is not a novel one in jazz, but commonly appears by another

name, “guide tones,” where a player’s line is “guided” by an underlying line of voiceleading in the harmonic progression.6 In the opening A sections of “Autumn Leaves,” a player could choose to begin a line on Eb, Bb, or G of the opening Cm7 chord, and use the continuing strand of voice-leading through the chord changes as a scaffold for an improvised line.

5 6

Smith 1983: 155-157. See Wolf Burbat. Des Harmonik des Jazz. Translated by Robert W. Wason as Jazz Harmony. Unpublished. Volume I: 17. Burbat himself actually uses the English term, “guide-lines.”

The only . is seemingly an AABC structure. the melody of “Autumn Leaves” demonstrates just such an elaboration of the guide-tone lines of the chord progression. However. “Autumn Leaves. The Eb-D-C-Bb line of the opening two eight-measure phrases exists as a 3rd-7th chain running through the “circle-of-fifths” progression. rather than simply thinking of it as a concatenation of ii-V-I progressions with a melody overtop.” rather than being built from a straightforward AABA or AA’ (abac) form. as does the harmonic/contrapuntal progression.3: Melodic Underpinning of Melody of A Sections of “Autumn Leaves” ! Conceiving of the identity of the tune “Autumn Leaves” in this way.2: Voice-leading strands of A Sections of “Autumn Leaves” ! In fact. the underlying linear motion of the melody of the final “C” section is identical to that of the opening A sections: Eb-D-C-Bb. or AAB bar-form if the final sixteen measures are regarded as one musical unit. as are most standards. while the melody of the tune indicates such an AABC structure. as one way of harmonizing this Eb-D-C-Bb line in G minor.100 EXAMPLE 3. EXAMPLE 3. one can also account for some of the formal oddities of the tune.

in the final eight measures of the form. 7 Here. . rather than moving from Bb major to G minor as in the earlier A sections. but as 6-5 in G minor. the ii-V-I progressions of the B section are the reverse of those of the A section: first a iiV-i progression in G minor. then. serves to regain the opening Eb. G minor. thus preparing for this final descent.101 difference here is that this passage has been reharmonized to begin in the key that ends the piece. EXAMPLE 3. the Eb-D-C-Bb line that defines the melodic motion of the first two A sections has been reharmonized such that the opening Eb-D is set not as 4-3 in Bb major. then a ii-V-I progression in Bb major. the Eb functions over the D as a flat ninth of a D7(b9) chord. then.4: Derivation of “C” Section of “Autumn Leaves” from A Section Counterpoint Thus.7 ! The linear motion in the melody of the B section. In setting this ascending melodic line. as it was in the A sections.

we have seen how these two methods for conceiving the tune (i. In this regard. one could conceive of the piece as a collection of local iiV-I progressions. further consideration will illuminate the relationship between these two approaches. On the other hand. While the above discussion examined each of the resulting two perspectives in a general sense. On the one hand. as a concatenation of ii-V-I progressions.102 EXAMPLE 3.. ! In addition.5: Linear Underpinning of Melody of “Autumn Leaves” 8 ! In this way.e. and as a broader tonal motion) align with different approaches for improvising offered by jazz pedagogy. we have even examined how the identity of the melody of the tune might allow for alternate harmonizations based on its underlying linear structure. both of the harmonic progression and of the melody. one could conceive of “Autumn Leaves” with regard to the underlying counterpoint. 8 The eight-measure slurs in the example are meant to show formal units. the tonal plan of “Autumn Leaves” can be considered from two perspectives. taking a more holistic perspective. . which in this case makes use of one of the contrapuntal guide-tone lines. The improviser would then think of these ii-V-I progressions as delineating local phrase units.

in “Autumn Leaves” a player can use guide-tone lines over the entire A sections. . As shown in Example 3. we might say that a player uses the guide-tone line of a ii-V-I progression as a scaffold for the arpeggiated figures created over a given chord progression.6: ii-V-I arpeggiated patterns as a method for navigating guide-tone lines ! As we have seen. usually arpeggios. the notion of guide-tone lines can extend to more than just ii-V-I progressions. though.103 ! As noted above. or from Bb to A to G to F# to G (or E over a Gm6 chord). These procedures can consist of particular musical figures. In such cases. moving from Eb to D to C to Bb. as shown in Example 3. players often have specific ways of navigating ii-V-I progressions. However.6. In other words. or from G to F to Eb to D. such that we can understand the ii-V-I melodic patterns as specific instantiations of guide-tone ornamentation. jazz pedagogy traditionally offers specific ways of ornamenting these guide-tone lines in ii-V-I progressions. and they may utilize the underlying voice-leading as a framework for these arpeggiated figures. since the ii-V-I patterns move through the voice-leading of a harmonic progression. EXAMPLE 3. the line that constitutes the framework of the melody. ii-V-I patterns exist as a specific subset of guide-tone lines.7.

Thus. then. instead of continuing the Eb-D of the first fourmeasure span through C to Bb in the second four-measure span. as noted above. a player could outline the voice-leading over each ii-V-I progression.2 ! This example shows the guide-tone lines that function over the entire span. first in Bb major. he used additional techniques as well. then in G minor. these lines can also be parsed into smaller ii-V-I entities: first in Bb major and then in G minor. While Bill Evans used some of these techniques. but with a different surrounding context than the Eb-D of the first four measures. a player might choose to ornament the Eb-D framework over the first four measures. For instance.7: Reproduction of Example 3. then abandon the continuation of that line (C-Bb) and switch to the Eb-D line over the next four measures. ! To understand Evans’s models. we should examine different Evans performances of “Autumn Leaves” to ascertain how what he played relates to the general . articulating the distinction by switching from a different contrapuntal guide-tone line when moving from the first ii-V-I progression to the second. nor do they utilize a strict guide-tone-line approach. Evans’s “Autumn Leaves”: Other Solutions ! Above we have outlined two methods typically offered as models for young improvisers. However. Evans’s melodic articulations of the tonal motion implied by ii-V-I progressions often do not directly relate to typical arpeggiated ii-V-I patterns. In fact.104 EXAMPLE 3.

“Autumn Leaves. dividing each eight-measure segment into its two constituent four-measure ii-V-I progressions. we will have a construct for improvisations on “Autumn Leaves” in the manner of Bill Evans. that is. and then gauge this knowledge against claims from cognitive science to explain why thinking along such lines (whether consciously or not) may have guided Evans. ! Since ii-V-I progressions imply a local tonic. we can justify how certain elements of Evans’s improvisation exist by noting their relationship to jazz syntax. Ultimately. and articulate the motion into that local tonic by a . guide-tone lines provide one way of navigating the eight-measure A sections.” With this new framework. we will consider the tune from the perspective of Bill Evans’s performances of it. we can begin to reconstruct Evans’s improvisational technique. this will provide a more specific model for improvisation than the general framework of “Autumn Leaves. ! Having examined the general tune.” as well as traditional approaches to improvising on that tune. or 2) within each A section. While it would be difficult if not impossible to recreate Evans’s method in the way that he himself conceived of it. Evans used other techniques for articulating the local ii-V-I progressions than guide-tone lines. but these alternative methods make use of the syntax at a slightly more global structural level than chord-by-chord voice-leading. to improvise in such a way. namely guide-tone lines and ii-V-I progressions. which of course is based on the more general tonal plan of the tune. an improviser could think of each harmonic area as a tonal platform.” In this way. or may guide some other player. ! As noted above. one for each A section. One could utilize guide-tone lines over the eight-measure A sections 1) in two large units. As we will see.105 tune framework of “Autumn Leaves.

” EXAMPLE 3.8: Parsing of A Sections of “Autumn Leaves” ! Melodically. the first pointing toward Bb major and the second pointing toward G minor. the counterpoint could be set in two ways: EXAMPLE 3.9: Triadic Settings of 5-1 Descent 9 By “pointing” is meant that the motion leads into the tonic sonority through its local dominant area. Evans often articulated the A sections in precisely this way when improvising a melodic line in “Autumn Leaves. In doing so. . Thinking along these lines in “Autumn Leaves” would yield two phrases over the opening eight-measure span. although multiple options exist. ! Given that the resulting line must fit within the chordal framework of the ii-V-I progression.9 As we will see. a player could articulate the motion into each local tonic by traversing a line from the dominant scale degree into the tonic scale degree.106 melodic motion through the ii-V area into the tonic area. the falling linear motion into the local scale degree 1 would give a sense of finality to the phrase. here expanded into a ii-V in accord with common jazz practice.

The second option presumes C-Bb as the primary contrapuntal line.107 The first option presented here presumes the Eb-D motion as the primary contrapuntal line. Considering a reversal of this procedure. as noted in Chapter 2.10 10 This approach owes a debt to Matthew Brown’s method of deriving sequences. without a predominant) can be expanded into a ii-V progression. or guide-tone line. any ii-V progression could be interpreted as an expansion of a single V chord by creating suspensions on the dominant and reharmonizing the resulting sonority as a chord. in essence. ! However. which then initiates the guidetone motion from C to Bb as the dominant chord moves to the tonic. with the opening F as an upper neighbor to the Eb and the motion from D to Bb at the end as a motion to an inner voice. or guide-tone line. with the stemmed Eb as an upper chord tone moving into the lower contrapuntal line on C. See his Explaining Tonality: Schenkerian Theory and Beyond. . in jazz practice any lone dominant (that is. giving it its own bass note.

the Cm7 is derived from the F7 chord via a 4-3 suspension.11: Jazz Settings of 5-1 Descent ! In this interpretation.9) ! Conceiving of ii-V-I progressions in this way. EXAMPLE 3. a 9-8 suspension (if playing the fifth of the Cm7). and a change of bass.10: Contrapuntal Derivation of ii-V Progression (Reproduction of Example 2. rather than assuming that the opening F is a non-chord tone over the Cm7. such that the initial F in the melody functions not as an upper neighbor to Eb. which has been elaborated into a ii-V progression (Cm7-F7). as noted above. but as a chord tone over the entire dominant area (F7). the 5-1 descent could be set differently than above. where the ii-V motion exists as a contrapuntal elaboration of one chord.108 EXAMPLE 3. While we can .

For example. Allen Forte advocates that such a “ii11” sonority should be considered normative. From this perspective. to account for the Bb and G of the Cm7 chord.109 still consider the Cm7 as a chordal entity.11 The approach outlined above in this study. but that certain notes of the dominant are delayed via displacements of dominant chord tones. 11 Forte 1995: 11. Thus. . In his study of standard tunes. meaning that in this case it functions as one unit leading into the tonic. both approaches claim that scale degree 5 can be considered normative over a ii7 chord. Regardless of their differences. ! On a more local. suggesting that the 11th typically appears over the ii7 chord in anticipation of this tone (scale degree 5) in the following dominant. the notion that this is a Cm7 or an F7 may often reside more in the mind of each player than in the actual notes played. this approach suggests conceiving of the Cm7-F7 as one dominant entity. These displacements are then reharmonized. respectively. the F would sound as an 11th of the Cm7 chord. as any jazz player would. chord-by-chord level. the opening F functions as a proper “area-tone” (in the “area” of the dominant) rather than as a nonchord tone over the Cm7. assumes that scale degree 5 is in the right place where it is. if a bass player sustained a pedal F in the bass over the course of the first two measures. as well as note 37 in Chapter 2. especially in Evans’s performances with Scott LaFaro. ! Considering also that the bass player can navigate these chords differently in the jazz tradition. at some level. the resulting Cm7/F to F7 progression might also be called. from a voice-leading perspective. on the other hand. an F7 with a 4-3 suspension and a 9-8 suspension.

! In this way. or whatever. Evans discussed the parsing of a tune along these lines. While this may be. Having established such a construct as 12 In fact. 20. each of which consists of a specific melodic pathway. consult McPartland 1978: Track 8: 2:19 to the end of the track. abstract idea than a directly experienced aural sensation. through the voice-leading of a phrase. Here.” as we might say in accord with Schenkerian theory. see his article. a 4-3 suspension and a 9-8 suspension are reharmonized. While one might conceive of the tune differently from a contrapuntal perspective.” Music Theory Spectrum. an absolutely basic structure in mind. . leading to the establishment of a new sonority.” I will generally refer to models such as these as paradigms. when he was a guest on Marian McPartland’s Piano Jazz on November 6. 1978. or are real is perhaps beside the point. For the discussion with McPartland.12 In such cases. “Schenkerian Analysis of Modern Jazz: Questions About Method. I find the most fundamental structure. For Steve Larson’s interpretation of this discussion. Paradigm: 5-1 Descent in Bb ! As noted above. thinking largely of a motion from a dominant area into a tonic.110 the root of each chord may be more a conceptual. 209-241. but that must be.” “pre-planning a basic structure. at some level.” and then moves “back to C through its dominant. No. certain passages suggest that.” both of the tune and also of “the structure as he wants to indicate it. Evans’s comments also show a kind of modularity of key in his thinking. yet of course all-the-while knowing that he will eventually move back to the home key. regarding the delineation of local key areas. and then I work from there. Bill Evans conceptualized some ii-V-I progressions in this way. Now I can work around that differently. in any thing that I play. Specifically.” Steve Larson has used this portion of Evans’s interview with McPartland to illustrate what he feels are coded Schenkerian comments in Evans’s discourse. the ii-V motion exists as an expansion of one dominant unit by way of a set of voice-leading procedures. “I always have.” He says that. Evans often used an F-Eb-D-C-Bb line over the opening ii-V-I progression in “Autumn Leaves. or a set of melodic pathways. Vol. Evans’s right-hand line makes use of a linear motion that brings the melody onto a chordal member of a local tonic by navigating the tonal syntax in specific ways. for awhile Evans is in the key of E major. 2 (Autumn 1998).” He then goes on to demonstrate this in “The Touch of Your Lips.” saying that he moves from the area of C major “away” through “a cycle” to the area of E major by moving “through its own dominant. or between the strong structural points differently. Evans speaks of a player “having a complete picture of the structure as he’s playing. Whether these keys are “passing.

The other performance. as well as a chromatic upper neighbor. was included on the CD reissue of Portrait in Jazz. in the following measure. . A common jazz figure. ! For instance. we can begin to define operations that act on that model to create a musical passage. cited here. Gb. an encircling consists of an upper and 13 Only one of these takes appeared on the original album. EXAMPLE 3.12: Delay of 5-1 Descent ! In fact. Bill Evans takes just such an approach at the beginning of his solo on one of the two recordings of “Autumn Leaves” recorded for the 1959 album. the delay of the linear motion into Bb through the prolongation of F creates a greater sense of potential energy for the tone.13: Portrait in Jazz (Take 2): IA: 1-4 (1-4) ! Also in this example. The prolonged F in this example is embellished with an upper and lower neighbor at the opening. is approached through an encircling. Bb. to descend.13 Here. Portrait in Jazz. the opening F can be prolonged into the tonic area. and then the linear descent may begin in the tonic area. EXAMPLE 3. the culminating tone of the linear motion. instead of beginning the descent in the dominant area.111 a model. F.

an arpeggiation traverses the space from C in measure 3 of the example down to F in measure 4. which then proceed to that goal note. while the F-Eb-D-C-Bb descent occurs here over the entire span of the phrase. the final Bb is delayed by one full measure. it also occurs in microcosm near the conclusion of the phrase. EXAMPLE 3. In realizing this delay. with the previous C as the upper note of the encircling). where part of the encircling falls on a strong beat in the measure. which then also begins a descent. In the example below. before beat 1 of measure 4. Since here the A of the encircling sounds on the downbeat of measure 4. this encircling is accented. Bb. even though the encircling starts before the strong beat (that is. For the purposes of this study. as noted above. thus displacing the goal tone. Steve Larson describes a similar idea when he notes that a Schenkerian hidden repetition sometimes occurs such that the final note of the lower-level iteration is the same note as the higher- . having moved through F-Eb-D in the lower register in measure 4. regaining C in the upper register en route to closure on Bb. the line is arpeggiated up again. thus delaying the goal note. ! While a pitch may be prolonged. a pitch may also be delayed.112 lower neighbor to a goal note. an encircling may be unaccented. Ultimately.14: Birdland 4/30/60: IA: pickups to 1-4 (pickups to 1-4) ! Thus. where the goal note falls on a strong beat in the measure with the encircling occurring before this strong beat. or the encircling may be accented.

or whether one occurs after another. serving in the new Bb major context as scale degree 6. the term “summary” will be used here to denote a gesture that encapsulates. and the two do not always end on the same note. both when coming from the end of the tune or a previous A section.15: Birdland 3/12/60: IA: pickups to 1-4 (pickups to 1-4) 14 15 Larson 1998: 237. Larson calls this phenomenon “confirmation. in other words. whether the closure occurs simultaneously on two structural levels.” and also calls the lower-level iteration of this pair “the confirmation. near the end of a phrase. as Larson’s confirmation.15 ! Since the local Bb major area that begins each A section follows a G minor area. EXAMPLE 3.” 14 Whereas Larson defines a confirmation as two motives occurring in two distinct Schenkerian structural levels. Larson uses the term “summary” as well at times.113 level iteration. as in the example below. when the goal of a linear motion is reached simultaneously on two distinct structural levels. here the two iterations exist on different temporal levels. See Larson 2006: 112. as an upper neighbor to the opening scale degree 5 of the 5-1 descent. a scaffold used in the phrase. to distinguish this approach from Larson’s. such that the two iterations end on the same note. Thus. the G goal tone of the G minor area sometimes functions as a prefix to the F-Eb-D-C-Bb line. . Such a prefix may occur also in a different octave.

16 ! While the prefix would by definition appear only in a prior temporal position to some other event.” and we can hear this principle as well in Evans’s playing. it is also held as a pedal tone throughout much of the excerpt. while having many possible musical instantiations. it may also be prolonged throughout that event.14.16: Portrait in Jazz (Take 2): IA’: pickup measure through 1-4 (pickup to 8-13) Here. Here. from Evans retracing his steps. in Example 3.14 with those of Example 3. while the G literally passes down through Gb to F in measure 9 (the second full measure of the example). the 5-1 descent. These would arise. he might use this method again in a similar manner. also has specific sub-types. This can be easily observed by comparing the final four measures of the top staves of Example 3. Harvard scholars Milman Parry and Albert Lord called this the principle of “thrift. . where a motion from F to D occurs in the lower register in measure 3 of the example (discounting the pickup measure). In their study of Yugoslavian epic bards. EXAMPLE 3.16. then. presumably. initiating a summary descent that then traverses the C to Bb in the upper register into the downbeat of measure 4. 37. we also see a similar framework to that of Example 3. the G prefix is prolonged throughout the F-Eb-D-C-Bb line. 16 See Lord 1960/2000: 50.114 ! Here. once he had found a specific way to navigate a formal area of a tune. For example.15.

the third of the F7 chord). due to its occurrence at a background level of the arpeggiation of scale degree b6. and Db (b13 or #5 of the F7 chord)..13. or “tensions. ! The upper neighbor Gb. Thus. as shown in Examples 3. While this is of course more cumbersome at some level. The Jazz Piano Book. However. Upper structures are normally labeled with Roman numerals relative to the dominant chord. but also includes the G prefix that initiated the line.18 In arpeggiating a Gb minor chord over the opening of the F-EbD-C-Bb line. this device of arpeggiating 17 For information on different upper structures. but spelling the note as Bbb indicates its membership in the third of the upper structure Gb minor. albeit without Eb. as just noted. which begins a summary of the descent. This results in what jazz players call an upper structure. 17 ! For example. noted in Example 3. 1989. but uses it not as a chordal voicing but as the frame for a melodic gesture. .” An upper structure would be played as a chordal voicing in the right-hand while playing two-hand voicings.17-3. spelling the note as Bbb denotes its function within the upper structure conceptually. this summary consists not only of the 5-1 descent.21. and is beneficial in that it allows the player a way to conceptualize these chordal extensions. Chapter 14: 109-124. Bbb (enharmonically an A. 18 Spelling the chord with an A would more clearly articulate the note’s function with respect to the chord. Evans utilizes just such an upper structure chord.115 This pedal tone G then moves down to F in measure 11 (the fourth measure of the example).13 above. Petaluma. thus creating specific chordal extensions. An upper structure is a chord superimposed over a dominant seventh chord. CA: Sher Music Co. an upper structure over F7 of bii (Gb minor) would yield tones of Gb (b9 over the F7). see Mark Levine. and also clarifies its role as a mental and physical construct during performance. may be elaborated through arpeggiation. as Evans arpeggiates down this “chord” before returning to the note F. arpeggiating out the b6 upper neighbor noted above in Example 3.

. ! Examples 3. the bass player for Evans’s final trio. by Chuck Sher and Marc Johnson. Thus. Because he arpeggiates the chord downward. potentially serving in other contexts. This provides a registral space in which to descend to the original register held by the opening F. it is also utilized in the larger jazz community as a local lick.19 EXAMPLE 3.17-3. thus embellishing the b6 neighbor noted above in Example 3.13. approaching the initial b6 (Gb) with its own upper neighbor.17: Portrait in Jazz (Take 2): IIA’: 1-4 (41-44) EXAMPLE 3. a common bebop device.19: Birdland 3/19/60: IIIA: 1-4 (65-68) 19 Arpeggiating down the bvi chord over a dominant in this way. while it is used here as a way to decorate the b6 upper neighbor in the 5-1 descending line. he first arpeggiates to an upper register.116 scale degree b6 through the bvi chord may be more accurately referred to as the bvi complex. He arpeggiates the bvi chord downward.18: Portrait in Jazz (Take 2): IIIA: 1-4 (65-68) EXAMPLE 3. is shown as “Dominant Chord Lick #1” in Concepts for Bass Soloing. See Sher and Johnson 1993: 58.20 shows how Evans utilizes the bvi complex as a way to embellish the opening F of the 5-1 descent. b7 (Ab). with upper neighbor b7.

” Explaining his lines in this way provides a procedure by which an aspiring improviser could make novel solo lines in the manner of Bill Evans. Because this melodic model articulates motion into a local tonic through its dominant . and only at specific points in the tune: the ii-V-I progressions. b6. upper neighbor. ! We have now seen how some of Evans’s phrases exist as instantiations of a given model: the line F-Eb-D-C-Bb.” the explanation presented here justifies the existence of his lines by showing how they make use of tonal jazz syntax within the tonal framework of “Autumn Leaves. and prefix. This structural framework. arpeggiate. delay.” this model occurs only as a general scaffold. Evans’s lines over the first four measures of the A sections of “Autumn Leaves” share in common a structural framework. where Evans plays a certain lick “whenever he feels like it. becomes a musical surface through the use of operations such as prolongation. such as the arpeggiation of the chromatic upper neighbor. picking the 5-1 descending line and then “doing operations.21: Birdland 3/12/60: IIIB: 5-8 (85-88) ! As shown above. encircling.20: Portrait in Jazz (Take 2): IIIB: 5-8 (85-88) EXAMPLE 3. which results in an upper structure. While Evans may not have created his lines consciously in this way. summary. the descending line. Rather than happening at disparate points in his repertoire. and combinations of these operations. F-Eb-D-C-Bb.117 EXAMPLE 3.

54-55.” keeping a similar structure but altering the “melodic and rhythmic content. 50-52.” G minor. In parallel with the setting of the opening ii-V-I progressions in Bb. he noted that. his solos became more fixed.20 Paradigm: 5-1 Descent in G minor ! Evans also utilized a 5-4-3-2-1 descending line as a scaffold in the local key of the other ii-V-i progression in “Autumn Leaves. as noted above with the 5-4-3-2-1 line in Bb. . 6 (June 1980). one could set this 5-4-3-2-1 line in G minor as shown in Example 3.” However. No.” However. Evans then went on to claim that. D is often suppressed in these measures. He also noted that Miles Davis used an approach similar to the one outlined here. some of which.22. The quotes cited here appear on page 54.” he tried to “be fresh. and you rely on professionalism and craft to carry you through.118 area. whereas a jazz player’s typical ii-V-I toolkit includes note-for-note licks to use. similar models could also exist at other points in this tune or others. here the descent often does not begin until measure 3. more closely resemble one another than do others. EXAMPLE 3. “Bill Evans.22: Setting of 5-1 Descent in G minor ! However. “You can’t always be fresh. Of course.” See Evans’s interview with Jim Aikin. This delay of the descent could take the form of a prolongation of the opening D. he would keep in. as Evans could invoke such a framework to navigate ii-V-I progressions.. maybe certain key structural notes or motifs or whatever. Vol. as noted above. However. “ideally.” Contemporary Keyboard. 6. where D is prolonged over the opening two measures. of course. Evans stated that Davis “would develop a way of approaching a solo.. That’s a way to approach a solo. and thus does not sound until measure 20 Evans acknowledged that. for a period of time after LaFaro’s death. 44-45. Evans seems to have used instead a basic structural model from which he created many different surfaces.

the opening D seems delayed rather than prolonged here. the motion from Eb to D can be understood as a local representation of a strong structural feature of “Autumn Leaves. the approaches into each of these 5-1 descents are vastly different.” EXAMPLE 3. Of course. However. it is often initiated via an upper neighbor 6. In this way. Evans frequently used the 5-4-3-2-1 line with an encircling onto the opening scale degree 5. . ! When the D does enter in measure 3.” as noted above. the upper neighbor motion of Eb to D features prominently in the melody of “Autumn Leaves. where the descent begins. Thus. but its placement here as 6-5 within the G minor area differs markedly from its guise as 4-3 in Bb in the opening measures of the A sections. or through a complete chromatic encircling: Eb-(C)-C#-D.119 3.23: Alternate Settings of 5-1 Descent in G minor ! As can be seen from the following examples.

with each descending arpeggio falling under the remainder of the hand as it moved down the top line toward closure in G minor. D. .24. Evans also navigates the 5-1 descent in this manner elsewhere. ! In addition.24 moves into the 5-1 descent in G minor.26 and 3.25: Portrait in Jazz (Take 1): IIA: 5-8 (37-40) ! In the first staff of Example 3. with a longer prefix line beginning on Bb. which serves as an upper neighbor to the A on beat 3. as shown in Example 3. This allows for a condensed presentation of the 5-1 descent. EXAMPLE 3. alleviating the lack of space created by the delay of the opening tone.120 EXAMPLE 3. shown in the final two measures.24: Examples of D-Delay with Encircling ! The fourth excerpt in Example 3. This underlying soprano line provides the logic for the hand-position plan for the passage.27. Evans uses unfolded thirds to traverse the descent to scale degree 1.25. the descent from D may occur without the encircling. as shown in Examples 3.

Evans may utilize Eb over the opening Am7(b5) chord. as shown in Example 3.29 and 3. EXAMPLE 3.30. as shown here in Example 3.26: Birdland 3/19/60: IA: 5-8 (5-8) EXAMPLE 3.27: Birdland 4/30/60: IA: 4-8 (4-8) ! In the second staff of Example 3. D#. thus prolonging the Eb upper neighbor to D which begins the descent.28. At times this motion to E occurs through a “scoop” via E’s lower neighbor. Evans moves to the sixth of the Gm6 chord after attaining closure on G.24.29: Portrait in Jazz (Take 1): IIIA: pickups to 5-8 (pickups to 69-72) EXAMPLE 3.121 EXAMPLE 3.30: Birdland 3/12/60: IA’: pickups to 5-8 (pickups to 13-16) .28: Birdland 3/19/60: IIIA’: 5-8 (77-80) ! Alternatively. EXAMPLE 3.

in a motion back up to scale degree b5. The use of this blues fifth occurs elsewhere in just such a guise. In Example 3. in retraversing this space.31: Portrait in Jazz (Take 2): IA: 5-8 (5-8) EXAMPLE 3. in Example 3. the motion into G immediately moves toward the next phrase with a tonicization of Cm. Evans uses Db rather than D. outlining a 1-b5-1 space as a summary rather than the original 5-1 space. In Examples 3.31.33: Birdland 4/30/60: IA’: 5-8 (13-16) . EXAMPLE 3. Evans may ascend after reaching the culminating G of the 5-1 descent.32. as though summarizing the encircling which has just occurred in the lower register from measure 2 to measure 3 of each example. a chromatic inflection of the starting pitch of the descent. the summary makes a motion back upward.32: Birdland 4/30/60: IIA: 5-8 (37-40) ! In Example 3.122 ! To prepare for the next phrase. such a registral ascent concludes with an encircling of G. However. there is a summary of sorts.31 and 3. EXAMPLE 3. Thus. to reclaim the upper registral space to begin a descent in Bb.31. but in ascent rather than descent.33 below.

over the D7 chord. then brought it back down. conceptual motion downward in pitch-class space. This often occurs from scale degree 5 to scale degree b7. Here again. moving through C/A at the end of measure 70 to Bb/G in measure 71. Evans also used octave transfers in some of the G minor passages.34: Portrait in Jazz (Take 2): IIIA’: 5-8 (77-80) ! Similar to some of the Bb major passages. Such is the case in Example 3.34. where D in measure 69 (the second measure of the example) moves to F natural and then to F# in measure 70.35 below. EXAMPLE 3. and it is then recommenced from A in the upper register with an encircling to G. Such is the case in Example 3. unfolded thirds in measure 3 of the excerpt are matched with unfolded thirds in the b5-1 summary in measure 4: EXAMPLE 3.123 ! In Example 3. making this less a finger motion or hand motion down the keyboard and more of an abstract. where the motion to A3 terminates the descent in that register. ! In other instances Evans threw the line up a third.33 above. unfolded thirds bring the descent to tonal closure.35: Portrait in Jazz (Take 2): IIIA: 4-8 (68-72) .

or initial ascents.37. even if in a cursory way.21 Such is the case in Example 3. as in Example 3. unfolded.36: Portrait in Jazz (Take 1): IA’: 5-8 (13-16) At other times.38: Birdland 3/12/60: IIIA’: 5-8 (77-80) 21 This is conceptually similar to Schenker’s idea of Anstiege. In some cases. Evans scoops up to the G with an F#. EXAMPLE 3. where a direct line may be absent from the surface. scale degree 5.37: Birdland 3/12/60: IIA: 4 into 8 (36 into 40) ! In Example 3. one can note when portions of the framework are missing. thus bypassing C. a D emphasized by registral peak and upper neighbor (Eb) in measure 2 moves down through Bb and A toward closure on the G. the descent may occur with an extended line backward from the initial tone. which itself may be approached by an initial ascent. In Example 3.39. still contain the descent. instead of playing the A leading down to G in the summary descent at the end of the phrase.36. Sections 120-124 on pages 45-45 and Section 209 on page 75.38. EXAMPLE 3.124 ! Having posited a 5-line construct. See Schenker Der freie Satz. . one can infer its presence as a framework by noting the use of thirds which. EXAMPLE 3.

40: Setting of 3rds and 7ths over V/V .125 EXAMPLE 3. one would add another voice to the 3rds-7ths chain (from C#) and the 7ths-3rds chain (from G) shown in Example 3.i (A7-D7-Gm) rather than ii-V-i (Am7(b5)-D7-Gm). and the other beginning on the seventh.V . a progression that typically appears in written-out versions of the tune.V . EXAMPLE 3.39: Portrait in Jazz (Take 1): IVA’: 5-8 (109-112) Paradigm: Voicing Arpeggio over V/V-V-i ! When beginning the B section to “Autumn Leaves.” Evans played V/V . The two successive dominant seventh chords allow for two chromatic guide-tone lines. EXAMPLE 3.V . F#. This additional strand would begin on the 13th of the A7 chord. and could continue chromatically to F natural. the #9 (or b10) of the D7 chord.i . G. one beginning on the third of the A7 chord. as shown in Example 3.40. C#.41. as noted above.41: Typical Evans voicings for V/V .i ! If attempting to construct an Evans voicing model for these chords.

41 as a model depicting three guide-tone-line possibilities. we can view each of the first two voicings as a complete construct that Evans uses to navigate the opening of each V/V-V-i progression.V . as the E shown in the G minor chord here. rather than picking one of the three lines and using it as a guide- tone line. such as the sixth. In this way. as the scaffold for his right-hand lines at the opening of the B section in “Autumn Leaves. since Evans often left out the root of the chord in favor of another chordal member. as at the opening of the B Section of “Autumn Leaves” . and also uses a Bb in this chord as well. ! Additionally. presumably derived from his left- hand voicings. Evans often substitutes F natural for the low F# in the D7 chord.” as well as in the V/V-V-i progression that begins the final eight measures of the form. this would facilitate ease of hand movement in multiple-octave arpeggios. However.126 Here. Presumably. since Evans’s right-hand lines often do reach tonal closure on 1. we would reinterpret the closing sonority as potentially including the G.i. the final G minor chord has the G in parentheses. ! As we will see. rather than considering Example 3.42: Evans’s Scaffold for V/V . ! Evans often used this voice-leading structure. EXAMPLE 3. Evans typically arpeggiates through each of the first two voicings. whereas above it was omitted because of the typical rootless left-hand voicings employed by Evans. which Evans utilized frequently.

. In the fourth excerpt. in the final measure.43: Examples of V/V . but rather as a three-strand composite. with F# as the top voice moving to F natural on the next chord.42. thus combining the two constructs outlined here: the voicing arpeggio and the 5-1 descent in G minor. from Example 3.43. the second excerpt in Example 3. that is.127 EXAMPLE 3. the G minor chord moves to a seventh chord. preparing the ii-V-I in Bb area to come. the F shown is the beginning of a 5-1 descent in Bb. Often.V .i Chromatic Scaffold 22 ! These examples show that Evans typically used this framework not as a set of guide-tone lines from which to choose one line to embellish. Evans arpeggiated up through the A7 voicing and then down through the D7 voicing. Evans culminated these arpeggios in the first two measures with a 5-1 descent in G minor in the second two measures. For example. Typically. arpeggiating through each voicing with the specific registral spacing given in the first staff of Example 3.43 (Birdland 3/19/60: 17-20) 22 In the first and fourth excerpts here. with F.

the fourth excerpt also uses unfolded thirds in the descent.” Additionally. is common in the 5-1 descents in G minor in “Autumn Leaves. which.128 ends with a 5-1 descent using unfolded thirds. as noted above. . The fourth excerpt (Birdland 4/30/60: 81-84) moves into the 5-1 descent with an encircling.

in contrast with “Autumn Leaves. it lacks the regularity of harmonic rhythm of “Autumn Leaves. We don’t hear this as an inherent contradiction so clearly. released on The Paris Concert. thus yielding a different foreground arrangement of ii-V-I progressions than in “Autumn Leaves.1 Therefore.” the ii chord of the first ii-V-I (Em7(b5)) and the ii chord of the second ii-V-I (Gm7) occupy different parts of the module of the sequence because of the shift in harmonic rhythm as noted above (D minor sounds for two measures rather than one). because. F major. through a 1968 session at the Village Vanguard (recorded by Mike Harris. the second up a third from the first. ending with a 1978 recording from November 1979. although only one recording considered here is from the 1970s. Thus. the first ii-V-I progression is in the relative minor. in accordance with the sequence in the melody. works against the underlying descending counterpoint of the overall circle-of-fifths progression. from the first four-measure segment to the second (over the D minor to F major motion). over the course of his career. as in “Autumn Leaves.” with the minor ii-V-i sounding first here. perhaps unknown to Evans. while the second is in the relative major. it too offers a window into the fixity of certain elements in his improvisations. but occurs here on a strong hypermetric beat (measure 5). while the circle-of-fifths progression is still in operation. However.” since here the D minor chord lasts for two measures. Edition 1. The melodic ascent of a third. Here. through a recording from a Town Hall performance in New York City. though. and the relative major ii-V-I sounding second. the first ii chord is the first of the twochord circle-of-fifths pattern. while the second ii chord is on the latter half of the two-chord circle-of-fifths pattern.” “Beautiful Love” begins with two ii-V-I progressions in a relative major/minor pairing. and released on Secret Sessions).2 even though the ii-V-I progressions are “backwards” relative to what they were in “Autumn Leaves. through two released recordings on the CD re-issue of Explorations. 2 Having always thought of this tune as opening with two ii-V-I modules. I am indebted to Robert Wason for pointing out that the circle-of-fifths pattern still maintains throughout the first eight measures of the A sections. though. D minor. Like “Autumn Leaves. . Thus.” 1 Evans’s recorded performances span a period from an early gig at Birdland with the LaFaro-Motian trio. the recordings examined do provide some insight into the way Evans’s concept changed. or stayed the same. then.” Bill Evans played the tune “Beautiful Love” throughout his career.129 Chapter 4: “Beautiful Love” ! Like “Autumn Leaves. As presented here.” a circle-of-fifths progression still operates through the entire progression.

a descent through the descending tetrachord serves to regain the opening A. the opening soprano note F over the opening D minor area moves through an arpeggio up through A over F major to D over D minor in measure 9. At this point. 1988.1: Basic Melodic and Harmonic Framework of “Beautiful Love” 3 ! A deeper-level arpeggio provides a melodic logic for the motion from D minor to F major. while the opening F conceptually resolves down to E in a Schenkerian interruption that closes the first A section of the AA’ form.130 EXAMPLE 4.2. .. Petaluma. CA: Sher Music Co. 3 This rendition of “Beautiful Love” has been adapted from the version presented in The New Real Book. As noted in Example 4.

! Also. he does use structural features of the tune as frameworks in his improvisation. Thus. the opening three of the four phrases are identical to the corresponding phrases in the A section. ! As we will see..131 EXAMPLE 4. the third-span is used again. whereas the E at the parallel place in the opening 16-measure A section created a tonal break (i. while he does not often quote the tune directly. Evans uses an arch contour at the opening of many of his solos. as diagrammed in the top staff of Example 4. but the 3-2-1 descent in the final four measures of the A’ section provides tonal closure. with an ascent over an implied dominant chord that peaks on A before falling again. the Schenkerian interruption). but here to attain full tonal closure.2: Voice-leading of “Beautiful Love” ! In the A’ section. borrowing from the idea of “quoting” other tunes in one’s solo or “paraphrasing” local features of the melody of the piece over which one is soloing. This arch . Evans makes use of these third-spans frequently in his improvisations on “Beautiful Love. an idea one might call structural paraphrase.e.” Thus. The thirdspan in the final few measures of the form articulates on a larger level the third-spans which defined the motion into the tones comprising the deeper-level arpeggio of the first two phrases of each A section. thus operating on a deeper structural level than the local third-spans with which each A section began.2.

as shown in the top staff of Example 4. since this approach also appears at the opening of Evans’s solos on other tunes.” see Chapters 5 and 6.3: Lead-in 4 For analyses of the relevant sections of Evans’s solos on these two tunes. This melodic lead-in creates a heightened sense of tension by prolonging a dominant chord over this two-measure span. Where such parallels exist between Evans’s solos and the melody of the tune on which he is soloing. “Alice in Wonderland” and “My Romance. it is often difficult to ascribe a direct intention on Evans’s part to copy aspects of the tune.132 shape is used within the first two four-measure segments of the melody of “Beautiful Love. such as “Alice in Wonderland” and “My Romance. He utilized the two-measure break at the end of the head to lead into his solo. EXAMPLE 4. .” as well as over the course of the entire A sections.” 4 Evans’s “Beautiful Love” ! Evans began his solos in different performances of “Beautiful Love” in a remarkably consistent way.2.

and also on G as a connective to A when the G-G#-A motion occurs. then repeating this pattern in the next measure. the thumb would fall on A and then D.133 Melodically. with the opening A arpeggio moving to the D minor span.3. Evans frequently used an encircling to get from the A-thumb-position to the D-thumb-position.3 (the second staff). ! In fact. beginning on the second measure of the break rather than the first. an opening A major arpeggio leads into a D-E-F third span. thus the C# and E are often present in the A-thumb position as a way to move into the D-thumb-position. ! In this way. Evans must have felt comfortable with this general outline as a kind of gestural/registral procedure. due to similarities in the excerpts in Example 4. the lead-in may be broken down into units according to hand position. building tension into the beginning of the solo. as shown in the framework in Example 4. where each bar contains an implied V5/3 to V6/4 neighbor motion. ultimately culminating an octave above around A5. but in a condensed temporal space. which then moves to the A4 octave. Thus. note choices would be determined in part by the need to move from one hand position to another across the general ascent. The first measure consists of a set of two hand positions.3.3. Evans ascends from A3 over an implied dominant area. In addition it also influences the final recording. which is then transposed up an octave from the first measure to the next. his overall plan might look like this: . we could assert that Evans had a generic hand and fingering plan that he used often in the lead-in to his solos on this tune. Thus. With a framework such as this in place. as this approach clearly influences the first four recordings of Example 4. which represent a six-year span. For example. In many of the excerpts in Example 4.

employed in the first three performances (all from 1960-1961).3). following this lead-in. the third measure of Example 4. .6: Fingering Plan for Example 4.3. Evans’s goal note from the lead-in is G. such that the immediate goal tone of G is reached in a lower octave: EXAMPLE 4. but also as a motor movement plan on the keyboard.. ! As an example. Evans uses one of two general approaches. even though the tripleteighth-note pattern stops earlier. we could conceive of Evans’s lead-in paradigm not just as an abstract note structure.e.3 may be fingered as follows: EXAMPLE 4.3. Excerpt 2 ! At the opening of the form (i.134 EXAMPLE 4. the first excerpt in Example 4.5: Fingering Plan for Example 4. In the first.4: Generic Fingering Plan for Lead-in Paradigm Thus. Excerpt 1 The second excerpt would maintain a similar fingering pattern.

Over the span of the phrase. Thus. as in the Bill Evans at Town Hall performance. in the final two performances.” In addition. or a 5-4-3 line. This descent may be a 3-2-1 line. In both cases. seems to begin off-tonic and move in a goal-directed way toward D minor. the F or the A function less within the Em7(b5) context and more within the overall diatonic area of D minor. the Em7(b5) chord which ostensibly opens the form has a non-chord tone or an upper extension. ! Alternatively. the Bb functions as an upper neighbor to a prolonged A. which eventually reveals A as the structural pitch. however. where both initiate a third-span descent into a tonic member. The A either remains as the structural pitch throughout the phrase. where the C natural in measure 2 (measure 4 of the example) occurs in both the upper and lower registers. the Bb upper neighbor may have its own upper neighbor. Evans traces a more directly perceptible. as in Take 1 of Explorations. However. which is normative over a ii7. functioning locally as a #9 (or b10) of the A7 chord. from which he ascends over the Em7(b5) chord to Bb with another surface-level third-span. or moves down to D through an arpeggio or a stepwise line. ! The piano solo in one of the six performances of “Beautiful Love” considered here begins after the bass solo and thus does not make use of a two-measure break. as in Take 1 from Explorations. which . structural third-span across the first two measures of the form into measure 3. with the F as a b9th or the A as an 11th. instead of beginning with a G-A-Bb third span. as in the Paris Concert performance. as occurred frequently in “Autumn Leaves. the melodic motion seems a tonally closed motion in D minor.135 although always in a different registers. while the harmonic setting of this melodic motion. thereby resulting in a 5-1 descent. in each case. in keeping with jazz practice.

ii-V-i Progressions in D minor ! While common features exist among the opening lead-in and ii-V-i progressions in different performances of “Beautiful Love. The passage still utilizes a two-octave ascent to A. Yet even within this altered context. with a chromatic summary of this descent in the lower register occurring at the end of measure 3 into measure 4.7: Alternate Approach for Lead-in of “Beautiful Love” Additionally. and to examine commonalities between examples in Evans’s playing. aligning with the Em7(b5) sonority into which it has been displaced. many more ii-V-i areas in D minor occur in the tune. EXAMPLE 4. this performance still contains the overarching melodic outline of the model for the break.” as shown above. Thinking of these features with respect to basic structural models allows us to consider how these phrases derive from the basic syntax. but adapted to the altered setting.136 in the other performances occurs immediately after the head. but begins on Bb. the phrase moves from A down to F over D minor. . and Evans used some of these same features within those other areas.

Example 4. EXAMPLE 4.137 ii-V-i in D minor: 5-1 descent ! As noted above. since Evans used this 5-1 model elsewhere. “Beautiful Love” begins with two ii-V-i progressions. the first in D minor and the second in its relative key. Paradigm 4. which occurs frequently.” This descent mimics the 5-1 descent of the tune over these two ii-V-I progressions. F major.8-a contains a descent into D minor that places F as the goal tone at the beginning of the D minor area. or with A prolonged into the D minor area.” the 5-1 descent in “Beautiful Love” in the D minor area could be set different ways.” a 5-1 descent operates as the defining structural feature of many of these ii-V-i passages in Evans’s solos on “Beautiful Love. However. As in “Autumn Leaves. with the F falling on the downbeat of the D minor area. ! Like in “Autumn Leaves.8: 5-1 Descent Paradigms ! To this end. such that the 5-1 descent is delayed.” it is difficult to assert that he utilized the model because it was also inherent at these points in the melody of the piece. with the following descent to D as a kind of motion into an inner voice in the Schenkerian sense.8 shows three variations of a 5-1 descent over a ii-V-i progression in D minor. and so may be a structural paraphrase. as in “Autumn Leaves. In . Each of the three examples includes an upper neighbor Bb in parentheses.

reproduced here from Example 4.8-a. while these boundary tones (i. shown in the first three excerpts in Example 4. which occurs frequently when Evans transcends two octaves in quick succession. Thus. where the descent begins. Of the three excerpts from Example 4. ! Example 4. 1960. Paradigm 4.e.9 shows excerpts that are based upon a 5-1 descent according to Paradigm 4.3. A is prolonged into the D minor area. the G-A-Bb motive functions as a local gesture that can be utilized within different overarching frameworks within the ii-V-i progression in D minor. ! The G-A-Bb third-span. only this one utilizes a full 5-4-3-2-1 descent.3 above. as will be shown below.138 Paradigm 4.8-c omits the descending line in favor of a triadic arpeggio.3 that used the G-A-Bb third-span. .8-b and Paradigm 4. The first excerpt here is from the opening of Evans’s solo on the Birdland performance from March 12.8-c.. one uses a 5-3-1 descending arpeggio and the other prolongs 5 through an upper neighbor Bb and an upper-neighbor-to-upper neighbor C. G and Bb) function at a deeper level as neighbors to A. Of the other two. functions within this structural framework as a more local gesture articulating a thirdspan that outlines direct chord-tones of the Em7(b5) chord that opens the tune.

D. the first then traverses a descent from A6 to A5. Unfolded thirds (F/D. such that the descent also occurs in the A5-D5 register. normative in jazz practice.5 ! The second excerpt arpeggiates into an upper register.139 EXAMPLE 4. of course. G has been held from the opening two-measure dominant area into the D minor area. The opening two excerpts both use the G-A-Bb cell at the opening. as would be required in a purely triadic environment. as in the excerpt above. which then moves to F5 on the downbeat of the arrival of the D minor area. thus delaying F’s arrival. Of these. with E and C# both converging on the tonic. E/C#. utilizing the 6th of the D minor tonic sixth chord. .9: Excerpts based on Paradigm 4. 5 Playing a sixth on a minor tonic chord is.8-a ! The flexibility of navigating the 5-1 descent is evident in the variety of realizations. the D minor chord-tone. where it functions as a long-term accented passing tone into F. D/B) then move the soprano line toward tonic (F-E-D). but to the third D/B. while the underthirds continue past E/C# not into a unison closure.

Evans initiates a long encircling around the pitch that eventually returns to A through the G# which preceded the A of the opening measure.8-a. Thus. .8-b ! The first excerpt decorates the A prolongation with an encircling that spans the opening two measures. which would follow Paradigm 4. Example 4. in accord with Paradigm 4. while the prolonged A5 is regained in the third measure for another 3-2-1 descent into the fourth measure.6 ! The second and third excerpts also make use of encirclings around A.8-b due to its lack of a feeling 6 An alternative reading would place the G in the first measure as the passing tone in the A-to-F third-span from measure 1 to measure 3.9 shows passages that traverse the A-to-F third-span into the D minor area. while the second 3-2-1 descent would follow Paradigm 4. the final 3-2-1 acts like a summary to the initial descent. The passage is listed here under Paradigm 4. relying solely on a chromatically inflected G# rather than a G natural. EXAMPLE 4. and across shorter temporal spans. with the A remaining as a kind of Schenkerian cover tone.10: Excerpts based on Paradigm 4.9.8-b. the A having been prolonged into the D minor area. Both of these examples omit G in the 5-1 descent. where the descent then begins. Thus.8-b. The third excerpt traverses a 3-2-1 into D minor in the upper register.10 shows passages that derive from Paradigm 4.140 ! While Example 4. while using the same G-A-Bb cell shown in the excerpts above in Example 4. prolonging A into the D minor area.8-a.

traversing the octave from A4 to A5 and. the two-octave span up to A6.11. jazz players use octatonic collections over dominant seventh chords because the scale’s notes correspond well to the dominant seventh chord’s core chordal members and extensions. does not come until the D in the final measure of the passage. in one passage. Purely from the standpoint of chordal extensions. but without the F of the upper register 3-2-1. ! Instead of prolonging A with an encircling or an upper neighbor. This octatonic line. rather than simply using this scale over this harmonic area. Evans at times prolongs A through a registral transfer brought about by an octatonic line. using this line as a way to prolong the opening A. This passage is similar in outline to the first excerpt of Example 4. since the D falls on the off-beat and initiates a descending arpeggio through F to E. containing A-Bb. this octatonic motion functions . Thus. as shown in Example 4. as taught in so-called “chord-scale theory. However.11: Octatonic Notes’ Relationship to A7 chord Notes from Octatonic Collection Relationship to A7 chord ! A Bb C C# D# E F# G Root b9 #9 (b10) 3 #11 5 13 7 The use of the octatonic scale over the Em7(b5)-A7 chord reinforces this ii-V of D minor as a larger A7 area. EXAMPLE 4.10. The tonal closure of the phrase.141 of closure on the downbeat of measure 3. is the octatonic collection that would typically be used over an A7 chord.” Evans does more than this. which then falls to D. then.

the second example moves up through A6 to C7 before falling back down to A6 for a 5-1 descent using unfolded thirds. This provides a larger context for aspiring improvisers than simply a pool of notes from which to construct a melody. the octatonic scale functions here as a local melodic device within a larger melodic framework.12: Excerpts based on Paradigm 4. complemented with arpeggios into the lower register. In the first passage. In other words. such that from the fixed starting point of A4. whereas the third example peaks . prolonging the A which then falls to D. which then moves through A4 to A5 and up to the upper neighbor Bb before moving back down to A for the 5-1 linear descent.12.8-b with octatonic line ! In the three excerpts shown in Example 4. a triplet-eighth-note rhythm slows to an eighth-note rhythm.142 within a melodic structural framework. and in doing so creates a registral transfer from A4 to A5. EXAMPLE 4. the faster rhythms in the second passage allow for more notes within the allotted A7 area. In the second passage. and in the second excerpt from A4 to A6. the chord-tone G is approached via an accented encircling (thus the line opens with the common G-A-Bb cell). Evans uses an octatonic line to prolong A. Since Evans uses faster rhythmic gestures in the second example than in the third. while the third passage maintains a consistent eighth-note rhythm.

that this would have been fortuitous.10 did not have G (scale degree 4). it seems highly improbable.13 shows excerpts that use a prolonged A that moves into a 5-3-1 arpeggiated descent. at times moving quickly through two octaves. but all reach A as the goal tone at the beginning of measure 3. Arpeggiation ! While Example 4. implicitly or explicitly learning different pathways by which to reverse course to capture the A goal tone at the beginning of measure 3. especially knowing Evans’s approach to musical study. it suggests that Evans had probably practiced different instantiations of this model.10 and Example 4. at D#6. the arpeggio often clearly stands on its own as a device for achieving registral transfers.143 earlier. rather than as a way to bring about tonal closure linearly. with an octatonic prefix that spans different intervallic spans.12 showed excerpts that utilized a prolonged A that culminated in a 5-4-3-2-1 descent. however. in one voice-leading line. Example 4. While some of the excerpts from Example 4. Here. Since these different excerpts utilize a flexible model. the descending linear motion F-E-D (scale degrees 3-2-1) led to a sense of the line achieving tonal closure in a linear way. falling to A5 squarely on the downbeat of measure 3. . and so a G was inferred.

Thus. this excerpt utilizes an overall arched contour that Evans also used in other opening phrases.” 7 Evans also uses this descending 5-3-1 over an octave-and-a-sixth span (Bb through A and F to D in one octave.13. including the Bb upper neighbor. but is superseded by the motion from 5 firmly down to 1 through the long arpeggio (Bb-A-F-D). where the phrase also lands in the second excerpt of Example 4. specifically those noted later in this study in his solos on both “Alice in Wonderland” and “My Romance. or in his fingers.7 Thus.144 EXAMPLE 4.3. such that the D falls squarely on beat 4 of the same measure.” Evans evidently considers this arpeggiated descent to the tonic as a plausible stand-in for a linear descent.13: Arpeggiation ! The first excerpt in the example. does not occur in Evans’s rendition here. as the case may be. the 5-4-3-2-1 descent of the melody of “Beautiful Love. where a held upper neighbor Bb resolves back down to A5 before an arpeggiated D minor descent. .” with the turn of the melody back up to 3 after this linear descent. but moves up through an arpeggio to A5.13. opens with the G-A-Bb third-span. using the same note structure as the first two excerpts in Example 4. as shown in Example 4. Below is the melody as Evans plays it at the opening of the head: Since the descending arpeggio stands in for the 5-4-3-2-1-2-3 motion of the melody of “Beautiful Love. then again in the next lower octave) at the opening of the head in Take 2 of “Beautiful Love” on Explorations. but starting with the Bb moving to A on the beat 2 of measure 3. indicating that he did have these different options. set down in his mind. brings the melodic line to rest on D4.8. also shown above in Example 4.

13. Taking the lower A into consideration. before a final arpeggiated descent to D. or double neighbors. a chord tone of Em7(b5). but at different time spans and structural levels. and then moves through another encircling to land on A4. initiating a descending arpeggio over the chord. Thus. inverted turn figure: A-G-A-Bb-A. . a larger encircling occurs across the span of the entire excerpt in the upper register. A. Thus.13. again via a registral transfer. as shown in Example 4. since this A moves to Bb. and in different registers.14: Reproduction of Second Excerpt in Example 4. the opening encircling occurs twice. first in the upper register and then again in the lower register. The A then moves to its upper neighbor. but bounded by the note. at the top and bottom. C. EXAMPLE 4.145 ! The second excerpt. after arpeggiating through an AbM7 chord in approaching the opening G-Bb-G#-A encircling of A.14. we see A prolonged through the use of encirclings. from the final eighth note A of the pickup measure through the G that follows it. traverses an octave descent. as though the first prefaces the second. which initiates the final arpeggiated descent. occurring across two registers. Thus. which is again picked up by the Bb5 into A5. the overall motion is a large. emphasizing A as an initiation point for the melodic scaffold of the phrase. through the upper-neighbor-of-the-upper-neighbor. because the A then moves to G. Bb. the opening encircling to A is deceiving structurally. with analysis ! In the final excerpt in Example 4. The Bb-to-A motion then also occurs after this registral transfer to the lower register.

15: 5-1 Ascent Paradigm ! Because Evans does not usually delay the final D of this paradigm. an arpeggiated descent through the D minor triad may be affixed to the end of this model. However. we can see that this excerpt closely resembles those of Paradigm 4. Here. F. if so. This descending triad. E. not for very long. even though one may hear the final motion as more linear. In “Beautiful Love. instead of always using a 5-1 descent. EXAMPLE 4.8-c of the descending . ii-V-i in D minor: 5-1 ascent ! Thus far we have seen how Evans used a linear scaffold descending from 5 to 1 to articulate the motion into a local tonic over a ii-V-I progression. We have observed that Evans used this model in “Autumn Leaves” and “Beautiful Love” in both major and minor keys.146 which then falls back down through Bb to A for a 5-3-1 arpeggiation. as though the second F functions as a metrically accented reminder of the previous tone of descent. or. since the E functions here as an embellishing lower neighbor to F. shown above in Paradigm 4.8-b. where a prolonged A moves through a 5-1 linear descent. the overall motion remains one of an arpeggiated descent.” however. since scale degree 3 of the arpeggiation. is embellished with its lower neighbor. Evans also used a 5-1 ascent to articulate the motion into the local tonic.

then on the lower D. the first. as though summarizing the tetrachordal space traversed in the lower linear span. the third excerpt uses a completely different surface pattern. and fourth make use of a surface G-A(b)-Bb third-span at the opening. first on the upper D. The pedal 5 jumps to 1 at the end of the excerpt.147 5-1 motion. Evans also uses this pattern of a slowly moving ascending . Here. As we will see. second. allows the melodic line to achieve tonal closure in two registers.16: Mixing Paradigms in D Minor: 5-1 ascent and a 5-1 descent EXAMPLE 4. EXAMPLE 4. a scale-degree-5-pedal in an upper voice covers an ascending tetrachord from 5-1 in the lower voice.17: Excerpts using a 5-1 ascent paradigm ! Of the four excerpts presented in Example 4. While each of these uses ascending third or fourth spans as a motive within the larger linear motion of an ascending fourth (from A up to D across the course of the phrase).17.

At times. In ornamenting scale degree 5. creating less of a sense of finality. EXAMPLE 4.19. as shown in Example 4. but in the relative key of F major.18.148 line against a higher scale-degree-5-pedal over two choruses later. and occasionally even an upper neighbor to that upper neighbor. as in the first and third excerpts in Example 4. . Evans prolongs scale degree 5 through a ii-V-I progression. Evans’s lines leap from scale degree 5 to scale degree 1 at the conclusion of a phrase to create a motion into the next phrase. Evans may utilize an upper neighbor. ii-V-i in D minor: 5 prolongation ! Evans’s lines do not always achieve melodic tonal closure on 1.18: Prolonging 5 ! Often. this D functions as a prefix to a 5-4-3-2-1 descent in F major. As we will see below.

! In the second excerpt.149 EXAMPLE 4.32 below.19: Prolongation ! In the first of the three excerpts in Example 4. but where the lower A moves chromatically through Bb to B natural. which immediately follows it in the solo. ! This second excerpt retains certain features with the third excerpt from Example 4.19. this is the case.17 and the excerpt shown in Example 4. such that the arpeggios sound as though they are moving through a voice-leading space which has scale-degree 5 as its fixed upper and lower boundaries. Em7(b5) and A7. since A functions as a pedal in both the upper and lower voice in this example. such as the pedal 5 in the upper octave and the motion beginning from 5 in the . two ascending arpeggios articulate the opening two chords of the excerpt. In fact. Both of these arpeggios are bound in both the lowest and highest voice by an A. The C-Bb motion repeats itself in the lower register. only to fall back down to A rather than move up further to D. as it did in the 5-1 ascent paradigm. Bb. eventually falling to A at the arrival of the D minor area in the third measure. The Bb then falls back down to Bb through a registral transfer on the upper structure bii (Bb minor over A7). the upper neighbor of the upper neighbor. the opening G-A-Bb cell moves up to C.

5. but rather a registral transfer down to A. regaining the nadir pitch of the excerpt. 2. ultimately prolonging 5 rather than reaching tonal closure on 1. which moves down to Bb (the b9th of A7 which would complete the minor third pattern. Whereas the above excerpt then had a triadic arpeggio of the A chord.19 differs from the other excerpts structurally in that this excerpt does not traverse a tonal motion from 5 up to 1. such that the C-Bb-A motion is upper-neighbor-of-upper-neighbor through upper neighbor to A. but the Bb then falls to A.150 lower octave. and G on the third triplet of beats 1. here ostensibly as an encircling. yielding C#. a descending arpeggio on the D minor chord achieves not a tonal closure on D. and 7 of the A7 chord over which it falls. The resultant two superimposed fully-diminished seventh chords constitute an octatonic collection. Similar to the excerpt just discussed. or double neighbor. where accented encirclings push the tones of the C# diminished chord to the third eighth-note of each eighth-note triplet. but contains only an oscillating gesture to 6 and back. ! The third excerpt above opens with the G-A-Bb cell. Here. the second excerpt of Example 4. the present example traverses a C# diminished chord arpeggio. The motion continues up to C. the C# diminished chord functions as chord members 3. From here. and 3 respectively. However. but here the arpeggio descends rather than ascends. to the opening A. . making the C# diminished triad a C# fully diminished seventh chord). the A functions as a boundary tone to an arpeggio that is bound also in its lower register by A as well. E.

20 shows two excerpts from the Take 1 performance of “Beautiful Love” from Explorations. shows how the gesture that Evans is using.20: Gestural Similarities ! Noticeably. it can be conceived as a displacement of elements of the first excerpt. EXAMPLE 4. while confusing the harmonic sense of the passage. Example 4. In the second excerpt. Realigning the second excerpt by moving its starting point one measure later. which begins a b7b6-5 descent into A for a 5-1 descent. the excerpts begin at different temporal points relative to the underlying ii-V-i progression. both in its rhythmic contour and registral . which occurs at the second A section in Evans’s first chorus.151 Separating Structure and Gesture ! The excerpts in Example 4. In both of these examples. Evans leaps over the A5 in the upper register. Evans uses a similar rhythmic gesture to ascend from either A3 or G3 to C6. but presents it in the lower register in the third measure of the example. Since the second excerpt comes near the end of Evans’s solo. In the first excerpt. a 5-4-3-2-1 motion occurs in both the upper and lower voices.12 showed how Evans used an octatonic line over the dominant area of the ii-V-i progression. but within the overall confines of a 5-4-3-2-1 descent as a way of prolonging 5. such that the lower voice offers a summary of the descent of the upper register.

the structure underlying the arpeggios differs. EXAMPLE 4. from other performances. but the gesture is quite similar. than to the first excerpt here. the structure of the arpeggio of the second excerpt is more similar to other examples. EXAMPLE 4. has been moved one measure earlier. from the same performance. In fact.21: Gestural Similarities Realigned ! As noted above.22: Structural Similarities .152 starting point. This realignment is shown in Example 4.21.

C#. The low G then moves back up to A. Thus. serve as tones that encircle the A goal tone. uses a descending arpeggio. but each is set differently with regard to rhythm. so the accented notes (those occurring on the beat) articulate a descending A7 chord (G on beat 4 of m. Example 4. and 7th of an Em7(b5) chord). Thus. which then moves down to G through a G minor descending arpeggio over the Em7(b5) chord.153 ! Whereas we saw in Examples 4.e. 2.21 that a similar rhythmic and registral space was used to outline two different underlying structural features. ! Not all of the excerpts make use of all structural features as explicitly as indicated in the framework in Example 4. The first excerpt contains a descending arpeggio over the A7 chord rather than the Em7(b5) chord. As outlined in the framework in the second staff of the example. This low A then either moves down to D via an arpeggio or a linear descent. while the Bb and G that begin the arpeggio still function as double neighbors to the A which falls on the next downbeat. it takes place over a different arpeggio.22.20 and 4. or moves down to another chordal member. where the line moves to F.22 shows different gestures that articulate similar structural features. all of these excerpts begin with an AbM9 (or AbM7) arpeggio. creating a large scale neighbor motion mimicking the opening double neighbor motion to the upper A.. but without the low Ab. ! The final excerpt. and the low Ab that served as the structural . although the descending registral transfer still occurs. rather than using an ascending AbM7 or AbM9 arpeggio. as in the second excerpt. and A) rather than a descending G minor chord (i. The two uppermost notes of this arpeggio. 5th. the opening gesture descends rather than ascends. followed by E. the 3rd. the G (7th) and Bb (9th). and the upper registral A is absent.

C-Bb-A. and also conceptually extends it at times to create a sense of a b7-b6-5 into what is actually scale degree b7. I: 21. typical jazz devices function within these larger paradigms. Thomas Owens notes that this b7-b6-5 motion is found frequently in Charlie Parker’s playing to initiate a motion into scale degree 5 or the 5th of a chord. with or without a lower neighbor G. is absent here. .154 initiation point for the other arpeggios. which is then reinterpreted as b7 for a true b7-b6-5 motion into scale degree 5. was the b7-b6-5 motion. Evans’s phrases utilizing this fragment often emphasize the modularity of the octatonic scale (with alternating half steps and whole steps). One such example. the lower note of each half step can 8 See Owens 1974: Vol. C functions as the upper neighbor to the upper neighbor of A. This b7-b6-5 motion is not exclusive to Evans. Thus.23: Interpretation of Double b7-b6-5 Complex in D minor Notes Interpretation with regard to b7 (C) Interpretation with regard to 5 (A) ! Eb b7 Db b6 C 5 b7 b6 5 Bb A While the Eb-Db-C-Bb-A line shown in the example above exists as a subset of the octatonic scale that one would utilize over an A7 area (thinking of Db as C#). Bb. to lead into scale degree 5 for the descent to 1 or the prolongation. ! In other passages. Evans uses this common bebop device locally within a larger improvisational framework. EXAMPLE 4. noted above. though. Here.8 However.

Although the overall line from Eb to A is a subset of the octatonic scale. In this way. Additionally.24 below.155 be made to sound like scale degree 5 within a b7-b6-5 motion. EXAMPLE 4. Evans expands the b7-b6-5 concept such that a scale degree b7. In the example below. . can function as 5 of a b7-b6-5 pattern above it. a common bebop gesture. an A is embellished with upper neighbor Bb and double upper neighbors C-Bb before moving down to D through a 5-1 linear descent. Ab. from the peak tone of Eb. which begins a 5-1 descent.24: Double b7-b6-5 Complex ! Evans may also utilize repeated rhythmic patterns using the underlying 5-4-3-2-1 model. which then serves as the true b7 for a b7-b6-5 motion into A. In Example 4. we see the use of the Eb-Db-C motion as a b7-b6-5 gesture into C. where the first “5” is reinterpreted as b7 in the next b7-b6-5 cell. the inherent modularity of the octatonic scale allows an interpretation that consists of conceiving of the octatonic scale as a chain of b7-b6-5 motions. the A is chromaticized to the blues 5th. such as C in D minor.

paralleling the 5-4-3 motion in D minor that opens the tune. 9 On a larger level than the 4:3 eighths. F. as noted in Example 4. as b5. While this C-Bb-A third-span functions globally as a motion to the 5th (A) in the arpeggio in the global key of D minor.156 EXAMPLE 4. for a complete 5-1 descent.26. at times appending a motion to the local tonic. the beginning of each grouping forms a dotted quarter note rhythm. ii-V-I Progressions in F Major ! As noted above. it functions locally as a 5-4-3 motion in F major. However. creates a tension in the pitch realm as well. the melody of “Beautiful Love” contains a local third-span moving into the F major area. at the opening.2 above. This is shown in Example 4. Evans utilized this 5-4-3 structural framework directly in his solos. the chromaticized Ab. a 4 over 3 rhythmic pattern creates a sense of rhythmic tension against the underlying meter.25: Rhythmic Tension utilizing the Underlying Pitch Framework Here.9 but the pitch material is structurally equivalent to many of the other examples presented here. .

10 EXAMPLE 4. Thus. and functions as an upper neighbor to the 5-4-3 or 5-4-3-2-1 descent in F major.27: 5-1 Descent in F major with Scale Degree 6 Prefix ! Alternatively. ! Here. to articulate the tonal motion into F major. Thus. C. then turning back up to 3. Evans also made use of another paradigm. for an overall descent of 5-4-3.” with the 5-4-3-2-1 line occurring first.” the D which may complete the D minor tonal motion that opens the tune becomes scale degree 6 in F major. in “Beautiful Love.” although the F major section falls not at the beginning of the A sections but rather as the second phrase of the A section. so the G served as an upper-neighbor prefix to the initial F of the 5-4-3-2-1 descent in Bb. the use of a prefix is possible. consisting of a 5-6-7-1 ascent into F from C. . in “Beautiful Love.157 EXAMPLE 4. We saw this earlier in the case of “Autumn Leaves.26: 5-1 Descent in F major ! Since the F major areas always fall after the D minor areas in the tune. while the motion 10 Both the 5-4-3-2-1 line and the 5-4-3 line are inherent in the melody of “Beautiful Love. the relative minor section which precedes it (D minor) allows for a parallel use of the upper neighbor to the initial local scale degree 5.” where the Bb major area that began each A section generally occurred after a G minor section.

EXAMPLE 4. On the whole. the linear motion takes place along an ascending rather than a descending trajectory. we might consider two examples that each make use of a D to C neighbor motion. too.29. The line then completes the descent to F. helping to negate any sense of D minor. with a confirmation-type summary that culminates in the A of the structural descent.29: Upper Neighbor of Upper Neighbor on 5-1 Descent in F Major ! In Example 4. . may use a prefix.28: 5-1 Ascent in F Major ! To consider how the elements of Evans’s approach may be combined. since coming from a D minor area. Evans’s 5-4-3 line clearly spans the Gm7-C7-FM7 motion.158 is still from scale degree 5 into scale degree 1. EXAMPLE 4. The summary also includes the Eb-D motion with which the phrase began. Additionally. Evans attaches an upper neighbor Eb to the D prefix in each example. but with one example that uses a 5-1 descent from C to F and the other that uses the 5-1 ascent from C to F. the phrase offers a balance due to the two tritone spans. This line. to neutralize the sense of D as a tonic.

in a Schenkerian sense. the upper-voice pedal and the ascending chromatic tetrachord also appear in Example 4. contains a 5-1 ascent rather than a 5-1 descent.” the surface motives hang on the framework of the underlying ascending line from 5 to 1. a simple surface motive of an off-beat C. by contrast.11 This second tritone span.30: Upper Neighbor of Upper Neighbor on 5-1 Ascent in F major ! Example 4. As we will see. and also contains a chromatic filling of the 5-1 tetrachord. completes the resolution implied in the descent from the Eb-to-Bb descent in the opening lead-in gesture.30. . not structurally. for the surface lines. ! To consider how the frameworks of the above two examples recur. in Example 4. while the above can be considered “motivic playing. serve to traverse the tonal span from C to F.30. but where the underlying framework in each case remains markedly 11 I use the term “span” here literally. Here. the descent from Eb to A. and an appoggiatura. defined by the tonal motion from the dominant C7 area into the tonic area of F. a descending arpeggio. Thus. the second descending from Eb to A. EXAMPLE 4. we might consider two further examples where the surface figuration differs markedly from the examples above. This ascent occurs underneath a scale-degree-5 pedal in the upper register.159 the first ascending from F# to C.32 below.

32 contains an ascending 5-#5-6 motion. is countered by the series of descending diminished fifth spans that follows. this Eb-A span defined the motion of the entire phrase.29.160 consistent. EXAMPLE 4.31 also uses a D prefix with its own upper chromatic neighbor. the first measure of the ii-V-I motion (the second full measure of each example) contains a motion from C down to F#.31. Example 4. Eb. marked by the pedal C6 in the upper register. while the surface motives used are completely different.29. While these faster gestures offer a stark contrast to Example 4. here. which becomes a kind of ostinato. rather than the .30. certain principles remain the same.29.31: Eb-D Prefix to 5-1 Descent in F major ! Example 4. However. Additionally. and also occurred as a confirmation-type summary. from A to Eb. each of which is followed by a leap of a fourth. however. In Example 4.31. Example 4. In both examples. whereas it only traversed Eb-Bb at the opening of Example 4.32 contains a strikingly similar framework to that of Example 4. the opening ascending diminished fifth span in Example 4. the 5-1 descent in the example from C to F makes use of a string of descending spans of a diminished or perfect fifth. the Eb-Ab span occurs in full as a microcosm at the beginning of the phrase. Thus. Rather than the pedal C6 with a descending arpeggio to an appoggiatura by lower chromatic neighbor exhibited in Example 4. which points toward the root of the ii7 chord.30. In Example 4.

approached via an encircling. There is not simply a transposition of the first phrase or the first . since the F major phrase completes a tonal motion from 5 up to 1.161 D functioning as a prefix from the area of D minor. the D functions as upper neighbor to 5 within the phrase. but after tonal closure on F has been achieved. shown above in Example 4. occurring after the linear motion to F has been completed. continues the motivic fragment used throughout the phrase. EXAMPLE 4. then continues ascending into E and finally to F via an encircling in measure 3 of the example. but now in a gesture which sounds more like a suffix because it alludes to the motivic gesture of the phrase. and the D minor phrase. EXAMPLE 4.32: 5-1 Chromatic Ascent in F major ! While the above phrase maintains a surface feature that is common to the phrase that precedes it. maintains scale degree 5 in the lower register as a pedal.33. The final C-C#-D.19 and reproduced below in Example 4. shown below.32 ! Here again we see that structural features and surface gestures operate separately from one another. the underlying melodic structures of the two excerpts differ.33: Phrase preceding Example 4.

and the E functions as the chordal seventh of the FM7 chord that serves as the local tonic. This upper triadic outlining. This passage is shown in Example 4. at a deeper level. the F-A-C triad outlined in the upper register is paired with A-C-E in the lower register. provides a sense of similarities in the gestures from one phrase to the next. without ever fully resolving the motion to F. However.162 phrase’s structure up a third from D minor to F major. Evans utilized a chromatic ascending line from A to C. then continued this chromatic ascent from 5 up to 7 (E). while the 5-1 ascent with the line extended back to A at the opening is shown as Framework Option 2 below. the gesture.34 below.34: Embedded Paradigm . we can conceive of the motion as departing from the 5-1 ascent paradigm. we can conceive of this motion as lower sixths to the ascending triad in the upper register. even with a different underlying framework. with the line extended at the opening. Thus. Yet. beginning from A rather than C. with a scale degree 5 pedal in the upper voice and a neighboring motion from scale degree 5 in the lower voice. with lower sixths in shadow. EXAMPLE 4. ! Earlier in the same performance. Here. is shown as Framework Option 1 below.

12 Schenker refers to such progressions as illusory linear progressions. as noted in the examples above. EXAMPLE 4.35 below. then. ! While the C-Bb-A motion derives from the tonal motion into F major. on page 74. In Example 4. may also occur within one line.35: C-Bb-A-G-F canon derived from parallel sixths ! The pairing of two registral lines. . and others will be shown later. Evans appears to have embedded the 5-1 ascending line within the overall framework of the parallel sixths. such that a resulting linear descent is maintained.36 below. In such cases.163 Here. a line in sixths creates a canon of the C-Bb-A-G-F line.12 Examples of this were noted frequently Chapter 3. Some of these are noted in Example 4. which then accounts for the lack of tonal resolution of the E. each of which is preceded by a D prefix. See Der freie Satz. an ascending seventh may stand in for a descending second.” and examples occur in “Beautiful Love” as well. on Evans’s solos on “Autumn Leaves. Section 205-206. which would resolve to F in the 5-1 ascent paradigm. the C-Bb-A fragment can be used in different ways over the course of a passage via displacement.

In the present case. the A-to-F span occurs in D minor as a motion from scale degree 5 to scale degree 3.” In “Autumn Leaves. Thus. Steve Larson notes that tones are often retained in the mind of the listener until displaced by tones a step away. See Larson 2002. tones are retained in the mind of the listener when they are left by leap. or “tensions. but displaced in the mind of the listener when they are left by step. thus activating chordal extensions. the registral transfer often occurs from A (or Ab) up to G.36. as well as the excerpts that appear later in this chapter. the A-to-F span is from scale degree 3 to scale degree 1. In the later cases. In “Autumn Leaves”.164 EXAMPLE 4.13 bvi Complex over Dominant Area ! As noted earlier in Chapter 3 with regard to “Autumn Leaves. Thus. In this way. .36: Registral Transfer of 5-1 Descent in F major ! In the excerpts that appear in Example 4. this motion was often from scale degree 3 to scale degree 1 in Bb. In both cases. 13 In his article on musical forces. in Example 4. over the F7 chord. We can conceptually imagine the lower scale degree still ringing as a lower sixth to the upper tone of resolution. in Bb major.” Evans used a chord over the dominant that was bii of the dominant. which then falls to F. this seems like one way that Evans emphasized tonal closure for the phrase as a whole.” jazz players may use any of a number of different chordal formations over a dominant seventh chord. the A to F third-span (displaced by the seventh) is from one tonic member to another.36. rather than being displaced by actual descending steps.

In the third excerpt. the root of the chord and scale degree 5 of the local tonal area. the upper neighbor to Gb.37: bvi Complex in F major ! However. it occurs squarely on the downbeat. the upper neighbor Eb occurs over the barline into the dominant chord. moving again to the lower chromatic neighbor of Db down through the arpeggio. EXAMPLE 4. Thus. In the second excerpt. In each of the three excerpts presented in Example 4. the Db and Eb sound simultaneously on beat 4 of the preceding measure. In the first excerpt. with chromatic upper and lower neighbors ornamenting the Db after the Eb. . he varied its rhythmic treatment. which then fell to F. although Evans used this specific note sequence with some regularity. and arpeggiating down through Gb. the rhythmic setting is different. Evans uses this pattern in different keys. ! Evans uses this same melodic configuration in his solos on “Beautiful Love” in the areas where there are ii-V-I progressions in a major key.165 Evans arpeggiated a Gb minor chord.38 below. beginning with Ab.

resulting in an overall line of a tenth. Composite Paradigms: Making Larger Phrases ! When we conjoin the two 5-1 paradigms. EXAMPLE 4. In such cases.38: Rhythmic Alterations to 5-1 Descent ! Also. from A to F. the A-G-F-E-D descent in D minor falls into the C-Bb-A-G-F descent in F major. with the connective device of the D prefix to the 5-1 descent in F major.37.39: Composite Paradigm Here. ! Although Evans’s realization of these two individual paradigms may occur such that the two four-bar units contain discrete musical entities. the sense of a composite .. the first in D minor and the second in F major.166 EXAMPLE 4.e. in the third excerpt. the first measure of the example) contains a Db-Ab-Db span that then moves to a C-G-C span in the next measure. foreshadowing the overall Db-C motion that occurs across the next two measures. a longer paradigm results. as indicated in the model shown in Example 4. he often continues a line for longer than these individual four-measure units. the final measure of the previous four-measure unit (i.

167 paradigm. but as a way to move into the final four-measure unit of the A sections in measure .39 above. In the tune “Beautiful Love. we have investigated some of the ways that Evans navigated such progressions. the phrase unit in measures 9-12 consists of a departure from tonic followed by a motion to the dominant area. One excerpt that utilizes this concatenation of paradigms appears in Example 4. may yield a longer improvised line. where the harmonic motion begins in the dominant area and moves to the tonic.40 EXAMPLE 4. ! below.” Above.” the four-measure unit following these opening ii-V-I progressions reverses course. as it were: rather than beginning on a dominant area and moving into a tonal area of closure. such as that indicated in Example 4.40: Concatenation of Paradigms Structural Extension Paradigm ! The ii-V-I progressions in D minor and F major constitute the first two four- measure units of the A sections of “Beautiful Love. though. Melodically. Evans treats this dominant area in measures 11-12 not as a goal.

as in the melody. this phrase structure parallels the melodic phrase structure of the tune. where scale degree 1 is approached initially by its upper neighbor. This improvisational scaffold is shown as Paradigm 1 in Example 4. rather than continuing its downward trajectory. at the same time. Thus. creating an elision into the beginning of the next phrase. creating a sense of tonal closure to this phrase while often. the opening D-C-Bb line seems to drop off to E in the third measure of this four-measure unit.168 13. rather than discontinuing the line by moving to E in the third measure. ! When viewed from a linear perspective. but from measure 9 into measure 13. or by prolonging the Bb into A a few measures later. However. EXAMPLE 4. This G then falls to F over the tonic area.” a linear descent from scale degree 1 down to scale degree 5 occurs from measure 9 to 13. the Bb does eventually fall to A on the downbeat of the next four-measure unit. Evans often continued the line through A (or sometimes a chromatically inflected Ab) to G in the dominant ii-V area. Evans’s lines typically move not from measure 9 to measure 12. When improvising over this section. In the melody of “Beautiful Love. .42 below.41: Final eight measures of “Beautiful Love” (with pickup) ! In the melody.

comprised of a third-span from F to D followed by the span of a sixth from D down to F. Evans often precedes the opening E of the line.42: Paradigm 1 In addition. ! Evans frequently emphasized this continuation (i.43. with an F. EXAMPLE 4.169 EXAMPLE 4. thus creating a full octave line..42. one frequently recurring sub-type of this paradigm is that which is depicted in Example 4. as diagrammed in Example 4. as upper neighbor to D. of the opening E-D-C-Bb line of the melody) by placing it in a higher register through a registral transfer.43: Paradigm 1a ! Evans used this paradigm in four of the six opening A sections considered here. Thus.e. .

Also. utilizing a registral transfer.” 14 All excerpts shown in this example are from IA: 8-13. but rather the linear trajectory through the Bb to A (or Ab) and G. thus showing Evans’s addition of another ornament to the linear scaffold of the melody of “Beautiful Love. the first and third excerpts utilize the opening F as prefix to the E upper neighbor. Thus. . such that the framework for the improvisation is not simply the linear descent in the tune to Bb.44 contain a registral transfer up to G as defined in Paradigm 1a.44: Chorus IA: 8-13: Sections using Paradigm 1a 14 ! All four of the excerpts presented in Example 4. while the first excerpt cites the tune quite explicitly in the opening measures. the continuation of this line shows a consistency with the other excerpts.170 EXAMPLE 4. to land on F in the D minor area that opens the next fourmeasure unit.

46: Paradigm 1a/b ! Of course. such as a registral transfer or a motion to an inner voice. This is shown in Example 4.46 below. we will designate this as Paradigm 1a/b.47. Evans utilized a motion from the G of the descending line to an inner voice. EXAMPLE 4.45. which then resolves to F. E.. This is outlined as Paradigm 1b in Example 4. as shown in Example 4.45: Paradigm 1b When both the registral transfer up to G (Paradigm 1a) and the descending line from G to an inner voice E (Paradigm 1b) occur. The sub-types that have been outlined here have been defined specifically as sub-types because of their frequency in Evans’s playing. we could designate any number of distinct sub-types. the repeated use of these specific . a sixth above the low F. since the resulting model consists of Paradigm 1 with both a and b variants. The inner voice E at times resolves to D. which then falls a 6th to G (thus the G is conceptually held throughout). the third of the four four-measure units of the 16-measure A sections). Rather than recreating an operation in each performance.e.171 ! Evans also used Paradigm 1 at other comparable places in the form (i. EXAMPLE 4. In many of the examples to be considered here.

EXAMPLE 4. which occurs over a 5 pedal with upper neighbor. ! The second excerpt begins with the 3-2-1 motion into the tonic scale degree (F-E- D). this 5-6-5 line (A-BbA) becomes a part of the descending line when it moves down to G in measure 2 (the .172 operations in Evans’s playing resulted in more specific frameworks that he used as a basis for his solos. Also. for a complete line of the octave.47 showcase Evans’s use of these different Paradigm 1 variants. ! The excerpts presented in Example 4. the pickup lick into this phrase encapsulates the entire F-E-D-C-Bb-A-G-F line that defines Paradigm 1.47. Eventually.47: Other Examples utilizing Paradigm 1a or Paradigm 1a/b ! In the first excerpt in Example 4. as though foreshadowing the line that will follow in the octave below. a motion from G into E at the beginning of the penultimate measure ultimately leads down to D.

173 third measure of the example). Following this motion, the Ab moves to G through the octave registral transfer, emphasizing on the surface the change of function of the A from a pedal point to a step within a line. This excerpt then provides an example of Paradigm 1a/b, since it exhibits both the octave transfer up to G as well as the descent from G to an inner voice E. ! Similar to the first excerpt, the third excerpt opens with a descent in triplets, but

here the line given is not F-E-D-C-Bb-A-G-F but rather Bb-A-G-F-E-D-C#, or 6-5-4-3-2-1-7 in D minor. Ending this line with C#, which then moves to E on the downbeat of the next measure, allows for an encircling to the opening structural tone, D. Since this example does not include the descending line from G through inner voice E down an octave to G, it exhibits Paradigm 1a. ! When compared with the other excerpts in Example 4.47 and Example 4.44, the

fourth excerpt shows the rhythmic variation Evans achieves. Additionally, the excerpt ends with the double b7-b6-5 complex, with Eb-Db-C moving into C-Bb-A. ! Although Evans’s lines frequently make use of the registral transfer to G as

depicted in Paradigm 1a, he also utilizes Paradigm 1 without this registral transfer. Often, G moves to an inner voice E, which moves further back down to G, as depicted in Paradigm 1b.

174 EXAMPLE 4.48: Excerpts using a linear descent in one register (Paradigm 1 or 1b)

!

In the first excerpt presented above, two possible frameworks are given. In the

staff immediately above the excerpt, the passage is shown as a derivation of Paradigm 1b, with the structural soprano closing on F, while the D resolves the inner voice E, and thus now appears as the upper voice. ! While this analysis keeps the passage within the confines of Paradigm 1, the staff

above this framework, shown as an ossia staff, presents the framework as a full octave

175 descent from D to D. Here, the G over the Em7(b5) chord moves through a passing tone F to E on the A7 chord, which moves to tonal closure on D. The third and fourth excerpts in Example 4.48 can also yield such a dual interpretation, though in the third excerpt one would have to consider the final E as a displacement of D. ! Along with the passages in Example 4.48 that may be interpreted as octave lines,

other passages may also utilize long descending lines. In Example 4.49, unfolded thirds traverse an octave, with the Ab-G motion reiterated.

EXAMPLE 4.49: Unfolded Thirds Traversing an Octave

!

In Example 4.50, a motive outlining the interval of a fifth (or sometimes a sixth or

an octave) is sequenced down by step, then transposed up an octave. However, throughout this registral shifting, the boundary tones of each span remain linear, but invert, such that when the bottom voice of one fifth leaps an octave to become the top note of the next iteration of the motive, the bottom note of that next motive will be the continuation of what was previously the top line. Thus, the jumping of the hand every two iterations of the motive actually works on a linear scaffold, but with the two boundary lines inverting. Thus, while the line of a sixth from D down to F over the course of the example (shown in the framework above the passage) does not appear as directly as in some of the examples above, it still provides the structural shape of the melodic line. In other words, the arpeggios sometimes begin with the tone of linear

176 descent (e.g., D and C in the second and third measure of the example) and sometimes end on the tone of the linear descent (e.g., the B natural and Bb in the third and fourth measure of the example).

EXAMPLE 4.50: Registrally Transferring a Motive while Maintaining Fixed Lines

!

The above examples have shown passages that derive from Paradigm 1. As noted

earlier, Evans’s improvised melodies in these excerpts, occurring in the third fourmeasure unit of the sixteen-measure A sections, culminate not in the fourth bar of this unit but move into the first bar of the following unit. Thus, these phrases achieve tonal closure in the on-tonic opening of the next phrase, rather than being left tonally open in the dominant area in measures 3 and 4 of this four-measure unit. ! In these sections of the form, Evans also utilized another model to achieve this

tonal closure in measure 13: the 5-4-3-2-1 framework that he utilized in other sections of “Beautiful Love,” as well as in “Autumn Leaves.” While some of these lines, shown in Example 4.51, utilize a descent from D at the opening, paralleling that of Paradigm 1, the lines all begin their structural descent from A over the D minor area (measure 2 of the example), and are thus grouped separately here under a 5-4-3-2-1 paradigm.

177 EXAMPLE 4.51: 5-1 Descent over measures 9-12 of the A sections

!

This chapter has shown how Evans utilized different melodic frameworks on

specific phrase models within the form of “Beautiful Love.” The variety of textures shows how flexible these models can be, in that the melodic content can be new to each performance while the structural underpinnings remain the same, such as descending or ascending lines from 5 to 1 to create local tonal closure, or linear extensions of lines inherent in the tonal plan of the tune. Codifying these simple models offers a fruitful way to encode aspects of Evans’s craft for use by aspiring improvisers.

178

Chapter 5: “Alice in Wonderland” ! “Alice in Wonderland” provides another opportunity to gain insight into how

Evans soloed over an opening that contains two ii-V-I progressions, each of which is the relative key of the other, as was the case in both “Autumn Leaves” and “Beautiful Love.” Here, the first ii-V-I progression is in C major, the global key, and the second ii-V-i progression is in A minor, the relative minor. ! “Alice in Wonderland,” while maintaining the traditional AABA units of 32-bar

song form, is actually notated in 64 measures. Thus, each section of the AABA form lasts for 16 measures rather than the more typical 8 measures. In addition, each A section unfolds as a 4 + 4 + 8 sentence. As we will see, Evans often uses this sentential structure as a formal unit in his improvised melodies as well. In addition, “Alice in Wonderland” also provides an opportunity to study Evans’s playing in 3/4. ! The opening melodic gesture of “Alice in Wonderland” outlines a descending

arpeggio on the C major triad, from G5 to G4, over the first four measures of the tune. This unfolded triad also occurs at a larger level over the span of the first twelve measures of the tune. The two staves above the melody in Example 5.1 show these two levels of structure.

179 EXAMPLE 5.1: Structure of the melody of “Alice in Wonderland” 1

After this deeper-level arpeggio, shown in the upper staff in Example 5.1, the retained G moves to an upper neighbor A and back before a linear descent to C. While tonal closure on the C is achieved in the second and third A sections, as shown in Example 5.1, in the first A section the penultimate D jumps to G over CM7, thus resulting in a tonal motion to C major that is not completely tonally closed, mimicking an imperfect authentic cadence rather than articulating a perfect authentic cadence. ! As we will see, Evans used the descending 5-4-3-2-1 motion with upper neighbor

6 frequently in his solos on this tune as well, as we saw also in “Autumn Leaves” and “Beautiful Love.” Thus, it becomes difficult to say at all times whether this (5)-6-5-4-3-2-1 scaffold exists as a paraphrase of a structure from this specific tune, as noted in the final measures in the top staff of Example 5.1, or whether Evans used it more as a cross-repertoire device, such that its use here is merely coincidental. In other words, we can consider the 5-6-5-4-3-2-1 construct as a structural motive adapted from the tune (thus tune-specific) or as a formula (occurring across the repertoire).

1

The passage in this example represents the second and third A sections.

. then adds a further motion up to C6. In this way.1. “Alice in Wonderland” begins with a ii-V-I progression in C major. relative to C major. he does engage in a structural paraphrase. However. Evans took structural tones from the melody and used them as a starting point for his solo. before moving back down to A4. The motion up to C6 is not in the tune here. Both approaches are guided by the melody of the tune. his last performance with the Scott LaFaro/Paul Motian trio. In both “Autumn Leaves” and “Beautiful Love. and continues with a ii-V-I progression in A minor. 2 I am indebted to Professor Robert Wason for suggesting the use of this term in this context. Evans initiates the opening of the solo in each performance with a motion from G4 up to G5. ! As noted above. Evans’s improvised lines at the opening of each of the first two A sections of each chorus bear the same registral pillars as this space in the melody of the tune.” he used both this 5-4-3-2-1 line as well as another approach. ! For example. one might say that while Evans does not engage in an actual paraphrase.2 In both of Evans’s performances of “Alice in Wonderland” from the famous recording session of June 25. the tune “Alice in Wonderland” opens with a G-to-G registral space. what one might call. rather than using an exact paraphrase. a plagal register. 1961.” Evans used a local 5-4-3-2-1 line to articulate such tonal areas. as shown above in Example 5.180 Evans’s “Alice in Wonderland” ! As noted above. In “Alice in Wonderland. although it does foreshadow the arpeggio in measures 9-12 of each A section.

as well as to the G-F-ED-C line that Evans uses over the span of the A sections in his solos. where the A functions as the upper neighbor and prefix to the G-F-E-D-C line that closes each 16-bar A section of the tune as played by Evans. In addition. recorded on the same day. as can be seen in Example 5. .2: Opening of Evans’s Solos on “Alice in Wonderland” The culminating A4 substitutes for the lower G of this G-to-G-space. the opening gesture here initiates a 5-6 motion (G-A) that will serve as the initiation of a longer 5-6-5-4-3-2-1 line in Evans’s solos. the A4 provides an upper neighbor to the would-be G that comes as another structural paraphrase.181 EXAMPLE 5. ! In these two performances. Thus. serving as the third of the final chord (FM7) rather than the ninth (the would-be G). Evans used this framework for the opening of many of the A sections.3.

the . G-A-C-E-G. the ascent from G4 to G5 usually occurs through an arpeggio of the tonic triad (C major) with added sixth. In the former example.182 EXAMPLE 5. In the third excerpt. while in the second excerpt it occurs twice. reiterating itself after the first ascent. the arpeggio begins on the structural downbeat of the section. In the fourth and fifth excerpts. a low A4 displaces the opening G. rather than as a pickup. the G-to-G ascent is an octave higher. In the sixth excerpt. the opening G-to-G arpeggio has been omitted.3: Opening of A Sections in Evans’s Solos on “Alice in Wonderland” Here. a lower-third neighbor A approaches the upper C peak tone. while in the latter. In the first excerpt the arpeggio occurs once. while in the seventh excerpt. without the additional ascent to C.

a chromaticization of the 5-1 descent that Evans used in other solos as well as occurs in the melody of “Alice in Wonderland” at the end of the A sections. arpeggiating downward from the upper D in the second measure of the example to the lower B over a CM9 chord. as in the third excerpt.4: Alternate Approach for A Sections of “Alice in Wonderland” ! The first of these two examples. however. with an upper extension to C6. but without sounding the root. one may wish to infer a C on the . omits scale degree 1. EXAMPLE 5. Instead of a motion through the tonic added-sixth chord. the opening gesture from G at times takes another guise. The quarternote triplets also create a larger-level hemiola. ! As can be seen here. Evans often used a G4-to-G5 range over the opening four- measure segment. While the goal of A at the end of the phrase occurs rather consistently in other phrases as well. Here. Evans also used a 5-#4-4-3-2-1 line. but includes a chromatic passing tone as well as a 3:2 hemiola using quarter-note triplets. as does the opening motion from G to C. which eventually falls back down to A4. since they divide the 3/4 meter into twobeat units.183 arpeggio begins on the structural downbeat.

all three of these frameworks share G as the structural point of departure.184 second D (tied over from the second measure into the third measure) by asserting that the D displaces the goal-tone C as an upper chordal member on the resolving harmony. EXAMPLE 5. CM9. In the final A section of the first chorus of each solo. after emerging from the B section. The G can be arpeggiated through the octave. creating a pedal on scale degree 5. Scale degree 5 rises through #5 to 6 (A).4.3 and Example 5. thus account for all of the A sections in the two performances of “Alice in Wonderland” except for two. Evans used a framework that we can . although we can see this as a separate framework from the other two. or the G can begin as an octave doubling. which then falls back down to G for a final 5-4-3-2-1 descent to the tonic to close the first chorus.5: Pedal 5 on opening of A Sections in “Alice in Wonderland” Thus. In this way. ! These two frameworks. shown above in Example 5. Evans plays octave G’s in the right hand. outlining the registral space used in most of the other A sections.

before falling again. from E to G.6 show the continuation of the solos of the first chorus. but usually contains a linear motion of a descending third from G to E.3 above all end on A. In this way. as here. Evans used arpeggios as a way to achieve a heightening affect in each of the first two phrases of his solo.2. by ascending registrally. and thus immediately follow the passages in Example 5. or of an ascending third. Bm7(b5). This A also serves as a connective into the next phrase: the ii-V-i progression in A minor. setting up a kind of potential energy. EXAMPLE 5. ! The seven phrases in Example 5. the phrase again begins with an ascending arpeggio.3. this time of the chord over which it occurs. which were then reproduced as the first two excerpts in Example 5.185 interpret in retrospect as a structural paraphrase. the third of the FM7 chord that occurs at this point in the tune.6: Model for measures 5-8 of A sections of “Alice in Wonderland” ! This phrase varies throughout the solos. since this G-to-G space governs the melody of the opening of the A sections. . rather than what would be a ninth (the G). The excerpts presented in Example 5. In addition. While the ability of the E-G third span to retrograde may seem to contradict the claim that Evans’s models derive from the syntax.

the opening 16-measure A sections of each of Bill Evans’s performances of “Alice in Wonderland” on June 25. EXAMPLE 5. When compared with the uppermost staff of Example 5. ! The final 8-measure unit of the A sections. Thus. is matched by an 8-measure unit in Evans’s solos. .186 it is not clear that this is the case here. he is articulating notes that occur at different structural levels of the tune at this point in the form. the F to E motion in the lower voice (see the notes that are stemmed downward in the second staff of Example 5. which contains the continuation of the sentence.1. 1-13) as well as the E of the overall descending arpeggio that occurs from G5 to G4 over this same span. and that indeed Evans outlined in his solo at this juncture.7: Model for measures 9-16 of A sections of “Alice in Wonderland” Here. 1961. his last performance with the LaFaro/Motian trio. while the 5-4-3-2-(#)1 line above occurs as a foreshadowing of the tonal motion in the melody of the tune that closes each A section.7) outlines the underlying counterpoint of Dm7-G7-Em7A7. The C# occurs in the first take as a chromaticization at a lower structural level to accommodate the A7 chord. Evans is merely articulating both the globally held G (of mm. ! As we have seen. contain a remarkably similar underlying scaffold in the A sections.

187 while the surface motives are quite different between the two versions. We have examined how this underlying structure results from the idea of structural paraphrase of the tune, with the G-to-G registral space of the first four-measure phrase, the G-to-E motion that occurs over the first eight-measure span, the G-F-E-D-C lines in the closing eight measures, and the overall formal structure of the A sections as sentences. ! We have also noted differences between the tune and Evans’s improvised lines.

The G-to-G span in the opening four measures was arpeggiated further, up to C6, and landed on A4 rather than G4. The G-to-E motion of the second four-measure phrase is in fact a summary of the G-to-E motion across the eight-measure phrase that begins the melody of the tune; in fact no G appears in the second four-measure phrase at this point in the tune. Thus, these parallels between the tune are structural rather than note-for-note exact.

“Alice in Wonderland”: B Section ! Evans also used the idea of structural paraphrase in the B sections. Here, the

melody can be parsed into two eight-measure phrases. The first contains two ii-V-I motions in C major, the first of which chromaticizes the opening ii chord. The second begins by moving through a circle-of-fifths progression, first with a ii-V-i into Em, which then becomes the ii chord of a ii-V-i motion into Dm. The arrival of D minor, the global ii chord, commences a ii-V turnaround to prepare for the return of C major at the beginning of the A section. ! In the framework for his solos, Evans affixes a Bb to the opening A-to-G motion

in the melody of the tune, an upper-neighbor chromatic prefix which substitutes for the

188 lower register D of the original melody. In this way, Evans takes a linear motion from the tune and extends it, creating a guide-tone line of #5-9-5 over the D7-G7-CM7 progression that opens the B section.

EXAMPLE 5.8: B Sections in “Alice in Wonderland”

!

In each performance from the 1961 gig, Evans soloed for two choruses. In the B

section of the second chorus in each performance, he uses the Bb-A-G line, as described above. In the B section of the first chorus in each performance, he uses a Bb-A(b)-G-F-E

189 line, diminuting, chromaticizing (the A-to-Ab change), and extending the Bb-A-G motion. Of the four total B sections, all of which are shown in Example 5.8, the first and fourth excerpts make a directed 5-4-3-2-1 motion to close the opening eight-measure segment of the B section (measures 1-8 in the example). ! The second half of the B section (measures 9-16 in Example 5.8) shows much

more consistency than the first half of the B section, perhaps because of the more directed harmonic motion: the first half of the B section was entirely in C major, while the second half constitutes a circle-of-fifths progression with embedded ii-V-I progressions, as described above. The first ii-V-i motion Evans actually plays as V/V to V of E minor, which, as noted above, then becomes the ii chord in a ii-V-i motion to Dm, which we then reinterpret as ii of the global key, moving finally to G7. Thus, the overall motion is a chromaticized ii-V of iii, becoming ii in ii-V of ii, becoming ii in the global ii-V. ! In the melody, a descending line moves from C down through D. This linear

descent begins with a chromatic fragment, C-B-Bb-A, a b5-8 chain over the roots of the chords. This A then falls a third to F over the Dm7 area. F, as scale degree 4, moves to D, scale degree 2, after which a quick arpeggio or scale down to G (as an inner voice) culminates the phrase and prepares for the G-initiated openings of the A sections, as noted in the above discussion. ! In the first and third excerpt, a lower third shadows the C-B-Bb-A line, creating a

#9-13 chain underneath the b5-8 chain. This third is shown in parentheses in the “Framework” staff of Example 5.8. In the fourth excerpt, an upper third shadows the CB-Bb-A line in a gesture which, while utilizing the “third-over” operation, constitutes a

190 13-#9 chain above the b5-8 chain. In this way Evans hints at other lines of voice-leading while maintaining the C-B-Bb-A line as the primary soprano line.

191

Chapter 6: “My Romance” ! This brief chapter presents a discussion of the beginning of two performances of

“My Romance.” In doing so, it suggests that the opening gambits of Evans’s solos in both performances share specific structural features with the openings presented in the previous chapter, in “Alice in Wonderland,” even though the underlying tonal plans between these two tunes differ in significant ways. Significantly, Evans played both tunes in the key of C major. Comparing these opening gambits provides an example of Evans’s use of specific frameworks across different tunes, not just in different performances of the same tune. ! Evans played “My Romance” twice at the June 25, 1961, gig at the Village

Vanguard. However, most of the remainder of the recorded performances of the tune come from his final recorded live performances, at the Keystone Korner in San Francisco shortly before his death. The two early performances have many similar features, as do the the later recordings, but the early and late sets have little in common with one another. While much could be said about the later recordings, this chapter will outline commonalities in the two early performances in keeping with the focus on Evans’s earlier work maintained in this study. ! “My Romance” opens with a triadic outlining over 5-3-1, similar to that found in

“Alice in Wonderland.”

192 EXAMPLE 6.1: Basic Melodic and Harmonic Framework of “My Romance”

Here, though, the form is AA’ rather than AABA. While scale degree 5 is prolonged throughout the first A section, in the second A section, rather than scale degree 5 being retained throughout and serving as the initiation point for a 5-4-3-2-1 descent, 3 is retained and moves to 1 at the close of the form. However, the motion from scale degree 5 to 3 still occurs over the two harmonic areas of I and vi, and occurs in the same key as “Alice in Wonderland,” C major. ! A significant difference exists within these tonic areas, though. In “Alice in

Wonderland,” the local tonics arrive through directed ii-V-I motions. In “My Romance,” on the other hand, the tonic chords occur at the outset. As we will see, though, Evans treats some of these sections similarly to the way he treats them in “Alice in Wonderland,” such that he reacts at times more to the formal placement of a tonal area rather than a local chord-by-chord motion, whether beginning on I or a ii-V-I motion. In other words, he treats the opening C major section similarly in both “Alice in Wonderland” and “My Romance,” even though “Alice in Wonderland” begins with a iiV-I motion in C major, while “My Romance” begins on a C major chord and eventually cycles back to C major.

193 Evans’s “My Romance” ! We noted above that Evans began his solos in “Alice in Wonderland” by outlining

the G-to-G registral space of the tune, but added an additional fourth at the top, up to C. Evans also used this outline, from G4 to G5 to C6, then back down through G5 to G4, on the opening of his solos on “My Romance.” Even though, as noted above, the character of the chord progressions differs at this point in both tunes, since in “Alice in Wonderland” it is tonic-directed and in “My Romance” it is bookended by tonics, this structural model operates at the same place in the form, occurring at the opening of his solo, and occurs in the same key, since both tunes are in C major. In addition, both tunes also contain a motion toward A minor in the next phrase. ! This structural model, while mimicking the registral space of the melody in

“Alice in Wonderland,” transcends use in that tune only and becomes a way to open a registral space at the beginning of a solo. In the two performances of “My Romance” from the Village Vanguard session of June 25, 1961, Evans opens the solo on the first performance of “My Romance” with a lead-in that emphasizes this registral space as well.

EXAMPLE 6.2: Lead-in to solo from “My Romance” (Take 1) from Waltz for Debby

After leading into the first measure of the form in this way, Evans continues by using this shape again.

these two opening phrases make use of the same structural outline that Evans used at the opening of his solos in “Alice in Wonderland.194 EXAMPLE 6. and is a procedure that Evans used in different solos and across performances of different tunes. and back down to low scale degree 5. from scale degree 5 up to scale degree 5.4: Structural Similarities at Temporal Distance of One Measure A realignment of these two excerpts by one measure clarifies that this structural framework has been delayed in the second excerpt in Example 6. ! Evans also used an arch contour in the continuation to each of these solos.” even though the underlying harmonic plan here differs from that of “Alice in Wonderland. as shown in Example 6. EXAMPLE 6.3.3: Evans’s Solos at the Opening of “My Romance” ! As seen in Example 6. serves as a way to outline a registral space at the opening of one’s solo. further up to scale degree 1.4.4.” The arch contour of these examples. such that tonal closure .

Such a realignment of Example 6.5.4 is shown in Example 6.195 on C does not arrive until the beginning of the next four-measure unit. EXAMPLE 6.4 .5: Realignment of Example 6.

we can conceive of Evans’s harmonization not of substituting one chord for another by an internal logic. EXAMPLE 7. the initial four-measure phrase as played by jazz players would typically move from a ii-V of C major up a step to a ii-V of D minor. 2. 1 to m. with the ii-V progression sequenced up a whole step.196 Chapter 7: “I Should Care” ! Bill Evans played “I Should Care” throughout his career. In this way. Thus. thereby creating a chain of dominants which culminates in the CM7 chord of m. In a standard AA’ form (abac). after the tonal planing that occurs from m. Additionally. but rather by reconceiving the entire harmonic progression holistically. 4. the goal of which initiates the ii-V-I motion back to C major.1: Basic Melodic and Harmonic Framework of measures 1-4 of “I Should Care” ! Evans reharmonized the opening to extend the goal-oriented circle-of-fifths motion back from the Em7 chord to the opening measure. . 4. with the substituted chord sharing properties of the original chord. creating a dominant chain backwards from the final CM7 chord of the phrase. he utilized dominant seventh chords. the new ii-V of D minor initiates a circleof-fifths progression culminating with a C major chord in m.

Evans’s “I Should Care” ! Evans’s solos often begin with a two-measure break. As we will see.2: Reharmonization of the opening of “I Should Care” ! A typical Evans left-hand-voicing structure for these dominant sevenths would be: EXAMPLE 7. but also how it changes slowly over time. up to C6 on m. in the lead-in Evans moves from a low register. are much more similar to one another than to the take from a performance a few years later. 1 of the 32-bar form. ! As shown below in Example 7. much as he did in “Autumn Leaves” over some of the A7-D7-Gm progressions. about 11 months apart. Evans makes use of this left-hand voicing structure in his right hand improvised line. The 1966 and 1967 takes.197 EXAMPLE 7. articulated with an encircling. a 3rd-7th chain (beginning A#-A natural) and a 7th-3rd chain (beginning E-D#) combine with a #9(b10)-13th chain (beginning A natural-G#). Three performances recorded at the Village Vanguard on live gigs from 1966 to 1970 show the consistency of Evans’s lead-in. in 1970.4. This occurs through two distinct arpeggiations. the first moving from C4 to C5. with C5 as the goal tone at the beginning of the second measure of the lead-in.3: Left-hand voicing structures for chain of dominants Here. either C4 or E4. and with a .

The B. Evans would reach the final C6 goal tone earlier as well. C5. EXAMPLE 7. the goal tone of the second measure. .198 continuation of the arpeggiation from C5 to C6. whereas in the earlier two performances the C5 had been pushed back by an accented encircling. The performance from 1970 omits the opening C4. and gets its own lower neighbor in the second and third performances. Since Evans starts later into the arpeggiation. falls squarely on the downbeat. a lower chromatic neighbor tone embellishes each tone of the arpeggiation in the first octave. B4. forms an accented encircling to C5 in the second bar of the example in the two more temporally proximate takes. in conjunction with the D. is also the seventh of the CM7 chord. since C5 falls squarely on the downbeat of the second measure. Since this tone arrives earlier. while the lower chromatic neighbor to C5. from July of 1966 and May of 1967. and instead begins with a chromatic lower neighbor into the E of the arpeggiation. the goal tone at the beginning (“top”) of the 32-bar form.4: Lead-in ! In each of the lead-ins from these performances. Thus. in the 1970 performance the encircling is unaccented.

measures 3-4 of the example). but on the downbeat of the second measure. certain differences show that the overall commonality is more structural than note-for-note exact. in the later performance from 1970 the C is omitted altogether. As noted above. the encircling of C5 in the 1966 take begins on the upbeat at the end of the first measure and continues through D and B in the next measure.. the opening of the gesture is different between the two takes. this time through E natural rather than Eb. Opening of Form: Paradigm 1 ! Another structural similarity shown in Example 7. followed by an arpeggiation that leads C5 back up to A5. moving through A and Eb. For instance.e. thus creating a structural parallelism with the previous measure. absent in the first two excerpts. In the 1967 performance C4 is approached by its lower chromatic neighbor. such as the identical rhythmic placement of the D#-E-F#-G fragment in the opening measure and the final four eighth notes of the second measure into the downbeat of the following. the beginning of the second measure appears to have the encircling reversed. begins on B as well. in comparing the 1966 and the 1967 take. The 1967 take. in the first two performances. a descending arpeggio occurs from C6 to C5.4 occurs in the first two measures of the form (i. Thus an overall descent of a third occurs from C6 to A5. where there was an encircling of C5. approached by its lower chromatic neighbor. Thus.199 but uses an encircling to C6. while in the 1966 performance it is not. . Additionally. ! Although similarities between the first two performances extend directly to the surface. Here. when really it is just occurring an eighth note later (compare the B-D-B-C fragments). on the other hand.

this line traverses a b5-8 chain through the counterpoint. the placement of initiation points and peak tones remains consistent across a 15-year span. as noted in Example 7. where one picks what notes to play in any way one chooses. a performance of a few years later.. but occurs chromatically.5: b5-8 chain through circle-of-fifths CHORD Note Chordal Member F#7 C b5 B7 B 8 E7 Bb b5 A7 A 8 Opening of A sections: Paradigm 2 ! Alternatively. with an octave transfer downward on the Bb. Rather than simply using this fragment as a collection of notes.e. Considering the opening chain of dominants. 1962. 1A’: 1-4. Thus. this motion from C to A occurs not through the pairing of a descending and ascending arpeggio. an album containing performances from a Village Vanguard gig on this date.5 below. 17-20 of each solo) in each of six performances. performance subsequently released on the Getting Sentimental collection.200 ! In the third excerpt. F#7-B7-E7A7. traversing a line of C-B-Bb-A. from the June 5. In the first four measures of the first A’ section (i. 1978. Evans utilizes this octatonic subset in a remarkably consistent way. or mm. . Evans navigates the off-tonic opening of the A sections with an octatonic fragment: C-D-Eb-F-F#. performance released on How My Heart Sings to the January 15. EXAMPLE 7. the closing A sounds an octave lower than it did in the first two excerpts. as noted above in the first two excerpts. as shown in Example 7.2.

or in some cases in more abbreviated form through an arpeggio.e. which together provide the phrase with an arch contour typical of many of Evans’s other opening gambits. F#. a sense of phrase elision occurs on the surface. 4. but the continuation functions as a connective. In such cases where the line does continue to descend. which he utilizes over the circle-of-fifths progression starting on F#7 in C major. Evans uses the C-Eb-F in reaching toward the culminating note. utilizing a 5-4-3-2-1 line back down to C for tonal closure in m. such that the point of harmonic closure coincides with the point of melodic closure.201 ! The octatonic fragment C-D-Eb-F-F# ascends through an octave-and-a-half span from C5 to F#6. the line descends.1 1 See the chapters on “Beautiful Love. and the 5-1 descent. the initial motion from scale degree 1 up to scale degree b5 functions as a prefix to the 5-1 descent that articulates tonal closure. In this way. ! Thus. with the C articulating the tonal closure of this phrase even though the line may continue to descend. This line occasionally continues a descent into the next four-measure section of the form. Then.” and “My Romance. Evans initiates this motion through what is primarily a stepwise line from C5 to C6. which he uses over the second half of this phrase to articulate the motion into the C major chord. the C to F# octatonic fragment).” . Evans joins the 1-b5 space (i.” “Alice in Wonderland. From this peak point..

7.6 all come from the second A section of Evans’s first chorus. has been altered by the omission of the opening registral ascent from C5 to C6. still provides a pathway for the opening two measures. Evans also used this framework at the opening of other A sections. A. giving a sense of tonal closure to the opening line. F#. as in the fourth excerpt in Example 7. The chromatic passing tone. connects G to F and heightens the sense of movement into E. while the framework. and the possible addition of a set of tones above the F#. the long ascent beginning on C5 is absent. Also.7 below.6 in the second staff of Example 7. either with F# functioning as a lower chromatic neighbor into a G-C arpeggiated fourth. a registral ascent in .6: “I Should Care”: 1A’: 1-4 (17-20) ! While the six excerpts in Example 7. or with a third-over. as in the third excerpt of the four in Example 7. the entity of the octatonic fragment. ascending from C6 to F#6. reproduced from Example 7.202 EXAMPLE 7. and the motion to F# may be thrown higher. In such cases. the 5-1 descent from G to C still governs the final two measures. ! Additionally. Thus.7.

after the G-F#-F natural in the middle of m. and is reproduced below as Example 7.. While we noted this approach earlier in “Autumn Leaves” over some of the A7-D7-Gm progressions.3. 2 through the F and E at the opening of m.8. 3. thus adapting his left-hand chordal formations into his improvised lines.203 the second excerpt. EXAMPLE 7. which function as a brief chain of dominants into G minor. following the G at the end of m.e. Evans also utilized this approach on the longer chain of dominants in “I Should Care. .7: Other examples of 1-b5 openings to A sections Opening of A Sections: Paradigm 3 ! Evans also utilized arpeggios in his right-hand line. provides the initiation of a summary of the line from G that began at the end of m.” The voicing Evans would often use in such a chain was shown in Example 7. 3. and regaining the E in the upper register on the upbeat of beat 3). 2 (i.

8: Reproduction of Example 7. as well as a 13th-#9th chain with a #9th-13th chain (the second of which is present in the left-hand voicing. pairing a b5th-root chain with a root-b5th chain.9 in the first four rows. since the #9th-13th chain shown in the fourth row occurs in both the right. One of these rows is counted twice. while the original three left-hand lines are shown in the final three rows. utilizing chordal tones not present in the left hand. while the left hand utilizes the typical voicing strands shown in Example 7.” here he generally leaves them in the left hand and adds to them in the right hand. as Evans did in “Autumn Leaves.A Root b5th 13th #9th (b10th) 7th 3rd First Chord b5th Root #9th (b10th) 13th 3rd 7th Second Chord .F C-B D# . EXAMPLE 7.B7 F# . rather than using these three strands in the right hand as well as the left hand. These four right-hand lines are shown in Example 7.and left-hand lines.8.G# E . Thus.3 ! However. the right hand utilizes other chord tones.and right-hand lines F#7 . the first of which is not).D# A# .D A .204 EXAMPLE 7.9: Chordal members in Evans’s left.

EXAMPLE 7. .10. The second and third columns show how each of the tones in column 1 functions within its respective chord. For an overview of upper structure chords. These upper structure chords allow a way to conceive of additional chordal extensions from the octatonic collection that jazz players would typically play over a dominant seventh chord. CA: Sher Music Co.2 In Example 7.e.10 provides the notation for the structure indicated in Example 7.205 ! In Example 7. surrounding the discussion of this model in Ex. E7-A7. In essence. the notes in the left column are given as an example from the first two chords of the form. Chapter 14: 109-124. the four notes in each right-hand voicing are parsed into two 2 Upper structure chords were discussed in Chapter 2.29. superimposed over the voicing in the left hand. 1-4 of “I Should Care” ! As shown in Example 7. the strands of voice-leading in the right hand coalesce into a diminished seventh chord.10: Right-hand lines and typical left-hand voicings for mm.8. ! Example 7.. as can be seen in Example 7.. 1989. The Jazz Piano Book. The functions presented in the second and third columns would then be replicated for each two-chord pairing that follows (i. Petaluma.9.8. which reflected the B natural in the melody of the tune) to reflect Evans’s harmonic change here when he solos using this model. now the C7 rather than CM7.10. see Mark Levine. he continues the dominant seventh sonorities into the goal chord. The final measure has been notated as a C7 rather than as a CM7 (as it was in Example 7. 2. D7-G7).9.

A/Eb. . F#/C. in the first and fourth excerpts. the pattern emerges in m.206 tritone pairs. though not initiating this pattern from the beginning. Rather. EXAMPLE 7. with the G/C# tritone. Evans begins on the first tritone pairing shown in the right hand in Example 7.11: Diminished Seventh Chords over Dominants ! Here. 2.10. In the second excerpt.11. as shown in the excerpts in Example 7. Evans utilizes the second tritone of the model. then arpeggiates down through the diminished seventh chord. They are shown in this way because Evans typically strikes one of these tritone pairs first.

. but in reality the upper structure is merely a way to conceive of chordal extensions. While this chapter has shown Evans’s use of these superimposed structures in a circle-of-fifths progression. as shown above in Example 7.207 ! This chapter has shown how Evans uses a polychordal arrangement in certain chromatic circle-of-fifths progressions.9. the following chapter outlines his use of this device over a dominant pedal. the sonority can be construed as a polychord. In this way. ! Evan utilized diminished seventh chords over an underlying dominant seventh chord in multiple contexts. where a diminished seventh chord in the righthand solo line fills out notes of the octatonic collection that jazz players would typically utilize to solo on the given dominant seventh chord.

it has also noted commonalities between comparable sections within the same performance. ! Adding to the fact that he had these featured moments in the third chorus. While we would be more limited in such cases. connections can be found between like sections. due to having less musical data (i. where the first four measures of each A section are treated as a break.208 Chapter 8: “Sweet and Lovely” ! While the analytical approach taken in the present work has centered on finding common patterns between different performances of the same tune. but also in tunes that he recorded only once. we may still find sections which share salient structural features.e. in the A sections of the third chorus. a standard that begins with a chord other than tonic does so in one of two ways: 1) with a ii-V progression in the home key. After first considering the harmonic structure of the A sections of “Sweet and Lovely. while we can compare the A section of one performance to the A section of another performance. Typically. or 2) with one key area that . Evans also had to deal with the fact that “Sweet and Lovely” differs harmonically from most other standards. In this way. thus showing that Evans had a planned approach to certain sections of his solo. fewer choruses) from which to draw conclusions. Thus. ! Such is the case with “Sweet and Lovely.” While Evans only recorded one performance of this tune.. Evans seems to have had a more specifically workedout plan than in some of the other areas of his solo.” we will examine commonalities between the A sections in Evans’s third chorus. we can make comparisons not only among performances of tunes that Evans recorded multiple times. For this featured portion of his solo. we can also compare the A section of one performance with another A section from that same performance.

as in “My Funny Valentine” or “You’d Be So Nice to Come Home To. then yielding to the subdominant chord with minor seventh in measure 5. or lands on F or A as a goal tone or a peak tone. September 10. part of the rhetoric of a blues is that the opening chord is both of these functions simultaneously. thus establishing the “wrong” tonality in the opening four measures (i.. The basic harmonic progression of the A sections is diagrammed in Example 8. that. in Wason’s view. Thus. as in “I Should Care. while a player could treat the opening C7 area of this tune as a blues tonic or as a dominant of the upcoming subdominant (and.” ! “Sweet and Lovely. C.” however. Thus. as we have seen.” global tonic. F then functions as a dominant of Bb before finally moving to the tonic. Personal Communication. or moves more into the V7/IV function in the latter portion of the opening four measures). However. actually lead through F to C. such that the first four measures of the A sections truly seem to be operating in F. in F. . on a large scale. the A sections of “Sweet and Lovely” can be conceived as a chain of dominants to a point. the tune does in fact start on tonic. and thus the typical circle-of-fifths patterns that a jazz player may practice over a standard chain of dominants would not be easily applied here. C major. since the A sections in “Sweet and Lovely” are only eight measures. F. with C7 as dominant rather than tonic. but on a “blues” tonic: a dominant seventh sonority. However. makes no direct use of any of these approaches. Evans often arpeggiates through F chords.1. C major. Evans reharmonized some standards to begin with a chain of dominants.209 progresses to its relative key by the end of the tune. but rather toward the subdominant.1 “Sweet and Lovely” begins with two ii-V progressions. while the Gm7-C7 progression with which “Sweet and Lovely” begins does lead to F in measure 5. while projecting a tonic of F major. this chain of dominants consists of chords which are not of equal duration.2 Thus. 2 Robert Wason has suggested that such tonal plans. of course. but the ii-V progressions do not point toward the ultimate tonic. in his solo section. 1 We will see. allude to the tonal plan of the 12-bar blues. the opening Gm7-C7 progressions. Thus. a tonic that eventually gives way to the “true. in measure 7.e. 2009. with C7 functioning over the first four measures. Evans seems to treat the chord as a dominant seventh chord of F. Such an allusion for the general tune framework is strong here.” Additionally. F major). albeit in condensed form. however.

Bb 5 6 Bb7 .1: Tonal Diagram of the A Sections of “Sweet and Lovely”! Meas. the F chord loses its sense of “tonicness” as soon as it sounds. Here. the resumption of the “time” by the bass and drums coincides with the point of local tonal resolution. C7. point to F as tonic. a Gm7-C7-Gm7-C7 progression. pointing toward the Bb chord which comes next.3 ! In the beginning of the A sections. sounding as a dominant seventh. any ii-V progression can be considered as an expansion of a V chord. traversing an octave 3 In fact. Ultimately. the opening of the A sections does consist of a chain of dominants. Thus. . Perhaps the most prominent similarity between like sections in Evans’s improvisation on “Sweet and Lovely” occurs in the third chorus during these A sections. Chord RN Implied Key 1 2 3 4 F7 (I) . which then moves to F7 in measure 5. four-measure C7 area. immediately gives this chord the function of a dominant.210 EXAMPLE 8. with the drums and bass stopping play until the 5th measure of the A sections.Eb7 bVII . is expanded into ii-V progressions.V (F) . The opening four measures. as the Bb chord is a dominant seventh of Eb7. rather than the more typical chain of dominants progression in standards. then. Thus. the Gm7-C7 progressions at the opening of “Sweet and Lovely” can be considered as a large. but one in which the first dominant. as noted earlier.bIII 7 CM7 . and lasts for four measures. during the C7 area. whereby each dominant area has the same duration as each other dominant area. at which point the pattern continues.G7 I-V 8 CM7 I C Gm7 C7 ii F V F Gm7 C7 ii F V F moving to C C Evans’s “Sweet and Lovely” ! As noted in earlier analyses. since the F chord is a dominant seventh chord. but the arrival of the F tonic chord. the F major chord functions only temporarily as a tonic. Evans utilized a long-term ascending diminished seventh chord arpeggio in the upper register. at the point when the F chord occurs. even though. the first four measures of each A section occur as a break.

both registral units of the structure presented in Example 8. the break in the minor third span necessarily occurs where no minor 3rd interval occurs in the C7 chord. once the major 7ths begin at the E4-to-Eb5 leap.2 can be construed as an elaboration of a C7 structure: 1) in the lower register. rather than Bb4 to C5 or C#5. The intervallic contraction from major 7ths to minor 6ths at the leap from E5 to C6 occurs when the motion of minor thirds in the lower line is extended to a tritone. .211 or more over the opening four-measure span. These two registrally distinct structures are represented in Example 8. broken into segments according to where the leaps to the upper arpeggio occur. outlines a C7 chord. G to F#. the chromatic line. 1-4 ! The placement of the notes of the upper-register arpeggio. he played an ascending chromatic scale in the lower register.2. with respect to the lower-register ascending chromatic scale. ! As indicated by slurs in Example 8. and major 7ths or minor 6ths in the second half. with major 7ths. EXAMPLE 8.2: Structure used in A sections in the third chorus: mm.2. Thus.2. Meanwhile. beginning at the leap to C6. both the lower and upper lines proceed in minor third spans. In fact. and Bb to A). from Bb4 to E5. in the second octave as well. but Evans sometimes uses the structure of the first octave. from Bb to C or from C to E. results mainly in intervals of a major 7th between registers in the first octave of the scale (E to Eb.4 As shown in Example 8. the chromatic line outlines a C7 chord when divided into units based on 4 Example 8.2 above shows minor 6ths in the second octave.

but transferred up an octave. 5th. two chords result: a C7 in the lower register. this pattern of major 7th leaps may continue. Bb/A.212 where leaps occur to the upper register. each of which occurs a half-step below the chordal 3rd. or it may contract to minor 6ths. and 7th of the C7 chord. paired with its common-tone diminished seventh chord in the upper register. as in the first excerpt. EXAMPLE 8.4 shows the three A sections of the third chorus. In the second octave. as shown in Example 8. G/F#. but all leaps in the first octave following the opening C-to-C leap follow the major 7th intervallic pattern outlined above: E/Eb. .3. and 2) in the upper register. Not all excerpts have a full chromatic scale. Thus.3: Interpretation 1 of Evans’s Structure ! Example 8. the arpeggiated C diminished seventh chord consists of notes of ornamentation. or a single ascending chromatic line may occur. as in the third excerpt. as noted above and as shown in the second excerpt.

G to F#. 1 into 5 ! Not all of the excerpts in Example 8. as in the first excerpt. ! In addition. however.213 EXAMPLE 8. The arpeggio of the diminished seventh chord in the upper register may continue to F#. slight differences exist with regard to the leaps from the tones of the chromatic scale in the lower register. mm. the leap from C to C is followed by a leap from C# up to C. E to Eb.2. some excerpts also have a leap from D up to C after the initial C-to-C octave leap.4 have exactly the same sequence of notes. While all three excerpts utilize leaps from C to C. and Bb to A. The third excerpt delays the culminating C6 of the first octave of the diminished seventh chord arpeggio. such that C6 occurs only in measure 5 after a long ascending chromatic line in measures 3-4. and as was indicated in Example 8. In the first excerpt. rather than from D up to C. we could consider that the C diminished seventh chord arpeggio of the upper register pairs with a C# diminished seventh chord in the lower register.4: Excerpts utilizing the Dom7/Dim7 Chordal Pairing Paradigm in Evans’s Third Chorus. as in the second excerpt. If we consider the C#-to-C leap as indicating structural tones. as occurs in many of the other passages. thus taking the C# as a structural tone in the lower register. or to Eb. This interpretation alters . This C#-to-C leap then occurs again in the next octave later in this passage. outlining the C7 chord.

pairs two diminished seventh chords that together form the appropriate octatonic collection to use over a C7 chord.5-a. being displaced lower chromatic neighbors.5. diminished seventh chord. occurring as leaps in Evans’s solo: C#/C. thus creating a C# diminished seventh chord.214 that presented in Example 8. ! Combining the above interpretations.4 by noting that they begin with a leap from C to C to set up scale degree 5 in the local F area. The overall collection formed by the superimposition of the resulting two diminished seventh chords is the octatonic scale that would typically be utilized by jazz players on the underlying C7 harmony. This alternate interpretation. E/Eb. we could explain the passages in Example 8. this scale results from affixing lower chromatic neighbors to the b9th. the tones of the upper seventh chord still derive from the lower seventh chord. Since this interpretation derives from the symmetrical. shown below in Example 8. it has the benefit of intervallic consistency between each chordal member pairing.3 by raising the root of the lower C7 chord to C#. 3rd.5: Interpretation 2 of Evans’s Structure ! Here. as shown in Example 8. Bb/A. but then move into the paired diminished seventh chords to yield the symmetrical . and 7th of a dominant chord. 5th. As conceived here. EXAMPLE 8. G/F#.

6. 7 above). grows out of the construct defining the first. then outlines the remaining C7 chord tones. 7 chord and the C dim. Thus.6: Interpretation 3: Combination of Interpretation 1 and Interpretation 2 ! This interpretation. we can view the pairing of the C# dim.6. where the two diminished seventh chords comprise the octatonic scale. combining that of Interpretation 1 (the C7 chord with C dim. EXAMPLE 8. the arpeggiated C7 chord. 7 chord with the C dim. 7 chord above) and Interpretation 2 (the C# dim. or as a tone filling in the appropriate octatonic scale on C7.215 structure outlined in Example 8. This combination of the two interpretations outlined here is shown below in Example 8. Interpretation 3 begins with scale degree 5 in F major. The added C#. fits within the C7 construct as b9 of the chord. . as indicated in Example 8.5 and described above. from Interpretation 2. Thus. 7 chord as a subset with the overall C7 chord arpeggio. allows both of these other interpretations because Interpretation 2.

as scale degree 5 in F major. In the second and third of the three passages shown below in Example 8. EXAMPLE 8.7. with or without the C# (which defined the difference between Interpretation 1 and Interpretation 2 above). EXAMPLE 8. F. a G-F-E descent. C descends through an F triad over the F area. A sections: mm.216 Tonal Resolution to C Major ! After the C7 area. This may occur through an arpeggio or through a descending stepwise motion. 5-8 ! From the goal tone. mm. where C. 3-2-1. is embellished by a C7 arpeggiation. harmonized with lower thirds.7: Structure used in A sections in the third chorus. 5-8 . acts as a summary descent of the 5-4-3 descent in the upper register that begins in the penultimate measure.8: Third chorus.7.8. as indicated in Example 8. of this area. the final motion into C major occurs through a 5-4-3 line. shown also in the final measure in Example 8.

in their entirety.217 Conclusion ! Above we noted how the opening four measures of the A sections of Evans’s third chorus in “Sweet and Lovely” make use of an embellished C. via a C7 chord and the embellishment of this C7 chord. harmonized with lower thirds. with a 5-4-3 summary in the lower register in the final measure in the second and third excerpt.9. EXAMPLE 8. This structural plan is summarized in Example 8.9: Plan for the A sections of the third chorus ! The excerpts. . are shown in Example 8.10. The ultimate tonal resolution to C major occurs with a 5-4-3 line in the melody. with a 5-1 descent in F. The culminating C of this opening four-measure unit then serves to initiate the melodic motion of the next section.

10: Third chorus. A sections .218 EXAMPLE 8.

and encoding them in models that may be fruitful for aspiring improvisers. but instead can incorporate surfacelevel features into a schema that includes other levels of musical organization as well. In this way. the models proposed here encapsulate certain types of knowledge about how to construct tonal phrases and elaborate them in a jazz style. this work has focused on finding the residue of these decisions and processes. choosing one level of organization does not have to preclude . players can use them to elaborate the frameworks shown here. or whether they merely emerge as the byproduct of some other process or processes. While Evans spoke often about focusing on “abstract” musical “architecture” and musical “structure. one does not have to disregard surface-level structures when conceiving of a larger framework. ! In so doing. whether conscious or subconscious. ! In addition. providing both a way to navigate the voice-leading strands of a musical phrase as well as a way to achieve a jazz-inflected realization. Rather than jettisoning the local licks of the jazz tradition.219 Conclusion ! This study has suggested that Bill Evans’s performances support the idea of positing melodic frameworks in his solos. in Evans’s recorded performances. by codifying frameworks that can be elaborated in performance.” his comments do not explain all of the decisions that he made during performance and practice and why he made them. a platform is created by which a player can utilize the traditional aspects of jazz pedagogy within a specific frame. we may never know to what degree Evans had any of these models in mind. In this way. since jazz pedagogy offers ways of thinking about soloing at different levels of organization. Yet while these analyses complement claims that Evans himself made about structure. whether consciously or subconsciously. Thus.

or. the goals of codification may be different than those of traditional music theory. Since the creation of a work in the moment involves coherent recall of learned structures and their interconnection. Thinking about constructing a line based on a melodic framework does not free the player from the requirement of having to play a convincing phrase with appropriate jazz inflection. one can test the accuracy of a theory both in its logical validity as well as in its musical effectiveness.220 thinking about others. ! Thus. which does not often seek to generate musical pieces. it merely provides an overarching tonal frame for doing so. whether implicitly or explicitly. Ultimately. Rather. internalizing explicit knowledge for more implicit recall in the moment of performance. a reciprocal arrangement could be just as beneficial. ! By having output goals of statements about music as well as musical statements themselves. when considering the many techniques of creating solos offered by jazz pedagogy. striving for fluency in improvisational performance can help lead toward comprehensive understanding. . if it does. Because of the focus on generating or arranging musical content during performance. Since improvised performance can help to locate and fill in gaps in constructed knowledge. these two goals can work in tandem. allows time for revision of the generation and arrangement of parts. ! Improvisers have always been theorists to some degree. one should also consider the goals of the theoretical apparatus.

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Heinrich. Dissertation. Ph. Marian McPartland’s Piano Jazz. Charlie Parker and Thematic Improvisation. 20. 1998.” In Cognitive Processes in the Perception of Art. “Cognitive Processes in Improvisation. Lanham. Advances in Psychology 19. Henry. New York: Oxford University Press. Edited and Annotated by Oswald Jonas. and Composition. 2001. Peter. 1978. Marian.” Annual Review of Jazz Studies 4 (1988). John A. Translated by Elisabeth Mann Borgese. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Maryland: Scarecrow Press. Yale University. E. William Nathan. New York: Oxford University Press. “Understanding the Tonic in Retrospect: The Auxiliary Cadence and Other Models. Institute of Jazz Studies at Rutgers University. 105-111.D. 1984. Robert P. Pettinger. Ed.223 Martin. 345-363. W. 49-91. William M. Charlie Parker: Techniques of Improvisation. Stelmach and P. William Michael. McPartland. Owens. Sloboda. G. Studies in Jazz. Improvisation. Morgan. Rothstein. Originally published in 1906. Recorded November 6.” Paper presented at the Dublin International Conference on Music Analysis. Thomas. Marvin. 1954. V. Pressing. 1987. 2 volumes. Los Angeles: University of California.D. Vroon. Dublin. 1996. “Jazz Harmony: A Syntactic Background.” In Generative Processes in Music: The Psychology of Performance. Chapman. Pressing. Ph.” In All in Good Time. 1974. Tonality in Selected Set-Pieces from Richard Wagner’s Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg: A Schenkerian Approach. Marian. Ray Crozier and Antony J. Ph. “Bill Evans. A. Audio Recording. No. Schenker. New York: Elsevier Science Publishers B. Rhythm and the Theory of Structural Levels. Ed. 1981. Bill Evans: How My Heart Sings. June 23. . Ed.” Journal of Music Theory. New Haven: Yale University Press. Los Angeles. 1988. 1 (Spring 1976). Jeff. Martin. Dissertation. Ireland. 2005. Henry. (North-Holland). McPartland. Vol. Genius. Jeff. Dissertation. 129-178. No. Marvin. 24. “Improvisation: methods and models. “Dissonant Prolongation: Theoretical and Compositional Precedents.D. 9-30. Eastman School of Music. Harmony.

1993. The Craftsman. Dariusz. Sudnow. Joseph N. Ph.. Thesis. 97-120.” Current Research in Jazz. 41.” Journal of Music Theory. 1985.” Annual Review of Jazz Studies 3 (1985). Strunk. 2008. 1993. Straus. Gregory Eugene. David. Cambridge: Harvard University. Gregory. NY: Pendragon Press. Smith.” Journal of Jazz Studies. 1 (2009). “Response to Larson. Richard. Ph. 1 (Fall/Winter 1979). 2001. Eastman School of Music. Ways of the Hand: A Rewritten Account. 5. 1-21. 1978. “The Harmony of Early Bop: A Layered Approach. Sher. New Haven: Yale University Press. John A. Available Online: http://www.224 Schenker. 2004. Heinrich. “Jazz Transformations of the ii7-V7-I Progression.php. Sloboda. Terefenko. Oxford Psychology Series No.D. 2 Volumes. Reprinted with corrections: 1999. Straus. “Bebop Melodic Lines: Tonal Characteristics. Concepts for Bass Soloing.crj-online. Dissertation.D. “The Problem of Prolongation in Post-Tonal Music. Vol.” Journal of Music Theory. Homer. 6. Vol. 137-139. Free Composition (Der freie Satz). 1 (Spring 1997). 1983. Sennett. Hillsdale. Vol. The Musical Mind: The Cognitive Psychology of Music. Originally published in 1935. 4-53. and Marc Johnson.org/v1/ CRJ-JazzTransformations. Keith Jarrett’s Transformation of Standard Tunes. Steven. Steven. No. Vol. Cambridge: The MIT Press. 1977. Dariusz. New York: Oxford University Press. and Bill Evans? The Theory of Formulaic Composition in the Context of Jazz Piano Improvisation. No. Joseph N. . Translated and Edited by Ernst Oster. Strunk. Sher Music Co. No. Terefenko. 31. Chuck. 1 (Spring 1987).

Bill Evans. 8MCD-4421-2. Riverside. OJCCD-037-2 (RLP-9351). 1978. 1959. 1966. 1980. 1960. The Legendary Bill Evans Trio. 1965. 1966-1975. Portrait in Jazz. Milestone Records. FSR-CD 390. OJCCD-210-2 (RLP-9399). 314 519 808-2. OJCCD-088-2 (RLP-1162).225 Discography Bill Evans Trio. Riverside. Edition 1. The 1960 Birdland Sessions. . Bill Evans at Town Hall. Bill Evans Trio. 8MCD-4430-2. Milestone. Bill Evans Trio. Bill Evans. Bill Evans. 831 271-2. Bill Evans Trio. Bill Evans Trio. Milestone. Getting Sentimental. Waltz for Debby. 1979. Trio ’65. 1961. Explorations. Verve. 1961. Fresh Sound Records. Bill Evans Trio. The Secret Sessions: Recorded at the Village Vanguard. Bill Evans Trio. Blue Note Records. 1961. The Paris Concert. How My Heart Sings. Bill Evans Trio. MCD-9336-2. Verve. Sunday at the Village Vanguard. Riverside. The Last Waltz. OJCCD-369-2 (RLP-9473). Riverside. Riverside. 1962. OJCCD-140-2 (RLP-9376). 1966-1975. 7243 5 28672 2 6.

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New York 2011 .Bill Evans and the Craft of Improvisation Volume II by Austin Andrew Gross Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy Supervised by Professor Robert Wason and Professor Matthew Brown Department of Music Theory Eastman School of Music University of Rochester Rochester.

ii Copyright © 2011 Austin Andrew Gross .

Part II is based. The chord changes do not include the nuances of Evans’s left-hand harmonic shadings. Evans could very well be playing a G13 voicing in his left hand. the chord symbols are intended to provide a conceptual reference point rather than detail every sounding note. As the focus of this work is on Bill Evans’s melodic techniques. and are arranged in chronological order of performance. For instance. Articulations and slurs have generally been left out except in instances where Evans articulates a pattern that contradicts the underlying meter or the grouping structure that would otherwise seem normative.iii Note on the Transcriptions ! The transcriptions that follow include the solos on which the analytical portion of the work in Volume I. where “G7” is indicated. . The transcriptions are grouped by tune. In this way. the transcribed solos include only the melodic line. accompanied by chord symbols that are intended to provide a point of reference to the tonal plan that served as the model for Evans’s performance.

Edition 1! ! ! ! How My Heart Sings ! ! ! ! ! Bill Evans at Town Hall! ! ! ! Secret Sessions [Live at the Village Vanguard]! Secret Sessions [Live at the Village Vanguard]! Secret Sessions [Live at the Village Vanguard]! Getting Sentimental! ! ! ! ! 3 4 3 6 1 (6) 8 2 1 9 (1) 14 (4) 8 (7) 1 My Romance 89! 61/6/25. Take 1!! 49! 61/2/2. Take 2!! 53! 66/2/21! ! 57! 68/2/4! ! ! 62! 79/11/26! ! I Should Care 67! 62/6/5! ! 70! 66/2/21! 74! 66/7/3! ! 78! 67/5/26! 81! 70/4/18! 85! 78/1/15! ! ! ! ! ! ! Album! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! CD Track (Disc) Sunday at the Village Vanguard! ! ! Sunday at the Village Vanguard! ! ! Secret Sessions [Live at the Village Vanguard]! 6 5 2 (3) Portrait in Jazz! ! ! ! ! Portrait in Jazz! ! ! ! ! The 1960 Birdland Sessions! ! ! ! The 1960 Birdland Sessions! ! ! ! The 1960 Birdland Sessions! ! ! ! Secret Sessions [Live at the Village Vanguard]! The Last Waltz [Live at Keystone Korner]! ! 2 3 1 4 9 8 (1) 5 (8) The 1960 Birdland Sessions! ! ! ! Explorations ! ! ! ! ! ! Explorations ! ! ! ! ! ! Bill Evans at Town Hall! ! ! ! Secret Sessions [Live at the Village Vanguard]! Paris Concert. Take 2! 21! 60/3/12! ! 25! 60/3/19! ! 29! 60/4/30! ! 34! 66/3/unlisted! ! 37! 80/9/8! ! ! Beautiful Love 41! 60/3/12! ! 44! 61/2/2.iv List of Transcribed Performances List of Performances Page! Date (yr/mo/day) ! ! ! ! ! Alice in Wonderland 1! 61/6/25. Take 1! 17! 59/12/28. Take 1! 5! 61/6/25. Take 1! 93! 61/6/25. Take 2! 9! 66/11/12! ! Autumn Leaves 11! 59/12/28. Take 2! Sweet and Lovely 98! 61/2/2! ! Waltz for Debby [Live at the Village Vanguard]! Waltz for Debby [Live at the Village Vanguard]! 6 7 ! Explorations ! ! ! ! ! ! 9 .

% % % .S.% . % % .% % 3 3 3 A7 29 G7 % %%% % % % % % % .% % % % .% % % *% .% % .1 Alice in Wonderland Sunday at the Village Vanguard . % ( ) % % .% % .% # % *% +% % % & G7 CM7 FM7 % % % % % % %%% %*%+% % ' ' ' %% %%& ' # Dm7 A7 - 17 Bm7(b5) %*% ) ( % %*% % 22 +% % % % % % % % % % % # # +% *% % +% % % % 3 E7 Am7 E¨7 Dm7 % % % *% % * % % % . % % % . $ $ # (' Dm7 CM7 % .% %.Take 1 Transcribed by Austin Gross June 25.% % % # % % %! Dm7 G7 Em7 % .% % % % ( ) %%% % % % % 3 3 V. 1961 Dm7 &! % ! % % $ #" % % 3 G7 CM7 FM7 %! % % % %! % % ' %% % % % & 3 Solo by Bill Evans 5 Bm7(b5) E7 Am7 E¨7 % % ) % % % % % % %! % ' # ( %% ' ' % &! Dm7 % %*% +% % % 10 % . .% % % % % 3 A7 13 G7 CM7 % .% % % 3 26 G7 Em7 % .% % .

2 33 # " #" " #" " " "$" " " " " " " " " #" " #" "$" %"$" " " ! D7(#5) G7 CM7 A7 3 " "" " " " " # " " ! " " " " $" " $" " " " " "" 3 3 3 37 Dm7 G7 CM7 40 " " " $ " " & ! $" 3 3 F#7 " " " $ " " ' " ( B7 "! $" $" %" 43 A7 Dm7 A7 # " " " " $" "$" " " " " " " " $" " " " # " ) " '( " ! ' " #" Em7 3 3 47 Dm7 G7 CM7 " " " " "#" G7 ) " ! " ! "! ) ) ) ( " " ' " "$" #" " " ! " " " " " Dm7 Dm7 " " Bm7(b5) " " E7 %" " Am7 " E¨7 " " "! " " " " " ( ( ' ( " ( " * ! "! " "! $" FM7 G7 52 58 ! 62 " A7 Dm7 # " " " " " " " " $ " %" ""$" " " %" " " " " $ " " " ( " ( " Em7 CM7 ! " $" " #" " " Dm7 G7 65 ! "" * G7 CM7 FM7 " " " ! " """ "" '( ' " ""* " #" " " " " " " " " ' ( Bm7(b5) " '" ( $" " " .

3 70 " " #" " " " " " ! E7 3 Am7 "! 3 " " $ " " CM7 E¨7 % " #" " " " 3 73 ! " 76 Dm7 G7 " & Dm7 % " " " Em7 ( #" " " " " " ! " % ' " " " " " )" "#"#" ' ! " $ $ " " " " " ")"#" A7 G7 A7 G7 CM7 FM7 Bm7(b5) " " " " " " "" """ ( ")" " " " " " $ $ ' ' % % " ! " " ! " Dm7 E¨7 Dm7 " " " " " " ) " # " " " " ")" *" )") " " ) " " """ " " " " " ! E7 Am7 A7 " # " #" " " #" " #" " " )" " #"*"#"#" """" " ! " " " G7 3 3 &! 81 86 90 Em7 93 ! " " % % #" ) " " % ! ' $ 3 Dm7 G7 " # " # " " )" *" )" " " ) " ' $ "" " " % % CM7 G7 97 D7(#5) " ' $ " " % 3 CM7 " " ' )" % $ 3 3 A7 " " #" " #" ' $ straight 101 Dm7 ( " " " " " # " " ")""( " " " % )" " ! ' G7 CM7 3 + .

4 B7 " ! # " " " " " #" 3 105 F#7 ! Em7 A7 &" # " " " " &" " #" " $ $ $ % ' 109 Dm7 Dm7 G7 & " " " # " ( " " # " ( " " #" " " " &" " " ) " ! " " " ' ' A7 3 113 Dm7 ! % " " * " #""*" " "#" " 3 G7 CM7 117 Bm7(b5) "& " " " " " " " ! " " " " " " # " ! % ' ' " E7 Am7 3 3 % "" ' " 3 " " " " % " &" " $ E¨7 FM7 % &" " " " " " " ' 3 3 121 Dm7 A7 3 3 Em7 3 + + 3 ! """"""""" """"""""" """"""""" """"""""" + G7 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 125 Dm7 "#"(" "#"#" " " " # " " & " " " " " # " % " " & " #"&" " " " " " ! ' " 3 G7 CM7 .

5 Alice in Wonderland Sunday at the Village Vanguard . G7 CM7 FM7 % % % % % 3 % .Take 2 Transcribed by Austin Gross June 25. 1961 Dm7 G7 % % CM7 FM7 % % % % % % % % % % % % % % '! ! $ %& % % % #" %%% E7 Am7 E¨7 % % % & % % % % % % % % (% % ' ! # $ %%% % Dm7 Solo by Bill Evans 5 Bm7(b5) ) %*%+% % % 3 10 # % *% +% ' 3 G7 Em7 % % % (% % % % % % %% % % % % A7 3 3 13 # 17 Dm7 % *% +% % % " % *% G7 % % % % % % % % ' CM7 A7 .S. .%% % % % % % %(% % %+% % % % % ! ' $ # %% Dm7 21 Bm7(b5) % %# +$% % % % % % % % % * % # * $ % . E¨7 Dm7 ( % % *% % % % % * % % * % % *% % +% # ) ! *%& % *% % % (% % *% 3 3 3 3 Em7 3 27 A7 3 3 V. % % % % # % 5 E7 Am7 % %% % % % % (% % 24 % ( % Dm7 % % % % G7 % * % % % *% %+% % %(% % $ )! # %(% %*%*% *%+% % % .

G7 CM7 " ) " " * # " " )" " " " " " #" " % $ ! % ")"*" " & Dm7 3 .6 30 ! " #" " " " " G7 CM7 33 D7(#5) CM7 A7 # " " # " G7 " ! " " " "! " & ! % " & & " '! CM7 "" " " " "" " " " ' ! G7 B7 " " " " " " " " " Dm7 $ 38 42 ! 45 "! 3 " # " F#7 " ! # " " ")"* " " " % """ " 3 3 """" " " (" " )")" *" & % 3 Em7 + " " ")" " " ! Dm7 A7 G7 " " " ) " " *# " " " + " *" $ " )" " )" "" 3 $! # " # " " " " *#A7 " " & & " " ")' Dm7 [late] Dm7 49 ! 54 " " " " " " " " CM7 " " " " " FM7 " " " " " Bm7(b5) " " " " " " " " " " " " """"" """"" " " " " G7 E¨7 " ) " " " " " " " Am7 " " " )" " " " " )" ")" " " # " " ) " " 3 4:3 4:3 5:3 5:3 4:3 [early] $ $ E7 ! 57 Dm7 ! 61 " #" " " " " " " " 3 G7 "# " $! & Em7 "! "" " #" " 3 3 3 A7 + $ + $ )" )" " "" $ .

94 " )" " ! " $#" " " " " " " " ' ( .7 G7 CM7 FM7 " " " " " % " "# "! " """ "#" $" " " " "#" " " $#" " & ! Dm7 3 65 69 Bm7(b5) E7 Am7 ) " $ " " )" " " " " " " " ) " ) " # " " " " " " " " " ! ' ( #" 3 3 3 3 72 " " " " " " " Dm7" " " " " " " )G7 " ")")" "#" " $Em7 #"#" " " '( ! '( "" E¨7 3 3 4:3 "" " " " 3 " " 3 " " " " " " ' ('* +' ( ' * * ! " " " * ' "#"$" " " 76 A7 Dm7 G7 CM7 A7 81 Dm7 ! 86 $ " & G7 ! 4:3 ' " #" FM7 " " $ " " " ) " CM7 "#"!% " " $ ( " &$ ( Bm7(b5) """ ' #" ( 3 E¨7 Dm7 G7 ) " " " $ " " " " " " " "" " " " " " " " $" $#" " " " " " " * ! E7 Am7 3 3 3 3 91 " " " )" " ! ' ( Em7 G7 % ! #" A7 " $" " CM7 * Dm7 " " #" $" " " " #" .

" #" " " " " & 110 A7 Dm7 G7 3 " " " " " '" " +#" " " " " " " ! " " " " G7 FM7 " " " CM7 " " " " " " " " #" """ & ! "'" " " " 3 3 3 113 Dm7 Bm7(b5) " " " '" " 3 118 Am7 " " $ " " " " " "$ " ! % " % 3 E7 E¨7 Dm7 # " """ " " ( ' " $ " #" & 3 122 G7 ! & A7 " "" " " " " Em7 " " " " " #" " " " " '" " " " 3 125 Dm7 " " ' "!( " + " CM7 " " " " " " G7 " """""" " % $ $ " # " " " # " ! " % 3 .8 97 D7(#5) ! " #" CM7 " " #" & " " " " " & $" % G7 CM7 A7 " " " "' "! " " $% & $%& Dm7 ( 3 102 #" " " # " " " " #" " $ ! % Em7 A7 G7 F#7 ) " #" * 4:3 B7 " "!' " " " " $% 107 # " # " " '" +" #" +" #" #" $ " " ! % 3 Dm7 .

.9 Alice in Wonderland Transcribed by Austin Gross Dm7 & ' & (! ! $ % & #" E7 Village Vanguard November 12. 1966 G7 Solo by Bill Evans FM7 ( && & (! Dm7 CM7 &( 6 & ! & & & Am7 &! ' ) && # # Em7 & %& ) & &Bm7(b5) (! E¨7 G7 &&&& & & & % &' & & % ) Dm7 11 &! & & & *& +& ) ( A7 CM7 & & & A7 & & 14 & & & & +& & # & *& .& & & ) % # & &*& & & % $ # ) E¨7 FM7 Dm7 G7 17 G7 & & + & + & & & CM7 & & *& & & & +& & +& & 3 3 & & & & & & & +& & & *& 20 Bm7(b5) E7 Am7 & && & & & & & *& & & & & ! ' % ) && 3 24 G7 Dm7 & *& & & & ' && # & % & *& 4:3 4:3 Em7 A7 " & * & * &' & + & && *& %*& $ $ ) 29 & & & % # & & ) Dm7 G7 & *& & CM7 & & & & && & & & & *& & .

+ $" # " # " " " + + . . G7 CM7 Em7 * #" " " ""* 3 A7 61 "# "# "# " * " " " " ' ' .10 33 " " " " " # " " " "$" " " " " " " & ' &% ! " #"#"$" " " " " " " % D7(#5) G7 CM7 A7 3 37 G7 CM7 " $ " ( " " " " " " " #" " ! " " """ " " " " " ' ' Dm7 41 #" " " " # " " " $" #" " " & ) #" $" " " " " ! " #" $" $" (" F#7 B7 Em7 A7 Dm7 A7 Dm7 G7 $" % " $" (" "#" " #" #" " #" " " ! " $" (" " ) "# ' " 3 " " " Dm7 "! 45 49 ! & Am7 "# " " * G7 CM7 FM7 " $" * " " * # Bm7(b5) " " "# &%% E7 "# "# 55 # ! " #" # ! "# Dm7 E¨7 "# "# G7 Dm7 .

11 Autumn Leaves Transcribed by Austin Gross Portrait in Jazz . Cm7 3 A7 D7 Gm 21 F7 B¨M7 E¨M7 V.S. .Take 1 December 28. . 1959 Solo by Bill Evans # $ "# ! ! Cm7 % ' & & & & & F7 & !#"& & & & & (& & B¨M7 # "# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 4 &&& & & # & '% % ' & # % & " & &&&&& )& & & &&&&& E¨M7 Am7(b5) D7 Gm !#" & & & & Cm7 & * # & & # & ( & " & & & )& & & & F7 7 + 10 B¨M7 E¨M7 & & & & & & & & ) & # & & & ' & (&#& & & # & & ) & # & & & & " && 3 3 13 # & " # & & & & & & & $ & &)& & &)& & & & & & & & )& & $ + 3 3 Am7(b5) D7 Gm 17 # ' #& & & & & & & & #& & #& & + " # % )& & & $ & & & )& # & & & #& & & & & & & #& & # & & & & #& & & & $ + "# % & & & .

12 25 " # % $ "$ $ $ $ $ &$ "$ "$ $ $ $ $ "$ $ &$ '$ $ $ " ! $ $ A7 D7 Gm 28 " &$ "$ "$ $ $ $ $ "$ $ !" '$ $ $ &$ &$ "$ " "$ $ $ $ " ! $ $ F7 Gm A7 D7 ( $ $ "$ $ $ $ 31 $ "$ ( # $ ) Cm7 $ $ $ &$ "$ $ $ 34 E¨M7 $ $ $ $ $ B¨M7 $ $ $ " $$ $ $$ $$$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ !" # ) 3 3 37 D7 $ " $$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ !" $ $ $ '$ $ $ Am7(b5) 3 Gm "$ # $ ) $ $ $ "$ 40 " !" $ $ $ F7 $ " $ $ "$ $ &$ "$ $ $ & $ " $ Cm7 # ) 3 42 $ $ $ $ B¨M7$ " $ $ $ $ E¨M7 Am7(b5) 3 $ $ $ $ $ " $ % $ ) $ $ #$ $ ) # # % $$$$ $ $ # !" # $ 3 D7 Gm 3 $ $ $ $ $ &$ "$"$ ' $ $ ' $ " $ $ $ $ $ $ ' $ " # % $ $$ ! $ '$ $ 3 49 " ! " $ $ $ $'$ !""#$ '$ A7 D7 ( # % $ $ $$$$ $ $ & $ $ $ $ $$$ 3 3 3 Gm .

.13 52 F7 " # "# # # # # " # # # # # # # # " # # # $ # ! ### 3 Cm7 55 # " # # # E¨M7 ##### " # # # ## !" % & B¨M7 D7 Gm A7 3 # ( #'# # # # # 3 # 58 3 3 3 (# # # " ( # # ( # # " % % * % # ## ! '# '#'# '#'# # )# # # + # # # 61 ( '# 3 # ( ! )"# 3 # " ##### ! " % # # # # # # & % % "# "# "# # # # & % % # & A7 D7 Gm 3 64 " ! " # # "# # # # B¨M7 3 Cm7 % # & # - ## # 3 3 F7 # # ##### ## # Am7(b5) 67 " ! " % # #. # # # # # # )# D7 E¨M7 # # # # # # $ % (# # # 70 " # # # # "# # "# # !" # # $ # '# # # "# # # ) # !""# %$ ## straight 73 F7 B¨M7 Cm7 # ### ### # # " # # " % # # # ## #& & ! ( ## ## Gm 76 3 # ## " # # % (# # #"# #'#'# !" # # # # # ( # # # '# # ## 3 E¨M7 Am7(b5) straight D7 V.S.

3 3 . % % % % % % .14 79 " ! " # $ %& %'% % % %'% % ( Gm Gm D7 % % % % '% % & ) & ) & ) # $ !% !% !% % '% '% '% A7 3 83 Cm7 % % ' % " % * % % % " % % " % % % % % % ! % % % % %%%% straight 86 "* " ! F7 A7 E¨M7 % % % % % % "% % % % % % % "% % % % "% % % B¨M7 3 3 89 D7 Gm 3 " % % % ' % % ' % + % " % %% % % % ! " $ ) '%""#% % %'% % +% % +%'% 3 92 & " ! ! " % % % %'% % % # A7 $ # $ %& % % * D7 F7 3 96 %$ % % " # !" $ E¨M7 Cm7 % $ %% % $ % % # $ & % % % % % % # $% ) % % ) % B¨M7 Am7(b5) %% % %3 % % %% % % Gm 100 " !" straight %%%%%% # % % % % % "% % % % % '% $ % % % ) '% Cm7 D7 3 103 " ! " %"% % % %'% % % % # ( B¨M7 Gm % % F7" % % % % % %%% % % .% ) % $ % ) 3 3 107 % " % % % % % E¨M7 % % % % % % "% "$ ) " % ! Am7(b5) .

S. $# # # # # 117 Cm7 F7 # # # # "# # # B¨M7# # # # " . + * # # # V. "# "# % ! " # # # # # $# $# # E¨M7 A7 Gm 3 D7 "# + (# . # ## 3 ## # .15 110 # # # # #$# # # # # " # # #### % !" 3 D7 3 Gm 113 " !" % A7 ' # $# 3 D7 Gm ' ' # ' # ) $# # (# (# # # # # % * 3 3 3 3 & 3 + #.## . # # # # # "# !" + # # # # # # 120 " (# # ! .$# # # "# (# .+ * ## 3 D7 "# + . # # # # # "# .+ 3 123 " # # (# "# # + + $#. . ! " + $# (# D7 Gm A7 # "# ## 126 129 "# + + ! " # "# (# # "# (# # # $# # # # # ## # ## # (# # " !" Cm7 132 " !" # # # # # "# # Gm E¨M7 # ### + + # #$# #"# # # #"# # # # # # # # # # # ## # # 3 F7 B¨M7 Am7(b5) 135 $# "# # "# " + + ! $# "# + .

16 137 " !" Cm7 # # # # # # # # # # ## 3 3 F7 # $% # ### ### #### 3 .

& + & && && & & & & &. & & && . 1959 Solo by Bill Evans F7 # "# ! ! 3 B¨M7 $ $ Cm7 & % & &&& ' ( % 3 ) #& & ( & ' E¨M7 * * & # & & & &% ) & & "# Am7(b5) 3 & & & ( +& & & & & & &.& & 23 # "# & & & & & & & & & & & & &$ E¨M7 A7 &+& & # & & & #& 3 .& & & .& & +& & .& & & & % # " & B¨M7 Cm7 & & && & & ( ' & 3 F7 & #& & & & #& & & 3 % ( .& & & & + & & # & & #& Cm7 & +& #& & & & & & & # # & & # ( " && ' 10 # & & &#& &!#"& & & % # " F7 B¨M7 ) E¨M7 && &&&& & & & & && 13 # "# Am7(b5) && D7 Gm & & & . .& & & & & & & & .17 Autumn Leaves Transcribed by Austin Gross Portrait in Jazz .& & % ) 3 17 # # " ..Take 2 December 28.& & & & & 3 3 V.S.& & & & ' & & D7 7 Gm & .& A7 3 .& & & & & & && 3 3 D7 Gm 20 # & & &#.

18 26 &## # " $ # ' # # # ) * #' #' # # # # & # " % % # # # "# # # ( ! $#"# # # &# # # # 3 D7 Gm 3 3 29 ' 3 # " # # # "# # # # "# " * # # ! #&#&# # "# # & # # $ # # # &# A7 D7 Gm 3 3 # # " $ # # # # # &# $#&#$#"# # # # ! " #&#$# + *"#' #&# # # # # &# 3 32 Cm7 3 F7 3 35 # # # ## " #### ) + *# !" + * ( ( B¨M7 E¨M7 3 3 3 3 Am7(b5) # D7 # &# # &# ( + * + *# ( Cm7 39 "# ! " # &# # $# # # $# # &# + ) [late] F7 " # " # B¨M7 E¨M7 Am7(b5) 42 " # # . # " # "# ##### ## ## % " # " ! ## # # # # # # # # #&# # # # 3 3 3 3 3 " # # # "# # # # " ! # &# # $# # # # # &# #$# # # # # # # # # # Gm # # # # # # * # ( straight 3 D7 Gm 49 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 " " ! #&# # # # # # # # # # # "# #"# # # # # # # # # # # *&#' # # # # A7 D7 Gm 52 " ! " "# # # # # # # Cm7 ########### 3 3 3 3 " # # # "# # # # * + *( F7 3 3 .

.S. E¨M7 ## # # # # # straight 3 3 # # # ## # ## # # $ * % * # &# # # * 77 D7 Gm # # # & # # &# # # "# # # # " # # ' # !" % # # #&# # # # # * Am7(b5) 80 " ! " "# # # # # # $ straight A7 " # "# # # # "# &# # ' # " # # # #% ## * % % * D7 V.19 E¨M7 3 " # ! " " # " # ! " " # # # #&# # #'# " " $ $ % #% $ ! B¨M7 3 3 55 A7 $ (## ## # 3 58 Gm 3 # 3 # " # ) " # # # # # # $ % &# # # # # # '# #"# # #&# #'#) % !" D7 3 3 3 A7 D7 Gm # 3 # ) " " # # # * # # # # # # $ $ % # # #&# # # # % !" $ % # * 3 3 3 F7 " # # "# "# # Cm7 64 # '# # # # # + # " # "# # #### " # # # '# # !" 61 67 " # !" # # # # # $ B¨M7 E¨M7 70 ! '"D7 # & # # # # # # Gm # # # # "# " ##$ !" " !" F7 % #####% * Am7(b5) # # # # # '# # # Cm7 74 # # #' # 3 3 "# # # $ B¨M7 3 .

20 Gm 83 3 " $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ &$ $ # $ $ ' ' $ % 3 F7 " $ " $ B¨M7 E¨M7 $ " $ ( $ " $ "$ $ $$ $ $ $$$ $ ' ) $ 3 3 3 3 Cm7 " !" " !" 86 89 D7 Gm $ $ "$ $ $ $ $ $ "$ $ $$ $ + $ $ $ $ " $ "$ $ $ $ %# ' #% !" # % $ A7 * ! &$ 92 " ! " &$ $ "$ $ $ &$ +$ " ! " $ $ $ $ &$* $ Gm A7 " +$ $ $ $ $ & $ $ " # $ % % % D7 95 * $ $ &$ +$ &$ $ $ $ .

) & & # & '& & & + (&!. & &(&!. & & & &#& & 18 # & & & ) & & % ) .&&&& & & & & # ) ) & ) ) " '& * '& & * '& + ) .& '& &'& & + )& * E¨M7 % & & & Am7(b5) & & & ) * & & #& & & & & #& 3 14 # & #& & & # " '& (&'&#& D7 Gm & #& & & % $ A7 )'&. & .& . .S. & & "" & & % Cm7 . & & & & & B¨M7 # & & & & & & + "# A7 3 E¨M7 % 25 3 ' & & ( & # ($& & & # & & .! '& . 1960 Solo by Bill Evans F7 #! "# ! 3 B¨M7 $ 3 % 3 & & )& & ( & ' & *)& & * &&& &+ % Cm7 E¨M7 Am7(b5) # . & & #& & & & & & #& " # ) & #& & & & & & & & & & & &. '& D7 Gm 3 V. & & & &'&(&(& #& &'& & &(& & & # " & '&(& & * 3 Cm7 22 #F7 & #& # & . .21 Autumn Leaves Transcribed by Austin Gross Birdland March 12. & 10 && )& *& ) Gm '&. )'& & & * * .& # & ! & ' & ( & "# F7 D7 B¨M7 D7 Gm 6 . & " # &.

$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $& $ ' 3 3 3 3 A7 D7 Gm 52 " !" + B¨M7 # ' % # % % $ % $.$ 3 3 3 &$ $ $ $ $ " $.$ .$ &$ &$ .$.$ $ " # # $! # $! # $ !! $ $ $ $ " $ $ $ " $ + $ $ $ ! $$ $&$ $ Am7(b5) $ $ !! $ $ $ $ # 42 " !" + F7 E¨M7 $ $ $ B¨M7 $ $$ #* $ $ $ $ "$ $ + Gm Am7(b5) # 3 $$ $"$ $"$ $"$&$.$ $.$% $ $ "$ $ $ $ $ &$ $ $ $ 3 3 3 Cm7 F7 % % % % % % .$ &$ A7 $ $ $ &$ &$ $ 3 3 55 " !" $ $ $ + E¨M7 # $ $ $ "$ $ $""#$ $ $ $ $ "$ $ $ $ $ $ .22 28 " ! " # $% &$ $ $ $ $ $ &$ $ $ $ $ "$ $ $ " ' # $% ! " $ $ $&$ $ $ "$ $ $ $ $ $$ $ $$ $$ Cm7 F7 ( " $ "$ $ $ B¨M7 $ 3 ) $ $ " $ $&$ $ + ! " $&$ $ $ $ $ $ ' # * 3 3 A7 30 D7 3 Gm 33 E¨M7 37 Gm Cm7 !! $ ! D7"$ ! $ $ $ $.$ $ $ $ $ $ $" $ "$ " * # ' # * ! $ $ $"$ $ $ #& $% 3 3 D7 3 49 " % % % "$ "$ ! " # &$ $ $ $&$% $&$% $ $ $ $.

23 58 !! $( " #### ### # ' " # # # # $ ( " % & # ! $# # $# # # # # #$# # D7 Gm A7 D7 Gm " # #& # " ) # ! #" )##"# ## #$# # # # * #) # # # # # ) # # # # # 3 $# 65 Cm7 # )F7 # # $ # # ) # $# # B¨M7 '# ! # # $ # # $# " # # # ## # * " & & * & & ! * 62 68 3 # " # # "# "# # # # # % % & # # # # $# $# # ! " $# * ## # + 3 3 E¨M7 Am7(b5) 3 D7 71 Cm7 3 # # " # # # # # # # # " "# .S. !" # # # # # * & % Gm 74 # # "# # # # "# " !" F7 Am7(b5) 3 3 3 # % & * B¨M7 ' # # # # # # "# & # # * ### # # * Gm E¨M7 # # # # "# # ' & "# # # " ! # #" )## # "# # # # # #$# # # #$# A7 " )#D7 # " )# # # 80 $ # 3 $# # ## # % "# # & # $ # " % ! # * # # $# 77 D7 3 3 83 # # # ) # $# " # # Cm7# # # # " # # ' " )# )#$# # # # ## ### !" & # # # # # # Gm 3 3 V. .

24 86 B¨M7 E¨M7 # " # # " # #!""# # # & " # % % " # # # " $ # # " # # ! # "# # # # F7 D7 # ) # # # # # #*# # # " # # # # ( ' & !" A7 A7 Gm 89 # *# # # # # ' ( # 92 " % # "# # # # *# ' # ! " # # # # # *# # ' & ' )# ( # *# ( " !" # # # # # # # # Gm D7 95 # # #% ' + .

.# & & V.#&" . & # & #& & .#& 3 % + &" . & & & & &*& & # & #& & & #& & "# % + & && & Cm7 3 21 24 *& & & ! #& & " . & . # & # + " &&&& * & *& E¨M7 A7 D7 " .& ) ( 3 A7 " . 1960 Solo by Bill Evans F7 B¨M7 # "# ! ! 4 E¨M7 $ $ Am7(b5) 3 Cm7 % &' & & & & & & & & & ( D7 & & Gm # & & & & * & # & & &&&&& & & & & " # & & &#& & ) & & & &*& & & 8 # % ' & & &*& & ! & ! & ( # " *& & + Cm7 3 F7 & #& & & ) % &' & &*& & &. # & *& & & & * & & 18 Gm & & & & & # & & & *& & # & & & & & ) ( "# & & & D7 F7 B¨M7 & .#& " .& %#& # " & *& & .25 Autumn Leaves Transcribed by Austin Gross Birdland March 19.# & " .S.&#& straight B¨M7 12 # " # & & & #& & & ) Gm 3 E¨M7 Am7(b5) ) & &*& & & & & & & & & & & *& &&&& 3 3 D7 15 # & #& & #& &.& .

26 27 " !" # Gm 30 % Gm % % ! " " % % " $ ) % %'% % % % % % % % & *% % % & " $ $ ! % '% %'%*% % 3 D7 Cm7 A7 " % % % ( % & '% % '% % % % $ % % % 33 E¨M7 % # % % # % F7 % # ' %$& % % # % B¨M7 % # * %& % % # & % % #'% % % % # '%& % '% " ) ) ) ) ) ) ) " ) ! 37 & % % # & % Gm # % * % % % #*%& '% D7 % % %# % % '% & " *% ) '% % % % # + " ) # $ ) ! ) ) Am7(b5) 41 " !" $ Cm7 42 E¨M7 Am7(b5) % # %$& % % % B¨M7 % ' %$& % # %$& % *#%$& * % %'%$& % % %$& " % # $& *% # '%$& % % $& '% *% '% " ) ) ) ) ) " ! F7 & % % % % % % % &% # & 3 $ % '% &% % $% #'% " $ % % % % %'% % % % % + !" ) ) D7 Gm 50 A7 % % % % % % % % "% 3 " !" D7 % % % % % %'% %%% % & *%! *"% % %'%'% $ $!'"%& % % % % % ) $ Gm B¨M7 53 F7 % % % % % % "% % "% "$ %% " ! "% % # ) Cm7 %% % % $ &%% %% % 3 3 3 % .

.S.27 A7 D7 3 # # 3 # # ' # ! ' " # ! ( " # " # # # # # !" $ % & '# #!'"# & % $ ! ("# #'# '# (# E¨M7 3 56 59 # '# #(# # #"# " # # # ' # #### ! " # # # # # #'# #!'"# # # # 3 3 Gm A7 62 ) "# # # # # # # " # ! # '# $ # '# # # % '#) # * Cm7 D7 Gm # # " # "# "# # % #### +# "# "# # # # # # # # # # # Am7(b5) D7 E¨M7 ! " $ 68 " # # # # (# # # "# # * ! " % '# $ # # # # # # # '# # 65 " !" $# F7 B¨M7 quasi-straight 71 3 # (# # # # ' # ' # " # ( # " # ( # " # " # " # # '# ! " '# # # # # # # # Gm 73 F7 " # # "# # # # (# "# # # # # # # # # # ## # # $ # " % !" 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Cm7 75 ! (" # # # # # # # # # # # Am7(b5) # # % $ # # # $ % % # # # # (# #"# # #"# " ## !" % $ # $ 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 B¨M7 E¨M7 3 3 3 78 Gm # # #'#(# #"# ' # " # ( # # # # "# # # # # ) % . -% & % $ ! " '# # # # '# '#(# D7 V.

28 81 3 % $ ' $ " $ $ $ & $ $ % ( # #'$ $ $ $ $ $&$ $ ! " # $ $ $&$ $$'$ ( # ) # ( (# A7 D7 Gm 84 $ Cm7$ & $ $ " $ $ " $ " $ F7 $ & $ $ $ $ " $ $"$ $"$ $ $ " ( ( ( ( '$ # # !" ) # 3 $ $ D7 $$ $ ' $ $ & $ $ $$$$ " % ) ! " $ $ $ $ $'$ $ # ) '$ $ ! &"$ 3 87 B¨M7 E¨M7 3 A7 3 3 3 3 91 A7 $ * ' $ " & $ $ $ $ $ ' $ $ $ &$ $ $ $ !" $ $ Gm 3 $ $ $ $ 94 * " !" D7 3 $ $ $ $ Gm $ '$ % $ '$ $ &$ $ $ $ $ # $ &$$ $ $ $ '$ " $ $ $ $''$ & $ " $ $ $ 3 .

29 Autumn Leaves Transcribed by Austin Gross Birdland April 30. . 4 Cm7 % & ! & '& & '& F7 & #& & *& & '& & ( & ) # & & & + 3 & & & & & & & (& & + ) & & & & &' & & & & * ! '& & '& B¨M7 && & # & & & "# & E¨M7 Gm 3 & Am7(b5) & &&& 3 & &#& & & & " (#& & & &'& "'#& D7 7 F7 & & #& & & & & $ " # &'& & & &(&(& & & & & & (& & Cm7 3 3 3 3 % && 11 # % ) *) * % " # & & & & & & & & & & &* & ' & & & & & & & & &$ #& & # # " Gm B¨M7 E¨M7 Am7(b5) D7 15 ) * &&& & &#&'& & & & &#& & &* ) #. Cm7 A7 19 # ! & & #& & * * " # ) &(& & + + '&!& B¨M7 E¨M7 Gm & $ &(& & $ &'& & & & & & $ ) + & + #&& $ ! & (& F7 & & &!'& &* + D7 23 # &* & * ) * # " (& & '& & & % $ A7 $$ && & & & )#&& & + + V. 1960 Solo by Bill Evans #! "# ! $ #. # " .S.

30 26 % " !% # # ## ## " &' ! $# $# D7 Gm % $# # # # & # # #$# # # # # $# # # # # # # # #""# # ( ( 29 " !" " " ! A7 32 D7 Gm 3 # $ # $ # %& ' & ( )#"#"# # # # # #$# # #$# # #"# ## # # # # )#$# 3 3 Cm7 F7 ## # " # # # " # # # "# # # )# # ) # " # # #% & * # $# # 35 E¨M7 Am7(b5) ## " # # # #$# # # # "# )# "# # # # # ) # # # # " # "# )# # !" B¨M7 38 # # )# % )# $ # $ # * " # ) # # # $ # # # # # $ # )# "# # # $# # # !" # # D7 Gm 41 # " !" F7 Cm7 #% # ( B¨M7 #% # # ( E¨M7 #% # 42 # # )# # #% # # #% # # # #% # # #% # # #% # # % # # " ## ##' * & ( ( ( !" ( ( #% Am7(b5) " !" * 49 D7 # # # $Gm # # # # # # "" # # # # # $ # ( ( & ' & ( & Gm D7 # # "# # # # # 3 # # # " " # # # " # # # ! "# # A7 3 * ' #$# # # .

. ! " ( # # #$# # # # # "# # # # #$# # #$ # #$# # %# ## ## #" %## ## 3 3 A7 D7 64 " !" + B¨M7 # #### Cm7 # # %# # # ## 3 $$ # F7 # # " # # %3# # # # #$# 3 67 # # Am7(b5) # %# # # # # # # # " # # ) " # # # ### # # #%# # * () ( !" E¨M7 3 3 3 70 Gm ## # # # $ # % ## # # # # # # "# # % # # # ## "* () # " %# ! D7 Cm7 73 " !" ## F7 B¨M7 # # # " # # # # $# # ""# # ## #### ### # # "# "# Am7(b5) D7 76 # # $# # " # ## ## # %# "# %# # # # " # ( '& %#"# # * ( ) !" E¨M7 3 V. #! . . # # * + $#. $# ! # ! %# $# $# ! %# ## Gm Gm 61 " .31 52 Cm7 # # $ # " # # # #$#%#$#$#%# # # & ' ( ( # # # #$# # # # # " ! ) 3 3 54 F7 B¨M7 3 E¨M7 3 # " # $ # % # # " # # % # # # # # # $ # # ## # #* * ( ## # !" # 3 3 57 " ###$## # " # "# #%## ## # # # #$# # ! 3 3 3 A7 D7 .S.

32 79 & # # ## " # # # # $# # # # # $# !" % Gm 3 A7 $# )# ' $#( $#)# ! $# )# 82 # " # # # # # # ' # # #$# # # # )# # # # # " # ! $# # # % D7 Gm 85 $ #( # $ #( # # # "## " ! Cm7 F7 $ #( $ #( B¨M7 # ## ) # # # ' % # # # # $# # # )# # # 3 3 3 88 " ! " # "# # * Gm E¨M7 A7 D7 3 # $ # " $ # # " ) # # ( $# ' % "$## # ' % " )## # # # # + # 3 91 A7 " # # # ## # # ## # # # $ # $ # " # # % " # $ # $ # # !" ' % % # 3 94 # # $# # " # "# + !" D7 3 Gm ' $# % # ## # # # # # #""## * B¨M7 97 " !" * Cm7 "#" # # # # #$# # # # # # # # # # ## # # # # ## F7 3 3 3 3 100 ## " # # #)#( ' + )# $# # )# #$# #)#"#$# #$#. -' + ! " * "# # # ""# E¨M7 Am7(b5) D7 103 " $# )# !" ' # % # # # # #$# # # # ' + * 3 3 3 Gm Cm7 # # # # ## # ## 3 # .

33 106 " !" F7 # "# 3 # "# # B¨M7 $ $ % ## # # & % E¨M7 3 & #! 109 D7 Gm '# # # (# # " ## # # #### # & # " ! # # "# # *& ) # # 3 3 3 Am7(b5) .

34 Autumn Leaves Transcribed by Austin Gross Village Vanguard March 1966 Cm7 F7 Solo by Bill Evans # "# ! ! 3 B¨M7 $ % #' & ' '( '( & & ' ' ' ' &'' & ' & ' ) ' ) ) ' ) E¨M7 Am7(b5) ( ( #& ( ' # & & & ' & ' & ' ' ' " ' ' & (' ' *' ' ) '' ) ) ' ' ' + ' '*' ' ' ' % # & '& '& ' # " ' ) ) ) '' D7 Gm F7 B¨M7 E¨M7 Cm7 6 & '' '''' ) 10 # ' ' ' #' ' ' #' ' #' #' #' ' ' ' #' # " #' ' ' '( & ' ' ' 3 13 Am7(b5) D7 3 #' # ' ' ' ' # ' ' " ' #' ' ' #' .' ' #' ( & + # " *' ' ' ' ' ' #' 21 # " # ' + '*' - Cm7 F7 '# ' ' - B¨M7 '# ' ' E¨M7 - % ( '''& ' 3 .' *' ' ' ' '' ' ' 15 ' '!*"' ' * ' # ' "# ' Gm D7 ' #' ' ' ' ! .'' ' #' ' ' #' ' #' ' ."' #' ' ' & % ) 3 Gm '& '& ( ' ' #' ) ' A7 18 3 # & ( ' '.

S. . ## . . # . ! " " # ) # # " # ( # ) # # ( # # " )# "# # # # & # "# !" 3 4:3 4:3 # "# # ## & ' Cm7 # # # # # # & 4:3 4:3 4:3 4:3 4:3 D7 # # # # #(# # # # Gm " ####### # # # & % !" 3 3 3 49 Gm ( # $ # % # "# # # # ) # # "(# # # # " # * " # !" % ' A7 D7 3 # #(# ( # #(# "# # ) # % ' % ' V. # # # " # ( # " ' % & !" Gm F7 42 B¨M7 E¨M7 Am7(b5) . . . + # ". # . " # ) # # #)# #" ## #! )" # " . " # # # # # " # # # $ # % # # !" ## # # # & # # # % # ' 33 B¨M7 39 .35 25 " $ % & # % % #$ # % % "#$ # % % $ # # # $ % " ! "# ' # (# )# )# # ' ' A7 D7 Gm 28 " !" * Gm # # "# # # # (# # # " # # # # # (# )#!("# # (# # A7 D7 31 " # % # " # # ! # (# )# ' Cm7 F7 + # # )# 3 "# # # # # $ # " # # (# # )# # % # # " % $ # ! # "# # # ( # # # % # # # ' D7 . . #) # . 36 E¨M7 Am7(b5) .

36 Cm7 # % # ! $ "# # # $ # % # # %# # $ # # % # " # $# !" 52 F7 55 " # #%#( # # ) " ! Gm B¨M7 3 # # # # "# # # & ' E¨M7 * # # # # #%# # # * A7 # # # # #%## # # D7 # # ! % " # ! $"# ## # # %# # # ## * # # A7 59 " # # # # %# $# # # ! " %#( $# # % # # # " # # $# # "# !"" + # " + ! " &! $"# & + + D7 Gm ( # & & ( %# &!%"%+ + # + %# # $# # 62 ( ( %# # # # & ( & ( # & # &%#( # ) # # # / # # 0 ' .

1980 Solo by Bill Evans F7 # "# ! ! 4 E¨M7 $ Am7(b5) $ Cm7 % & '( & ' & '( *'( + ) D7 Gm ' 3 ' #' .37 Autumn Leaves Transcribed by Austin Gross Keystone Korner September 8.+ Cm7 % & '( ' ' ' . F7 3 + ' ' #' ' ' ' ' ' ' E¨M7 9 '''' + ' # ( ' ' ' '! ' ' % % % "# % & ' ' ' ' . .S. B¨M7 # " # . ) 3 3 3 B¨M7 3 13 #% & (' ' ' & ' # ) ' ' ' % " *' Am7(b5) D7 Gm #' & ' ) ' ' ' ' ' D7 16 # " # ' *' '"*#' ' *' /' Gm A7 '' ' ' /' *' % & '( ' ' ' & ' ) 3 19 '' '*' ' ' / ' ' ' ' *' ' # ' '*' /' ! # & "# 3 Cm7 '' ' ! ) ' #' ' ' 3 22 0 0 0 ' ' ' ' #' ' # ' 0 # ' # ' ' ' ' # ' ' ' ' #' ' ' % % ' ' '/' &) "# ' F7 B¨M7 E¨M7 3 A7 26 #' ' # "# D7 3 0 ' / ' *' 3 *' ''' % & ) Gm ' "*# ' ' ' #' ' ' ' ' ' 3 3 3 V.

#$#.$# ## " # # # " # # # % # % # " # # .# # # . # 52 # # # # # . # # # $# # # "# # " # # # " # # " # % # " * # * * % " # # " $ # # ! "# # % 3 3 55 B¨M7 3 3 3 3 . # #" # # # # $ # " % # " # # "# # $# # * !" % 3 & # D7 Gm 58 " # # # # # # # . # # # # # # # # $ # " # * !" A7 A7 # # # " # # # E¨M7 $ # .38 29 Gm # # # " # # # $D7 # &# # # # # # # $ # # # # # # #$# # % # " # # ' " ! % A7 ### 3 33 " !" ( Cm7 # # ' F7 #### ( Gm B¨M7 & # # ' #!$# # # # # # # " ( 3 E¨M7 Am7(b5) 38 3 " & & * + * # # # # "# # # # #$# # ' !" # ) D7 42 3 # " # # "# # # .$#"# #* + + * * !" # % F7 B¨M7 straight E¨M7 " ## # " # # # ### % # $# 3 Cm7 straight Am7(b5) 3 " !" # 49 D7 # $# 3 # 3 # "# # + Gm # $# # ) ) + * % # # # # "# # # # D7 Gm # $ # " #"# * # % * * & * # ## # * * & # # # # #$# # " ! # % $# % # % ## 3 Cm7 F7 # "# "# # # # .

* # # 80 A7 D7 Gm ! # " & # # ! # # # # #& # ! # ! " $ % #& # # # % # ! # ' ' ' 84 # "# # #! #! # # # # #! & ! " #! # ' ' # ! " # # # ( ' # # ! ' ' Cm7 F7 B¨M7 E¨M7 89 " # !" % ' $ # # - A7 D7 Gm %# '$ # # - A7 "# #"$# # %'$ . * # # .39 61 D7 Gm # # # # # # # ## &# # # # # " ## # " # $ % # $ % '$ # # # # # # # # ! A7 F7 ( ! # ( !! " (( !! )# ( # ( ! " ! Cm7 B¨M7 # # ( ( !! E¨M7 # # Am7(b5) # ! # ### # # ## !! ' # # %"## (( ( !!! # # # ' 65 & )# 70 * & # # # ( ! # ) # # " ( ! # # # )#"( !" (! D7 Gm Cm7 F7 * "# # "# # # # # ( ! & # # "# " # # # # ! # ) # #! ' % ' # (! # #! ' 75 ( !! ( " !" B¨M7 # # ( ( E¨M7 Am7(b5) D7 " # # # ( ! # # # # # (! # # ( ( Gm " # # # ( # # # # +# ( .

40 94 "# " ! D7 ( $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ & $' & $' $ $ $ / $ % % Gm ( $ 0 .

" % % * (% % * % + FM7 % % %% 3 %'% $ #%(%!& % % % % % %( % * % 3 Gm7 Em7 .41 Beautiful Love Transcribed by Austin Gross Birdland March 12. $ # % % % %%% % * (% % % % + Em7(b5) A7 Dm 3 % (% % & straight 21 % % % % % % # % % % % " (% % Gm7 3 3 C7 % % #% % % #% 3 (%& % % '% % % (%& % 3 3 FM7 % % % % % % - V. $ %& % % %#% % % 3 3 12 % % % % (% % % # % % % " A7 Dm % % % #% % Em7(b5) 14 "# ) 18 3 % % % % % %%%% % % ( % # % ' % % % % ( % ( % & % % %(%(% % % % "# % A7 %%%%%%% & $% . 1960 Solo by Bill Evans 3 3 3 %(% % % % %(% ! # $ % " ! & ( % % % % % % %(% % '% 3 3 3 %%% ) % % % 1 % (% straight 3 Em7(b5) 2 % % % % (% % %%%% % % % (% %(%& '% % "# "# % % % Gm7 A7 Dm ) & $ %%% 5 % ) Dm C7 8 3 & %(% % % & % % % " # $ % .S. .

. $ # &$ $ $ * $ $ Dm Dm + $$ $ $ $ $ $ '$ $ $ * #. !" # . $ 3 Em7(b5) A7 $ & $ Dm $ $ $ $ $ ' $!& $ $ $ $ '$ $ 49 ' $ $ ' $ '$ $ $ $ ' $ $ ' $ .# & $ $ $ 3 40 !" $ $$ Em7 * $ * & $ $ $ $$ $ $ $ $ $ # $$ A7 3 as quarter-note triplet starting on 'and' of 4 Dm 3 Gm7 43 $ "$ $ '$ $ $ '$ & & "$ $ " # $$$$ ! $ $ Dm 3 $ $ $ $$ $ $ 3 $ $ # $& . 37 $ FM7 * $ $ * C7 3 $ $ $ $ $ $'$!& $ $ $ $ $ $ $ . #... !" Gm7 B¨7 A7 33 Em7(b5) $'$ $ A7 $ #..42 24 & & $ $ $"$ $'$ " %#$ $ $ !& $ $ !& $ " # $ % $ " $ # # $ $ ! $ $ "$ "$ '$ '$ '$ 3 straight Dm Gm7 27 Em7(b5) $$ & ( ) "$ # & # & # & $ " % # $ " $ $ $ $ ! $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ '$ 3 A7 3 3 Dm 30 ! " $& "$ $& $ $ $ $ $ $ !" $ $ # $ . # ! " $ $ $'$ 46 3 3 3 3 3 . $ % $ $!& " $ $ $ $ Em7(b5) A7 3 $ $ $ $ "$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ .

+ + + + + Dm % # # % #' # # # # # # #'# # .43 52 !" # # C7 $ $ # % & FM7 Gm7 # # % # # # # # # # 3 54 3 "# ### # 3 "# # # 3 ### # # # # # # # # (# % % $ % & '# # %& !" % Dm !" 60 ) # # $ Gm7 # # # # # # % '# & Dm #* Em7(b5) "# # # # # % & % & B¨7 A7 3 3 # ## ## * * * # # ' # # * "# ! * " # * * !# '# !# '# !# ! # ! ! ! '# '# # # # #(# # # # # ' # (# '+ # # + + + + + + 3 A7 63 ! " #!* # # # # # # # .

14 % % % % Em7(b5) % $ $ + "# $ 3 3 17 A7 Dm &%straight % % % %# '$% % % %% ( % % %% $ (% % % $ $ "# %%%% % % % 3 % % # % % A7 ) % % % + Em7(b5) 20 % # % (% % % Gm7 % %% % % % % C7 % % %% % % % % ) % % % % ( % (% "# + $ straight 3 3 . % "# % % ) (% % % % ! % % % # " ) Dm A7 3 C7 " (% % FM7 9 Gm7 $ %& % % % % % Dm Em7 3 % % + $%% % % 12 % # % % % % % % (% % "# 3 % % % .Take 1 February 2. 1961 straight Solo by Bill Evans " #! !$ & % % '% (% % % % % Dm Em7(b5) % % % ' %& A7 % # % % % % #% % ! % # * " ) 3 5 Gm7 3 3 % (% % % % % % (% #%'% %#% %#% + + $% ) %% & % + $ % (% & % % % * #%#%'% % % % .44 Beautiful Love Transcribed by Austin Gross Explorations . .

& & & & & & %$& " & & & & & "& 47 Em7(b5) A7 & & "& & & & & ' & (& & & & !" % 44 A7 Dm %$& & & .45 23 !" # FM7 & & & "& & & "& & & & & $ % ' 3 3 Dm ! & (& &" & & & $ ' 26 &" & (& & & & & ( & " % & "& & & & & & & & & & & & ! ' & Gm7 Em7(b5) A7 29 ) & & ! " & & % & & & & & "& & & & & & & & & & $ # Dm B¨7 A7 Dm & (& & %' 33 Em7(b5) !" *" & &(& & " A7 & (& & " &(& & Dm + & (& & + & & & ( & & $ %& $ ' 37 !" # $ Dm ) Gm7 & . & C7 & & ( & & " & & " & FM7 &&& Gm7) & & $ % & &!(& & &(& & $ ' Em7 41 & &&& & $ !" % ! (& &% & " % $ # & ! & & & &( & .& & & % $ ! (& straight $# $" & & & & "& ' && & & .

46 49 Em7(b5) 52 Dm # " # # "#$# #!$"# A7 # # # #$# # # $ # % # " # & # # #$# # # ' ! $# ( "# " # " # " # ! % " # # # # # # # # # # # $# "# 54 C7 FM7 # # # % # 3 # # 3 #%# # $# # " # " # ' # # # " # ) & ! "#%# #$# # 3 3 3 ! " $# # %# # # $# # !$" 3 3 Gm7 & !" ) 60 Dm $#( 3 Gm7 # # # # # # ( ( # # # # # %# # %# # $#( # # $#( # # # $# # $# 3 3 3 straight 3 3 3 3 3 $#( Em7(b5) # #"%# # %# #"%# # $#( # # $#( # # 3 3 !" "# # $#( # # A7 3 ) * Dm "# # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # $ # # B¨7 A7 3 3 63 # # # " ! ' ( $# Dm 65 Em7(b5) Dm # ### %# # # #% # 3 $ # ### # # #$# # # ) ) & ' !" & # # )$#&( # A7 C7 FM7 # # # $#&( # %# # # # # # # ) & # "# "# # # # * !" ' Gm7 3 # # #( # ( # # $# # # ( " # & "# # 69 72 Dm Gm7 Em7 # # 3 # # " # # # # # # # #$# # # # # # # # # ## " & ) ) # ! 3 # .

S.47 76 A7 !" # # $# 3 # # 3 # Dm # % 3 # & 78 Em7(b5) 3 # # "# ( # # # # & & & !" ' # ' ) 3 3 A7 # # # # # # ) ' ) ) 81 A7 Dm # ## # #$# # # # # $ # $ # 3 # ## # # # # # # & & ' ) !" # Em7(b5) 3 3 3 85 Gm7 $# # # *# # ## !" FM7 # #### # ( # $ # " *## # & & ' ) !# $# C7 88 Dm Gm7 # # "# # # # "# # # " # ) # # # # " # $ # # $ # " * # # ## # $# # !" ' 3 91 Em7(b5) 3 ##' ## ( 3 " ' & ' "# # # ' $# # " # ! ) # #### # "# # "%# A7 Dm 97 Em7(b5) # # # # # ' # # # '$# # # # # # # "# # & !" # # ' # 3 ## 3 Gm7 " # # 100 # # # # # # # # #$# # # " # # *# * # # # # # # !" 94 A7 Dm ### 3 ( ##' ###' # " # # & ' " # " " # # # ! ### # # ) ) %$ B¨7 A7 Dm straight 3 3 V. .

.)#&. B¨7 Em7(b5) ##% ##% A7 124 # # # # # # & #.# "# # # # # # # ! " % & )# ( # 3 3 127 # ## 3 3 3 ( " & # " # ! ### #### )# # # # Dm 3 3 ### .48 102 !" C7 105 "%# Dm " $#A7 ### # ## 3 # # ### * # # ) # ! " ) # # " & ' # # # ! # ### # 3 "%#Em7(b5) A7 Em7(b5) straight 3 111 # # # # 3 # ## & "# # # & % % ## # ### !" # "# 3 3 # ## 3 114 A7 Dm # # # # # # 3 # ### )# "# )# $# )# # # % % # "# ! " #)# )# 3 3 %$ Gm7 Em7(b5) # # "#### # #### ( # )# # # # # # )# #)# " $ # # # ) # # & &( $# # &( !" 3 3 3 # # # #" # "# #"#"#$# FM7 #### # # # "# ## # $# "# ## $# # % &! ' Dm 108 117 C7 FM7 # # # # # # # ## # )# # " $## +)# # )# ####% " ! Gm7 3 3 3 3 3 3 120 !" & #! # # # A7 Dm ##% ##% Dm Gm7 .

% % +% $ % % + % "# % % ' 3 3 3 % % % + % ' % . % $ % +% % % % % %+% %+% % ( 3 straight Dm 11 % % % % # #% % %"##% % % % * " A7 Dm %%' % % % %%%% 3 3 3 3 14 & "# ' $ % ( % % ' $ % #% % % % % % + % Em7(b5) A7 18 $ % A7 % % % Dm + % .#% +% % % % % + % % . 1961 Solo by Bill Evans " #! !$ % %! ) % % ( "# ' % % % Em7(b5) 3 & $ %& % % % % A7 % Dm % % % % % 3 5 FM7 # % % % %%% %% % % % % % + % + % % " # $ +%& % % % % Gm7 C7 %%% %%% % % ' * 8 "# * Em7(b5) Gm7 %" .49 Beautiful Love Transcribed by Austin Gross Explorations .S.% "##% %% % %% 3 3 V. .Take 2 February 2.% #% % Em7(b5) 3 3 +% % % % ( $ ' $ ( straight 21Gm7 "# % C7 FM7 3 3 % % % ) # % ) % %3 %% % % % % .

50 24 !" # A7 # 3 ! # ! # ( # ! # $ $ %"#( # # # # ( # ' # $ %# # & # "# # # # Dm Gm7 Em7(b5) Dm B¨7 A7 # # " # " # # #### # # # # ### 28 ! " '# # # # # $ Dm 31 # # " # # # # $ ! straight $ # # # '# # % & Dm 33 3 # # # #'# #"# # 3 ' # ) # " # # ! # # # #' # $ 3 Em7(b5) A7 36 "# # # # # # ) # # " )# # " # # # ' # # ' # " # # "# # # $ % & # !" # Gm7 C7 3 3 % ( # # #"# )# )# # straight FM7 !" # # # * 43 * * A7 # '# # # # $ * #! * Dm Gm7 * " # "# ! straight ## * # #! " ! & !" + Em7 # # # # Dm # # & % $ 3 46 Em7(b5) # # A7 # " # 3 # # # # # ( % & # # # '# # # $ $ %! # 49 Em7(b5) A7 Dm # # # # '# # '# ( # " % # # # "# # . ! '# .

51 52 ! " #"# #$#$# # # C7 # # # # #$#$# FM7 # # " # # "# # # % & % Gm7 3 54 # "# # " # # # # # "# #$#( '# ! ( " # ' # " # # # ! # "# # $# # # Em7(b5) A7 # Gm7 ### # # " ' # # # ## # # # ### #### # # #$# # # # # # # " ' # # " # ! # Dm straight 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 61 # ! " # # # # # # # # "# # # # # # # # # ) 3 Dm B¨7 A7 Dm # #" # # # %* % * 65 Dm # ### ## # $ # # # # # # # & # % & # #$# # # %*& %* % * !" * Em7(b5) A7 69 !" Gm7 #### ) C7 73 # Gm7 Em7 # # # # # # # # # $# # " # # "# # # # # " # * % % * # !" Dm A7 # # # # # # # FM7 ### ## # $ # # ( # * % & % # #$# 3 76 A7 $ % 4:3 78 +# # # "# # 3 # # # # $# # # # " % # # # " # ! # # Em7(b5) 3 3 3 3 !" # # # # $# # # # # # 3 Dm # # # ) .

52 A7 Dm " # 3 ! " # 3 81 "# # # # # # $& # ### & $ # %# ### # # % # # # # # " # # # # " # $ ### ! # Em7(b5) 85 C7 FM7 " # # # " # # # # " # # "# "# # ( # " $ ' # $ ) # ! Gm7 Dm 3 3 3 3 3 ## # # # ( ( 89 Gm7 Em7(b5) A7 " # " # # ## ## # " # " # # # # # # # "# "# # # ## !" ( # ( 4:3 3 3 3 A7 Dm # # $& # % & B¨7 # # # # % # ( $ # # #%#$& # # #*# # # # # # # ( !" # 3 # # Dm 3 93 .

$ % % (% % %(% % % % $ & "# % % % % % % % (% Dm Dm # % A7 % #% % % % % %%%% %%% (% % % # % % #% % % % " % Em7(b5) Gm7 17 21 C7 % % # % # % % % % FM7 # &% # % % % % # % % % # % % % & % % (% + + (% + "# $ % % - 25 % % % %# + %# "# Dm 3 Gm7 Em7(b5) A7 % % % (% % + % % % (% % %(% % % % % $+ + V.S. "# C7 Dm % # % % % %(%' % % $ + 3 9 Em7 A7 % % % # % % Gm7 % % # % % % & & %%% % $ $ + % #% % + % & "# + ( % % % % %( % % 13 % % Em7(b5) A7 % # % % % % % % % % . 1966 Solo by Bill Evans " #! !$ ) # " 6 Em7(b5) %% & (% % % % % % % '% % ) # (% % * A7 Dm 3 ! '"% % (% % % % % % % % % $% % +% % Gm7 ) % # % (% # % # % % % % FM7 % % % % % #% %%%% . .53 Beautiful Love Transcribed by Austin Gross Bill Evans at Town Hall February 21.

#%# # '# * 3 41 Em7 A7 # # Gm7 # # # # " # # # "# # "# # # # * * * " ' ' ' * "# # # # %# # # # . # # Dm # # # # #' ' * %# #%# # % # " # # * ! # %# # # # # Gm7 # # # %# # # .# # #%# # # # ) '* !" C7 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 52 54 Gm7 Em7(b5) # " # "# # # # # # # # # # # # # # # " # ## # # "# !" %# * # # # # * Dm 3 3 3 3 3 3 .54 29 B¨7 A7 Dm # # # # # $ # ## #"# # %# & !" # # # # # # # "# # ' ( Dm Em7(b5) %# ) '* 33 !" + 37 C7 FM7 # # ! # # # # # # # # &# ! $ '*) * %# # ) !" * Gm7 Dm # # *'*' ( A7 Dm # ### # # %#& # %# # # # ## ) '* '* %# # # #.# # % # # # # !" " # # # FM7 " # $ # .# .# ! * %#& 45 # # " # # "# # % # & # ## * ## ## "# # #%# ) ( !" # ' # ) * Dm Em7(b5) A7 3 3 49 Em7(b5) # # # %# A7 # # % # % # "%# # . # " # # # " # # . # # # ## #%# # % # .

55 60 ! " $# A7 # ! %"# $# # # #!$"# # # 3 3 Dm 62 # $# ## & # # # # # $ # $ # ) ( ' ( ' ! " "# # # # # ' ( ( # # B¨7 A7 Dm # %# # # # #& # # ## 3 65 Em7(b5) !" * ### # # $#& A7 69 C7 # # FM7 # # # # # # # # $# # ## # ' ' !" ' ' # + Gm7 Gm7 # # # # $ # # Dm # # # # # # $# # # # ' # (' (' (' ( ## Dm 74 78 ## # # # ' # " ! !" .S. ## # # Em7(b5) Em7 A7 Dm !% "# # # # # # ## ## $ # $# !" ' ' !%" 88 ## ## # " ! ## ## # 92 A7 # "## # # # $# # # ' A7 Gm7 # # #$# #$# # # # . . ## #& # $# ' # # # ' ## ' Dm # ## ## ## ## # # ## ## # # ## ## # ## ## # ## ## ## ## # # ## ## # ' ' C7 FM7 Gm7 Em7(b5) A7 %$ # # # "# # %# ## # # ( # # # # # # # "# # %# ' 3 # ## # # ' ## "# # A7 & ! " ! %"# # # ( # #& ( ( # # B¨7 # # # # "# # # V. # Dm 3 + ) 3 ## # Em7(b5) Dm # # # .

56 95 !" # $# Dm # # # # # # # # % & ' .

. & & #& & & & & + ( $ &! ) '& & & &*& Gm7 C7 FM7 24 Gm7 # & & & & & #& & *& Dm & #& & & . & '& &. " # #& & &"##& & & & &#& & ) Em7(b5) 20 .S. . & & " ) V. & - Em7(b5) ' &.57 Beautiful Love Transcribed by Austin Gross Village Vanguard February 4. ( + + ( & ) A7 10 Em7 # & & # & & & & &'& & #& *& & & & # & #& " & Gm7 3 3 & & ( & & &'& & 3 13 "# &! Dm A7 A7 Dm & " * # & & & #& & & & & & ! & & ! &. ) # ( ( & & & & '&. &. 1968 Solo by Bill Evans A7 " #! ! 3 [after bass solo] $ $ Em7(b5) % & & & & ' & & && ( ) ' & ) '& *& & ) & Gm7 & & & # & #& & #& & + % " & Dm ( . & & # & & & #& & & & & & & & & & & ( & & ) "# - 3 & #& & &&&& & & . ( & ) ( & Dm 6 #& " # ) ( & #& & #& & #& #& % 3 C7 FM7 & & & & #& & & & & + &.

58 27 Em7(b5) # %# # # # # # # $ $ !" $ A7 B¨7 A7 Dm # % # Dm # # # # %# # " # $ $ $ & # # %# ' $ 3 30 # # # # # # %# # # # # # # $ !" $ !" ## ###### ( 3 33 Em7(b5) A7 # ! # # # ! # # # ) ) ' * %# # # # # # %# # Dm 3 37 !" & Gm7 41 #! # # # # # # # # # $ ) !" # Dm Gm7 A7 # # # #%# #"# # # # # ' ## # # # # # # "# # # # # #%# C7 FM7 Em7 " # # # # %# # # ' $ 44 #" # # 46 # # # # # # !" # Em7(b5) 49 !" # "# %# # +# %# # ' $ Em7(b5) Dm 52 !" ' $#% $#% " # # # ) %# # +# %# # # "# # # # #%# # #"# #"# #%# #%# Gm7 A7 A7 # "# # # # # $ ' ) ' $ Dm # # # # # # ' $ ' $ & ! " # "# # # # # # ) * # # 4:3 ' # $ # # # . .

# . # " &# # # # # # # &# %' ( ' !" Em7(b5) Gm7 # # "# # # # # + #" # ' ##( Dm &# # # # # # * %' FM7 # # C7 # # # # # # #"# # # # " # # ( #&# # # # #-#&# # # & # " % ! ' ' 3 " # & # # .# Em7 Dm Gm7 # 73 # # # "# # # # # # # # # # & # # # ' !" % ' 69 76 # !" ' A7 ) ! # #" 3 . # Dm ! # &# #" -# # # # ( 78 Em7(b5) A7 # # # " # # " $ # &# -# # ### # # # # # #&# # # ##&$# " % ' ! 3 3 3 3 3 .59 FM7 $ ## $ 4:3 $ $ $ $ # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # % # # #&# !" # # # # # # # # # # #### $ $ 4:3 4:3 4:3 4:3 4: 4: C7 4:3 A7 # Gm7 #&# # # #!) " # Em7(b5) * " # # # # # #&# # # ' % ' % ( % ' &# ( + " % ! Dm 61 3 3 54 # % # # " % ' % ! ' ' !" Dm Dm # "# B¨7 # "# # # # # # # A7 3 63 # 65 A7 .

60 A7 Dm $ $ # $ # "# # # $ # !"" # # # $ # !"" # # #" $ # # # # # !"" # #!"" # ### % " & ' % ! Em7(b5) 4:3 4:3 81 84 # (# # # )# * " # ! FM7 Gm7 87 Dm Gm7 # ## # # # " # ) # # + + + ( # # ###### # # +' * % % # % " ' ' ' * ' # % # ! # % Dm . . "# #" # # # "# # (# A7 # # # # # ( # ) # # (# # # # # # !" ' % A7 Dm # #!""# (# )# # # (# # # + " # # " ' ' % ###### ! # "# B¨7 [trading with drums begins] 3 ##### C7 # # # # '!""# # # (# # # % 4:3 4:3 4:3 91 Em7(b5) 94 97 A7 Dm# # . Gm7 . # # # # " # ( # + # ## ' % ' % ' ## ' % ## !" ' % # ## # # % % Em7(b5) C7 FM7 # # # # # # # % % # # # "# # # # # # # !" ' % ' ' ' % % % % Gm7 101 #### . Em7 . A7 111 Em7(b5) A7 & # # "# Em7(b5) # # (# # # # # * & . Dm . ### ' % 105 Dm !" !" . A7 .

.61 115 # # # # # # # # "# # $# " # $# ! Dm FM7 # # # $# # # $ # " $ # # # " # & % % & ' !" C7 Gm7 #! # # # # # "# % [trading continues..] 118 & # # # # $# # # # .

1979 Solo by Bill Evans ! " #! "# * 5 Em7(b5) $ ' &! & A7 % "# "# Gm7 & " & )& C7 FM7 & & & & ! & & & & &)& & & ! & &)& (* % + & & &! + + &! & & & & & & * + 3 ' & (& Dm & )& & & & & &3 & & & & & #& & & )& 3 . % &' . % * & & &&. 3 & Dm & & )& & & ( & & ) & & # & & )& & ( & % + & C7 3 3 & & ' & & & + . % & & " & & A7 20 & & )& & &)& & ! + "# 3 & & & ' (& & & & + & ) & + (& & & ! )& + + Dm 3 Gm7 23 FM7 "# & & &)& & & . % & & & & & (& + .62 Beautiful Love Transcribed by Austin Gross Paris Concert November 26. (&)& 9 Dm * 13 "# * Dm & ! Em7(b5) A7 & & 3 & # & & & & & & &)& & + + + . + 3 & (& & & & & * Gm7 & & && 3 Em7 A7 & )&' - % ' & & & & 17 Em7(b5) ' # .

63 26 !" Gm7 # Em7(b5) A7 # # " # # " # # # #$# # #$# # "# # #$# # # # # # #$# 29 # " # # "# # $# # # " ! Dm B¨7 # # # # "# # $# # # # A7 31 A7 & & # $# # # "Dm # #! # * 33 # # # # $# $# # # '# $# ) " ( ! Em7(b5) 3 3 3 3 !" # Dm # "# # # # % & # 3 # "# 3 # & # 36 C7 #" # # # # # Gm7 # $# $# # '# # # "# ) # " ( # # # "# # # # #'# # ! FM7 Dm $# % 3 "## * 3 3 % ( ) ! " # "# # # #"#'# #$"%# # # #"# #$ # + # # $# # 42 Em7 #& # # * " # % ) # " # ! # Gm7 A7 # # # # #$# 3 ### # % Dm # # "# # 46 # "# # # # " % ! Em7(b5) # ## # # % ( ) 3 A7 # " # # "# # # # # " # '# 3 .

64 49 Em7(b5) # A7 " # " # # # # % # " # # # # # # # # # # # $# # " ! Gm7 # # # # "# # $# # # " # # "# # # "# #$# # # & !" Dm 3 3 3 3 51 54 # # # # # # " # FM7( # # #"#$#$# ! %"# # ! %"# # # # # " # # # # ' ' # ## # '# !" # # ) C7 ###### 3 3 57 # # # " # # !$" # ! %Gm7 Em7(b5) # # $ # " # " # # # # " # # "# # # # # # "# )' !" ' ) 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Dm 3 60 !" * A7 # # # # # "# A7 Dm Dm # # $# & ' # ) + straight 62 # #"# #$# # " # # # # "# # # # # ! B¨7 straight 65 Em7(b5) # # # # # # # # # $ # ! % " # # %# # # # %# # "# %# # !" # # A7 Dm 68 ! " !""# %# FM7 # # C7 # # # ( Gm7 $# # %# $# # %#$# # %#$# #"#%# # ' * ' # ) 3 71 # # # #$#( %# # $ # " ! Dm # # # # $ # # $# # # % # # * ) ) 3 .

65 74 A7 Dm # " # # # # " # $# Em7 # #"##$####%#$# # # # # ### ## # # # # # $ # $ # " # # # ! # Gm7 Em7(b5) A7 # # # " # ! " " # # # $# # # # " # ! " " # # % # $ # ! %" # !$" # % # " # ! %" # # # # # %# # # $# $ # #( ' ' ' " & ! Em7(b5) 78 A7 Dm # $ 81 # "# # ## ### ) # ' " # ' # # " & # & & # # & %# # # # # # # ## ! 3 3 3 !" " ## # "C7 84 $ " # Gm7 # " " # # # "# "# "# "# "# "# # # ' # # # ' # # #$# & '& !" & Dm ! " $ 87 3 3 3 3 ) %) # # )# # # % " # & ! # #"# # # ' "# # # #"# #$ # ) & # $# # # # $# # FM7 3 90 ) # # # & ) $#) # # # & ) $#) # " & # "# "# ! Gm7 Em7(b5) Dm B¨7 A7 93 A7 ! " $ 97 # $# # # " # # "# # # "# "# # " & ' # ## ! Em7(b5) 100 $##) # # A7 Dm " # ) $#) # # # & # ## #### # #""# ## #%# ' ## " & ' & # ' ! '& ( & &' Dm # # & ) $# # # # !$" !" # ) $# Gm7 )& ( $# # &# ' #### $# # # & ' + ( %#) C7 # # # FM7 "# $# # &'&'' * # %# # $# # ' V.S. .

66 Gm7 3 # ! ) ( ## # " # # # % # # Dm # ! ) ) %# ) # &$' $ $ !" A7 104 Em7 #! #! # # % #( # ! # ! % # # & & 108 !" ) ) # # # # ( " %# 112 ) ) !" ) " ! ) A7 Em7(b5) " # ) # # # ) !! # # # # Gm7 " # ) # # # ) # # Dm # # ) ) $ & ( " %# # # # # ) ) # # A7 # # # ) ) Dm! " # ) # # # )! # # # # Em7(b5) # # ) ) "# # # # $ & % #( # # # # 116 ' C7 # ) %# # ) Gm7 120 %# # ) # # # ) # # # ) # *# # # )! & & & " ' $ $ $ ! ( " %# Dm Em7(b5) A7 3 FM7 # " # # # # # # ## # # #$# #' & 125 !" $ #! # # ) ) Dm B¨7 A7 Dm 3 ( # # # #( # ! $ ( # # # %# # # ##$ # & .

.67 I Should Care Transcribed by Austin Gross How My Heart Sings June 5. $ $ $ %$ $ $ $ " $ *$ $ +$ *$ $ $ $ %$ $ $ $ # 3 Em7(b5) 3 3 D7 G7 CM7 V. 1962 3 Solo by Bill Evans "! !# 1 F#7 $ $ $ $ $ $ ' $ B7 E7 %$ ) " & $ ( " CM7 $ $$ $$ $ $ %$ $ A7 D7 $ *$ $ $ ) Em7(b5) $ *$ $ $*$!' $ " G7 ' $ 4 & & ' # +$$ $ $ *$ ) ' $ *$ ' $ ! *$ $ Dm Fm7 B¨7 A7 $ $ $ *$ $ %$ +$ $ CM7 7 " $ $ $ *$ $ $ $ E7 $ $ *$ $ $ & %$' %$ $%$+$ $$$$$$ 3 10 Bm7(b5) $ $ " $ $ $ $ $ $ %$ $ $ %$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ %$ $ 3 Gm7 C7 FM7 13 Am7 D7 $ $ $ ' $ ! $ *$ $ $ $$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $$# & ' " $ $$ Bm7 3 E7 Am 16 $ # +$ $ % $ $ % $ A7 % $ * $ E7 $ 3 $*$+$*$ $ ' $ ' $ $ $ $ %$ & *$ *$ $ *$ $ $ + $ $ & $ & ( " $ ( Dm7 G7 F#7 B7 3 3 19 .S.

CM7 F#7 3 3 6 32 3 # " ! %# # # # # # * " # %# # # ' # " * B7 E7 A7 ! (" # # % # # ' # %# " * 35 Em7(b5) # # #%#$ # # # # ## $ # # # # # '# # # '# " ! ' " # ! * #%# # D7 G7 CM7 38 # ## %# ! * A7 Dm 41 CM7 Gm7 C7 FM7 + % #$ # ( # # # + # # %#$ # (# # # # # # # % # ### # # # ! ##." # * * Bm7(b5) E7 3 3 3 3 # # # ' # #'# # #!'"# # # # ## # # '# ### Fm7 B¨7 3 3 3 3 45 + # # # # # ## # # ### ! Am 3 3 Bm7 E7 Am7 # " # # # '# # # * " 3 D7 .68 22 Dm # # $ # %# & ! " # %# # A7 # # # '# 3 Fm7 # '#!'"#'# # # %# (# B¨7 3 25 CM7 ! # # ' # # # Bm7(b5) # # ' # # #%E7 # # # # # # '# # # # # % # # ## # # " " # 27 # %# D7 ## # # # % # # # # #'#(# #'# # #'# #%# # # # # ) # ! % # # # Am 29 # # ## # ## ! " # * Dm7 G7 $# # $ # ##### # # # %# # (# # + # .

69 48 Dm7 G7 # # $# # '# # # 3 # & " " & ( ! " # #$#%# # F#7 B7 3 E7 ) '# 3 51 ! 54 Em7(b5) ! %"D7 # # # # G7 # # CM7 # $ # # # # * '# # %# %# ' # # #'#%# '# $ # '# '# 3 3 3 ( # # !'"A7 # %# '# # # ! & " + # # # $# ( Fm7 B¨7 A7 Dm straight # # # # # $# + # '# # %# # # + 56 $# %# $# # # ' # $ # ! # $# # $#!$"# # 3 CM7 # # # # # * ' # " & 58 Bm7(b5) E7 Am D7 Dm7 3 3 # # # # # # # ' # % # # # ##'# # # #$#$##!$"# ( '#) ! %"# #%## # ! " # #' # # 62 ) ## # ## # # #$##$### #%# # # # # ### ! '# # & # $. 5 G7 CM7 3 .

$ $ $ $ '$ $ $ $ ) ' $ . 1966 $ $ ! $ & $ $ $ $ # $ "! % 3 1 D7 G7 CM7 $ $ '$ $ ! $ B7 $ ! $ E7 $ $ A7 $ $ $ $ ) $ $ $ $ '$ $ ( # $ $ $ $ $ " $! % $! % F#7 $ $ '$ $ $ $ $ $ Solo by Bill Evans 5 $ &$ * $ $ $ '$ " Em7(b5) Fm7 A7 ) &$ $ ! +$) &$) $ ! +$) $ $ $ $ $ '$ $ Dm 8 CM7 Bm7(b5) E7 $&$+$ $ 'B¨7 $ $ '$ '$ $ $ # +$ $ $ $ $ $&$ $ $ $ " # $ % $ " +#$ FM7 Bm7 E7 $ $ ' $ &$ C7 $ +$ $ . # $ $ " $ $ '$ $ $ % * Gm7 3 ) ' $ $ ' $ $ $ ' $ $ $ $ # # # $ # # $ $&$ $$ $ $ ( " &$ $ % * 11 14 Am Am7 D7 Dm7 G7 17 B7 E7 A7 D7 G7 ' $ $ ' $ $ $ $ &$ ' $ + $ ' $ $ $ $ ' $ '$' $ "'# $ +$ $ $ $ & $ $ " ( F#7 A7 $ $ & $ + $ ' $ &$ $ " + # $ $ $ & $ % ##% " $ $'$ $'$ $ &$ $ $'$ $&$ Em7(b5) 3 3 20 CM7 .70 I Should Care Transcribed by Austin Gross Bill Evans at Town Hall February 21.

S. .71 23 Fm7 B¨7 " " " #" " " #" " # 3 " " #" #" ! " " "!#"" $ Dm E7 CM7 26 Bm7(b5) Am D7 " " # " " " " " &" " #" " #" " " #" " "&" ("&" " " " " &" (" ! 3 % ' " " " " #" "&" &" 3 29 G7 CM7 " " " " " ' " " '" * " " " " " " " " " # " " " ! " &" &" ) ) Dm7 ' &" 33 B7 " & " ! ("E7 " # " " # " A7 " # " " " " ) ) ) $ ! " % % % F#7 3 D7 # " # " "!#" " !#" " " " % ) G7 #" % " " ) 36 ! 39 ' &" CM7 " " #" " + Em7(b5) A7 # " &" " " " 3 ' ) " ' " % #" " &" " # (" #" " " 3 Fm7 B¨7 # " " " " "&" " #" " #" ! " "" " " Dm 3 3 CM7 &" " " " " " ) ) " 42 Bm7(b5) E7 FM7 " " " # " Gm7 " " # " C7 " " " " " " #" " " (" " ) " ) " # " " ! Am7 D7 " " " " " " " &" "" " " " &" " " " " &" "&" " (" &"' ) ! ) ) 3 Bm7 E7 Am 45 48 " &" (" " " " " ! ) % Dm7 G7 F#7 B7 &" " #" " " (" " " " &" &( " " ) % 3 3 V.

72 A7 D7 G7 # $ # # $ # ( # $ # # & ' # # ' $# # $# $ # !$"# # $# # (# #(!$"# # $#( # # # % " ! E7 3 3 3 50 52 CM7 Em7(b5) A7 3 # $#'#(# ## # $# # #' # $# # # # '# & "# # # ## (# # # # $ '# #! ' ! $# % 3 3 55 * # # ) # ! E7 Dm Fm7 B¨7 CM7 #' # ' # # # !'" # !'" # # # # # $# # # (# '# # $# 3 3 58 Bm7(b5) G7 CM7 ' # # # ' # # # # ## # ## # &# & # # $ # % # '# # # # # # % ! " # 3 F#7 E7 A7 # & # B7 # # # $ # $ # ! $ " # ! ( " # ' # ' # 64 # # '# # # % % % % % ) ! # # ) " 61 Dm7 67 D7 # ! # # # $# # # $# # # # # # # # Am D7 3 # ## # ## ) CM7 Em7(b5) ' # # !'" # ' # G7 #$#(#$# # % # # " #& '# #& #& !'"# # #& !'"# " # # ! # # 3 70 ! # # #& '# #!'"# ) A7 Dm Fm7 B¨7 ! ( " # $ # ( # & ' # # # '# # # " $# # # 73 CM7 Bm7(b5) E7 Gm7 C7 # # # # # # # & # # # # & & & # #$# #$# (# # # # # # + # # # # # # $ # $ # ! $ " # $#& # * " ' # # ! ## % % % % % & $# 3 .

.73 76 " " "&" " " " " " "&" " " " '" "'" ! " """" " " # $ " % 3 FM7 Bm7 E7 Am Am7 D7 80 ! " " " " " " # D7 Dm7 G7 F#7 E7 A7 ' " " ' " ( " &" (" " '" " " " & " $ '" % B7 3 83 ! 86 " " ' " " " (G7 "" 3 # CM7 3 " '" " " "!'"" " " " " & " ( " " """ " $ % '" !'"" " ! $ % '" " ' " " &" " (" '" Em7(b5) " &" " '" " &" (") $ $ % " Fm7 B¨7 A7 Dm 89 CM7 Bm7(b5) E7 Am D7 " " " ) " $ "" " ! """" %" " % " " """" """""""" 3 ) # &" 93 ) ! " " " " " " " " " " " " " "&"#" " * Dm7 G7 CM7 + .

74 I Should Care Transcribed by Austin Gross Village Vanguard July 3. 1966 Solo by Bill Evans "! ! # $% $ &$ $ &$ $ $ 1 E7 $ $ % B7 $ '$ $ $ $ ! " F#7 CM7 A7 $ $ $ $ &$ $ $ $ D7 % $&$%$ $ ( $ '$ ' $ $ G7 $ ( $ " )#$$ '$ '$ A7 4 " $ $ $ $ $ $ $ '$ $ $ '$ $ &$ ( Dm Em7(b5) # $ $ $'$ $&$ '$ $ $ 3 7 Fm7 B¨7 CM7 Bm7(b5) E7 ' $ $ & $ $ $ $' $ $ $ ' $ $ $ ' $ $ & $ $ $ $ $ '$ $ $ $ $ " $$ FM7 Bm7 E7 $ ' $ $ $ C7 $ $&$ $ '$ '$ $$$ * $ $ # ' $ " ) # $ $ ' $ " $$ $$$ 3 Gm7 11 14 A7 D7 G7 $ & $ $ ' $ " ' # $ 17 $$ '$ '$ $ $ $$ & $ ) $ $ ' $ $ $ $ '$ $ " #$ $ * F#7 B7 E7 3 3 $ $ $ " $ $ Am Am7 # $ $ $ $&$ $ $ &$ $ $"&#$ $ $ $% # * D7 Dm7 G7 20 CM7 straight + A7 + + + + + $ $ $ & $ ' $ $ $ ' $ ) $ $ $ $ $ $ $ & $ & $ $ & $ $ " $ $ &$ $ Em7(b5) 3 .

. + " $" "%"$" " + . ! " " .S. ( + ! Em7(b5) A7 " " %" " + " " " " " " %" " D7 $" $" + ( " " $" " " Dm G7 36 CM7 %" "%" & " " " " $" + "& . + ( ! " " " " " " " $" " B¨7 $" " "& + ! Fm7 Bm7(b5) E7 CM7 40 42 Gm7 C7 FM7 " " $ " " $ " " ""%#" " " )#" " $" " " " "" " %" " )" )" " ! " " " " %" " 45 & " " + " + " " . " " + " %" " " " " %" ( ( " Bm7 E7 Am Am7 D7 48 "" "" " . ! + ( Dm7 G7 F#7 A7 " $ " $ " B7 " ) " " " %E7 % " ) $ " " %" " " " ( + V.75 Fm7 # # $ " " " $" B¨7 23 " " " " " " " " " $" " " $" " ! Dm 26 Bm7(b5) CM7 & %" ' ' E7 Am D7 Dm7 " ) # " ! "" & & %" !!!" )# " !! " " &" " & " " " " & " ! ! & " " ! " " ! "%" " "%" " " " "%" )" ! %" " ! %" "%" " " ! " " " " " ( ( CM7 "" " "G7 " " " * ! " " """ F#7 3 " " "! ( 30 33 B7 E7 A7 " % " " ) # " $ " " " " $ " " %" )" $" " .

+ # # # # " $ * Bm7 # # %# # '# " # " $ $ E7 .76 51 # %# # & # & # '# # # # () $ # # & # # ## " # " & # ! & " # " % # # ! # # $ 3 D7 G7 CM7 Em7(b5) Dm Fm7 B¨7 ) ) ) ) ) # # # &# # # '# # # # # # # * # # &# # & # # ! & " # # ! A7 CM7 Bm7(b5) 54 E7 Am # & # ' # # & # 57 ### # &# # # # # #%# # & # ' # # % # # # $ $ " $ " " ! # & # # %# %# ! '"# &# # &# ! D7 3 3 Dm7 62 B7 % # # & # 65 # $ * ! " F#7 68 CM7 # # * ! G7 # # # # " $ CM7 # # # # # $ ( %# ( # # # ## ( %# # # $ E7 # # %A7 D7 G7 % # # & # ' # # # %# # % # & # & # ' # & # Em7(b5) A7 # # # # # (# # # # # # ' # # % # # # " # # # # $ # ( %# # & # # # # &# # &# ( # & # * " # ! # Dm Fm7 B¨7 CM7 71 Bm7(b5) E7 # # # % ## # # & # & # % # # # # # " &# "$* $" "$ * ! ### $" * C7 # # &# # # " ! " $ Gm7 3 &# %# %#'#'# # " # & # $ 75 FM7 .

77 78 % # " " # " # ! $ $ &# Am F#7 Am7 81 E7 A7 D7 G7 # # B7 # & # # & # ( # # & # & # # # ( # % % # & # '# # &# # &# &# # !&"#(# # # # & # $ # &# (# # # # '# " ! $ $ $ 3 # # # ' # % # # # # # # " " # &# # $ D7 Dm7 G7 84 &# #'# (# # # ! # # # # # # # #&# '# ) 3 3 CM7 Em7(b5) 87 ! * ! Dm #&#(# # # #&#(# # # # # # # # # + "$ ) ## + # $"# $ 3 Fm7 B¨7 CM7 A7 '# # # # # ## ## # &#&# #&# # # # # #(# # $ 3 3 3 3 Bm7(b5) E7 # # #&# # 91 Am + # # # # # # # # " #% &# &# D7 Dm7 # # " $ ) " $ ) . . 94 ! G7 " # $ # # # # CM7 .

78 I Should Care Transcribed by Austin Gross Village Vanguard May 26. 1967 Solo by Bill Evans ! "! # 1 F#7 " 5 $ $&$ $ % $ &$ $ &$ $ &$ $ (' B7 E7 $ $ $ $ & $ $ $ $ D7 G7 CM7 ($ $ $ $ ( $ ! + " $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ # $ $$$ * #) $ ) % &$ A7 3 ( $ &$ $&$ $ +$ $ &$ +$ ( $ ! + " $ $ ( $ $ $ $ $ ($ $ ($ !("$ $ " Em7(b5) A7 Dm B¨7 CM7 $ ( $ $ ( $ + $ $$ ($ $ $$$ $ ) ) # # * " Fm7 3 3 3 8 Bm7(b5) &$ $ $ $ $ $ $ & $ # ) 3 3 E7 11 $ ( $ $($ C7 FM7 Bm7 E7 $$ + $ $ & $ $ $ $ $ ($ $ ($ $ $ $ ($ $ $ $ " # ) $ Gm7 Am 14 " 17 $ F#7 " E7 $ & $ + $ A7 ( $ ! ( " $ $ $$ $ & $ $ & $ ( $ $$ * B7 3 D7 $ $ $ &$ $ Am7 $ $ ! +"$ $ $ $ $ $ * D7 3 Dm7 $ $ $ $ # ) $ G7 G7 $ ( $ $ $ !(" $ $ $ $ #) 3 20 CM7 $ $ &$ $ $ +$ &$ $ $ +$ &$ $ $ # " ) Em7(b5) * &$ $ ($ $ $ ($ +$ 3 .

.S.79 A7 22 ! 25 " #" " " " $" " " " " # " % " " " " #" " $" Dm 3 3 straight Fm7 CM7 ! 28 " " " %" #" " " " " " " $ " " $ " # " % " " $" " " $" " " Bm7(b5) E7 Am 3 3 # " " !#" " " # " "" & ' B¨7 3 Dm7 G7 " " """ " " (" (" " # " " " " ) " $" $" " " " & ' & "" " " ! ) D7 ( # " 31 " " $" " " " " & " ! ! #F#7 " $ " " B7 " " E7 A7 D7 CM7 * " " $" " " " " " 33 37 " $ " ! %"Dm " " " $" " " $" %" # " % " " $ " #" " " " #" " ) & ! Em7(b5) A7 + " # " " G7 " $ " % " $ " CM7 " """" " &) 40 ! 42 Fm7 B¨7 # " " #" " $"( " %" CM7 " $" " " " " " " Gm7 C7 FM7 " # " " # " E7 " " # " % " " # " " " # " ! %" " " # " " " " " " # " " ) ! ) Bm7(b5) Bm7 E7 Am Am7 D7 # " " # " " " " $" " " " $" " " " $" " " %" $" " " " 45 ! V.

"&" " " CM7 - .80 E7 A7 B7 " " " ' & " " " 48 " " " " " " '" " " &" ( " "" " &" " " # " " """" $ " % ! Dm7 G7 F#7 51 D7 G7 CM7 " " " " ' ' " " " " '" ' " " " !'" " (" " " " " " " '"'( " " " " " !'"" (" 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 ! 53 " A7 3 " " " & " " "''" " " " " " " '" " " " " " " "!'"" "&!'""" !'""!&"" " ! Em7(b5) 3 55 " ! "'" " " Bm7(b5) Dm " '" (" '" " " " " " '" " " (" '" " & " " & " " " " " &" Fm7 B¨7 CM7 E7 Am 3 3 3 58 "* " ' " " '* " (* " (" * ' " " 4:3 " "'" " * &" * ) " " " " " ! '" " " " * 4:3 4:3 4:3 4:3 4:3 4:3 D7 3 3 61 " " " % ! " " " " " " ) Dm7 G7 " " ## " &" " ) "# " ( " ! ("" " " "" + .

S. # " $ $ * Gm7 C7 3 11 E7 $ # $ * $ B7 14 $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ '$ $ '$ $ $ $ $ $ $ .$'$ $%$ $%$ " %$ $ D7 G7 CM7 $ % $ ( $ ' $ ' $ $ $ $ '$ ($ $ '$ $ $ $ $ '$ $ $ '$ $%$ $ ($ " E7 A7 straight 3 & $ $ $%$ $ ' $ " ' # $ " ' # $ '$ $ $ + $ $ " * %$ $ Am Am7 D7 Dm7 G7 F#7 18 21 Em7(b5) A7 Dm 3 3 # $& $ $ $ $ $ $ $ V.81 I Should Care Transcribed by Austin Gross 3 Village Vanguard April 18. 1970 $ $ "! ! # %$& $ %$ $ '$ ($ 1 F#7 $ '$ $ $ $ $ %$ $ D7 G7 Solo by Bill Evans " 4 ) $ B7 A7 $ % $ $ ( $ 'E7 $ $ $ '$ $& $ ! Em7(b5) $ '$ $ # * $ $ %$ ($ %$ 3 CM7 " 7 $ $ %$ $ $ $ ($ '$ ! $ $ ) Fm7 B¨7 A7 # '$ $ $ %$ $ %$ $ %$ CM7 Bm7(b5) E7 $ $ $ $ ) $ $ $%$ $ ! $ $ $ + " $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ '$ '$ $ * 3 Dm Bm7 $ FM7 $ ' $ $ & $$$ $ $ $ $ $ %$ # . .

82 24 CM7 " #" " B¨7 #" " " " " " $ % ! Fm7 Bm7(b5) 27 ! 30 Am """""""""" 3 3 3 D7 Dm7 " " " " )" " " " " "# " " ( " " $ ' 3 """"""""" " " & 3 3 3 E7 " " #" " "" " *" " " " " " " " " $ ' " ) " ! " " G7 CM7 F#7 33 " " B7 " ! " E7 " ! " A7 " " D7)" " " G7 " # " +" " CM7" " " #" " " #" ' ( $ '( ! ' ( ( ( Dm # " " )" " ! " " " " * " " " " " " ) " ( ( $ ! ' " #" " "##" A7 B¨7 " #" # " "## " " " ( " + # " ' ' ( ! Fm7 3 37 Em7(b5) 40 CM7 " " " #" " +" " " 42 Bm7(b5) E7 " " " Gm7 C7 FM7 " # " # " ")" +" "" +#" " "#" " " " #" " #" " " " # " " ! " E7 Am Am7 D7 " # " " " " # " " " " )" " " )" " "# " " " " #" " )" " ! Bm7 Dm7 G7 3 45 48 ! . " )" " F#7 A7 #" " " " " ) " " " #" " )" " )" $ B7 E7 .

S. .83 51 G7 Em7(b5) # # # # % # # # CM7 # & # # # %# '# # &# $ # &# # # &# '# # &# " ! D7 54 ! # # # &# # # %# A7 Dm B¨7 # # % # ' # # &# # # " #( # # # %# # # Fm7 Bm7(b5) E7 Am 57 CM7 # &# # # # # # # ## # # # # # # $ # " # ) " # # # ! $ # #&&# 3 ! # # # # %# # ) 62 D7 Dm7 3 ( " # # # # # # # # # # 3 3 ! 65 G7 # # F#7 ! 68 E7 3 # %# # !%"# # # # " $ " B7 Em7(b5) # & # # CM7 * ) " $ # %# # # # # # # # # # # &# $ ) A7 D7 G7 # " # # # # # # &# A7 & # &# # &# # & # # # # # # ### % # # ##### # # ! # CM7 B¨7 # %# '# &# &# # Fm7 # &# # &#!&"# # &# # ! Dm Bm7(b5) E7 CM7 71 74 C7 FM7 # ! '" # Gm7 # # # #%# # # # # # #&# # # #'# # #&# # #%# & # # ! 3 # # %# # # # # # V.

84 77 Am7 D7 " " (" )" " $ " " $ " " " """ " "" " # " " % & " ! ' 3 3 3 Bm7 E7 Am 3 3 80 B7 E7 A7 $ " ) " ( " " ( " """ " " " " " $" $ " $ " " " " " ( " " (" " " & ' ! Dm7 G7 F#7 3 83 CM7 " $ " " ( " G7 " " " " " (" " (" " !("" ! D7 Em7(b5) % & $"* " " (" " 86 Dm Fm7 B¨7 ( " " " " $ " " (" )" $" " $" )" " " (" " (" " (" ! (" """ A7 E7 " Am " " " " " (" " (" " " (" " " ( " " 89 CM7 * " ! & " " " D7 Bm7(b5) 92 " $" )" (" " (" " (" ! G7 Dm7 * " " " " & & $" )" " " ' 94 CM7 * * " " " " """" " ! " "" " "" % & "* " " 3 " " "" " "" .

$*$ $ '( Dm 5 % $ +$ $ 3 "*#$ $ $ +$ $*$. $ * $ A7 * $ $ $ * $ $ $ +$* $ .$+$ *$ $ * $ $ ! " $ $ $ $ +$ "+#$ # Em7(b5) 3 8 E7 $ * $ $ * $Bm7(b5) $ + $ $ $ $ $ + $ .85 I Should Care Transcribed by Austin Gross Getting Sentimental January 15. 1978 Solo by Bill Evans !# " !/ 1 $ B7 $ $ $ D7 $! % $ $ G7 $ " & F#7 $ $ $ E7 $ $ A7 $$ ) '$ $ $ $ ( A7 $ 0 & * $ * $ +$ CM7 $+$ $ $.$ CM7 Em7(b5) A7 $ $ $ $ $ +$ $ *$ ( $ *$ ) ' *$ $ $ V.$ $ $ $ $ + $ * $ +$ " $ F#7 B7 $ $ $$ $ $ $ $ $ $$ ( ( - D7 20 " $ *$ $ +$ $ +$ .S. $ +$ $ $*$ % *$ $*$ $+$.$+$ . .$+$ $ $ ' " $ Fm7 B¨7 CM7 3 3 3 11 $+$% $ $ $ $ $ +$ $ ! $ $ + $ $ ( " ( ( Gm7 C7 FM7 Am Bm7 $ +$ + $ % $ $ ' +$ $ Dm7 G7 E7 straight 14 " 17 Am7 $ $ * $ $ $ $ $ +$ $ + $ $ $$ $ 3 E7 $ D7 G7 $ + $ .

86 23 # % # Fm7 B¨7 # # # % %# # # # !%" # # # # $ " & ! Dm CM7 # # # # '# " $ 26 # # # %# # # # # # # # # # & ! Dm7 G7 Bm7(b5) E7 Am D7 " '#( # # #'# #%# # CM7 3 29 %# # # # # # # #% # '# #'# # # )# # # # # # # # # ' # & " ## ! $ # # %# # # # ! # # D7 G7 F#7 E7 A7 # #( # $ # # # # # # # %# # # & $ $ $ B7 32 35 Em7(b5) # % # # % # # '# #'# # )# # % # # # # # %# # # # # # # ! & " $ 3 CM7 3 38 ( ! %# "'# # )# # # # & * Bm7(b5) A7 Dm Fm7 42 C7 FM7 # # # E7 # # Gm7 # # % # # % # #'# )# # ! )" # # #% # # %# '# # # # # ! 3 # %# # B¨7 CM7 # % # #% # #)# # "'# & "$ $ 45 # # # # '# )# '# # # # %# # '# # # & # ! Bm7 E7 Am Dm7 3 Am7 48 G7 F#7 ! # '# # # # # )# A7 ' # # % # # ' # % # # # # # '# '# # %# %# $ $ B7 E7 " #( # # # %# # %# D7 .

. " $ " ! + & $" " #" ' "# Dm7 G7 CM7 64 """ " " " + & ! D7 G7 F#7 B7 E7 A7 # " " " # " " " " " $" " " # " " " " 3 " " " " $ " ! $ " " " " " . " " " & " " #" ' 67 #" " #" #". # " "%""$" & $" " " " " #" " #" ! "!#"" "+ CM7 73 ! - # " " #" $" " " %" $" %" $" "# " " " & ' Bm7(b5) E7 Gm7 3 3 " " C7 " #" " #" V.S. !#"" & ! " " " A7 CM7 Em7(b5) 3 70 Dm Fm7 B¨7 " " " $ " % " """ "" "" "$" " .87 D7 51 CM7 " # " " # " G7 " $ " % " $ " " $ " " " " !$" " " " !$" " " " #" ! 53 A7 Dm " # " " # " % " " " # " $" " # " %" " " # "$" " # ) ( ) ( ) ' " " " & ! ' Em7(b5) 56 ! " Fm7 B¨7 # " " " #" " " CM7 * " " $" " " D7 58 " " " "$" " " " "! %"" + & #" %" + ' ! Bm7(b5) E7 Am 3 3 & " ' " " "$" " + 3 61 " # " " " " " # " $" " " " $" " .

88 76 E7 " # " " " $ " " " #" " Bm7 " #" " " " " " ! %" FM7 Am7 D7 Dm7 G7 Am & ' %"( " " " " quasi-straight 79 " " %" " " " " " " " " & % " ! ) ) " * " " %" # " " " & ! Em7(b5) E7 A7 D7 quasi-straight F#7 * " %" #" # * " $" ) & ' B7 82 #* " " " " " " " "" " " " & ' ) & Dm G7 CM7 A7 "" # " " " " % " " 85 " " %" " & ! & ' ) CM7 " # " " B¨7 #" " " " " + %" " %" " $" #" " ' ) quasi-straight 88 Fm7 ! 91 " " " " " " " "%%" " & " " " %" Dm7 Bm7(b5) E7 D7 " " " " " " % " " " " %" $ " " %" " " ) ! & ' ) ) Am quasi-straight " "" " #" " & ' ) 3 94 " #" " ! " " " " . G7 CM7 " " " " " " ' " " " " " " .

$ " ($ & FM7 B¨7 15 +$ $ " * $ $ $ $ $ $ $ " $ $ Am7 D7 Dm7 Em7 E¨º7 Dm7 3 $ + $ + $ +$ $ $ $ +$ G7 3 3 +$ $ +$+$ $.$ $ " ' $ $ $ ' V. $ $ $%$ $ ($ $! %$ $ $ $ +$ $ " . $ $ Am7 E7 Am7 G7 E7 $%$!.S. $ * +$ $ " $ $ $$ FM7 B¨7 CM7 C7 FM7 12 $ .Take 1 June 25.$ ($ $! %$ $ $ % $ $ $ % $ $ $ CM7 A7 Dm7 G7 21 3 $ $ $ $ * * $ $%$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $%$+$ $ $ $ $ $ %$!. . * # * $ ' 3 CM7 18 " $ $ +$ $ $ $ +$ $ $ " . * $ $+$ $ $ $ # ($ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ * " $ ' CM7 F#m7(b5) B7 3 3 3 3 .89 My Romance Transcribed by Austin Gross "! !# 1 CM7 $ $ $ $ $ $ 3 Waltz for Debby . 1961 FM7 " & 5 Am7 $ & # $ E7 Em7 E¨º7 " $$ ' $ $ $ $ $ ! $ $ $ %$ G7 CM7 E7 Solo by Bill Evans Dm7 $ $%$ ! ($ $ $ $ %$ $ $%$ %$ $ $ Dm7 G7 " 9 $$$ ) Am7 $ $ $ + $ $ $%$($ $ 3 $ $ %$ * $$ A7 3 $$ $ # ) B¨7 CM7 C7 $$$ . ! %$ Em .

3 Em B¨7 Am7 # %# # # $ # # # # # " ## ## # " # # D7 Dm7 G7 3 49 # # # & ! $ " (# CM7 FM7 Em7 G7 + % # Dm7 # # # # $# (# *# # " # (# # ## & " E¨º7 3 3 3 .90 24 #! $ ### # # # # & " #! ! " # %# CM7 C7 FM7 A7 Dm 28 '! # * # # # # (# # # # # Dm7 '! ! ) $ " (# Am7 3 ' (#"$' "$' ' ' #' 3 $ " (# Bm7(b5) ' #"$ ' E7 $' " (# ' ' ' 3 # # # # # # # # # # G7 31 CM7 # # # # %# # # ( # * # $ # # # # *$# ! " # # $ " $ # " (# CM7 FM7 33 Dm7 G7 CM7 E7 ! # "$ Em7 E¨º7 $ % # # # # # # #(#"$# *# # "(# # # # # (# # ! # & " # ) ) # ! ) # ) ) E7 A7 Dm7 G7 + Am7 # # # # # (# # " ) " ) # # # # (# # *# # # # #(#"$# # # ! Am7 5:3 3 37 40 CM7 + # (# # # ! " # ) FM7 B¨7 C7 "(# # FM7 ' B¨7 # # & CM7 # # # & # #(# # 3 C7 43 # # # # (# *# 3 3 3 # # (# # " ### ! ## & " # ) ###" ### ) CM7 F#m7(b5) B7 3 46 ! " # # #$ " .

.91 52 CM7 Am7 E7 " " Am7 A7 " " " " $ " " $ " " " " % & ' " " (" " " % # ! " " $" 3 E7 55 )" " ! ( " " " " ! " " " " "* " " " * " " " " ! " ! " ! $" Dm7 straight G7 CM7 C7 FM7 A7 3 3 58 CM7 *" ! " " " " " ""* (" " G7 * " " " (" " " " $" )" " " " " " """ " ! " ' "' " ' ' 3 G7 CM7 FM7 Em7" " E¨º7 Dm7 * ! "" " " "" $ " " " " $" 64 " " " " ""*" " " "" $ " ' ' ' " ! & & % & ! ' ' " 3 3 61 Dm7 68 CM7 ! " ' Dm " $" " "! " % Bm7(b5) " & "* " " " "$" " " & "* " " " "$" " E7 Am7 3 3 3 ! ""% CM7 E7 " "$" " C7 Am7 " &" ' " """ " " " " " " " " " B¨7 CM7 C7 E7 Am7 A7 Dm7 G7 72 """ " $ " " ! &' ! " * " $" FM7 " "! " " % + ' F#m7(b5) # # B¨7 ( " " " FM7 " " " " "$")"$" ' & B7 76 CM7 78 G7 ( "! " " ! ' ! " " " " " " " " " " " "$" "$")" " " " " " " " " " " " " & Em B¨7 Am7 D7 Dm7 " " " " ' " " """"" " """""""" ' V.S.

92 81 ! $" " # " " " # ! CM7 FM7 Em7 "# " " " " " " " " "3 " " " " % " "" # E¨º7 Dm7 G7 CM7 E7 3 85 & ! "# " # Am7 FM7 E7 Am7 & A7 Dm7 G7 CM7 C7 "" " " " """" " "" " ' ' # # # # # # 3 3 3 89 " " " A7 & ! Dm7 Dm 93 G7 CM7 " " " " # # " """ " "" "" " " " "# " ## ## # # ##" # " "" ! 3 ( " # " " " " " " " " " " " " ) *"( " " " " ' Bm7(b5) E7 Am7 .

&& . (& .& & & & &# *$ & " &! (& & & ( & ) & && & %" & ' + . .& B¨7 & & & && -& & -& -& " &&' FM7 3 FM7 B¨7 $ + 3 && & & & & 3 C7 & -& & B7 11 14 . " &&& % & Em B¨7 Am7 D7 Dm7 G7 CM7 FM7 3 ! (& & & " & + & & + & & . .& & ' & & CM7 E7 CM7 C7 Am7 E7 & %" . Dm7 CM7 & & .Take 2 June 25.S. . FM7 A7 Dm Bm7(b5) E7 3 3 3 3 3 3 V. & ( & + % & % + + & " .& & (& & & *& & & &(&!) & *& & & & -& & & % & & " Am7 3 3 3 25 & & *& -& & & & & ( & & & & & & && & . Dm7 G7 & & & & A7 3 & & . 1961 Solo by Bill Evans Em7 E¨º7 "! ! 3 Dm7 # G7 # ) ! (& CM7 CM7 $ FM7 & ' % & 3 & & & & " 7 & & &! & & (& *& G7 & *& & & ' " CM7 C7 E7 Am7 $ E7 &(& & & & ' +& . CM7 Am7 straight A7 & & ( & . & *&(& # *$& && & & & &(&!) & & E¨º7 Dm7 G7 3 3 & & &. .93 My Romance Transcribed by Austin Gross Waltz for Debby . . F#m7(b5) 18 Em7 " 22 .& & & & & &(&!) & *& & ' " +.& . .

94 28 " " " #" " $" %" $" " ! Am7 3 Dm7 " " " 30 CM7 + " $" %" " *! " " " " " ! "* "" $" " " ! ( ) ! "" " " " " ' 3 G7 straight 3 " & " & ' ' 33 CM7 " " " #" " " " 3 " " " # " " " " " " " " " ( " " " " $" #" " " ! FM7 Em7 E¨º7 Dm7 G7 CM7 E7 3 3 36 Am7 ! " ( . CM7 straight 40 #" " #" " #" #" 43 "! " $" " " $" " * "#" " " ' $" #" " #" " '&( & ! & FM7 B¨7 CM7 F#m7(b5) B7 Em 3 C7 FM7 CM7 C7 " # " B¨7 " " # " "" $" " " "" $" " " " " " """"" "" " & ' ! ( B¨7 " " "* " $ " " #" " " " " $" " " #" & "" &" " " ' ' 3 3 3 E7 Am7 A7 Dm7 G7 47 Em7 E¨º7 " " " + " " *" " " + " " " " * $" "( &' ( ! " " "$" " " " $"""%" " ( Am7 3 3 3 3 3 D7 Dm7 G7 3 CM7 FM7 51 " ##$ " " # " " $ " %G7 "" " ' & ! Dm7 Am7 3 * " $" CM7 " " " %" $""* " " " " %" 3 E7 53 E7 Am7 A7 Dm7 G7 " + # " " " " " "$"%" " " *" *" " " *" " " " " $" % " $" % " $" % " $ " " " " " """ ! 3 3 3 3 .

S.95 Dm " " "" " " " " " " " " " " " "" " A7 3 56 CM7 ! " " # $ Bm7(b5) C7 FM7 59 Am7 " " " " " E7 " " " %" " " " """ " " """" ! %" 61 " ' " " " " "%" " ! &"" '" " " ( ) " "%" "'" "%"&" ! # ! &"" " " Dm7 straight G7 3 3 3 63 CM7 '" " ! ) "* " " " " " 3 " '" " " '" " " # 3 65 CM7 ! + FM7 68 CM7 Am7 E7 ' " " " * '" " " " " " " " "# %" " $ ) ! " ( E7 3 E¨º7 Dm7 G7 " " " ' " " %" &" "# %" " " *" " " " " %" " &" '" ) "* . . Em7 Am7 """ FM7 # %" " " ) " """ ( 3 A7 71 G7 ' " ' " " " '"'" &" '" '" * #* " ! " " %" " $$ $ Dm7 CM7 3 C7 " '" " " " ) " ) ( ( B¨7 74 B¨7 CM7 " C7 " " " * FM7 #" " " '" " " ! &"" %" '" " " &" " " # $ ! ) ( " CM7 77 " " " " "# " % " " ) # ! "" F#m7(b5) B7 Em 3 3 %" 3 " " " "# %" " '" &"#* %" " " " "* " "* " 3 3 B¨7 Am7 D7 V.

96 80 # # # %#!& # '# & !# '# " $ %# ! Em7 Dm7 G7 CM7 FM7 82 ! 86 ### E¨º7& CM7 E7 Am7 E7 G7 * Dm7# )# # )# + # # %+ ) # # #!& %# '# # 3 + # # # &" ( " $ $" # # ( # # # # # # ## 3 3 ! # 3 3 3 3 Am7 ! 90 + # # !& + %# 3 3 A7 Dm7 + # #'#!& %+ 3 3 G7 ! %# # CM7 + '# # #!& )# # # # # # " #" C7 FM7 A7 3 3 #+ # # # ! Dm7 Dm Bm7(b5) # # # Am7 # # # # # %#%#'# # # # #%# )# # # # E7 G7 CM7 93 3 #) # # # # # # # $ " " %#'# #%# # # # # # # # # + ! " $ # 96 # CM7# # ) # FM7 # #! # # # %# # # $ " ! "# $ straight 3 3 3 %# 99 &# # ### 3 & #" " ! # # # # %#!& # # # " " 3 Dm7 G7 CM7 E7 A7 ## # #)# # !& ! $ %# # " 3 E¨º7 # ' # Em7 # # #! # # # # # " $ Am7 E7 # # # # # # 3 3 102 Am7 Dm7 105 C7 ) # ' # CM7 # # & ! ) # ' # %# '#%#!& # # ### # ( ! FM7 B¨7 3 3 3 3 # ) # CM7 # ) # # #%#!&C7 # # # '# # ( # #%# 3 G7 FM7 (" # # #%#!& # $ B¨7 .

" + + *" " + + ( "' " " " " ! " 3 E7 Am7 E7 " " Dm7 " "*" "*" G7 " &" CM7 " " %" " ' + + !+ " " " + " * " ( " " " ) ! E¨º7 3 3 3 3 " 118 Am7 Dm7 125 straight 3 3 3 3 3 3 . """ . " " " CM7 ' ' *" " " " " " " % " " " ( # " "" ) ! ) " ) " " + .97 F#m7(b5) B7 Em $ $ " " " " " " " "! 3 108 " ! " # # # # Am7 D7 CM7 3 %" 3 " & " "! %" " " " 3 B¨7 111 CM7 FM7 " " " " " " %"&" "*" "%" " ) """""" ' " " " "" ! ( ) ( % " & " " ! %" Dm7 G7 3 5 3 114 Em7 A7 Dm7 G7 CM7 C7 " " "" " ' " " " " " ' " " " " " " " *" " ( " ( " " " " " " " " " " " ! ) ) Dm Bm7(b5) E7 Am7 A7 + 121 FM7 " " " % + # & $ " quasi-straight . " G7 .

CM7 E¨m7 A¨7 $ $ ' $ '$ $ $ $ 3 ' $ $ $ & $ $ ' $ $ & $ $ $ '$ $ ($ $ # '$ " 22 E¨M7 . . G7 CM7 Fm7 Fm7 18 B¨7 CM7 A¨m7 D¨7 $ $ $ '$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $&$ $ $ $ $ ) ) #'$'$'$'$ # ) ) " .98 Sweet and Lovely Transcribed by Austin Gross Explorations February 2. #.#.#. 1961 Gm7 3 Solo by Bill Evans C7 3 "! $ $ $ $ $ $&$ $ $'$ ! # $% $ & $ '$ $&$ &$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ '$ 3 C7 F7 $ & $ $ $ $ $ $&$ '$ $ '$ $ ! '$% ) " $ '$ $ $ '$ ($ $ Gm7 3 6 % '$ $ # ' $ # $ ' $ % ' $ $&$ $ ) ) # % " $$$ $ $ $$$ $ '$ B¨7 3 E¨7 CM7 3 G7 CM7 9 " $ $ $ $ $ '$ $ '$ $ 3 Gm7 3 C7 11 C7 F7 ' $ ' $ " ( # $ $ '$ $ $ ' $ $ & $ $ $ $ $ '$ &$&$ $ " # $'$&$ Gm7 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 '$ $ '$ $ $ $ $ $ $ 3 3 14 $ " '* + 3 B¨7 E¨7 CM7 B¨7 ' $ $ $' $ $ $ ' $ $ % % $ $ &$ $ '$ # #$#$ $ $ .

.99 24 ! 28 #" " " $" " $" " " Dm7 G7 C7 Gm7 " ! " #""& " " % F7 3 & " #" C7 "'" ! " ( ) "& " " " " " " " % Gm7 B¨7 E¨7 " " " " " '" * ! " G7 " " #" ( $" " #" "'" " " $" " " $" " $" * " " 3 31 CM7 " "$ " " " " $" $" #" " " " " " #" " " * " ! " " CM7 C7 " $ " " Gm7 " " $ " ' " " $ " " "" "#" $ " ' " % " " " $" ) ) % " " $" " " " ! Gm7 3 3 33 36 39 CM7 * " "$" " "$" " "$" ) * )#$$"& ! " $" " " " " $" " " " " $" " " " C7 F7 3 B¨7 E¨7 ! " " "#" " '"$" "" C7 3 3 G7 3 CM7 42 " $" $" '" $" '" '" #" #" ) * # " " " " " ! " Gm7 C7 3 3 3 " #" " + Gm7 * #" "#" # " " " " " #" ) " % 3 3 3 3 " " " 44 B¨7 E¨7 # " " $ "$ " ' " $ " #" F7 " $ " " " $ " $ " # " ' "'"$" $" " " " $" " " #" % ) ) ! 3 3 3 47 ! $" $" " " " " " CM7 G7 CM7 + * ) & ) & $" #" $" $" " '" " #" Fm7 B¨7 V.S.

" 71 CM7 G7 CM7 # " # " ( " " # " " " " $ " $ " ( " " " #" (" #" " #" " ""$ " . " 65 " #" " $" $" ! & " " $ " " $" " $" " 3 3 ." " " B¨7 " $ " " " " ) & ' ! 3 3 3 3 Gm7 . " . ' ! 3 3 Gm7 " #" ) %" " $ " " #"(" 3 . " . " " " #. Gm7 $. $ " ( " # " # " F7 68 C7 # " E¨7 " # " " $"% 3 . " .100 50 " #" #" " " " # " " " " " #" " " $"!% " ! " " " " & ' CM7 Fm7 B¨7 CM7 A¨m7 D¨7 53 E¨M7 E¨m7 A¨7 # " # " #" " " #" # " " ""##" " $" " # " $ " " (#" " & ' ! #" 3 56 Gm7 " " " " " " " $"% " $ " " ( " " " ) " " ! * " " " Dm7 straight G7 Gm7 3 C7 " #" $"% " (" 59 ! ' F7 " # " " " " " " $" #C7 " # " " " " " " $" "# " " $" " " " $" 61 B¨7 E¨7 # " # " (" " "#" " " " " " "#" " + ) " " " #" #" " " $" ! $" * 3 63 ! " " " " " #" 3 CM7 G7 #" " " " " " C7 CM7 ' .

$ #" 3 V." #" " " " " ( ) " B¨7 " $ " " #" " " " " .S. . " " " " "" ) " " ) ! " .101 74 $" " $" &" " " " #" " "#" "#" " " " # " " # " $ " & " ! " "#" " "#" " C7 3 Gm7 % " 3 C7 77 E¨7 " $ " " " " $ " " $ " B¨7 CM7 G7 " $" " " " " " $" " " " $ " $ " " ! " " " F7 3 3 3 3 3 80 CM7 ! " " " ' Fm7 " 6 " " " $ " $ " $" $"$"$"$"&" " $" $" $" " " B¨7 82 CM7 ! " " ( ( ) * "+ $"$"$" A¨m7 Fm7 84 CM7 ! ""( ' E¨m7 $" D¨7 E¨M7 $ " ! $ " $ " $ " $ " $ " $ " "" $" $" " $" 6 3 3 # " " $ " $ " $"&"$"$" # " " # " $ " $ " " " B¨7 6 ( ' 87 ! 89 $"$ " " " " $ " " "$""$#" " A¨7 3 3 " " " "#" " "#"&"$" " " " "$"$" " 3 3 3 3 3 3 Dm7 G7 ! ' ! Gm7 92 $" &" " #" " #" " $ " & " C7 3 3 3 $" % ) " " " # " " "#" " " &#" "#" " 3 C7 #" Gm7 " "#" " "$"&" "#" 3 3 " $" $" F7 94 E¨7 CM7 G7 CM7 ! " $ " " ! &" "#".

. . . ## 3 3 D¨7 122 C7 ! F7 # " 3 ( # " # *# " )# )# # # ! # '# ) # # # ### $ $ 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 126 B¨7 E¨7 # " # #!( ) # # # $ ! CM7 G7 ) # # # # )# # # # ( ! '# CM7 # # # " " # )# # $ $ . . + *# 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 )# #( # " + CM7 A¨m7 ).102 97 # ! "# $ # #% & F7 B¨7 # CM7 G7 straight # ' # )E¨7 101 * # " # # '# ### # # # #) # ) # * # #)$ # $ $ ' # % " " $ ! 104 Gm7 C7 )# # # (# )#'# # #!'# # " # # " # # % " # # # $ $ quasi-straight Gm7 C7 '# # # # & ! Gm7 CM7 Gm7 C7 '# # # )3 # ) # 3 # ) # F7 # # # )# # # ) # 3 )# # # # # # #'# $"% "$ ! 110 B¨7 3 3 # #" )# # # *# )# # # # " % # " *# $ C7 3 ! # #( !) # # # 3 E¨7 3 ) # # # # # )# #)$# # )# # $ # # *$# % "$" $ '# " *# " #( Fm7 CM7 G7 3 CM7 3 Fm7 B¨7 114 CM7 ! # % & E¨M7 )# B¨7 ) # ) # )# # * $ # # )# )# 3 118 E¨m7 A¨7 Dm7 G7 Gm7 . ##. . + . . + '+ *# . . . + ' # # * # # # + ' # # ) # # # *$# # # )# ! )# # *# C7 Gm7 + '. . . # )# . + '. # '. . # # *.

. Gm7 . A¨7 Dm7 . E¨m7 . CM7 C7 - & CM7 " % $ .103 (" " (" " " ( " " (" % ' " * " " " (" " " ( " )" !! )(E¨7 ' (" " " C7 F7 " ! . F7 . E¨7 . ! " " 132 " " " " " " + $ % ! 129 Gm7 # % & " ! " "" $ C7 3 Gm7 "* " 135 " CM7 ! ! (" " " " " " " (" " G7 3 3 ' " *" CM7 " "" " 3 3 & B¨7 Gm7 . ! B¨7 * " " " ( " ( " " * "' " ! . G7 CM7 . D¨7 150 E¨M7 . G7 Gm7 "(" " " " (" )" "*" 3 " 154 "*" C7 " )" " " (" " " & B¨7 Gm7 . CM7 C7 . 145 Fm7 ( " ( " " " (" B¨7 " " " (" " ! % " 3 CM7 147 Fm7 ! ! ! 157 CM7 ( " ) " ( " " ( " )" )" " " ( " " " " " ( " " *" " *" " B¨7 3 3 " " " " *" " " " A¨m7 . . 140 C7 . ! (F7 " " " '(" "" " " " E¨7 G7 (" " & .