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• Length of Course: 32 hours • Course Audience: All who are new to Mainframe Technology
11 Nov, 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 2
11 Nov, 2003
Introduction to Mainframe
COBOL. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 4 .Supplementary Training • Training on JCL. VSAM. 11 Nov. CICS & DB2 will help to become a developer in the mainframe technology.
Click on arrow to advance directly to the associated agenda topic. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 5 . 11 Nov.Agenda Classification of Computers Mainframe Overview MVS Characteristics Of Mainframe MVS – Management of User Jobs MVS Concepts ISPF – An Introduction IBM Utilities – An introduction Advanced Mainframe Concepts / Products Summary NOTE .
Click on back arrow to return to the Agenda.Course Objectives • Objective A – To give an introduction to the concepts of mainframes and the MVS Operating System. NOTE . 11 Nov. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 6 .
1.In other words the categories overlap. Mini Computers 3. Mainframe Computers Although these divisions are loosely based on the size of the computer systems. there are no hard and fast rules for deciding exactly where one category ends and the next begins . 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 7 . Micro Computers 2. 11 Nov.Classification of computers: Classification of computers: Computer systems used for business purposes are divided into three classes.
The nature of its application 3.Classification of computers: Several factors determine the size of computer system. 11 Nov. Processor and I/O devices. Basically all computers consists of two types of components. Hardware configuration 2. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 8 . The complexity of software. 1.
OS/MVT Actually they differed in the way they handled multi programming.Mainframe Overview OS family: In the late 1960’s there were two versions of OS in wide spread use.OS/MFT 2. They are : 1. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 9 . 11 Nov.
the number of jobs that could be multiprogrammed is equal to number of preallocated partitions. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 10 . the logic is just opposite to MFT. The number of jobs that could be multiprogrammed depends on storage available and size of partition is decided during run time and it is variable. So under MFT. It preallocated a fixed number of partitions where user jobs could execute. MVT – stands Multiprogramming with variable number of tasks. 11 Nov.Mainframe Overview MFT Stands for multi programming with fixed number of tasks.
MVS MVS: (Operating System) MVS offers multiple virtual storage that means each multiprogrammed job is given its own virtual storage address space which can be up to 16MB or 2GB based on our MVS version. MVS Versions: MVS/370 –Older version of MVS that limits a user’s address space to 16MB. MVS/XA – New version that allows up to 2GB address space for each user. 11 Nov. MVS-ESA –latest version of MVS which let each job access more than one 2GB address space. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 11 .
When newer versions are released.MVS O/S 390 : IBM’s OS/390 was the next generation of Operating Systems. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 12 . Z / OS : Currently . this is the latest operating System by IBM. the mainframe operations group plans for the upgrade and converts all the current products to the upgraded version. 11 Nov.
Characteristics of Mainframe Virtual Storage: Virtual Storage . 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 13 .which is simulated to exist by MVS. 11 Nov.Its actually expansion of Real storage which is in disk only.But always active pages will be in Main storage and so the processing will be faster. Storage is not physically exist in main memory. Because of virtual storage . So the productivity goes up overall though the operating system needs to perform additional virtual storage control functions.the number of programs that can be multiprogrammed increased.
11 Nov. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 14 . supervisor program which gives the processor control to one job. When the job goes for some i/o operation it gives the control back to supervisor.(Note: anyway only one program will run at a time) Improves overall productivity of system installed. Supervisor decides based on priorities assigned to the jobs in queue and gives the control to highest priority.Characteristics of Mainframe Multi-Programming: More than one program run concurrently in the system. The central component of operating system.
Characteristics of Mainframe Spooling: Outputs are written to disk devices and from there it will be written into Printer when it is available. 11 Nov. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 15 . (otherwise due to Multiprogramming concept of MVS. user directly interacts with system. Time-Sharing (Foreground Processing): TSO.Here. examples . various programs reports will be mixed up) Batch Processing: JES2/3 will take care of Priority.all the ISPF operations.
Consists Mainly of two categories: Processors I/O devices 11 Nov. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 16 .Configuration of Mainframe HARDWARE CONFIGURATION Mainframe computer system is a large collection of computer hardware devices.
11 Nov. MVS runs on processors that have evolved in the past years to enterprise systems. which was developed 30 yrs back but IBM still uses them because they have enhanced the OS capabilities significantly and in the future also they will make it compatible to move on with the advancements. Basic Components are CPU MAIN STORAGE CHANNELS. The MVS runs on processor system/370.Processors PROCESSORS: The Central components of the Mainframe Computer Systems are the Processors. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 17 .
Depending on the operational needs the installation may vary. Initially the multiprocessor installation reported to VM. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 18 . Situations where four processors are used. an operating system designed to emulate the multi computer systems and configured to take advantage of the multi computer systems. operates in two modes: As a single four processor & As two independent 2-CPU processors. 11 Nov. Here processors share access to main memory and the OS determines how each processor is utilized.Processors MULTIPROCESSING: More than one processor was introduced to increase the processing rate and the system availability also increases. In the latter case the main storage and the channels are split between the two processors.
2003 Introduction to Mainframe 19 .Processors PR/SM: To address this problem PROCESSOR RESOURCE/SYSTEM MANAGER was introduced. Each of this partition can operate as an independent system. During these situations of failures the PR/SM also reconfigures the I/O channels assigned to the various partitions without disrupting the processing. 11 Nov. If the primary partition fails at any point of time the back up starts to operate from where the primary stopped. Here the multi CPU processor was split into several partitions. The advantage of this system was one of these partition could serve as the back up of the PRIMARY PARTITION.
overall system performance improves. Each channel can connect up to eight devices called as CONTROL UNITS. 11 Nov. Since channel processing overlaps CPU processing. As a result the channel frees the processor to execute other instructions. There are 8 channels numbered 0 thru 7. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 20 . which can communicate and pass data between the processor and the devices. Depending upon the Processor and device. A channel itself is a small computer in the sense that it executes I/O instructions called Channel Commands that operate the I/O devices that are attached to it.IO Devices CHANNELS: This is the path between the processor and the I/O devices. a control unit can be fixed within the processor’s cabinet or device cabinet or in it’s own cabinet.
2003 Introduction to Mainframe 21 . receive output and provide secondary storage.IO Devices The main purpose of these devices are to provide with input. The common types of I/O devices are Unit record devices Magnetic tape devices Direct access devices & Telecommunication devices 11 Nov.
11 Nov. They are card devices and printers. Each record processed by the device is a physical unit hence the name “Unit record devices”. Incase of card devices. Card devices are not commonly used anymore are of three types. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 22 . Similarly for a printer it is a printed line. each record is a punched card. They are: Reader Puncher Reader/Punches.IO Devices Unit record devices: These are two types of Unit record devices.
which in turn transfers ink to the paper. Most impact printers operate in the range of 600 to 2000 lines per minute.IO Devices Impact Printers: Produce printed output by striking an image of characters to be printed against ribbon. a hammer a strikes the character against the ribbon to produce the printed text. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 23 . when the correct character passes a print position. 11 Nov. The most common type of impact printers uses a train of characters that spins at a high speed.
11 Nov. The IBM 3800 printing Subsystem can print at rates of up to a remarkable 20000 lines per minute. since the mechanism involved can transfer images to the paper an entire image at a time. The actual speed of this system depends on the size of each page and the number of lines per inch.IO Devices Non-Impact Printers: These printers use Laser Technology to print text and graphic images. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 24 .
the 3800 can print 10200 lines per minute.IO Devices For a standard size paper (11x14) and normal print size (6 lines per inch). 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 25 . At this transfer rate the 3800 can process more than a mile and a half of paper each hour. 11 Nov.
Cartridge tape drives can record data using much higher densities.IO Devices Magnetic Tape Devices: A tape drive reads and writes data on a magnetic tape that’s a continuous strip of plastic coated on one side with metal oxide. 11 Nov. Tape densities for standard reel tapes are usually 1600 or 6250 bytes per inch. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 26 . Tape drives process tapes that’s sealed within a special type cartridge but earlier most tape drives processed tape wrapped around an open reel much like an old fashioned reel to reel tape recorder. Density is a measurement of how many bytes are recorded in one inch of tape. The amount of data a reel or cartridge of tape can contain depends on the length of the tape and the density used to record the data.
But one drawback is that. So direct access cannot be performed here. The larger the block. To read the 50000th record on a tape the 49000 records have to be read to reach that particular record. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 27 .) Data records are normally written to tape in-groups called blocks. better the usage of tapes and their efficiency.Magnetic Tape Devices (Cont. The other major drawback is that the records have to be stored sequentially. A buffer is required is required to store these blocks in the main storage. 11 Nov.IO Devices . These separate the blocks from one and other. and the empty areas are called as gaps.
11 Nov.IO Devices .) The tape drives are used for offline storage of large quantities of data. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 28 .Magnetic Tape Devices (Cont. To attach a tape drive to a processor a control unit is required. For some models the control unit is inside one of the tape drives and for the other models it is in a separate cabinet.
IO Devices Direct Access Drives: The official IBM term for a disk drive is direct access storage device or DASD. Data is stored on both the sides of the platters. A disk pack is a stack of metal platters coated with metal oxide material. Disk drives read and write data on a disk pack (also called as volume). They are not only used to store user programs and data but also to store programs and data for operating systems functions. The advantages of fixed disk packs are that they are more reliable and faster. 11 Nov. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 29 . These allow direct and rapid access to large amount of data. They have become a key component of mainframe systems. Earlier removable disk pack’s were used but now permanent disk pack’s are used.
As a result the disk drive can access data on all those tracks without moving the actuator. The actuator has one read/write head for each recording surface. 11 Nov. When the actuator moves all of it’s head move together so they are all positioned at the same track of each recording surface.IO Devices Tracks & Cylinders: Data is recorded on the usable surfaces of a disk pack in concentric circles called tracks. The number of tracks per surface varies with each device type. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 30 . each with 808 tracks has a total of 15352 tracks. For example a disk pack consisting of 19 usable surfaces. Access mechanism or Actuator is the component that reads or4 writes data on the tracks of a disk pack.
IO Devices - Tracks & Cylinders (Contd.) The tracks that are positioned under the heads of the actuator at the one time make up a cylinder. there are as many tracks in a cylinder as there are usable surfaces on the pack. As a result. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 31 . 11 Nov.
They are count key data devices where data is stored in variable length blocks and the other format is called as fixed block architecture. here a count area and a key area precede each block. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 32 .IO Devices Device capacity and data format: There are two basic types of disk drives that store their data in different formats. The disk revolves counter clockwise. the read/write head encounters the count and key areas before the data area. So we will deal only about CKD devices. The count area contains the information needed to locate and process key and data areas. stores data in fixed length blocks which is not supported by MVS. 11 Nov.
key and data areas. When more blocks are stored. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 33 .) One of the problems with CKD devices is that the data capacity of each track depends on the size of the blocks used to store the data. That’s because gaps required to separate the count.IO Devices . more gaps are also used so the total capacity reduces.Device capacity and data format (Contd. 11 Nov. The data efficiency depends on how the blocks and gaps are used. Just as gaps are required on magnetic tapes.
The second type of control unit called as string controller connects up to eight strings of DASD units to a channel. The number of devices that can be connected on one string depends on the device type. If both the strings are 3990 drives up to 64 drives can be connected. 11 Nov. For the3 3390 model around 32 drives can be connected to a string. attaches a group of DASD’s of the same type. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 34 . The most common type of storage control is the 3990.IO Devices Control Units: Each type of DASD device requires two kinds of control units to attach it to a processor channel. the resulting group called string. The first called string controller. which attaches two strings.
Control Units (Contd. it directly loads the data from cache than accessing the DASD. When data is accessed again. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 35 . In addition the 3990 storage control also provides the facility of connecting to more than one channel to the processor.IO Devices . Depending on the model the size of the cache can range from 32mb to 1024mb & improves the system’s overall performance. Special circuit keeps track of what data is accessed most frequently and tries to keep that data in the cache storage. 11 Nov. This enables several simultaneous disk operations to be processed at one instance.) The 3990 storage control provides high-speed cache storage that acts as a buffer between the processor and disk units. The smallest 3990 models support up to four standard channel connections and the largest can support up to 16 standard connections or 128 ESCON channel connections.
2003 Introduction to Mainframe 36 .IO Devices Data communications equipment: Lets an installation create a data communications network that lets the users at local terminal and remote terminal to access the system. Elements of a data communications network are: The Host Communications Controller Modems Telecommunications Lines & Terminal Systems 11 Nov.
the terminal can be connected directly to the communications controller or one of the host processor’s channel. Then. the Modems and Telecommunication Lines can be eliminated. This manages the communication functions necessary to connect remote terminal systems via Modems and Telecommunication Lines. The control unit that attaches to the host system’s channels is called the communication controller.IO Devices The center of the network is the host system and the processor. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 37 . 11 Nov. If the terminal system is located close enough to the host system.
g. Here. JOB Life cycle: 1.The job is submitted 2.The job is executed 4. 5. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 38 . one job has 2 steps.MVS Management of user jobs: JOB: Job is an execution of one or more related programs or procedures in sequence.The job is selected for execution. E. Each program or procedure is called a job step. To get a report of an organization’s employees in alphabetic order.The job is purged. 3. first program should sort the file by name and the second program prints the report. 11 Nov.The job’s output is processed.
(printer) Original version of OS did not provide this facility.MVS Management of user jobs: Job Entry Subsystem: This MVS component keeps track of jobs that enter the subsystem.a relatively crude form of present JES was totally inadequate most installation’s need. 11 Nov. presents them to MVS for processing and sends their spooled output to correct destination. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 39 . It has job scheduler .
But since both were incompatible with each other. two subsystems were created . 11 Nov.(HASP) Asymmetric multiprocessing system (ASP) was used in shops which had more than 1 processor.MVS Management of user jobs: Houston Automatic spooling program was used which ran as a job in scheduler with most of the functions of job scheduler and provided most efficient operation and comprehensive control than the job scheduler alone.JES2 for HASP and JES3 for ASP. It gave good control of job processing in multiprocessing environment. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 40 . When MVS was announced. IBM integrated the functions provided by HASP and ASP into operating system by providing the JES.
MVS Management of user jobs: How JES2/JES3 process jobs:
Job entering into subsystem: By SUBMIT command in the jcl .JES2 (internal reader) read the job stream from the DASD file and copy it to job queue, which is a part of special DASD file called JES spool.
Job selected for execution :
Based on class and priority jobs are selected for execution. Job classes are assigned based on the processing characteristics of the job. job will execute within 15 or 30 minutes etc. of submission. These definitions will be done at installation time.
11 Nov, 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 41
MVS Management of user jobs:
Initiator is program that runs in the system region of address space that’s eligible for batch job processing. Each initiator can handle one job at a time. 1– 2– 3– A B,C C,D,E
The number of active initiators on a system and as a result number of address spaces eligible for batch job processing determines the number of batch jobs that can be multi programmed at once. Initiators can be started when MVS is activated and that can be stopped or started by an operator while MVS is running.
11 Nov, 2003
Introduction to Mainframe
MVS Management of user jobs:
The first thing an initiator does after selecting a job for execution is to invoke a program called interpreter. The interpreter’s job is to examine the job information passed to it by JES and create a series of control blocks in the scheduler work area(SWA), a part of address space ‘s private area. These control blocks describe all of the datasets the job needs. After the job creates the SWA blocks the initiator goes through three phases for each step in the job.
Allocate all the required datasets needed.
11 Nov, 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 43
As the program executes it uses the control blocks for the resources allocated to it. 11 Nov. Any JES control blocks associated with that job are deleted. Un allocation routine: When program is completed. the processed outputs are sent and the job is purged from the system. the initiator invoke this which release any resource used by job step. that means JES spool space used by the job freed so it can be used by other jobs. Simply put. Based on output class.MVS Management of user jobs: User region: The initiator builds a user region where user programs can execute. loads the program into that region and transfers control to it. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 44 .
Data Management By MVS: Dataset: Collection of related data that is managed as MVS as a unit. which can be processed individually by application programs. data is organized into smaller units called records. Within the dataset. the label information passed in the JCL and what is there in MVS should match. 11 Nov. Label Processing: When dataset is normally stored on disk or tape MVS normally identifies it with special records called labels. To access a dataset correctly. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 45 .
FORMAT-4 information abt VTOC itself. FORMAT-1 pointers to dataset which has maximum of 3 extents(1 primary. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 46 .Data Management By MVS: DASD labels: Volume label : Unique six char volume number – cylinder 0 track 0 record 3 contains volume number and pointer to VTOC. VTOC : contains five format of records.2 extents) information. FORMAT-3 pointers to dataset which has the remaining 13 extents FORMAT-2 ISAM files FORMAT-5 free extent pointers(26 extent-1) 11 Nov.
Here labels are stored along with files rather than separately. So cataloging is necessary. Catalogs: Many MVS installations have hundreds of DASD volumes and thousands of datasets. 11 Nov.Data Management By MVS: Tape Label: Unlike DASD. tape file started with HDR1 which is followed by files data and at the end EOF1 end-offile label exist. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 47 . for tape labels are optional. So it is impossible to remember the DASD for accessing dataset and we cannot give Volser for each dataset we want.
System dataset entries 2. More often the high level qualifier will be alias of the actual name. Master catalog: 1.Data Management By MVS: There are two types of catalogs: One master catalog and unlimited number of user catalogs. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 48 .(alias is simply alternate name for something. in this case user catalog) Fst-qualifier catalog user catalog dasd vtoc dataset 11 Nov.User catalog entries Importance of high level qualifier: The high-level qualifier and the user catalog name are the same.
NON-VSAM: 1. Direct 4. Indexed sequential 3.Data Management By MVS: Dataset organization: Within a dataset. data can be organized in one of several ways depending on how the data will ultimately be processed. Partitioned 11 Nov. Sequential 2. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 49 .
file organization is selected.Dataset on that volume allocated. (VTOC updated in case of disk) 11 Nov. For example.Volume is allocated (VOL=SER= ) 3. in every day transaction only very few records will be updated and they are random means then Indexed sequential or Direct is the best. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 50 .Unit is selected and allocated (SYSDA.Data Management By MVS: Depends on dataset purpose. Dataset processing: Allocation at 3 levels: 1.TAPE) 2. For payroll file Sequential is well enough.
Data Management By MVS: There are 3 access methods available: Basic ( BSAM.QISAM) VSAM (KSDS. This connection is established through a special control block called DCB. dataset and access method has to be established.BISAM. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 51 .RRDS) When the file is opened in program: The relation between program.ESDS. 11 Nov. Similarly for VSAM it is ACB.BDAM) Queued (QSAM.
I/O requests: Access methods used for accessing required records.Data Management By MVS: DCB. CLOSE DEALLOC : File is disconnected from the program. 11 Nov. OPEN : Initialize this control block and information about dataset comes from JCL/Program/catalog/label. : Files are automatically deallocated when the job is finished with it. During deallocation disposition is the key thing which decide what to do with that file. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 52 .ACB are basically tables where the vital information about status of dataset is stored as it is processed.
management class for the dataset. storage class. such as which volume the dataset should be stored on. when the dataset no longer need and can therefore be deleted or moved to offline storage. 11 Nov. amount of space to allocate the dataset.Data Management By MVS: Storage Management Subsystem: New Feature of MVS Removed many of the manual procedures that are associated with managing datasets. Based on job name ACS routine assign the corresponding data class. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 53 .
the second byte at 2. the processor appears to have more storage than it actually does. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 54 . The first byte of storage is at address 0. In other words when virtual storage is used. etc . Address space is simply the complete range of addresses and as a result the number of address locations that can be accessed by the computer. 11 Nov. The maximum size of address space is limited by the number of digits that can be used to represent address. we need to use an address that indicates the storage location’s offset from the beginning of memory.MVS Concepts VIRTUAL STORAGE: This is a facility that simulates a large amount of main storage by treating DASD storage as an extension of real storage . ADDRESS SPACE: To refer to a particular location.
2003 Introduction to Mainframe 55 .MVS Concepts MULTIPLE VIRTUAL STORAGE: MVS not only simulates more storage but also uses real storage to simulate several address spaces. Lets see how it works. Implementation of virtual storage is possible through Paging concept. each of which is independent of the others . 11 Nov. In fact MVS derives its name from this technique (Multiple virtual storage) PAGING: We know real storage is very low and that raised the need for virtual storage.
11 Nov. When that happens MVS locates the page that contains the needed data on DASD and transfers it into real storage. The least used page is released from real storage to page dataset (page-out) and new page put into real storage.MVS Concepts Virtual storage divided into 4K pages. Page fault . Real storage divided into 4K page frames. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 56 . DASD area used for virtual storage called page dataset is divided into 4K page slots each of which holds one page of virtual storage. Page-in. Page-out: When a program refers to a page that is not in real storage page fault occurs.
2003 Introduction to Mainframe 57 . They should be in real storage. MVS keep track of what pages are in what page frames by maintaining tables that reflect the current status of real storage and of each address space.MVS Concepts Usually page frames in real storage contain pages from more than one address space. 11 Nov. As long as the corresponding address space is active. the corresponding tables cannot be paged out.
2003 Introduction to Mainframe 58 .MVS Concepts EXPANDED STORAGE: This storage acts as a large buffer between real storage and Page dataset. the pages are moved out to expanded storage. Pages are written into actual page datasets when the expanded storage becomes full. During page out. This transfer occurs at CPU speed and not DASD speed and so the operation is almost instantaneous. 11 Nov.
Rather than move small 4K pieces of virtual storage in and out of real storage . Because paging occurs only for address spaces that are currently in virtual storage . paging does not occur for address spaces that are swapped out. swapping effectively moves entire address space in and out of virtual storage. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 59 . 11 Nov.MVS Concepts SWAPPING: This is same as paging but at a higher level.
the address space is swapped in so it can be processed again. 11 Nov.MVS Concepts During swap out. Later when the system can accommodate the job again . PROGRAM MODES: Real mode: Programs that cannot be paged or swapped. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 60 . The programs which are responsible for virtual storage functions and tracking should be in main storage always. the address spaces’ critical pages – the ones that contain the tables that keep track of the location of each virtual storage page for address space are written to a special dataset called swap dataset.
DATA WITHIN EACH ADDRESS SPACE : SYSTEM AREA – NUCLEUS/ COMMON AREA: Operating system programs and data are in system area and common area. Most of the programs actually running in virtual mode only. That is system area and common are the same for each address space.MVS Concepts Critical time dependant channel devices communication programs also non –page able. This controls the operation of paging and swapping of virtual storage. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 61 . 11 Nov. This is common and shared by all. System area operates in real mode.
2003 Introduction to Mainframe 62 . SQA: SYSTEM QUEUE AREA : Important system tables and data that are used by programs residing in the nucleus (Non-Pageable) CSA: COMMON SERVICE AREA : Similar to SQA but pageable PLPA: Pageable Link Pack Area: contains some operating system programs that don’t have to be fixed 11 Nov.MVS Concepts Three important operating system components are in common area.
this is what written into swap dataset. At the top of private area. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 63 . During swap out. System region: Area of storage used by operating system programs that provide services for user programs running in the private area. three local system areas that contain information that applies only to the private area of particular address space. LSQA: Local System Queue Area: Tables used to control the private area . including the tables needed to manage the private area’s virtual storage.MVS Concepts This is the portion of address space that contains data that are unique for each address space. 11 Nov. Within each jobs private area.
Sub Pool : additional system information. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 64 .MVS Concepts Scheduler work area: SWA tables used to manage the execution of jobs and programs within the private area.User Region: This is the place where the program actually execute. 3. The size of user region varies depending on the amount of storage required by the program being executed . 11 Nov. (Max 10 MB to 12 MB) Remaining space is unallocated storage.
Hyperspaces are in expanded storage and managed by MVS/ESA. 11 Nov.MVS Concepts MVS Concepts MVS/ESA DATA SPACES AND HYPERSPACES Here one user can have access to more than one address space. the additional address spaces created for data storage can be one of the two types :data spaces or hyperspaces Data spaces resides in normal storage and are subject to paging and swapping and they are managed by user-written programs. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 65 . Depending on the requirements of application.
MVS Classification Concepts of computers: MVS Concepts SYSTEM GENERATION AND INITIALIZATION: System generation and initialization are activities that are required to establish a working MVS system. Both of the above are the responsibility system programmers staff. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 66 . and system initialization is the process of starting a previously generated MVS system. System generation is the process creating an MVS system. 11 Nov.
often called sysgen. selects and assembles the various components an installation needs to create a working MVS system. 11 Nov. To control System generation. IBM sends the basic components that make up MVS on a series of tapes called distribution libraries. System generation is only a part of the overall process of installing MVS from the distribution libraries. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 67 .MVS Classification Concepts of computers: MVS Concepts SYSTEM GENERATION: For the installation of the MVS system. a systems programmer codes special macroinstructions that specify how the MVS components from the distribution libraries should be put together.
most installations perform sysgen to upgrade to a newer version of MVS or to make changes to their current version. full function MVS system. That’s because an existing MVS system is required to execute the sysgen macro instruction.MVS Classification Concepts of computers: MVS Concepts Interestingly. So they can use their current version of MVS to execute the sysgen. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 68 . an installation must already have an MVS system is required before it can generate a new one. Fortunately. 11 Nov. the system installation process includes setting up a small. limited function MVS system that can execute sysgen for the complete. For new installations that don’t already have an MVS system.
That causes the computer system to clear its real storage and begin the process of loading MVS into storage from the system libraries and ready to process your work. 11 Nov. the system operator uses the system console to start an initial program load or IPL. To begin a system initialization. it can be used to control the operation of the computer system. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 69 .MVS Concepts SYSTEM INITIALIZATION: Once a MVS system has been generated.
MVS can initialize with little operator intervention. By specifying options in SYS1. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 70 . 11 Nov.PARMLIB.PARMLIB.MVS Concepts Initialization options come from one of two sources: The system operator or a special system library called SYS1.
PARMLIB SYS1.PROCLIB SYS1.CMDLIB 11 Nov.MACLIB SYS1.LINKLIB & SYS1. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 71 .LPALIB SYS1.MVS Concepts Here are few examples of the system data sets: SYS1.NUCLEUS SYS1.
11 Nov. which are duplicated. What ever they do in that address space is of no concern for the MVS. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 72 . Subsystems are those software products. job management and spooling are few examples of the services that are provided by the subsystem. These subsystems provide services that duplicate services provided by the operating system. which operate in their own address spaces under the control of MVS system. Multiprogramming.MVS Concepts SUBSYSTEM AND OTHER FACILITIES: A complete production MVS system contains a variety of other software products.
2003 Introduction to Mainframe 73 .MVS Concepts Some of the examples are: JES2/JES3 TSO & ISPF TELECOMMUNICATIONS CICS IMS DB2 11 Nov.
2003 Introduction to Mainframe 74 .ISPF INTRODUCTION 11 Nov.
ISPF . 11 Nov.Introduction What is ISPF? The Interactive System Productivity Facility is a Dialog Manager that provides tools to improve program. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 75 . dialog and development productivity and control.
ISPF . 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 76 . 11 Nov. It is used for create. display and change data stored in ISPF libraries or other PDS or PS.Introduction What the ISPF Editor does? ‘Edit’ Option (usually 2) .
Line Commands Insert or Delete lines Repeat lines Rearrange lines or Overlay portions of lines Simplify text entry and formatting Define an input mark Shift data Include or exclude lines from the display Control tabs and boundaries for editing Convert some types of special temporary lines to data lines Introduction to Mainframe 77 11 Nov. 2003 .
Primary Commands 11 Nov. Introduction to Mainframe 78 . Find and change a character string. Run an edit macro. Sort data. Combine several members into one. Delete lines. Split a member into 2 or more members. 2003 Control your editing environment. Save the edited data or cancel without saving. Find a specific line. Submit data to the job stream.
• Edit Macros are nothing but the line or primary commands or combination of line and Primary commands. 11 Nov.Edit macros • Edit Macros are ISPF Dialogs that run in the PDF editor Environment. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 79 .
Line Commands 11 Nov. 2003 I R M D C TE TS Insert Repeat Move Delete Copy Text Edit Text Split Introduction to Mainframe 80 .
Line Commands 11 Nov. 2003 UC LC CC DD MM (( )) - Upper Case Lower Case Block Copy Block Delete Block Move Shift Left Shift Right 81 Introduction to Mainframe .
2003 Introduction to Mainframe 82 .IBM Utilities INTRODUCTION 11 Nov.
2003 Introduction to Mainframe 83 .Introduction to IBM Utilities What is an utility? What are the types of utilities? What can you do with utilities? How to use them? Some examples of utility programs 11 Nov.
// PROGRMAMER NAME. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 84 . //STEPNAME EXEC PGM=UTILITY-NAME. // PARM=PARM-VALUE //PRINTNAME DD SYSOUT=PRINT-DEVICE-CLASS. //INPUT-FILE DD INPUT-FILE-FEATURES //OUTPUT-FILE DD OUTPUT-FILE-FEATURES //WORKFILE DD WORK-FILE-FEATURES //INPUT-DATA DD * *********** /* 11 Nov.ANY TYPICAL UTILITY JCL //JOBNAME JOB (ACCOUNTING INFORMATION).
IEBCOPY How to use them? Copy a PDS Compress a PDS Merge PDSs Selecting or excluding specified members during copying or merging 11 Nov. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 85 .
WHICH.ISTOBE.).UNIT=3390..CREATED. // DISP=(NEW.TOBE. //SYSIN DD * COPY INDD=SYSUT1.VOL=NKP900. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 86 .A SAMPLE IEBCOPY //MYCOPY01 JOB (J007.CATLG.DELETE).MSGCLASS=Y. // TYPRUN=SCAN.OUTDD=SYSUT2 SELECT MEMBER=(MEM1.PDS..NOTIFY=&SYSUID //COPY01 EXEC PGM=IEBCOPY //SYSPRINT DD SYSOUT=* //SYSUT1 DD DSN=INPUT.'IEBCOPY’.MEM4.CLASS=U.DISP=SHR //SYOUT2 DD DSN=OUTPUT.MEM7) /* // 11 Nov.PDS.COPIED.
Catalogue and Uncatalog a dataset .Scratch a Dataset .Careate and Delete datasets .As a testing utility 11 Nov. which returns control to the System Why is it a do-nothing program? What you can do with IEFBR14? .IEFBR14 It’s a two line program It simply clears register15. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 87 . then passing a return code 0. and then branches to the address in the register 14.
IEBCOMPR Compare sequential datasets Compare partitioned datasets 11 Nov. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 88 .
2003 Introduction to Mainframe 89 .IEHLIST List the contents of partitioned data set directory List entries in a VTOC List entries in a system catalog 11 Nov.
2003 Introduction to Mainframe 90 . data-set label.IEHPROGM To modify system control data in VTOC. and the system catalog Scratch/Rename a member of a PDS Catalog or uncatalog a dataset Build an index for GDG 11 Nov.
2003 Introduction to Mainframe 91 .IEBGENER Copy a sequential file Reorganize records in a sequential file Change the record or block length of a sequential file Print the contents of a sequential file Creating a library member 11 Nov.
Advanced Mainframe Concepts / Products INTRODUCTION 11 Nov. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 92 .
Advanced Mainframe Concepts / Products Datasets JCL JES2 / JES3 SDSF CA-7 CA-VIEW IBM Fault Analyzer Change Management ENDEVOR 11 Nov. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 93 .
Types of data set organization: Sequential Relative sequential Indexed sequential and Partitioned 11 Nov. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 94 .DATASET A data set is a named collection of data that contains individual data units organized (formatted) in a specific. IBM-prescribed way and accessed by a specific access method that is based on the data set organization.
is a simple file with records stored in the order that they are written. DSORG=PS. PS files are typically used for text and logs. Large PS files which are only ever required by one task at a time. are very suitable for tape. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 95 . It is possible to improve the performance of PS files by striping them over several volumes. but this is only useful if they are used by concurrent tasks 11 Nov.Types of Datasets Physical Sequential A Physical Sequential file.
Types of Datasets (Contd.)
The minimum size of data allocation under OS/390 is 1 track, or 56,664 bytes. This means that a Physical Sequential file which contained three 80 byte records will contain 240 bytes, but occupy 56,664. A Partitioned Dataset (PDS) solves this problem by combining a lot of small files into one large container. The individual files are stored as members within the PDS. Each member must have a unique 1-8 character name.
Issues in Partitioned datasets:
There are a number of issues with PDS files. When you delete a member, the space it occupied is not reused. This means that over time, the PDS will grow, and eventually fill up. The easiest way to fix this, is to list the file on ISPF option 3.4, then enter a 'Z' against it. This will compress the file, and all the deleted space will available for use.
11 Nov, 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 96
Types of Datasets (Contd.) VSAM Structures:
There are 4 types of VSAM Dataset. Key Sequence Data set Entry Sequence Data Set Relative Record Data Set Linear Data Set. Virtual Sequential Access Method is discussed in the VSAM Section.
11 Nov, 2003
Introduction to Mainframe
GDG (Generation Data Group )
Generation Data Group. Collection of (z/OS non-VSAM) datasets with the same logical name (GDG Base Entry). The individual datasets are uniquely identified by the generation number which is stored as part of the dataset name. The datasets can be referenced either by the explicit generation number or the relative generation number. GDGs are useful where datasets are cycled – standard JCL can be used without having to change the dataset names for each run.
11 Nov, 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 98
2003 Introduction to Mainframe 99 . or JCL. is a set of control statements that provide the specifications necessary to process a job. 11 Nov. and the series of JCL statements that make up a job is typically called a job stream.JCL (Job Control Language) JCL: Job Control Language.
presents them to OS/390 for processing. is used. Since JES2 and JES3 are incompatible with one another. There are two versions of JES available under OS/390: JES2 and JES3. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 100 .JES2 & JES3 A job is the execution of one or more related programs in sequence. and sends their spooled output to the correct destination. To process a job. your shop should have only one or the other installed. It keeps track of jobs that enter the system. 11 Nov. a Job Entry Subsystem. or JES. Each individual program executed in a job is called a job step.
11 Nov. command. Then.JES2 & JES3 How JES2 and JES3 process jobs : Job is submitted Job is selected for execution Job is executed Job’s Output is processed Job is purged How a job is entered into the system Jobs are created by entering JCL commands into a display terminal. or submit. That causes JES2 or JES3 to read the job stream from the DASD file and copy it to the job queue on the JES spool. To enter. the terminal user issues a SUBMIT. or SUB. the jobs are stored in files on DASD. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 101 . the job into the system.
An optional. 11 Nov. making SDSF especially useful for monitoring jobs currently executing. viewing the printed output of batch jobs in the Held output spool queues. but systems programmers and operators are normally allowed to view everything. Runs in ISPF or directly in TSO without ISPF. separately priced feature of z/OS. or the rest of the output of that seemingly endless print job.SDSF (System Display and Search Facility) System Display and Search Facility: On-line tool for programmers and operators monitoring jobs awaiting execution in the JES2 input spool queues and. Most users can only view their own jobs. most commonly. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 102 . to save printing it on paper.
CA . schedules jobs based on the Date and time. job dependencies and available resources. Functions of CA-7 Provides Online Scheduling facility Selects job for execution Submits jobs Tracking jobs Analyzes job execution results 11 Nov. interactive system which automatically controls. It’s an online. realtime.7 What is CA-7? CA-7 is a Production control system. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 103 .
CA . 11 Nov. archival copies of production reports will be redirected to an online viewing tool called CAView. Instead of producing microfiche.View To view the output of the Job in online. Online viewing has been implemented to significantly reduce the amount of microfiche produced by Information Services. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 104 .
CA-View will automatically delete unnecessary reports after the amount of time you specify 11 Nov. no waiting for fiche delivery online viewing has full search capabilities reports are more secure.) Online viewing represents a significant improvement over traditional microfiche for the following reasons: reports are available immediately. only authorized users are permitted to view reports automatic records retention. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 105 .CA – View (Contd.
Supports different modes of operation: – Real-time analysis at time of abend – Batch re-analysis of faults in history file – Interactive re-analysis of faults in history file under ISPF 11 Nov.IBM . Provides support for CICS® system abends.FAULT ANALYSER IBM Fault Analyzer for z/OS and OS/390 assists the developer in quickly analyzing and fixing application and system failures. as well as MQSeries® application abends. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 106 . Helps determine the cause of failure while further providing assistance in how to resolve the problem.
2003 Introduction to Mainframe 107 .) Facilitates expansion of messages and abend codes applicable to the analysis result. Provides management of application abends. fault reports. the fault history file helps track and manage application abends.IBM . 11 Nov. Lets an application add its own application specific messages and abend codes to supplement those supplied by IBM. and associated dumps through an interactive display. Eliminates need to recompile programs or change JCL to invoke IBM Fault Analyzer for z/OS and OS/390®. Offers interactive re-analysis to provide programmers with the ability to increase the level of detail the analysis engine can provide after the abend has occurred. Applies the collective knowledge of many experts to each abend.FAULT ANALYSER (Contd.
production etc. manage various versions of a module and account for its proper movement through various stages like test. with the help of the Change management products. we have change management teams and products in place. QA. is not changed inadvertently . To ensure that a module / program / JCL member etc.CHANGE MANAGEMENT In the mainframe world. 11 Nov. there are many people in a given project group. These personnel. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 108 .
automates. and monitors the entire application development life cycle. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 109 .ENDEVOR What is Endevor? ENDEVOR is a Change Management software product that controls. ENDEVOR allows you to automate and control the movement of source code from development through to production (see diagram). 11 Nov.
) ENDEVOR gives you the ability to: Automatically compare and track your changes against the PRODUCTION version. Automate creation of executables. WHERE it changed. 11 Nov. This speeds up the debugging process and enables you to see exactly WHO changed it. Prevent conflicting changes to the same system component. saving you time and ensuring that changes are complete. and any other form of an element (module) correspond. Ensure that the source. WHEN it was changed. and HOW it was changed. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 110 . creating an on-line change history. executable. WHAT was changed. Browse and manipulate all components relating to an application from a single screen.ENDEVOR (Contd.
11 Nov. View or retrieve any prior level of any element. and change history. impact analysis. eliminating change-related paperwork. dramatically simplifying the process.) Apply consistent procedures (including the automation of compiles. and standards-checking functions) to any component type. 2003 Introduction to Mainframe 111 . Report on element definition. content. Process changes to packages and approvals online.ENDEVOR (Contd.
2003 Introduction to Mainframe 112 .Summary Slide Classification of Computers Mainframe Overview MVS Characteristics Of Mainframe MVS – Management of User Jobs MVS Concepts ISPF – An Introduction IBM Utilities – An introduction Advanced Mainframe Concepts / Products 11 Nov.
2003 Introduction to Mainframe 113 .THANKS THANK YOU ! 11 Nov.
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