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Published by: jacksonholland8335 on Jul 26, 2009
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Basic kinematic relations proposed in Litvin (1968 and 1989) relate the velocities (infinitesimal displace-
ments) of the contact point and the contact normal for a pair of gears in mesh.
The velocity of a contact point is represented as the sum of two components: in the motions with and over
the contacting surface, respectively. Using the condition of continuous tangency of the surfaces in mesh, we

v v v

r r

(2) (1)

= + ( )

( . . )


1 3 1

where vr(i)

(i = 1,2) is the velocity of a contact point in the motion over surface Σi. Similarly, we can represent
the relation between the velocities of the tip of the contact normal

˙ ˙

( . . )

( )

n n


r r

(2) (1)

= + ×


ωω 12

1 3 2

where, ˙( )


(i = 1,2) is the velocity of the tip of the contact normal in the motion over the surface (in addition
to the translational velocity of the unit normal n that does not affect the orientation of n), and ω(12)

is the relative

angular velocity of gear 1 with respect to gear 2.
The advantage in using equations (1.3.1) and (1.3.2) is that they enable the determination of vr(2)

and ˙n


without having to use the complex equations of the generated surface Σ2.
By applying equations (1.3.1) and (1.3.2) for the solutions of the following most important problems in the
theory of gearing, the application of the complex equations of Σ2 has been avoided:

NASA RP–1406


Problem 1: Avoidance of singularities of the generated gear tooth surface Σ2
Problem 2: Determination of the principal curvatures, the normal curvatures, and the surface torsions of Σ2
Problem 3: Determination of the dimensions and the orientation of the instantaneous contact ellipse

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