First published London, Williams and Norgate, 1883. This electronic edition issued by Celephaïs Press, somewhere beyond the Tanarian Hills, and mani(n)fested in the waking world in Leeds, Yorkshire, England, 2004.

This work is in the public domain.
Release 1.01: January 2008. Tidied up headers, added new cover, otherwise nothing changed. Could probably use further proof-reading but I need a better copy-text than the crappy page-scans I based this off. Please report errors to citing revision date or release number.







“In the customs and institutions of schools, academies, colleges, and similar bodies destined for the abode of learned men and the cultivation of learning, everything is found adverse to the progress of science. For the lectures and exercises there are so ordered, that to think or speculate on anything out of the common way can hardly occur in any man. And if one or two have the boldness to use any liberty of judgement, they must undertake the task all by themselves: they can have no advantage from the company of otherts. And if they can endure this also, they will find their industry and largeness of mind no slight hindrance to their fortune. For the studies of men in these places are confined and as it were imprisoned in the writings of certain authors, from whom if any man dissent he is straightaway arraigned as a turbulent person and an innovator.”—BACON. They needs must find it hard to take Truth for authority who have so long mistaken Authority for truth. The Shadows of the past, substantialized, Environ us; we are built about from birth With life-long shutting out of light from heaven. “The few who had the courage to call the child by its right name, the few that knew something of it, who foolishly opened their hearts and revealed their vision to the many, were always burnt or crucified.”—GOETHE. ’Tis a truth, howe’er unheeded Work least wanted is most needed. There is, however, an incredible tendency in human nature, however few may cultivate it at one time in the same direction, never to rest short of the attainable; and however minimized its value may appear in the process of attainment, we cannot rest until we have the truth. Certain insects have developed the instinct to lay up food for their offspring which they never live to see. In Africa the natives still dig round about the modern gum-trees to find the buried treasure that oozed from other trees which stood on the same spot in the forests of the far-off past.

“ð ¢maqe‹j ¢ntrwpoi, did£xete ¹m©j, t… ™stin Ð qeÕj ™n to‹j ¢pokekleismšnoj ?”
“Bind it about thy neck, write it upon the tablet of thy heart, ‘Everything of Christianity is of Egyptian origin,’ ”—REV. ROBERT TAYLOR, Oakham Gaol, 1829. “It is easy to show that this fabulous relation borders on the verity of physical science”—PLUTARCH. “As for wisdom, what she is and how she came up, I will tell you, and will not hide mysteries from you; but will seek her out from the beginning of her nativity, and bring the knowledge of her into light, and will not pass over the truth.”—Wisdom of Solomon, chap. vi. v. 22. “Why does not some one teach me the constellations, and make me at home in the starry heavens, which are always overhead, and which I do not half know to this day?”—CARLYLE. “The time is come when these mysteries shall be revealed.”—SOHAR. “Now Joseph, the son of Rabbi Joshua, being sick, passed into the state of trance. His father inquired of him, ‘What seest thou?’ He replied, ‘The world turned upside down. The lofty are laid low, and the lowly are lifted up on high.’ When his father heard this, he said unto him, ‘Verily, thou hast seen the age of Salvation.’”—Pesachim, f. 50, I.

AT times I had to tread Where not a star was found To lead or light me, overhead; Nor footprint on the ground. I toiled among the sands And stumbled with my feet; Or crawled and climbed with kneeds and hands Some future path to beat. I had to feel the flow Of waters whelming me: No foothold to be touched below, No shore around to see. Yet, in my darkest night, And farthest drift from land, There dawned within the guiding-light; I felt the unseen hand. Year after year went by And watchers wondered when The diver, to their welcoming cry Of joy, would rise again. And still rolled on Time’s wave That whitened as it passed: The ground is getting toward the grave That I have reached at last. Child after Child would say— “Ah, when his work is done, Father will come with us and play—” ’Tis done. And playtime’s gone. A willing slave for years, I strove to set men free; Mine were the labours, hopes, and fears, Be theirs the victory.



[According to Kircher.]

“THE NATURAL GENESIS” contains the second half of “A BOOK OF THE BEGINNINGS,” and completes the author’s contributions to the new order of thought that has been inaugurated in our own era by the writings of Darwin and Wallace, Spencer and Huxley, Morgan and McLennan, Tylor and Lubbock. It was written by an Evolutionist for Evolutionsts, and is intended to trace the Natural Origines and teach the doctrine of development. The total work is based upon the new matter supplied by the ancient monuments, ranging from the revelations of the bone-caves and the records of the Stone Age to the latest discoveries of hieroglyphic inscriptions, the cuneiform tablets, and the still extant language of gesture-signs. The work is not only one of original research, it is emphatically aboriginal, and the battle for evolution has here been continued amongst the difficult defiles and mountain fastnesses of the enemy. After reading the first two volumes, Mr. Alfred Russel Wallace expressed the fear lest there might not be a score of people in England who were prepared by their previous education to understand the book. Few of its reviewers could be included amongst that number; and some of them were as remote from the writer and his meaning as the apes from man, gibbering across the chasm of the missing link. But the author’s mode of treatment, which was deficient in the art of bridge-building, and the exigencies of publishing according to a plan that (so to speak) caused the Exodus to precede the Genesis, may have been unfortunate. Much of the matter is pre-eval, so that the method could not be historical; nor could it be chronological, because of the links missing in series and sequence. The method is typological; and these two volumes of “Typology” are necessary to the proper understanding of the previous ones, which were written with the matter of these in mind. In the preceding part of the work the author took very



extended views of Egypt’s enormous past and the age of her premonumental mythology. Some of the conclusions set forth therein were characterized by Dr. Samuel Birch as interesting and ingenious. But at that time these suggestions and conclusions were announced in direct opposition to the accepted authorities. Since then, however, the inscriptions discovered at Sakkarah have come to corroborate the present writer. They contain allusions to Sirus the Dog-star, which show that at least two Sothic cycles of 1,460 years each had been observed and registered previous to their time—even if they are not copies of indefinitely older documents—which carry the chronology back to some 9,000 or 10,000 years from the present day. Various myths, hitherto supposed to have been the growth of later centuries or of Asiatic origin, including the most important of all, that of SutHorus, were then extant and of immemorial antiquity. In this case it is but just to say that “A BOOK OF THE BEGINNINGS” happened to be the farthest advanced upon the right road. The German Egyptologist, Herr Pietschmann, who reviewed the “BOOK OF THE BEGINNINGS,” was startled at the many “unheard-of suggestions” which is contained, and thought the work was “inspired by an unrestrained thirst for discovery,” but he adduced no evidence whatever to rebut the conclusions, and gave no hint of the author’s being wrong in his derivation of facts from the monuments upon which those conclusions in a great measure depend. The writer has taken the precaution all through of getting his fundamental facts in Egyptology verified by one of the foremost of living authorities, Dr. Samuel Birch, to whom he returns his heartiest acknowledgments. He also sincerely thanks Captain R. F. Burton and Mr. George St. Clair, F.G.S., for their helpful hints and for the time and labour they have kindly given during the progress of this work. As a matter of course, the author will have blundered in manifold details. Discoveries are not to be made without mistakes, especially by those who do not cultivate the language of non-committal. But up to the present time I have not been shown nor do I perceive any reason for doubting the truth of my generalization that Africa and not Asia was the birthplace of articulate man, and therefore the primordial home of all things human; and that the race which first ranged out over the world, including the islands of the north and the lands of the southern seas, was directly Kamite; the Blacks of Britain (who left the flattened tibia, the negroid pelvis, the Australoid molars, and



gorilla-like skulls in our bone-caves) and the Blacks of Australia being two extreme wings extended from the same African centre. Professor Huxley recognizes in the native Egyptian the most refined form of the same anthropological type that survives at a far lower stage in the Australian black. My further contention is that both issued from Inner Africa as the human birthplace, and that Egypt itself is old enough to be the mouthpiece of the first articulate language, the oldest intelligible witness to the natural genesis of ideas, and the sole adequate interpreter of the primary types of thought. Professor Huxley has asserted that Iberian (or African) blood remains in Britan even though “all traces of language may have been obliterated.” But all traces of a language can never be obliterated. We hear of a Pictish language disappearing along with a lost race and only leaving a word or two on the surface. That is impossible. The Cornish race and Cornish words live on after a particular dialect has ceased to be spoken. The structure of language changes, dialects dislimn and transform, but words do not pass away; the oldest are preserved in our dialects. Neither Kymraig, Gaelic, nor Irish Keltic is spoken in Dorsetshire, yet “Rimbury” remains with its place of urn-burial to prove that it was so named as the “Roimh,” a burying-ground, the meaning of which is repeated in the Bury. The present writer has been charged with being “sublimely unconscious that words have a history;” but he knew that certain words were also prehistoric, that they are older than languages, and that words, like myths, customs, laws, or beliefs, do not always begin where we may first meet with them. The prehistoric is everywhere the dominating difficulty with which we have to deal. It is said that you can do anything with words, but the illustrations chiefly relied on by the present writer were precisely those words and names which the current etymology could do nothing with, neither account for nor affiliate them. These proved to be Egyptian, and that pointed to an extension of their history, or of ours. Moreover, it was found that the Kamite typology offered a principle of naming which determines the primary nature and significance of words. This the writer applied to the type-names of places, waters, hills, and caves in Britain. The result is to show that the most ancient names and words are Kamite, not Aryan nor Semite. That is they are words still extant in Africa, which can be brought

—the Egyptian genesis of the chief celestial signs. the place of the bone-cave. and thus point back to a unity of origin which has to be sought for in the most primitive conditions. pp. Thus read. Pliny. who became kronotypes in their secondary. Again. For example. and these prehistoric words.xii EXPLANATORY. was idenitcal with the Egyptian Teru. 16. and the Kamite origin of that unity.—the origin of the Hebrew and Christian theology in the mythology of Egypt. Akkad.—the common origin of the mythical Genetrix and her brood of seven elementary forces. 298. . tom. and the junction of the two rivers Gave. and Sa denotes the hinder part. found in Egypt. The main thesis of my work includes the Kamite origin of the pre-Aryan matter extant in language and mythology found in the British Isles. i. behind. Britain. but cannot be got into it backwards from Europe or Asia. But in Egyptian Mori is the sea.1 Here the type is the Tree. out of that land together with the black race. It has now been amply shown in these volumes that certain rootwords run through all languages. and New Zealand. zodiacal and extra-zodiacal. America or Australia. for the river-branch.—the origin of all mythology 1 2 Champollion.2 This has been compared with Mor-marwth in Welsh for the Sea of Death. ¼ ‘ k ë —. But the writer did not then know that the name was applied in Egypt at Teruta. L’Égypte sous les Pharaons. Mori-maru-sa would signify the Dead Sea North. and this is the Teru in Egyptian and numerous other African languages. Philemon the poet says they called the Northern Sea. it was suggested that the name of Deruthy. whence the branch. the Kamite North. and spirits or gods in their final psychotheistic phase. Hist. Hence my claim that the recognized non-Aryan (or pre-Aryan) residuum constituted the African origines. as demonstrated by a world-wide comparison of the great primary types. India. the land (ta) of the river-branch.—the unity of origin for all mythology. which are not derived from language in Asia. i. 297.e. form their own country as far as Cape Rubeas. Nat. bear the stamp and superscription of Egypt. iv. in the earliest known mention of the Cimbri. which is the name of an Egyptian town situated on the Nile at the junction of the Bahr-el-Yussuf. Such type-words—and I have adduced hundreds—are equal to archaic coins for comparative purposes. the back. Meru means the dead. the Morimarusa or Dead Sea.

EXPLANATORY.—why mankind should come to worship a supposed divine being alleged to divide all things into three. and his beginning with the mound of the motherhood which . the pre-religious phase of Mythology and the antealphabetic domain of Signs in language. theosophy. and personages that appear as mundane in the Pentateuch are celestial in the Book of Enoch. xiii in the Kamite typology. The 600.—why the letter A should win the foremost place in the alphabet. as a mode of representing its own triune nature.000 inhabitants of Israel in the heavens according to the Jewish Kabalah.” first celebrated by the festival of Passover or the transit at the vernal equinox.— and the origin of language in African onomatopœia. events. All through the object was to reach a root-representation of the subject-matter. and that this has been converted into human history in both the Old Testament and the New. and religion are inadequate if only because the Kamite element has been hitherto omitted. fetishism. It was my aim to be foundational and accomplish a work that should be done for the first and last time: to ascertain how the oneness in primitive thought bifurcated in duality and was differentiated in expression by visible and audible signs. One object aimed at in them and the previous volumes is to demonstrate that the true subject-matter of “Holy Writ” belongs to astronomical mythology. Evolution teaches us that nothing short of the primary natural sources can be of final value. and conclusions concerning the genesis of language. the history first written in the book above. mythology. that was sacred because celestial. and to show that the non-evolutionist could not possibly bottom any of the beginnings.—how natural gestures got stereotyped as ideographs and hieroglyphics. and that these have to be sought in the Totemic and pre-paternal stage of Sociology. and the same scenes.000 men who came out of Egypt as Hebrew warriors in the Book of Exodus are 600. The “Fall in Heaven” was an Egyptian mythos previous to its being turned into a Hebrew history of man in the garden of earth. One clue to the writer’s mode of elucidations may be found in his treatment of mythology as the mirror of prehistoric sociology. At least sufficient evidence has been produced to prove that all previous discussions.—the origin of typology in gesture-signs. occurred in the heavens before it was made historical in the migration of the Jews. The Exodus or “Coming out of Egypt. speculations.

and only the natural genesis of the type will enable us to interpret the later typology. The oldest types. Such types were adopted for use. or at least . and doctrines. the earliest current coinage ever stamped and issued from the mint of the mind. such phrases as “Serpent-worship. Much of my matter has been fetched from far. like the Serpent. were feminine at first. customs. The tree was the producer of the fruit. and superstitions. as was the female. Being so remote from ordinary acquaintanceship. preceded a knowledge of the individual fatherhood. but in a system of typology. Also. The serpent sloughed periodically. so did the female. and may be pro-portionately long in obtaining recognition. which was represented as creating or continuing by transformation of itself. and years of intense brooding had to be spent in living back to enter the conditions and apprehend the primary phases of the nascent mind of man. not because the female was then worshipped. or Water. but the serpent was a feminine typograph from the beginning. Tree. and became sacred in the course of time. The ancestral spirit that preceded the individual ancestor. it could not be made familiar at first sight by any amount of literary skill. a means of representation.” and “Phallic-worship” have but little meaning from the present standpoint. but because the motherhood was known before paternity could be identified. and the writer believes that no such sustained. a medium for the exchange of meanings. the fetishtic or religious being their final phase. dogmas. Nowhere did the Cultus originate in religion. a primitive mode of expression.xiv EXPLANATORY. so as to trace the first laying hold of things by the earliest human thought of which the cave-dwellers of the human mind have left us any record. Water was the female fount or source. The natural need of making signs by gesturelanguage led to the gradual adoption of certain things that were used as typical figures.” “Tree-worship. The appeal has to be continually made to a lapsed and almost lost sense of the natural genesis of ideas. that still dominate the minds of men without being understood. Nothing short of the remotest beginnings could sufficiently instruct us concerning the origin of religious rites. might come to be typified by the serpent that sloughed and renewed.” “Water-worship. because a type once founded could be variously applied. The present writer has sought for the natural genesis of the primitive mode of expression which created the types that were continued in the typology that is held to be fetishtic in Africa but religious in Europe.

The claim now to be advanced on behalf of the work is that it sets forth a physical basis for th ehuman beginnings in thought. and typology. From the peculiar nature of the work it is almost inevitable that its critics will have to learn the rudiments of the subject form the volumes offered for review. My work is written long and large.EXPLANATORY. demonstrates the natural genesis of signs and symbols. the judgement of those who have time and patience to study and the capacity to comprehend. physiological. and traces the typology of the past into the mytholatry of the present. that mystical subjects previously dabbled in are for the first time sounded to the depth. the secrets of the mysteries. numerical. or to perceive the author’s drift through all the mass of details. so that the reader may test its truth. They are called sections to denote that they have not the continuity of narrative. and tends to establish the doctrine of mental evolution in accordance with the physical. Each section is complete in itself. recovers the lost foothold of mythology in the phenomena of space and time. that the foundations of the phallic cult are laid bare without the . according to the mode in which the Gnosis was expressed. and astronomical. and the evidence is faithfully presented in every part for each conclusion drawn. but they are parts of a whole. xv prolonged and elaborate. that it represents the ancient wisdom. endeavour has hitherto been made to interpret the mind of primitive and archaic man by means of the types—found to be extant from the first—which are herein followed from their natural genesis in phenomena to their final phase of application. but the serious student will find the whole of them correlative and cumulative. Indeed a certain absence of personal showmanship or explanation by the way in marshalling the long array of data may be set down to a dominant desire that the serried facts should speak for themselves and tell their own tale as far as was possible. A judgement of facts is now asked for. To trace the natural genesis of mythology and typology is to write a history or present a panorama of man’s mental evolution. Belief has no more to do with the reading of this book than theoretical speculation had to do with the writing of it. and every type pourtrayed or traced in these pages proves the lowly status of the beginnings. and great patience may be needed to reach the root of the matter. not belief in a theory. language. shows the mode in which the primitive and archaic man attained expression in terms of external phenomena.

the more fundamental the interpretation. But the work is warranted to wait. During a dozen years the writer has put his whole life into his labour. grin of the satyr in Greece of the libidnous leer of the subject in its Italian phase. by a process as purely scientific as the origin was simply natural. the more remote would be its recognition and the fewer its readers. falsely founded on a misinterpretation of mythology by unconsiously inheriting the leavings of primitive or archaic man and ignorantly mistaking these for divine revelations. of the Saviour Son who was the Word of all Ages. the incarnation and birth. The work culminates in tracing the transformation of astronomical mythology into the system of Equinoctial Christolatry called Christianity. but also how it has been. and demonstrating the non-historic nature of the canonical gospels by means of the original mythos in which the Messianic mystery. fully facing the fact that the most important parts of his work would be the least readable. The writer has not only shown that the current theology is. and the author does not doubt that its comparatively few friends at first will be continually increased from many generations of genuine men and women. the crucifixion and resurrection. were altogether allegorical. and that the more thorough the reasearch. the miraculous life and character. the Virign motherhood.xvi EXPLANATORY. .

. . . . Physical Beginnings—Knowledge kept Concealed on Account of its Primitiveness— Unification of the one God from many—Conversion of Physics into Metaphysics —Symbolic Stage of Utterance—Consequent Misapprehension—Genesis of Ideographs in acted Speech—Comparison of Hieroglyphic and Natural GestureSigns—Persistence of these Primates of Expression—Natural Origin of Zoötypes as Living Ideographs—Their Reduction into Phonetic Signs and Letters—Arican Origin and Egyptian Perpetuation of a Typology that became Universal . Pages 1—58 SECTION II. . . SECTION I. . . . Pubescent Male Third in Series—Four Quadrupedal—The All represented by number 10—One Name for Divers Types of Pubescence in many Languages—The Tree-type of Oneness and Thigh-type of the Branch—Opening and Dividing being Identical with Founding . Pages 135—184 SECTION IV. . Child Second. . . . Beginning with Bifuraction Demonstrated by Digital Recknoing—The Hand and other Types of Numbers—The Mother First. . . . . . . . . . . .SUMMARY OF CONTENTS. . . Origin of the Myth in a Twofold Phase of Fact—Beginning Identical with Opening and Bifurcating into Duality—Hence the “Two Truths” of Egypt— Difference in Sex enacted before Languages could denote it—External Phenomena Expressed according to the Two Truths—Water and Breath the two Factors of Being—Existence a Breathing out of the Water—Consequent Customs and Beliefs—Heaven the Water above—The Two Waters of Light and Darkness. . Pages 185—234 . . . . Pages 59—134 SECTION III. Totemic Typology and Customs—Zoötypes made Stellar—The Zoölogical Masquerade—People acting in the Character of their Totemic Prototypes show what Beasts they are—Animal Modes of Salutation continued by Primitive Man— The Sneeze a Sign of Soul—Customs of Covenanting—Opening at Puberty— Modes of Distinguishing the Sex—Types of Virility—Consquent Customs and Surviving Superstitions—Capture in Marriage—Rites of Puberty—Transfer of Customs from the time of Young-man-making to Childhood—Their Loss of Meaning—Reckoning from the Left Hand first—Primitive Sociology—Interpretation of “Couvade”—Origin of the Trinity in Lunar Phenomena—Ancient Customs explained by Egyptian Symbolism. . . . . . . . Life and Death—The Pool of the Twin Waters Localized in various Lands— Mystical Feminine Phase and Bloody Sweat of the Solar God—The Two Truths in Masonry and Metaphysics .

and Conversion of the Evil Serpent into the Good Dæmon—The Mystical Serpent-Mother of all Flesh—The Celestial Dragon and Tree of the Pole—The Serpent or Dragon in its Eschatological Phase—Transformation of the Old Dragon of Physical Phenomena into the Modern Devil . Mythology the Mirror of Primitive Sociology—Priority of the Motherhood— Consequent Customs—The Mother as the first Abode—The Mother that Divides as the Two Sisters of one Blood. or Devil. the Nursing Mother of Life. Triune. . . Deluder. . Pages 292—370 SECTION VII. Teacher of Time and Periodic Return. preserved and practised as one of the Religious Mysteries . . typified as the Serpent—The Serpent Wisdom—Origin of other Elementaries as Representatives of the Elemental Forces—Primitive Mode of expressing External Phenomena—Origin of the Genitrix and her Seven Children who are Universal in Mythology as the Primordial Powers of Space and Chaos—Passage of the Zoötypes into Kronotypes. SECTION V.C. .xviii SUMMARY OF CONTENTS. . Pages 235—291 SECTION VI. the Fish. . and becomes Dual in Heaven and Earth—The Twin-Child that became the Typical Sut-Horus who. . Pages 371—455 SECTION VIII. . . Darkness the first Adversary. Origin of Language in Gesture-Signs in Involuntary Sounds—Rudimentary Articulation extant in Africa—Examination of Grimm’s Law—The Ideographic Phase of Language preceding Letters—Embroyonic Unity and Specialization on Lines of Variations—Persistence of Primary Types— Limited Nature of Primordial Onomatopœia—Origin of Words in conscious Repetition of the same Sound—Aboriginal Sounds that passed into Words— Only Seven needed for the Roots of Languages—The Regenesis in the Morphology of later Words—The Kaf-Ape as Typical Hand and Tongue of Speech — The Evolution of Seven Vowels form Seven Consonants and from Seven Words first formed by Repetition of the same Sounds. . . traced through various Phenomena and followed into the Catacombs of Rome —Their Division the Origin of the first two Castes or Classes of Mankind— The Two Sisters in Mythology continued in the Christian Iconography—The Male-ess or Mother-Male—Natural Genesis of the Biune. . Pages 456—552 . formed the Trinity—The Twin-Brothers whose Contention is World-wide. together with the Mother. . The Mount and Tree as Feminine Types of the Birthplace—The Tree as Giver of Food and Drink. and the Christ who was earlier than the year 255 B. . and Tetradic Being—Late Individualization of the Fatherhood and of God as the Father— Origin of the Triads Male and Female and of the Trinity—Survival of the Mythical Types in the Dogmas of the Final Religious Phase . hence the Tree of Knowledge—The Tree of Earth and Heaven—Passage of the Tree into the Cross as a Figure of the Four Corners—Universal Type of the Solstices and Equinoxes—Unity of Cross and Circle—Various Forms and Meanings of the Cross—The Cross earlier than the Male Chirst—Cross and Crucified—Cross of Life and of Death—Cross on the pre-Christian Coins and in the Roman Catacombs—Zodiacal Cross of the Ram.

began with things where he first met with them.” According to Proclus. de Rougé. I request an interpretation of these symbols. De Mysteriis Ægyptiorum. “A few words will suffice to give a true and complete idea of the Egyptian religion. 13. fol. Jamblichus wrote his work on the Mysteries as a reply to the pertinent questioning of Porphyry. Conference sur la Religion des anciens Égyptiens. 1670. that he sails in a ship. NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY. cum notis Gale. 3 E. on the surface.THE NATURAL GENESIS —————————— SECTION I. M. that he is seated above a lotus. uncreated. This view has been maintained by several Egyptologists. Champollion-Figeac.3 one idea pervades the total cult—that of a single primordial God. He represented the Egyptians as worshippers of the one God. IN an epistle to the Egyptian Anebo. 245. p. assigned to Porphyry. “What is the meaning of these mystic Narrations which say that a certain divinity is unfolded into Light from mire. It was purely monotheistic. like so many who have followed him.1 But Jamblichus. in his Commentary on the Enneads of Plotinus. Égypte Ancienne. p. 1 2 . and affirms that all the other gods of the Pantheon are nothing more than the various attributes and powers of the Supreme personified.”2 According to De Rougé. the learned Greek writer asked. Maspero is likewise of opinion that all the forms Jamblichus. and manifested itself externally by a symoblic Polytheism. in their latest phase. Champollion-Figeac says. In short. and universal. omnipotent. he makes Monotheism the foundation instead of the summit of the Egyptian religion. unique. and that he changes his form every hour according to the sign of the Zodiac? If these things are asserted symbolically. He starts with this as their starting-point. being symbols of the powers of this divinity.

p. whose mother’s name was Jusdas. unlearn.”3 Dr. would deal with the problem of the religious origines. our great English Egyptologist. who presides from on high over the Egyptian Pantheon. in conversation with the present writer.2 Mariette. the most hidden inscriptions of which have now been thoroughly examined. and names of the innumerable gods were for the worshipper only so many terms and forms of the one God. has denied this interpretation point blank. Eng. p. 25.5 Bunsen says no notice of the latter name appears elsewhere. He quotes two by name. . agreed with Mariette. pp. But it is evidently intended for In-emhept. as is frequently asserted. 5 Cap. Trans. 7. who is likewise a metaphysician. she who was great with the Coming One. M. 2. None but the evolutionist can go back far enough. as Ichton and 'Hm»f. Genration after generation we learn.”4 Nor was there a one God known to Jamblichus. No indication to that effect is given by the Temple of Denderah. viii. the Hebrew On. as distinct from popular belief?” His answer is. We find everywhere deities who are immortal and uncreated. Monuments of Upper Egypt. Samuel Birch. Calendrier des Jours Fastes et Néfastes. 107. and his father is Atum. “No evidence has yet been produced in favour of this hypothesis. It takes the latter half of all one’s lifetime to unlearn the falsehood that was instilled ino us during the earlier half. The one God in this case was the solar trinity of Heliopolis. an esoteric doctrine known to the scribes and priests alone.2 THE NATURAL GENESIS. “Neither in these temples nor in those which were previously known to us does the ‘one God’ of Jamblichus appear. Renouf asks “Was there really. and in toto. There never was a subject which demanded the evolutionary mode of manipulation more than this of the origin of Egpytian mythology and the expansion of religious ideas in the Valley of the Nile. and re-learn the same lying legendary lore. He says. 24. Le Panthéon Egyptien. In vain the non-evolutionist. but the initiated recognized one sole and hidden God. in reply to Jamblichus. 217. the Greek Imothes. Chabas declares that all the gods and goddesses are but different aspects or attributes of the one sole God who existed before everything. Nothing but the application of the evolutionary method can rescue us from the traditions we have inherited as survivals of the primitive system of mythical interpretation.1 M. p. None but the evolutionist 1 2 3 4 Chabas. Hibbert Lectures. Introd. Pierret asserts that the ignorant were held in abject fetichism by the despotism of the pirests. Henceforth our studies must being from the evolutionist standpoint in order that they may not have to be gone over again. but nowhere do we find the one and invisible God without name and without form.

None but the evolutionist is entirely freed from the falsehood of the “Fall” and the hallowed beginning at the wrong end of things. M. Egypt comes into sight upon a summit of attainment. called the “Creation.” and a God who “had in the beginning revealed Himself as the same to the ancestors of the whole human race. 366-368. is the result of constant accumulation of silt between us and the solid rock. Pierret.” so-called. Moreover. an Egyptologist may know the monuments from first to last. But neither in Egypt nor out of it did mythology commence with the causative interpretation of phenomena assumed by the non-evolutionist. but utterly wrong as to their origin in a manifold expression of monothesistic thought. and anywhere.”1 can have no existence for the evolutionist. and religion was developed from the mythology. had but little in it answering to the notion of the supernatural. to the actual facts of the origines of religion. 1 Max Müller. It was solely just what the early men could make out in the domain of the simplest matters-of-fact. and yet be unable to give any satisfactory account of the rise and development of the Egyptian religion. whereas mythology arose out of typology. A “primitive intuition of God. .” Primos in orbe deos fecit timor. which were estimated by the force of their physical manifestation. The “primitive revelation. pp. but the mythology no more beings at that point than the Nile springs in Egypt. Theirs is the profundity of simplicity. i. except at the right place. and the fear and dread of these were operative long ages before the existence of that reverence which can be called religious—that which Shakespeare designates the “Angel of the World. for instance. Their depth. not of subtlety. A religion had been established in the time of the earliest monuments. not the mythology from religion. like that of the Egyptian soil. Reverence for an unseen power apprehended as mind and conscious cause was preceded by a recognition of powers and potencies in nature exterior and superior to men. because its roots are hidden in an unknown past. An unfathomable fall awaits the non-evolutionist misinterpreters of mythology in their descent from the view of a primeval and divine revelation made to man in the beginning. but to begin with a conception of the one hidden God is to make religion precede mythology. All that is out of view and untested by the comparative process. 3 can commence early enough. vol. Chips. is right as to the ideographic types being figures for use rather than fetishes for worship.” Only the evolutionist can present the facts in their natural sequence and the true order of their development.NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY. The non-evolutionist is still infected with the notion of a primeval monotheism and a lapse into polytheism and idolatry. The non-evolutionist can begin at any time.

and solar deities. such as Sut. the genitrix of the gods precedes the primordial God. Kafi (Shu). because the mother-mould of the producer was primordial. The unity is final. not initial. It is easy. or the fatherhood had been established. who presides in the birthplace at the centre. which is the sole followable process of attaining unity.” and who boasted significantly as Sais that her peplum had never been lifted by the male generator. it is Amen-Ra. who are a family of seven. Kebekh. who came “from hereself. but the idea of the one God belongs to religion. what was their natural genesis. There is no fatherhood in the first pleroma of gods. as she was in nature when the bringer-forth was observed and typified long before the human mind could enter into the realm of creative cause. of course. to take the later texts and then read the monuments backwards. according to the language of certain inscriptions. never seem to recognize the fact that the individual fatherhood was comparatively late as a human institution. born of the genitrix of gods and men. .4 THE NATURAL GENESIS. When at least attained. and not the father. and these types were extant before either.” a title of Khem. No matter which cult we quesiton. it is the mother alone. a father of beginnings endowed with all the attributes of the sole god. when we do get back to a one God on any local line of Egyptian mythology. or Mut. If there be a lone and only god. Egyptologists who talk of the one primordial God as the father of souls. as in the case of any other species. whether as Taurt. Hence the female was created with the male in the image of the one God. in fact. Ank. the Hidden Sun. stellar. The mother is everywhere first and foremost.” like Ptah. ch. It is easy to assume that all the divine types are modes of manifestation for the one God. But his creation is comparatively late—the solar régime being last of all—he 1 Ritual. and what was their origin. We cannot tell who or which the gods are until we have ascertained what they represented or typified—in short. we find to be the first. Kak. the Mother of the Revolutions. a twin form of the “double primitive essence. the “one God” of Egypt is as much a result of evolution and survival of the fittest types. xxxii. or Hathor. We require to know what they signified in their pre-monumental phase. or Neith. had no father. the last result is a dual deity who brings forth from and with the womb. and when the one has been aggregated from the many.” which is the meaning of “Ka-Mutf. Hence. ranging through the four series of elemental.”1 This is the language of various other texts that might be cited. Those of the seven that can be traced. and Horus. a “MaleMother. Manifested “existences are in his hand. lunar. and that the father could not be recognized in heaven before he had been discovered on earth. unmanifested existences are in his womb (kat). and there is no one God that is not a biune being. this was preceded by mythology.

the one god.” and that in “making his body. The world of sense was not a world or symbol to the primitive or primeval man.”2 The language of monotheism reaches its climax in the hymns and addresses to Amen-Ra. this basis of the earliest thought is more or less extant in the types that have been left us to interpret as best we may. 5 was later than Ptah. Yet he was a god with a beginning.” “he has not come out of a womb—he has come out of cycles. p. These were the eight in Am-Smen. as the giver of peace. the star-god. All interpretation is finally futile that is not founded on the primary physical phenomena. Their types were continued in the secondary phase—that of time—as intelligencers to men. and on this concrete foundation we have to build. the sun going round. who assumed their attributes as his manifestations. one in all his works and ways. and showing the ground in which they grew. 2 Ch. a personifier of ideas. In our gropings after the beginnings we shall find the roots of religious doctrines and dogmas with the common earth. He was not the realizer of abstractions. In the inscription from the Temple of El-Karjeh it is said that he was “self-produced. earth and air.” as the sun-god. but the one who had been com1 Records of the Past. such as fire and water. mythology exhibits a series of types as the representatives of certain natural forces from which the earliest gods were evolved. or dirt even. It will be demonstrated that Egyptian mythology began with the typifying of seven elements or seven elemental forces. This is the “only one. or the establishment of order and time. He paid an annual visit to the Valley of the Dead. and poured out a libation to his father an mother on the altar of propitiation. 137. vol. and his piety to his parents is on record. Atum. and finally compounded into a one deity. or supreme deity in Egypt. He did not begin as a Platonist. viii. and his birth was as a Time-Keeper. or a primeval revelation of the one god. Metaphysical explanations have been the curse of mythology from the time of the Platonists up to the present. and Sut. as the Abyss. cxlviii. and thus became the supreme being and god over all. of whom the Osirian says.NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY.” and “giving birth to it. who were born of space of chaos before the formation of the world. a perceiver of the Infinite. the place of preparation. the moon-god. .”1 Like Taht. he too was a birth of time. The primordial. and Seb. then. Fortunately. Instead of a monotheistic instinct. Shu. Seb. Nor is there any origin of religion worth discussing apart from these foundations of mythology which are verifiable in the phenomena of nature. “Let me cross and manage to see the Only One. still clinging to them. born of the Typhonian genitrix. The one god is simply the culminating point of all the immeasurable past of polytheism. was not a god one. Horus. or one god of the beginning. Osiris.

vol. as Teb-temt. as the seven spirits of the Bear. when Ptah as a solar god had been created. but the four couples. correlating them probably with the seventy-two Decans. nor Ptah was one of the eight original gods. contains a complete refutation and reversal. and in many respects. or souls that preceded his creation. who surreptitiously interpolate the ancient texts. who preceded his supremacy. whence came the cries of those who were in greatest need of knowing a name to call upon—are repeated in number in the Ormazd-Yasht of the Avesta. Ahura-Mazda. from tem. iii.”3 This is the portrait of the Egyptian priest commonly presented by modern monotheists. That. where the divinity gives to Zarathustra his seventy-five names. 23. The result is that the announcement contains all the monotheistic matter. Canon Rawlinson has lately re-affirmed the statement that there was an esoteric and exoteric system of teaching. the total. with whom the “primary doctrine of the esoteric religion undoubtedly was the real essential unity of the divine nature. or the eight great gods previously extant. the seventeenth chapter of the Ritual. the 1 3 Ritual. The Parsees say the number should be seventy-two. who were gods of the earliest time. The process will be shown by which the latest deities were compounded or developed from characters previously extant. Amen. Atum. comprises the seven spirits. the non-evolutionist reverses the process of development. Everywhere. for once the exoteric and esoteric teaching appear together. they were resolved into his attributes. by which the Egyptian priests.1 So the one god of the Avesta. pounded and elevated to the supremacy as solar type of the godhead and representative of a pleroma.6 THE NATURAL GENESIS. One title of the sungod Ra is “Teb-Temt. His total. but the seventyfive correlate them with the original Egyptian unknown to them. and is the kernel of their religious creed.” taught the people at large “a polytheism of a multitudinous. History of Egypt. inevitably. consists of seventyfive characters. were represented by Ptah. as Ptah. Pierret argues. the two corresponding to the written and oral law of the Hebrews. was not divided into four couples as M. .2 The primordial god. These seventy-five manifestations of Ra—which correspond to the seventy-five zones of suffering in the Heades. Neither Ra. which is designated the gospel or faith of the Egyptians.” = “let him (the esoterist) explain it. 2 Litany of Ra. p. Ra.” and in many instances he does explain the text. or Amashaspands. as these were of the latest. of a gross character. xvii. It happens that in this chapter we have the text mixed up with the glosses. Bleeck. however.” and temt means totalled. Here. as a total god. is made up of the seven spirits. or manifestations. A text or saying is announced. cf. followed by the “Petar ref su. ch. which were intended to be kept oral. as in the English team.

and that the process of this evolution can be followed and fixed.” the “great god” in the pool is the “sun himself. which have been the foundation of false opinions. Cicero asks.” The one who “orders his name to rule the gods” as Horus. “Do you not see how from the productions of nature and the useful inventions of men have arisen fictitious and imaginary deities. whereas the glosses which secreted the hidden oral wisdom relate to the materialistic beginnings. This shows that he knew the matter to the root. gloss. 7 supposed esoteric doctrine. the spiritual god being explained physically—mark. the only being in the firmament. Yet it was necessary for the learned to retain a knowledge of the beginnings. and tend to identify the abstract god once more with the origines in phenomena. the Kabalah. which usually remained unwritten. This it was that led to the hidden wisdom.” is explained to be “the sun himself. the “son of Osiris. show that the cause of concealment in later times was the simple physical nature of the beginnings out of which the more abstract ideas had been gradually evolved. .” the father of souls. that Egyptian polytheism was not monotheism intentionally disguised with various masks for one face. The knowledge was concealed because of its primitiveness. There is undoubtedly a dislike in the later stage of ideas to having them expressed in those terms of phenomena which serve to recall the physical origines.] Book ii. The theosophy is continually rendered in terms of physical phenomena. The deceased speaks in the person of various gods. or esoteric teaching keeps the mind anchored fast to the natural genesis in physical phenomena. and the nature of the eight Elementaries whose origin was entirely physical. “I am Tum. the inner mysteries. into 1 [De nat. It is certain. The god of the exoteric teaching is all through the actual sun of the esoteric. pernicious errors. 28.” the “sun in his disk. the learned Egyptian Chaeremon acknowledged no intellectual principles in the earliest mythology of Egypt. and miserable superstitions?”1 And he affirms rightly that the sacred and august Eleusina.” These explanations. the Gnosis. He says. and not on account of its profundity. According to the statement of the Bishop of Cæserea. and a great desire to keep their primitive nature clothed and out of sight. requiring all the unshrinking honesty of modern science —“whose soul is explanation”—to counteract such diffidence. deo. not in the exoteric but in the esoteric teaching. and equally sure that the image of the one god and supreme being was evolved from many preceding gods. The “sun in his rising. then. and the commentary. But the abstract idea is in the text.NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY.” Now Tum is the “one god.” The “father” is “the sun. for example.

without knowing their origin or meaning. statue. But the mysteries remained unpublished. But the foundation of the image is planetary. could be more fatal than to try to read the thoughts of the remoter past through their eyes. which have been considerably undervalued by certain Egyptologists. and the names of the divinities. and build up the human 1 On the Nature of the Gods. They supplied their own free versions to stories of which they never possessed the key. or to accept the embellishments of these beautifiers for interpretations of the ancient typology. All that came to hand was matter for metaphysics. but he would have banished the poems of Homer from his republic. and their sacredotal system. is the moving image of eternity. and with happy audacity supplied the place of the lost nature of mystic meaning with the abounding grace and beauty of their art. 2 Taylor. In his Commentary on Plato’s Politics. c. however. had inherited their mythology. Time. would rather explicate the nature of things than discover the knowledge of the gods. also in the “Hieroglyphics” of Hor-Apollo. p. says Plato finely. makes Platonism only another name for imposture. Nothing. 372. They. poetry. they turned it the more effectively to their own account. What Herodotus knew of the mysteries he kept religiously concealed. Outside of their own mysteries the Greeks stood altogether outside of the subject. and the hieroglyphics were to them the dead letter of a dead language. and on this basis of visible things he sought to establish all that was invisible. secretly resorted to by night. Proclus. if they were properly explained and reduced to reasonable principles. 42. says truly that from this mythology Plato himself derived or established many of his peculiar dogmas. speaking of the symbolism of the ancients. and the reproduction of the primitive myths from the Aryan stage of language in Greece is on a par with the modern manufacture of ancient Masters carried on in Rome. Whenever they met with anything they did not understand. They sought to delight and charm the world with these old elements of instruction.8 THE NATURAL GENESIS.2 The utterly misleading way in which Egyptian physics were converted by Plato and his followers into Greek metaphysics. as their writers allege. and picture. or stellar motion.1 A few hints may be found in Plutarch’s ever precious fragment “Of Isis and Osiris”. and the solemnities in Samothrace and in Lemnos. What Plato had learned made him jealous of the allegories to which he did not possess the clue. because the young would be unable to distinguish between what was allegorical and what was actual. The Greeks could not master the system of Egyptian mythology. exactly on the same ground that many sound thinkers to-day would banish the Bible from our schools for children. book i. . whose mysteries the most distant nations were initiated.

for the bole of the tree is extant as well as the branches above and the roots below. Their poets are at play with the shadows of ancient things. In vain we look for the lost likeness of language simply in the structure of a thousand languages. they have reached their decay when made to speak falsely through the interfusion of later thought. the imagery scattered over the world that still remains unread by us. It is. and the further we go back the nearer we shall find outselves approaching to the origin in unity. and in the religious rites and ceremonies. The same charge may be substantialised on other grounds against his own countrymen. Hebrew euhemerising. It is not the indefiniteness of beginning that we find there. It is solely in the symbolic stage of expression that we can expect to recover the lost unity. . What the myths have to tell us depends on their having preserved the earliest shape.1 Philo complains that the Greeks had brought a mist upon learning which made it impossible to discover the truth. Any single shape of registered tradition is no absolute guarantee for fidelity to the lost original. and in the Vedas the shapes are in process of dislimning and being evaporated into doctrinal abstractions. popular customs. This is presevered in the gesture-signs. and the mere fringe of phenomena. as it were.NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY. We shall find the human race has kept its own buried records of the pre-historic pre-literary ages almost as faithfully as the earth its 1 See especially the “Timæus” with Proclus’ Commentary. In India the myths have been vapourised. but of dissolution. We have to appeal to the memory of the whole human race. and in the earliest modes of expression. and their value is in proportion to the marks of their origin which have not yet been worn off them. only an individual memory. The definite representation was earlier. 9 soul backwards. and Vedic vagueness. the concrete facts of early earth are passing off into the fading phantoms of cloudland. ideographic types. It is not that the mythical characters in the Vedas have not yet been evolved into a definite form. nor a descent from it. The genius of languages has been at work for countless years to diversify and divaricate in structure. and other practical forms of typology which have been wandering dispersedly about the earth. It is with mythology as with language. Their disconnected evidence is all the more express when they are too unconsicous to connive. are not a birth of it. We must seek the primitive unity in the original matter of human thought. according to the celestial geometry of the Egyptians. by gathering up the scattered fragments and various versions of the general tradition. the origin of numbers and the myths. The decadence of mythology is to be found in the Greek poetising. They preceded our civilisation. Many incoherent witnesses may testify to one truth when we are in possession of the clues.

p. The symbolic extends beyond the written or the spoke language of any people now extant. forms of the myths and symbols out of Africa are those which for thousands of years have been kept by living memory alone. their symbols can be read in various parts of the empire by words and sounds so entirely different that the speakers who interpret the typology cannot understand each other when they talk. the tradition which has been borne in mind from the beginning. preserved by the universal memory. and on this hearing of the oral wisdom has been based a theory of the Vedas having been communicated by audible revelation! But the revelation was simply made from mouth to ear.” S’ruti. as if one should bury his jewels in his own body for a safe. It reaches down to the origines of human thought. however far from these we may be who dwell on the surface today. 6. So far from the process having corrupted or dissipated the ideas entrusted to its keeping (as Gibbon alleges). Introd. that is the most primitive. these have been preserved because they were branded and bitten into the memory more permanently than they could have been stampted in metal or engraved in stone. whose ritual and gnosis depended on the living memory for their truth. to live in memory alone. so painfully scored in the flesh by the marks and symbols of tattoo. so deeply were these engrafted in the mind. form one branch of a wide-spread 1 Koelle. delivered by mouth and learned by ear. The symbols underlie two other languages. .” continued in all the mysteries.10 THE NATURAL GENESIS. rut means repeated. and can only be understood by reverting to the symbol. belongs to the symbolic stage of expression. Sem. geological register. The symbol is the true Tower of Babel and point of dispersion in language. but they have the same tattoomark. or Hottentots. and at that dept the scattered readers meet once more. With the Chinese. for example. The African Oworos and the Bases do not speak one language. So it is with the typology of tattoo. as we find it in the ancient priesthoods. signfies hearing. in Egyptian. where we keep our own written records of the past. So ancient was this mode of making sure of the treasures of knowledge. It was the mode of communication from “mouth to ear. The most perfect. including Masonry. and tha tis the line of a connection earlier than their language as spoken at the present time. also denotes hearing. purity. Having to trust to the memory in the absence of written records the Oral method of communication was held all the more sacred. a form of the same word. This matter. and sanctity.—that Monotheism in Polytheism! In Sanskrit. is “Smriti.1 The Khoi-Khoi. so permanently was the record inscribed that it still lives and underlies all literature or artificial registers in the world.

” When Europe was first converted to Christianity.4 That was the earlier and simpler medium of communication reverted to when the spoken language was dispersed.” yet they were totally ignorant of each other’s spoken language. Tylor. This equally applies to such typical customs and names on a far larger scale than that of the Kaffir tribes. though divided now. or of the tribe. and when two individuals of different nations wished to converse they did so freely by the language of gesture-signs.3 but when it comes to a type like that of the four quarters and the cross. but of different family names. or the human race itself. the local race. Tsuni Goam. Burton. just as the bones of the Mammoth in Britain and France show that the two lands. and the custom have persisted together from time immemorial. These are unable to trace any relationship with each other. the mark. then. 71. City of the Saints. p. 198. Here. These differ totally in languages. Ashantis. p. 52. 4 James. then the earlier connection becomes apparent and the possession is found to be in common. 1 3 . p. of which the clicks constitute the essential part. 2. 11 race which has been divided into ever so many tribes. The primal unity was shown by the Totemic “Bear-tooth” and by gesture-signs. Not the remotest affinity can be detected by grammarians between the languages of the Pawnees and the neighbouring Mandans. although they have never heard of each other’s existence. whilst their neighbours of the same clan.NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY. have altogether different customs. Briston. Fantis. Pondos. it was by making use of the same symbols that were hallowed to the Pagan 2 Theal. Expedition to the Rocky Mountains.2 Here the name and the typical custom lead down to that unity of origin which is lost sight of on the surface. a skeleton of all other forms of human speech. Hahn. “a good symbol is a missionary to convince thousands. the living memory or man. Thus the particular customs observed at the birth of a child are exactly the same in different parts of the country among those who have the same family title. whose bones are like the fossil remains that exist as proofs of an original unity between the lands that are now severed. iii. Kaffir Folk-Lore. but they preserve a primæval relationship in the use of certain peculiar sounds. Gesture Signs. vol. but wherever they are they find themselves in possession of ceremonial customs which are quite peculiar to those who bear that name. and various other African tribes there are many people of the same family title. As Emerson has it. Zulu. we get down to a record of the past that lies beyond spoken language.1 Among the Tembus. Primitive Culture and Early History. James describes the Kiawa-Kaskaia Indians as nations united “under the influence of the Bear-tooth. This record is the language of symbolism. p. were originally one. So is it on the American continent. Also it shows how the name. together with the customs and superstitions associated with the type.

Kingship in this phase. in a very literal later fashion. the oppressing eagle. would not now-a-days think of totally abstaining from fish. god-bcgotten. The king in Egypt was the living image of the Solar God.) or the Inca (Peru. except that a Briton who had the fish. who was therefore not a human being. Hence the king becomes the life and the master of life to his people. the man or woman still remains to receive the homage of ignorance: and the sacrifies that . so were the earlier rulers glorified under more primitive types of power. in these islands. The king of Ashanti is glorified as the snake and the lion. was not founded on the human character. lion or mountain. The king. or wine in consequence. he wore it from without. as in Siam. Cult. like the Pharaoh of Egypt. and. however exalted in the forms of chieftainship. So the king never dies. venison. In Guatemala the king was the tiger of the wood. or vine in his coat-of-arms. when he would have done so. therefore. but on the typical and representative character. and star gods of the cycles of time. The Ank (Eg. Totemism. The hold of symbolism is in its way as strong in civilised society as in the savage world.” which did not emanate from him but was conferred upon him. stag. Whether for good or ill the symbol has proved all-powerful. the Zulu king as the tiger. the laughing jaguar. The Norse king Gorm was the great worm (or Crom) the dragon-king. When the symbol has lost its significance. CRESTOLATRY is as nearly a form of devotion as Christolatry.) represented the living and everliving one. although the time was. was the potent bull. as a lay figure invested with the drapery of deity. Hence the “divinity that doth hedge a king. moon. to the elementary gods.12 THE NATURAL GENESIS. In Madagascar the monarch. and thus became vicariously divine. as would the Bechuana of Southern Africa or the Kol of Nagpore. By the earliest titles the bearers were assimilated to the most terrible types of power and the most primitive forms of force. hare. or Fetishism. but is in accordance with the typology formulated in Egypt and extant wherever the title of Inca. the Repa. He was the divine chief. or King is found. however supremely able. acquired the vesture of his divinity and the halo of awful light because he was made to personate or reflect the deity on earth. And just as the king was glorified as the sun. and on this ground was based the fiction of the king being the undying one. the rooted Types being indefinitely more postent that any later sense engrafted on them. Ying. the mighty boa. where the typical character is superstitiously interpreted. This was not directly derived from the natural genesis. which preceded the sun. as may be seen by the non-eating of the pig. who grew up into the god in person on earth. The chief in a Kaffir folk-tale is a snake with five heads. and eel in the past. as sacred ruler.

shot-riddled remnant. Who has not feft the flutter of the flag in one’s pulses and been stirred with rapture to horripilation at sight of some war-worn. which had braved and beckoned forward the battle on some desperate day. or killing the monkey that is devastating villages. The parables of the primæval thinkers have been elevated to the sphere. and credited with the power of conferring a divine sanction on all sorts of devilry. stained with the blood of its bearers. the masonry of nature. It belongs to the universal language. that outward and visible shape of the idea. Myths and allegories whose significance was once unfolded to initiates in the mysteries have been adopted in ignorance and re-issued as real truths directly and divinely vouchsafed to mankind for the first and only time! The earlier religions had their myths interpreted. The same influence will prevent the Hindu.” the “bull” or the “crab” that gave names to certain groups of stars. the crab and hawk were real animal and bird instead of constellations with symbolical names. is supreme. A symbol may cause humanity proudly to rise in stature or grovel proneey in the dust. the real meaning of which has becn 1ost to the moderns. most tyrannous of masters. under the shadow of which we have been cowering as timorously as birds in the stubble when an artificial kite in the shape of a hawk is hovering overhead. So potent is the influence of symbols over the mind that the world’s welfare cannot afford to have their indefinable appeal perverted by cunning or ignorance. if starving. And a great deal of what has been imposed on us as God’s own true and sole revelation to man is a mass of inverted myth. that made all safe once more for the dear land of our love? Whether used for good or evil the symbol.NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY. but precisely where it is lost and we have no clue to the natural verity signified. so to say. or to the demon in Africa beyond. Symbols still dominate the minds of men and usurp the place of realities. In the case of the flag the link betwixt the fact and its sign is not lost. The ancient symbolism was a mode of expression which has bequeathed a mould of thought that imprisons the minds of myriads as effectually as the toad shut up by the rock into which it was born. and we are in precisely the same relationship to those parables and allegories as we should be to astronomical facts if we thought the serpent and bull. The human mind has long suffered an eclipse and been darkened and dwarfed in the shadow of ideas. as it was in Egypt. Most helpful of servants. 13 once were offered intelligently to the visiblc and living image of the god. The simple realities of the earliest time were . as the “hawk” or “serpent. Expression still attains the summit in a symbol. the origin is there claimed to be supernatural. We have ours misinterpreted. from tasting a bit of cow. the mode of the immortals.

and the interstices are almost too narrow for breath to pass through. onc of the “three unchaste maidens” of British mythology. The Jews are caught and confined in a complete net-work of symbolism. art. called the ideal. and falsehood. however attractive. that it has created a cult of the unreal. that blinds its followers. These divinities of the bygone time may serve to bcguile the children of to-day as dolls for dandling. Humanity is re-cast in the: present according to a lionbrowed.14 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Happily to a large extent he drew from nature instead of the models of mythology. expressed by signs and symbols and these have been taken and applied to later thoughts and converted by Theologists into problems and metaphysical mysteries which they have no basis for and can only wrangle over en l’air. The fables and allegories that fcd the minds of the initiated. Unreality is glorified. the Welsh Essyllt. The Greek and still more modern misinterpretations of ancient typology have made it the most terrible tyranny in the mental domain. But the assumption is false. The myths still furnish lay-figures for the painter and poet and lives arc spent in the vain endeavour to make them live by those and for those who have never knmm what they signified at first. our art and poetry are continually found on the side of the mytholators. or religion. Much of our folk-lore and most of our popular beliefs are fossilized symbolism. when interpretcd. and the humanly heroic is superseded by the counterfeit divine. and criticism. Shakspeare. and considered to be poetry. is always fraudulent. between the Marvellous and the Impossible. Misinterpreted mythology has so profoundly infected religion. became the facts of the ignorant when the oral teaching of the mysteries was superceded by letters and direct reading. Youth yet falls in love with them. is continued as a supreme personage in poetry. In the great conflict of the age between the doctrine of evolution and the dogmas of mytholog. were human once that an interest is taken in them now. unable to touch solid earth with one foot when they want to expel opponents with the other. or Iseult of Brittany. So is it with the Muhammedan and Parsee ritual of rigid rule and ceremonial routine. so closely woven round them that they are cramped and catalepsed into rigidity from long keeping of the same postures. a mocking image of beauty. the great harlot of mythology. because the hidden wisdom had never been published. has no heroes. It is on the assumption that these lay-figures of poetry. The prostitute of primitive intercourse. and has the desire to reproduce. poetry. a religion of form in which the trivial is stereo- . we are told. but they are outgrown by all who have attained the stature and status of real men and women. ape-toed Greek type of the past (described later on). whether as Helen of Troy or Gwenivere of Britain. art. until they cannot recognise the natural reality.

The theologicaI doctrines of evil. The Christian world assumed that they did. They did not teach geology in the ancicnt mysteries. It may be affirmed here. Nor were the symbolists insane as they appear to Max Müller. The falsehood is solely the result of ignorantly mistaking mythology for “revelation” and historic truth. the depravity of matter. Theologists have assumed that they did. Religion itself is sick and daily dying in the process of unliving and sloughing off that which has been imposed upon it by a misinterpretation of symbolism. They did not teach the historic fall of man in the myths. The irrationality arises from and remains with the nonevolutionist view. The only work of value left to be written on mythology or typology is one that will account for the facts upon which the myths and religions are founded by relating them once more to the phenomena in which they originated. the fallen nature of the flesh have no other basis and had no other beginning. so has it been with the simplest ideas of the primitive or Archaic men which have been unrecognised becasue out-grown. The earliest limits of the human mind have been re-imposed upon it as the latest. and consequently were found to be utterly opposed to the ascent of man unveiled by the doctrine of evolution. fot it will be proved hereafter. whcn the subject is considered in the light of evolution. As the later people of many lands no longer recognise the Celt stones for things of human workmanship. the creators of these did not deal falsely with us. and therefore it was found in opposition to scientific geology. composed of Truths which were carefulIy ascertained and verified. 15 typed for all time because of its mystical. It is not the ancicnt legends that lie. character. nothing irrational in the origines of mythology. until it looks at last as if all that faith accepted is arrayed against and at enmity with everything that science affirms to be true.NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY. but consider them to have fallen ready-made from Heaven. The world of thought is thronged with false births and malformations whic:h were entirely bred of perverted typology. but is. These were picked up and preserved as divine. That is now attempted. so that we may know how and where we stand in regard to a beginning. that the chief character of the myths in their primitive phases is a most perfect congruity and that they have the simplicity of nature itself. They arc believed to havc come direct from Heaven and are treasured as such in that repository which is in reality the European Museum of the Kamite mythology. that the ancient Wisdom is not made up of guesses at truth. that is emblematical. in the name of religion. There is nothing of insanity. This work aims at getting to the root and discovering .

or anything else. Men did not “set to” to select and adopt their symbols. fish. with its glorious gains and rich results for universal humanity. The earliest signs that were made and adopted for current usage were continued as the primary types which had to serve for several later applications. and those things became syrnbols in what grew to be a system of Homonymism which was created by the human consciousness so gradually under the guidance of natural laws that individual authorship was unknown.” is entirely erroneous. But once evolved they were preserved as faithfully as any other types. the mother of invention. so little conscious choice had man in the matter. man had no choice in the matter. the deaf-mute who imitates faces and peculiar features and gestures to represent the likeness of certain persons is an extant specimen of the primitive and pre-verbal mimic. Symbolism was not a conscious creation of the human mind. goat. a shell. they made use of things to express their thoughts. Naturally picture-making by gesture signs preceded the art of picturewriting or drawing of figures on the ground. than all the problems solved by science. We might as well expect to select our words by the promiscuous heaping together of any of the letters at random.) the type. on bones. We have to remember that doing was earlier than saying. De Brosses had no glimpse of the origin of symbolism which he called Fetishism. the ocean. and the dumb drama was acted first. When all allowance has been made for the influence of heredity. the genesis of those ideas that have caused more profound perplexity to the human mind in modern times. a pebble. Things were pourtrayed before thoughts by those who were thingers . The type is but a first pattern which becomes the model figure because it was first. Mr. a mountain. elephant. a piece of wood. Also the earliest figure-drawing was by imitation of objects as they appeared and not as they are conceived by thought. a tree. was the creator of types and symbols. signifies the first. Necessity. stones and the bark of trees. Spencer has rightly denied that “conscious symbolization” is at the foundation of certain ceremonial customs and rites of what he terms “ceremonial gavernment. so slow was the process of adoption. cow. without benefit to the individual or the race. flower. plant. as regards the origines. He did not begin by thinging his thoughts in intentional enigmas of expression. Tepi (Eg. so great the economy of means on the part of nature.16 THE NATURAL GENESIS. What he calIs fetishes are types which were almost as much the result of natural selection as are any other things in nature. the tail of a lion. The idea of De Brosses that “these fetishes are anything which people like to select for adoration.” He has argued that there is just as little basis for the belief that primitive men deliberately adopted symbols as that they deliberately madr rules of social contract.

The figure of an eye directly represents sight and seeing. The signs enter a second phase as the representatives of ideas when they become ideographic and metaphorical. and is often of a reddish brown. but the eye as reflector of the image becomes a symbol. 1 2 It was seen by Lord. and the black signified was night. 17 rather than thinkers. Naturalist. The men who first employed signs had not attained the art which suppIies an ideal representation of natural facts. p. they directly represented their meaning in visible forms. According to Hor-Apollo the tail of the crocodile signifies darkness because the animal inflicts death on any other animal which it may have caught by first striking it with its tail (?) and rendering it incapable of motion. welfare. his mark! that had been made on their minds by actual contact. so to say. The Nootkas of Nootka Sound were found. the colouring matter. its tail the sunset or darkness. not because it was black. When one is hungry he takes a pinch of the dust and gooes to the house of his neighbour where instead of asking for food. and of an oval or eye-shape. p. vol. or the deep one.NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY. In the earliest stage of sign-language it would have sufficed to point to the mouth and the food. The crocodile likewise denoted sunset. 257. Again the tip of the crocodile’s tail is the hieroglyphic sign for black. ii. be throws the powder on the fire and expects food to be given to him. Here the action is elaborately symbolical. The Hottentots to this day will take the root of a shrub called kharab. welfare.3 That is one idea.1 This was identical with the symbolic eye of health. Tsuni-Goam. cut it up and pound it on stones. will not die” the image reflected by the eye being emblematic of the shadow or soul. . The Uta eye signifies health. to be in possession of a precious medicine. safety. and salvation. The eye of Horus is his mother as mirror and reproducer of the babe-image. The crocodile. 83.2 The charm is known as the food-provider. Its two eyes typified the sunrise. and the wrestling for supremacy during ages of watching of this intelligent one of the deep. not unmixed with a sense of relief at the nightly-vanishing tip of its tail. The tip of its tail was the end of it. by Lord. 70. and salvation in Egypt. All day long the animal lay on land and when the night came down it disappeared in the waters. a solid piece of coper hammered flat. 3 Book i. This medicine was most carefully preserved and shown only on extraordinary occasions. Hahn. the chief device on which was an EYE represented in many sizes. The Macusi Indians of Guiana say that when the body decays in death the “Man in the eyes. The type therefore in this case does not depend directly on the complexion. because when placed with the mummy in the tomb it denoted reproduction for another life. was mental and this sign became its ideograph. for it is but slate-coloured when darkest.

rites. America. whose stamp or mint-mark may be found generally on this current coinage of the whole world. perrnanence to the primitive signs of thought. lie the culture represented by Egypt. she who is the contemporary of time. We English mix with 250. 1 Ch. folk-lore. but cannot comprehend them. who gave. Without some such clue as Egypt offers. which has outgrown that infantile: age of humanity. and they cannot explain. they have no interpreter between themselves and us for their language of symbols. the sole living memory of the dark oblivious land (the very consciousness of Kam). the interpreter of antiquity. the directly representative.1 One of the forty-two sins was the catching of “the fish which typify. is likely to be erroneous. the meaning of its mystery . True. and the decadence and obliviousness of the dying races. and types of expression. also in the mirror of mythology. that may not be transfigured into thought. and whose minds live too extcnsively on the surface of the present for them to get en rapport with their remoter ideas. . the revealer. Here is the imperative need of the typological phase of these things to interpret that which was once the natural.000 of natives in India. but for us they are dumb in the awful shadow of the past that hangs over them. and fetishes. They have their thoughts. Yet those natives who read the present work will penetrate its significance far more profoundly than the writer’s own countryrnen. The meaning of many curious customs and rites cannot be directly ascertained. A distinct statement of the symbolie nature of the sacred fish may be quoted from the Ritual. and establish any real camaraderie of relationship with the peoples of the far-off past. superstitious beliefs. ceremonies and religious beliefs. Babylonia. for which they do not find expression. They have their symbols without the means or desire to interpret them for us.18 THE NATURAL GENESIS. for the memory is lost and the ritual of the cult was unwritten. whose knowledge is too late a creation. and until these are understood we shall never understand them. unfathomable past. however lucky the guesses we may make. and China. in graven granite. and at least we need to know what Egypt has yet to say on these earliest simplicities which have become the later mysteries. or rather its crcator. The decaying races can but seldom tell us what is the intention underlying the type. the chronologer. which is still reflected for us by the older races of the world in the primitive customs. religious rites.000. Betwixt us and the natural genesis of ancient customs. the speaker for the dumb. the evolutionist is able to affirm that such customs as we now call syrnbolical are not accounted for until we can trace them to their natural genesis. their feelings. Nor can it be directly derived from nature. and can rule over them.” These then were sacred because symbolical. any direct or literal rendering of that which has become symbolic. cxxv.

and is illustrated at a distance by the Chinaman who failing to convey his meaning by words will draw the ideographic character on the palm of his hand. praying. The sign can be interpreted by the hieroglyphic. symbolism. two hundred in number. and numbers have all to be sought in the stage of gesture-language. striking. Such sign-language is yet extant. a pin made crooked to throw into the “Wishing-well” is a prayer made permanent. which was the first mode of figuring an image. a kind of drawing made by the dumb for the invisible powers to see. a libation. Egypt or Kam is the parent of all primitive typology. that is images or ideographic representations. Kaffirs and some Negroes in the drawing and modelling of figures is a result of the primordial gesture-language transferred from the air to solid earth. carrying. saying. Leibnitz has said that the writing of the Chinese might seem to have been invented by a deaf person. adoring. and ideas. and she alone can adequately explain it. and that they show surprising cleverness in the truthfulness of their rough-and-ready delineations. where a few signs supplemented by a few sounds served all purposes for expressing sensations. The skill of the Bushmen. Uten. signifying an offering. are called Siang-Hing. The oldest Chinese characters. therefore a type of prayer. Man invoking. walking. “I mean that!” Stanley tells us how the Waganda frequently have recourse to drawing figures on the ground to illustrate imperfect oral description.NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY. For instance. or with his fan in the air. The origin of both may be traced to the fact that men visualised thought in pictures. rejoicing. What is here termed Typology had its origin in gesturelanguage. which they pourtrayed to the eye. 19 Egypt can help us to enter the primordial domain of human thought. dancing. It is a survival of gesture-language. fighting. The origines of mythology. The most ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics are those which convey their meaning by direct representation or imitation. A considerable number of Chinese ideographs are identical with the Egyptian. the appeal of sacrifice. In a later phase these were still continued as ideographic determinatives. old man and young child. reposing. tilling the ground. are represented directly . just as the deaf-mutes tell us they thought before mastering the alphabet of gesture-signs. its formation was so near to that of gesture-signs addressed to the eye. so that notwithstanding the development or the hieroglyphics the links are complete from the gesture-signs down to the alphabet. and reflected things in their mental mirror long before they could speak in words. as she was the great conscious recorder of that which had been unconsciously created for the commonest use in the inner African birthplace. ruling. Gesturelanguage was (so to say) developed and made permanent in typology. sculpturing. feelings. building. a twisted bit of metal.

SignLanguage. one form of the sign is the face (Her). This typology is illustrated by the Bongos. in the act of making the appropriate gesture-signs or visible speech which all men can read at sight.1 The Egyptiarians engraved such hieroglyphics in granite and the Indians still figure them in the air. great Spirit. and the same word means day. These gestures tend to identify the original meaning with the Egyptian masculine sign.20 THE NATURAL GENESIS. who bury the male facing the north.” the forefinger is pointed outward. the north the hinder part. probabIy in relation to primitive usage. and right hand to the west. just as the Baku hieroglyphic of the male signifies Introduction to the study of Sign-Language among the North American Indians. or yesterday. and is the figure of “before. and day. In making the signs for day. It is probable that the Indian sign of before is an equivalent for the Egyptian ideograph. heaven. judging. 1880. “The left hand representing an imaginary line. to-morrow. Things belonging to sight are indicated by an eye. A Collection of Gesture-Signs and Signals of the North American Indians. above. A pair of legs going denotes the transitive verb. Thus. the subject must face the south with his back to the north. morning. by Garrick Mallery: 1881. An arm outstretchcd is the sign of offering.” The female is the image of behind and the hinder part. of breathing. and the Indian sign is made above the face. and the female facing the south or hinderwise. This attitude shows the Sabean and pre-solar standpoint in which the south was the face and front and the north the hinder part. over. But the typology is at times identical and the two continue to meet in one and the same meaning. the sign of Heaven. when woman was as the animal. or before. denotes above. the action of the right makes it the front. and making a present. by Garrick Mallery: Washington. noon. by Garrick Mallery: 1880. 1 . a spirit. denote the man by closing the hand and with the extended fore-finger drawing a line down over the stomach from the upper to the lower part of the body. hearing. The index finger lifted above the face signifies over. the nose. according to Dunbar’s list of gesture-signs. or frontwise. and the hand thrust forward forcibly and rapidly. and the legs in transitu were first A comparison of certain Egyptian signs with those of the North American Indians tends to the conclusion that they had a common origin. they are indicating the male as the front one. With the Indians one sign serves to convey several meanings according to a prototypal idea. When the Indians. So in the hieroglyphics Her. The ear is an emblem of listening. or to-day. The male emblem as the bahu denotes the front. In Egyptian imagery the south is the front. smelling. superior. according to thr Kamite reckoning. whereas in the solar reckoning the east was the front and the west was the back. and the delight of life or existence.

lib. and is then swept backwards and downwards by the left side. and the sign is made which signifies “of woman born. p. index. âre. which feels furtively. Then the left hand is held transversely before the body.) of the lower. Nat. de Sarzil in the mounds of Telloo. i. as though they were stealing it.”2 “Below. belonging to an art and civilisation which. [Quoting Pliny. with the click.3 This is the pictograph of stealing according to the Indian sign-gestures. (Dakota. grasps. and Car-land for low-land. the act being peformed under the security of darkness or night. 62-3. They have all one attitude. 88. Hist. 24.” as with the Egyptians. Stealing is yet described as “underhand work. the Egyptian Kar for underneath. with the Kar. the indicatory movements being made with the left. This sign of negation and deficiency is employed by the Hottentots. 1 3 2 Mallery. being identical as the under hand. 4) the lower.NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY. In gathering the selago herb. and withdraws. or Khept the Rump) is represeoted in the hieroglyphics by the hinder thigh. then the seizure is suddenly made with the right hand.” Behind is pourtraycd by making the gesture for before. and the left hand are feminine in the quarters north and west.” The left hand plays the same part in the mimograph of fruitless. The typology or the left as the lower hand. with a motion quickened as the hand goes back. p. the feminine half. the Car-hand. hand. the lift being uncovered. Pliny says. being identical with the English Car for the left hand. for the left hand. 57. or lower. The Indian sign for the female (squaw) is made by passing the flat extended hands with fingers joined down the sides of the head as far as the shoulders to denote long hair.] . the English Car-hand. typified by the left hand. Some antique statues have been lately found by M. and across the body for cover and concealment. and then swinging the hand backwards from the thigh. the left hand and night. the left index punches the right palm. It is brought forward. pointing to the right. The lower. the dark. who describe a stingy chief as being Gei-âre. palm downwards. This identifies the left hand. 21 “before. Also to rub the back of the left hand with the fingers of the right. runs through all the Indian signs. The action of stealing is pourtrayed by holding the left forearm a little in front of. preceded those of Babylonia and Assyria. downwards. Collection. night side. the night side.1 Behind (Khepsh the North. or Karh (Eg. or greatly left-handed. and the eyes kept looking down. s. The right hand. In these. corresponding to the hinder part and the nethermost of two. is a sign of black. Mallery. 35 (Ojibwa 4). Book of Beginnings. is identical with the left hand. hinder part. is then passed beneath the left hand along the abdomen. the Druids plucked it with the right hand wrapped in a tunic. vol. or the dark side. the arms being crossed on the breast with the left hand clasping the right. p.

gently touching it (Wied). 86. he sleeps. gentle. which reads “upset. p. Nepee. and sinking. Ottawa. or an act of worship. Death by drowning was a form of sinking and going under that was obvious to the earliest perception. in which it is held flat over the face with the back outwards.” In the representation of “dying. Nipi. and tells its story according to one system wherever found.” Water is the most primary and permanent of types. Colonel Mallery points out that in Ojibwa the word Nibo means he dies. Sheshatapoosh. Nape. Mallory. at the same time the upper part of the body bends.22 THE NATURAL GENESIS.” the left hand is held as in the sign for dead and the right is passed under it with a slow. It has been said that there is no negative in nature3 but the men 2 Collection. p. as Neepi. and this negation of life by means of water is figured in the hicroglyphic sign of negation. . The hand is lowered gradually with a wave-like motion. not.” One illustration is by reversal of the hand. interrupted movement. and then withdrawn gently in an oblique downward direction. Nabi. Marragansetts. Whether the object be humaa or divine must be determined by the surroundings. Nip. In another sign the palm of the hand is placed at a short distance from the side of the head. and the sinking motion is thus imjtated twice over.” and in making a covenant. deprived of. Knistinaux. no. The signs for death point to drowning as the typical end and mode of “going under. keeling over. leans. Negation—“Now we come upon a feature which is inconsiderable in its bulk . . and the Indian representations of death include a downward movement of the hand outstretched with the palm upward. The Egyptian ideograph of negation. the natural opposite or antithesis of breath. for “he dies” is the type-name for water. Nebee. Miami. Nibo.” “keeled over. Where in the outer world is there such a thing as a Negative? Where is the natural phenomenon that would suggest to the human 1 3 . This is the apparetus of Negation. this is the attitude of humility. The symbolism of the left hand is also applied by the Indians to the representation of death. and in the chief Indian languages. Potowatami. The word “Ke-neeboo” is pronounced slowly. Nepee. Nepee. 83. This is a gesture-sign to be read at sight. without. Nipish. death itself being described as “going under. Old Algonkin. Ojibwa. the original significance being he leans. one of the Two Truths of Egypt. . The significance of giving the “right hand of fellowship. or of being seated on the right hand still depends on the origin in gesture-language. when the right hand similarly held is passed below the other. but yet one which covers with its influence half the realm of language. is a wave of water. Nippe.2 but the leaning. all indicate death by water. Skoffi. Massachusetts. but the gesture-sign belongs to gesture-language. the right being the superior hand. The left hand being the lower and inferior. . it is leaning. Abenaki.1 This sign likewise denotes the passage under. . from Anibeia.

) which means to slay. the Indian signs of no.” “you may. which imitates the wave of water that constitutes the hieroglyphic no. made by the Pah-Utes. 1 Jukes. With this waving and sinking of the hand to indicate death we may connect. underhand.” The essential feature is the waving or wave. and possibIy interpret. the emphatic negative. i.” mind the idea of Negation? There is no negative in Nature. Possibly this sign of Mâ or Mâi. This latter sign. but whether the opposite movement of waving the hand in a straight line from the face which is used in affirmation has arisen through antithesis or in some quite distinct manner. pp. Also the natives near Torres Straits have a gesture of negation in which they hold up the right hand and shake it by turning it half round and back again two or three times. One of these is made by moving the hand in front of the face. Oscillation shows negation whether made with the head or the hand. This sign is extant among the Japanese.” and is therefore an affirmative. en. 23 who made water the sign for no. Also the word skhet (Eg.” why is unknown. emphatic negation.” or “thou shalt not.” which was the earliest formula of law.” The left hand in the Kamite typology is the negative. which also means “come. another by oscillating the index finger before the face from right to left. Letters &c. or nun had observed that it was the negation of breath. or empty-handed. that is with Mâ.” More fully “You may come. The shake of the head is another mode of negation corresponding to the wave and the waving motion. Khem (Eg.) which signifies “in the power of. and in many parts of Southern Europe.) is a form of no. . 248. the emphatic negative being expressed by both hands held low down. nether.. the two signs read “no go.NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY. p.2 remarks that “the waving of the hand from right to left. 2 Ch.1 which corresponds to our shake of the head as a sign of “no. for “come. 421-425. none (Nun). is doubtful.”—Earle. which is used as a negative by some savages. is said by Canon de Jorio to be in use also among the Neapolitans. Philology of the English Tongue. and the word likewise means dead. may have been invented in imitation of shaking the head. Darwin. feminine. not. in the palm of my hand. truly. signifies to capsize. A Chinese character signifying law is composed of “water” and “to go. but. I am in your power. whilst the straight is the right and thus the right hand waved in a straight line has the value of yes.” “you may” can be read at root by “Maaui” (Eg. Straight is synonymous with true or right and true. So the Dakota signs of yes and truth are identical. and the hieroglyphics show the type of negation in running water. on The Expression of the Emotions. as water denotes the negative.

Negation. affords its intimation. 243.” given by Landa. The explanation as given by Captain Burton of the Indian signs for Truth and Life is sufficient to affiliate the gestures to the “Two Truths” of Egypt. is conveyed by the hand being waved in refusing to accept the idea or statement presented. 2 Mallery.’ he will turn his hand or hands palm-downwards.24 THE NATURAL GENESIS. the dual justice or twofold truth. and the Egyptian emphatic negative. and. from the natives.” The Egyptian Ideograph of peaceful and gentle actions is the arm with the hand fallen thus . good and bad. Ojibwa. Not. i. i. Also there is a strong coincidence between the negative particle “Ma. Kaiowa and Wichita sign. According to Fornander.” and this intelligence is first uttered by the messenger from one tribe to another whilst he is yet a mile from their place of encampment. Negation.”1 This figure of negation. the palm of the right hand is afterwards thrown against the horizontal palm of the left hand. The same fundamental meaning survives in the phrase of clear or “cleanhanded.” whereas two fingers denote the “double-tongue. instead of saying ‘No. Not. “Ask a person if he had such or such a thing.” or a lie. as “one word. p.” or it never deceives one. Comanche. This reading may be illustrated by the Yoruban saying. In the Dakota sign (67) the hand is held flat and pointing upwards before the right side of the chest. showing in another way that both hands are empty. He says. In a similar manner the sound of “Cooey” which the Australian settlers have adopted. The Indian intimation of No. This action is in keeping with the hieroglyphic sign for No. In the Yarra dialect the word Kooo-ey signifies “Alone. although only one was lifted in invitation. then thrown outward and pressed down. with the two hands waved apart and extended palmdownwards . It is still the “No” of gesture speech. in sign of a negative answer. In the Egyptian ideograph of the verb to pray and beseech the palms of the two hands are presented outward. showing that the hands are empty.2 Among « ¤ ¤ 1 Vol. such as yes or no. before and behind. Speaking the truth is straight speech. the same gesture sign for “No” prevails throughout Polynesia. of forbidding and prohibiting represented is yet made by our railway signalmen for by the hieroglyphic staying the train and preventing it from starting. “The Palm of the hand does not lie. right and wrong. .” or “I am alone. In the Apache. which are manifold in their application as two aspects or phases of the one idea. Truth is that which comes straight from the heart or mouth. Captain Burton says the forefinger extended straight from the mouth is the sign for telling truth. two to one. Whereas the determinative of forcible actions is the clenched hand uplifted.

If we read Mâti as Makti. the finger being an early form of the rule measure. that served the purpose. pp. and the Indian sign of life and alive is made with a particular mode of making the clasp with the thumb and middle (root) finger of the right hand.4 In the sign for death (Comanche) the Gesture-maker might be undoing the Ankh-sign of life as the instructions are: “Bring the left hand to the left breast. the untrue being indicated by the second finger as the dual Ma. 4. the True. This is the modern Neapolitan sign fot “love” and was a sign of marriage and of Venus in Italy from remotest times. true. to pair. in the act of embracing Lakshmi with his left. chap. The extended finger was the rule-sign of Truth. Moore’s Hindu Pantheon. naturally includes marriage. Collection. When Goat’s-Nose (in Pantagruel)2 makes this sign by softly coupling the nails of the two members together. in exact agreement with Maat. true.1 Although comparatively superseded by the cubit measure. Tsuni-Goam. All the meanings meet in the Zend erezu for rule. duplicate. book iii. law means that which is straight. that IS double-tongue. xx. Ankh also means to clasp.NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY. hand half clenched. which has two phases. right. Here it may be remarked that one sign of Mâ is the hand outstretched in offering the sign of stretched-out. and that the Mexicans pourtrayed a hand—Ma (it!)—to signify the sound of Ma. or true and untrue. positive and negative. as we still say. but the gesture made with the thumb and forefinger was first. yet the finger is at times found to be an Egyptian determinative of Mâ. just as the Indians extend the finger. Also the gentleman’s or great man’s word is the true word (Amab). or Goddess of Truth. Mallery. then bring the right hand to the left with the thumb and forefinger in such a position as if you were going to take a bit of string from the forefinger of the left hand. 20-84. 18. Pantagruel says the sign denotes marriage. Dakota. Mâ signifies to stretch out (protendere). 1. right. and not the word hand. Truth. p. and the name or the finger. couple. The Ankh-knot made in gesture-speech by forming the loop with the tips of the thumb and forefinger. 2 4 Rabelais. and true.” and as before said looks 1 3 5 Hahn. for the law as inflexible rule. to hold out straight before one. . This stretching out straight is the sign of right rule. plate ii. clasp together. This sign of coupling. but not of hand. and pull the right hand as if you were stretching out a string. fig. straight. unity and marriage is made by Vishnu with his right hand. the marriage-tie. The knot or tie (Ankh) is a hieroglyphic sign of life and living.3 When the Ankh-tie was formed. in a straight line. The Egyptian Ankh.”5 This reads “Soul going to happy hunting grounds. and. of Mâ. 25 the Khoi-Khoi. or the straight. right.

Nal. all gone. the untying in the sign of death is the right natural antithesis to the tie or clasp (Ankh) as the symbol of life. 109. and the nose have one name. Permian. p. signifying rubbed out. In Latin Nare is a nose.”2 In some languages the man. Ziranian. literally to wipe and rub out. Nyare.26 THE NATURAL GENESIS. and as the nose is an equivalent for Ankh (Eg. p. which also probably applies to the noose-symbol of life. Votiak.) the personal pronoun. p. Vogul. and are in keeping with the Indian sign of “I. that loosing of the silver lbj (Eg. and the nose meet under one word. So in Egypt. p. vol. Nyr. Tiennas. Nyr. Moreover. “The pronounced an oath by the sovereign Lord (the Pharaoh) striking his nose and his ears with both hands upon a rod. like the loosening of the Ankh-knot of life.3 And as in other Indian gesture signs the nose is the ideograph of the personal pronoun I. also the nostrils of a hawk. also means to clench or clasp the hand. The mode of describing the meaning destroyed.) Naran. Mallery. The hands are held horizontally and the palms are rubbed together two or three times circularly. The personal pronoun I is— Niva in Illinois. Nol. Nelah. Others touch the top of the nose with the index finger. These are rubbed together. Nra the neb of the vulture. I the king. Here the three types of man. Introduction. is by an action of the palms. and the pantomime of loosing it. Ostiac. 1 2 3 Mallery. The death-sign described by Host is made by placing the “Left forefinger and thumb against the heart. One mimograph of the personal pronoun I. which denotes their namc. the right hand is then carried off from the left in a short horizontal curve. by taking the nose between the thumb and forefinger. Collection. 21.) for killing. Nil. transfixing. Onari.) I. Nyr. 5—7.”1 Here also we have the sign of the knot or cord which formed the Ankh-symbol of life. Miemac. In Egyptian Nya is the man. . They are rubbed out. is made by striking the breast repeatedly with the clenched hand. Etchemin. This is an express signification of “ter” (Eg. obliterating. Records. or lay it along the ridge with the top resting between the eyes. xii. and it is noticeabe that Ank (Eg.” The Arapahoes make a gesture sign. no more. the I. Nol. Gusque (Carib. only letting the left hand remain at the heart and let the index finger of the right hand point outward toward the horizon. Spoliation of Tombs. I am. Mose (African). Nir in the old Algonkin. Kabu the Cord) described by the Hebrew writer. act as if taking a hair from the thumb and forefinger of the left hand with the thumb and forefinger of the right and slowly casting it from you. the personal pronoun. In Tsheremis Ner is the nose. the I. running through. 154. myself. Shawni.

and ear became natural hicroglyphics of the I in person. . Black is signified by touching the hair. hence the connection with the nose as an organ of breathing. and in Egyptian the tooth is “Hu” which is also the namc for white as Hut. eye. the victorious. Hence the mouth. glad to smell you as it were. the Ank. the living one. is a modified Ankhu or emblem of life. night. as in the address of Kin Che-êss1 is by the gesture-sign of “Cut off. and ear are all forms of the Ankh-type of life and living. nose. In one of the dialects (Kuskutshewak) nikh is the name for the nose. black. the I see. The hieroglyphic nose when human signifies pleasure and delight.) a Spirit. sufficient to distinguish four different ideas or persons. I smell out. the most common form of the personal pronoun “I. the I am. eye. and to furnish four totemic signs. The lroquois Onnho. eye. the being. the mouth. in which they raise the open right hand to the brow and rest the thumb on the nose.” in Africa. I perceive. The Todas of the Neilgherry Hills have a mode of salutation. If interpreted by the Nar or Nose of the vulture they would be the sure hunters. the place of sunset. they have one name as Kam. or I hear. The Chinese have five officials of the human body. or eternal is “Never cut off. Another sign for black is made by pointing to the sun and executing the sign for no. eyebrow. In the 1 Mallery. ear. In the Maya we have Inic. or the rest of the world. 27 the king. no sun or sun-setting being equal to black. the spirit was primarily the breath. the far-sighted. is a modified form of the same archetypal word. and in the Egyptian hieroglyphics the Anhu. Winic.” Ever. in Javanese Wong. and in Egyptian black and hair are synonymous. the one who IS. a type-name for man. who in Egypt had become the king. nose. I breathe. the natural being primary. supposed to be one of respect. The rnouth.NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY. and eye-brow. is one with the Egyptian Am or Mmi for the west. The mode of indicating a period. nose. So the Chinese ideograph of the setttng sun which is similar to the Akkadiam and like it has the value of Mi sunset. and a type of the I. applied to the end of a lifetime. and probably the Wong or spirit of Inner Africa is the Unku (Eg.” This ideograph belongs to the oldest representation of time in Heaven. The strong eye-brow is a preserver of long life. The teeth are touched by the Indians to indicate the meaning of White. Innuwok in Eskimo is life and to live. which is Kinaga in Kadiak. This represents the nose. always. The nasal sound Nug of the Cherokee language is the Inner African Nge. Winak. these according to the typology are claiming a supremacy among men. and the personal pronoun “I” the Ankh itself in the domain of sounds. to live. with the pa:rticular organ for Ideographic determinator. The nose as the Ank or personal pronoun I is equivaIent to the Eskimo Innuk.

B. A long time is expressed by placing the thumbs and forefingers as if a thread were held between the thumb and forefinger of each hand. and placed in position to form the ovoid figure represented by the hieroglyphic Ru ‘. 71. fig. 26. temt is a total. are then slowly drawn apart as if stretching a piece of gum elastic. p. and Teru to draw. “A son or daughter is expressed by making with the hand a movement denoting issue from the loins.28 THE NATURAL GENESIS. p. indicated by the drawing out. question. The Egyptian gesture-sign for Ter to interrogate. he points to the person. measure. the annual quota cut off. ask. read literally.2 In Egyptian Ten. Long says:—“If an Indian wishes to tell you that an individual present is his offspring. are made by direct imitation.” Offspring. inquire.”5 Captain Burton tells us. with the tip of the one resting on the tip of the other. The left fore and second fingers are extended and separated with the other fingers closed. the hands first touching each other. boy and girl. p. and the variant Tem (our time) has the same meaning. vol.” The signs for male and female. for some hold that the seed proceeds from thence. lengthen out. Teru to draw.) English cutter. a fortnight. That is the sign of time cut off. distinguished.”3 This gesture is used by the natives of Australia and is common with all orators as a mode of inquiry. Ten is to extend. One sign for woman is also European. Hor-Apollo observes. planisphere of Denderah1 the goddcss of the seven stars and mother of time is pourtraycd holding a knife. to stretch. 2 4 Mallery. A tent is a length of time. Another link may be established between Teru for time.) to draw had become pictorial. and then with the finger still extended. 9. separated. To depict the female the two outstretched thumbs and forefingers are joined. English tell me. Sign-Language. the Kat (Eg. Colonel Mallery compares this act with the Greek te…nw. One revolution of the Bear was one year cut off. applied to colour and painting. is also a measure of land. quotannis. the gesture is a measure of time. Address. then slightly upward. points it forward from his loins in a line curving downward. hands scooped upwards exactly as the one hand is employed in making the common Indian sign for “tell me. Book ii. is “out of the loins. the fore-finger taking the place of the Egyptiao Ideograph. to stretch and to reckon. The sign-gesture fot drawing was first.”4 Mr. but teru (Eg. Mallery. or of time. tens is a stretcher. 54. The sign for the female is also made with an almond-shaped opening between the thumb and forefinger. “When we would denote the loins or constitution of a man we depict the backbone. . The thumb is then placed against the palm in such a manner that 1 3 5 Plate in B. Ten is to complete. Mallery. 1881. determine. denotes time. in her hand. is made with both. fill up. ii.

p. Malley. breast-shaped or womb-shaped. The vase of Mena was also imitated by making the cup-shape over each breast. and the hieroglyphy is the same. Menâ (menkat) had become a goddess in Egypt. pp. or on the Scottish stones along with the mirror. 2 4 Mallery. delivery. The vase of Menâ was both mammæ-shaped and womb-shaped. Collection. p. who give the Fico. “the arms were flexed and the hands held fist-like at either side in the position of the female mammary glands.NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY. This is the same as the sign of the two breasts in hieroglyphics. Another of the ideographs for “woman” is to point to or express the mammæ (Chesncy). 287. but the living type is still retained in the Indian sign.3 The Egyptians indicated pregnancy in the female by a swelling abdomen.” One mimograph for woman is made by imitating the actiqn of combing the long hair. in the Akkadian pictograph. or Fig. the wet-nurse. and who thus represented the blessings of the Hebrew Shadai.” The thumb thrust out is a sign of mockery and contempt with various African races. Collection. “You are effeminate. and is equivalent to the sign of combing. one with prominent mammæ who can bring forth young. 29 the top is visible in the crotch thus figured.” A form of this feminine mimograph is given by Colonel Mallery under the heading of “Challenge.” “A fist clinched with the thumb thrust out under the forefinger.4 For birth. and her vases had taken the placc of the Mammæ. The insult lies in the gesture indicating the female.e. the determinative of menâ. Florentine Sign. 288. 204. are no longer manufactured. The comb is a female sign in the hieroglyphics. the Egyptians represent the woman in the act of emaning the child. when the Indian express the same fact pantomimically by passing the two hands slightly arched from the pubis in a curve upward and in toward the pit of the stomach. in a similar manner. and reads. to suckle. Mallery. then swept semicircularly downwards. and thus depict the rotund shape of the abdomen.” “Behold your sign. and menâ. and constituting a most deadly sign of insult with the Latin races. as rendered by Matthews. both being feminine.2 This sign has the same value as the comb found on the tomb of the Lars. This represents a likeness to the form et staturigo veneris in. thrusting out the thumb) you will be answered with blows. although only drawn in gesture-sign for the moment. One of the Oji proverbs says “if you go to the sabbat (or ‘customs’) making the sign with the thumb (i.1 It is common among the English peasantry.” The sign reads. the pudendum muliebre. and in the gesture-sign for the female. The primary natural signs remain for use where vases. 288. both symbols of reproduction by the pubescent female. to produce the child. whose head and arms 1 3 Mallery. 289. p.” So our English boys who shoot (at marbles) with the thumb tucked in are chaffingly said to play “cunny-thumbed. .

and to kiss. The child and silence have the same name in Egyptian. also means silence. 2 4 See Dictionary. In spite of all assumptions to the contrary. The sign has really to be read by childhood being the type of speechlessness. this gesture is a sign of the child as the speechless one. the god of silencer or the silent god.4 We may add. p. surprise. This gesture is generic in the hieroglyphics. 421. a ninny who has nothing to say. and renn. “I am voiceless. saying. the race. which is supposed to be open.and the Africans all make this gesture-sign of wonder. and wonder is made by placing the right hand before the mouth. To denote the babe. is equivalent to being mouthless. or by the finger placed in the mouth. .”3 that is. So in the hieroglyphics. xii. Still the infant and infans are inseparably connected. Darwin remarks that it has been observed among so many races of men it must have some natural origin. or speechless. father. It serves as the determinative of “dumb. as in Job’s description of idolatry or adulation conveyed by kissing the hand. the child. p. are identical. grandparent.” Hiding the mouth. or silent khart. The gesture says. dumb. meditate. The primary idea was probably in reference to the suckling child. Birch. The Indians enact the process of parturition. It also has the meaning of thinking and meditating and would therefore apply to being lost in astonishment. ch. the North American Indians. 42. The negroes on the West Coast of Africa clap their hands to their mouths when surprised. it likewise signifies to speak. This is the Egyptian hieroglyphic for the child. Emotions. This sign is used generically. pâ.1 With additions it means mother. that there must also have been consenus. . at the same time. to dandle.” “mouthIess. The child. or nursling. It is always perilous to limit an ideograph to one meaning. dumb with amazement.e. are visible. and the movement up and down is then made as though holding and dandling an infant (Dakota 1). who is dandling it up and down. the dumb Horus. The chief sign for astonishment. and the babe is shown in the arms of the nurse. the nursling.. to produce and be delivered. Collection. with many Asiatic races. The Egyptian sign reads pâ-pâ for the buman species. men.30 THE NATURAL GENESIS. which is followed by the head of the child during birth. where it is used for expressing various emotions. Winwood Reade. pâpâ. and imitate the pubic arch and the curve of carus with the two hands. a child again. The mimograph 1 3 Mallery. i.” The Australians. on the left side of the breast. is pourtrared by the thumb and fingers being brought to the mouth. who was the opposite of the True Voice. or suckling. as Rennut. the back of the right hand is laid crosswise in the palm of the left. “My mouth cleaves to me. and the Greeks were not so wrong as some Egyptologists have supposed in making the child Har-pi-kart. and who is named the dandler. I am speechless.2 Khart. renn. whisper.

uttering the word “Mawo. says Kohl. p. the Shienne Indian.3 So Tekar (Eg. the separated fingers of both hands are interlaced in front of the body. is often confounded with that for counting. the Roman figure of ten. as NEB and TEMT. or the withies in making baskets. i. by holding up the hand. with the backs upwards.”1 which is the Xosa exclamation for wonderful! prodigious! The word also signifies “alas.). or to accompany. and Taht. united. The sign of counting. the digit.). In the hieroglyphics Teka. all other fingers of both hands being closedm the hands held horizontal. 2 4 Mallery. are both expressed by the one word Khart (Eg.” For the sign of companion. and the name of the digits and the number ten of many languages is Tek. Dakota. two feet in front of the face. and multiply with the sign of the cross X is equivalent to the two or the ten digits. Also many. palm downwards. quantity. is made by stretching out the ten digits. or Decem.”2 A similar sign is made by the native Australians when they offer the woman to a visitor as a rite of hospitality. the fingers of both hands being closely interlocked. spreading out the fingers and shutting and opening them rapidly. and Mahui denotes wonder. in a large circle. Mrs.” The fuller form of the expresssion in grief is “Mame-Mawo. 71. So in Egyptian the Mam.” or “Alas! my mother!” In this the mother is added to the type of the child. cross.). one is described by Titchkemátski. the forefinger of each hand ts extended pointing straight to the front and joined. to join. to join. signifying “inseparable. iv. as do the fingers. Tekar is the Egyptian digit. cleave. One sign of ALL is made by moving both hands horizontally. Among the signs for Day. large numbers. The sign of TEK is the cross X. is the type of teka. a finger. The native Australians likewise denote many. To denote a. mix.basket. multiplicity. twist. multitude. as ending with the palms of the hands being 1 3 Quoted by Darwin. are expressed by stretching out the fingers and clutching at the air sevcral times. and this is the hieroglyphic symbol of multiplication. 31 for silence and the child. Now the first and most universal reckoning was digital. and of enumemtion in general.4 The Egyptian ALL. Mum or Mu is the mother. Tekh is a title of the reckoner. to be full of astonishment. adhere. intertwine. or to the two hands being interlaced to signify conjunction. much. Dakota. is a total and a circle of two halves. . Barber says the Kaffirs and Fingoes express astonishment by a serious look and by placing the right hand upon the mouth. like the vulgar English “O moy!” The word “adore” really means “with hand to mouth. equal. This action.NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY. or Tekh (Eg. who was both Tekhi. as the husband. or wickerwork. the goddess.

v. In like manner one of the Indian signs for rain or snow is the ideographic sign for a year.” One Egyptian determinative for Tet. as “Tut.” the reverse of the sign for Night or “everything is closed. vol. some distance from the breast. 520. or Seb. the Lunar Logos.1 The cross is a well-known Indian sign of night and darkness.” Also the tongue and hand are the two Egyptian hieroglyphics of speech.” “everything is open. or Kafi. morrow. It was the custom in Egypt to reckon the year by the Innundation. the descent of the hand-type can be 1 3 Dunbar. signifying “all open. The ape is the hand of the gods. as the Egyptians did by the inundations. and the Typhonian genitrix Kefa. tells us that until the god Taht taught men speech they used mere cries like other animals. Burton says the open hand is extended from the mouth. outspread upward. One sign of the night is made by the two hands crossed horizontally. for the dawn of day. call. and its name. recorded in Plutarch. agrees with the Oto sign for an interview—“Approach. is the hand personified. or this Morning. In the scenes of the Hades appear four monkeys.32 THE NATURAL GENESIS. each holding an enormous hand. So certainly is the sense of “opening out” conveyed by the words Seb and Tuau. with the palms upward. The sign-language of the Indians is known as Hand-Conversation. The Egyptian sign of Kâ. the Lunar Logos. Book of the Hades. is the earlier form of Kâ. Various other gestures of hand and mouth likewise denote speech. p. I will open myself to you. is an Egyptian gesture. speech. and say. The month of Mesore is named from the new birth of the waters. The hand and language have one name in Egyptian.4 Moreover. to indicate the opening out of day. I will speak to you. and it is true that Taht. morning. shows both hands held up and waving level with the mouth. with the uplifted hands. is later than the god Shu. that they also denote the gateway of the light. Bunsen. which has the meaning of the opening day. 2 4 Burton. Wied also describes this gesture as consisting in both hands being pIaced apart. to tell. and the palms outspread upwards. has the name of the hand. An Egyptian tradition.” This is the hieroglyphic for Tuau. and also to worship. the gate or gate-opener being a star. . This sign for Day.3 Both hands are used for conversation in the Arikara and Hidatsa gesture-signs. who reckon time by the rainy seasons. Kaf. to beckon.2 The year as a rain marks the same mode of computatton as that of the Unyamwesi and the Hottentots. address. The Kaf ape was a type of “hand-conversation” and gesture-language. This is connected with the crossing of the sun by night. for calling and saying. who is represented as the black god. thus the hand is an earlier sign of speech in Egyptian mythology than the mouth or tongue as Taht. It is made with lifted hands. 11th division.

Yarura.’ He held his right hand forward bent at elbow. and supported his frame in a tottering step by the stick held as was before only imagined. bent his back. Tafod. 2 Mallery.. is Tept. Fiji. Algere. Cornish.NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY. to utter language. Tofo. Tubbu. which is solely African. Tepeno. as— Tupe. The mimic finding the symbolic and secondary phase ineffectual had recourse to direct representation. Tope. Wihinasht. nor American. introd. and gave its answer in saliva before there was a word Tep to express the sensation or to name the organ or the act. was decrepit Age. the organ of taste. One name of the oldest genitrix.) Tyffen. the Kaf-noscd hippopotamus. In Santa Barbara salt is Tipi. inhale. Teb (Eg. dependent on a Staff. Fijian. European. There. Tpa. Tept is the tongue. and Tovolea. This is a common type-name for the tongue or mouth. the hand. A variant of the word Tef (Eg. to take. and the later equivalent for Kaf.1 In the Shienne gesture-sign for “Sweet. 4 Ib. It is also the name for the tongue and palate. and Dovu is the sugar-cane. Typology and mythology agree in this beginning with the Kaf. monkey. elders. p. Colonel Mallery says : “A lesson was learned by the writer as to the abbreviation of signs and the possibility of discovering the original meaning of those most obscure from the atttempts of a Shienne to convey the idea of ‘OLD MAN.4 In 1ike manner the deaf mutes will contract and reduce the natural. Tib. Purus. or kind of hieroglyphic short-hand corresponding to the reduction of the Egyptian ideographic signs in the demotic phase on the way to their becoming Ietter signs.) is the fig. Comanche. 33 traced in language from the Kaf. Debe. Tavas. Solony. breathe. This not conveying any sense. into an artificial sign that loses all obvious likeness to the 1 Burton. the human hand. is to be sweet to the taste. in Persian. Coropo. The Indian sign for Taste is to touch the: tip of the tongue. In this dcscription we see a mode of reducing the earliest direct ideograph to a secondary representation. as we do when we revert to the primary gesture-language. or spontaneous gesture. p. the old man. . the fruit that is sweet to the taste. Now the tongue (Tep) was touched in tasting.2 The same sign is used for “Sour. for the tongue. he found a long stick. Tep in Eg:yptian means to taste. 3 Ib. 244. also Tuf. Tept modifies into Tet. Welsh. and neither Asiatic. is to spit.” The Dakota sign for Sour includes spitting. 259. Cornish. mean taste. Teppa.” the tip of the fore-finger is pressed on the tip of the tongue. at once. with fingers and thumb closed sidewise. and she was depicted with her tongue lolling out as a symbol of utterance.”3 The bent old man leaning on a long staff is likewise the Egyptian sign of age. to the human hand of Taht. and in San Luis Obispo it is Tepu. 55. in Polynesian.

excelled man. The fish could breathe in the water which was fatal to him. could dive and disappear for an hour together.2 The principle is the same if the action is not so primitive as that of the Hottentots. and at others it is to be held level with the arm of the priest. the cat could see and pounce on her prey in the dark. As the heart is blown into air it is held that the the enemy will lose heart and fly off Jike timid crows. who. Scott. The noose of the hangman or the suicide is not only held to be healing on account of its having taken life. continued in religious rites and ceremonies. the bee. with his four hands. bird. the spider in spanning empty space. and the touch of the dead hand must be applied whilst the body is still hanging. when out on the war-path. birds.R. The serpent managed the art of locomotion without visible members. In the early dawn of the human consciousness man would observe that the animals. . Why? Because the symbol of suspending or of being suspended was taken to suspend the disease. and these things in the later phase became sacred objects. but is understood by them. and renewed its garment periodically by changing its skin.1 Gesture-language was. with the woven means of crossing it. p.34 THE NATURAL GENESIS. The dog made a better hunter and watchman. Our popular beliefs still talk to us or make their dumb show of meaning in gesture-speech. xiii. ch. and thus Africa and the world were filled with fetish images which are only another kind of hieroglyphics not yet interpreted. 90.3 Both had their origin in the acting drama and the signs that preceded spoken language. Shayast La-Shayast. and power over the elements. 12. The hippopotamus. and insects excelled him in various kinds of contrivance. In attack or retreat many of the animals were superior to himself. and the husbandmen stronger of arm in tillage and cultivation of the world. a base of being that began in the water and ended on the land. 3 Hahn. This is then rammed into a gun and fired off with powder. W. Animate or inanimate things were adopted of neccesity for use as a means of representing his primitive thought. p. modes of getting a living. who had lost two of his in the process of metamorphosis and descent from the four-fold foot-hold in the tree to the two-fold standing on the earth. and still is. and serves the purpose of expression. 9. The frog could engender and suspend on the flood a floating foothold of life. In holding up the holy water the Parsee ritual prescribes that at certain words it is to be lifted level with the heart of the officiating priest. Tsuni Goam. and beaver beat him in building. so that the warriors fighting for their country may be fuller of breath. The monkey. These primates of human expression have now to be traced on another line of thought. a 1 2 Dr. it loses its efficacy if allowed to fall to the ground. will take the heart of a crow and calcine it to dust. reptiles. The Deaf and Dumb. 2nd ed. natural one.

which is tattooed into their own flesh. they pray for success in hunting after game. The Bushmen venerate or pay homage to a kind of caterpillar. is also highly honoured by the Bushmen and Hottentots. Expedition to Borneo. In Egyptian. table 18. i. The noiseless movement of the caterpillar or snake. almost intact. This on the monuments is an ideograph of multiplying. and the deceiving appearance of the Mantis. as well as the courage. or snake. Such a reading postulates gods. and also desugnated the lord of life. p. But the notion that the: primitive man fell straightaway to worshipping these types is wholly erroneous. who wished for offspring. the lizard was an especial favourite. still preserve the ancient types. Greek writers. Hefa. not that they like it.1 The caterpillar is the stealthy crawler. 35 rendering of which was brought on. African Races. is the name of the caterpillar and viper. Dictionnaire. The time was when people in England. this was their sole way of saying it. v. and the symbolism they did not comprehend.NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY. without suspecting the presence of divnities or demons in animal disguise. It would supply a type or that crawling stealthily along the ground which was a necessity with the early man in pursuit of his prey. to which. Champollion. 1 2 3 Spencer. but they say that the man who eats tiger “acquires the sagacity. They are living ideographs. and pay highly for it. And the socalled praying to the image would be equivalent to saying. So the Malays of Singapore eat the flesh of the tiger. by the Egyptians. whicb were afterwards pourtrayed in Egypt as hieroglyphic determinatives of ideas. where their meaning is no longer understood. a perfect type of the most deadly the transmigration of souls. mystified themselves with thinking that the Egyptian respect paid to animals arose from their belief . and devils. Keppel. only as they expressed themselves by means of things. to crawl. This was their guess at the hieroglyphics they could not translate. and language in many lands.”3 Captain Burton remarked that in the heraldry of the Abeokutans. The frog was eaten not for any virtue which it could communicate. They observed the keen instincts. would swallow frogs to ensure children. customs. but because it was an ideograph of fecundity.2 The enormous fecundity of the frog was the cause of the tadpole being adopted as the ideograph of a million. the ingenious works and ways of the creatures as something remarkable and imitable. or in presence of which. so far as was possible. The Mantis. Descriptive Sociology. angels. Our remotest ancestors were not so simple as to regard the brutes as gods. or the birds as angels. Tradition. . like Porphyry. which were not then extant. or the reptiles as devils. may we slide along as silently and successfully as the caterpillar. 231. were enviable and admirable to the primitive huntsman. of that animal. 168.

. except on account of some benefit which they had received from them.4 Darwin mentions the “secretary hawk” as having had his whole frame modified f:or the purpose of killing snakes with impunity. like the frog. Animals were the living hieroglyphics. he says. whose name (Tini) signifies innumerable. 2 3 6 Ch. ch. and is protected by law from being killed. was a type of fertility and reproduction. 36. The Thessalians protected the stork for the same reasons. a cow-mother. i. So soon as a pig sees a snake he rushes at it. having no necessary relation to animal or reptile worship. and consequently was greatly honoured as a serpent-killer.36 THE NATURAL GENESIS. x. b. A bull-man. Davis. and the snake immediately makes off at sight of a pig. 23. but were idle and did nothing whatever to get their living1—as we say. to be numerous. c. so that any person who killed one was punished with instant death. iv. Even the hedgehog in England will attack and devour the viper.” and in the “Shayast La-Shayast” it is said the high priest taught “that it is when the hedgehog voids urine into an ant’s nest that a thousand ants wilt die. the goddess of the Great Bear. such phrases as “zoolatry” and “worship of animals” will be superseded. Accordingly we find the hedgehog was sacred to Pasht or Buto. So in the Hervey Islands the custom of tattoo was said to be derived from their most fecund fish. 31. The sow was a type of Rerit. Diod. as is well known. that the Egyptians held no beasts to be sacred. Tho ichneumon will destroy the cobra-di-capello. Pigs have been employed in America to clear out districts that were infested with rattlesnakes. but the picture of the mother devouring snakes—man’s fatal and most subtle enemies—in defence of her young. and. Pliny. The numerous mammæ were one causc of the personincation.3 The Ibis received great honour from its destroying all deadly and venomous reptiles. or both. are modes of expression. In recognising his friends aud defenders the early man would not overlook the hedgehog and pig.” The ant being considered a noxious creature because it carried off grain. When the nature of symbolism is understood. paid divine honours to the beasts because of the advantages they derived from them. ideographs adopted for use. the Great Mother. 5. In the Pahlavi Vendidad2 the hedgehog is termed “the slayer of the thousands of the evil spirits. and whose striped pattern they copied. are determined enemies of snakes.6 1 4 Of the Nature of the Gods. The barbarians. Pigs. Emotions. pictures painted by nature to illustrate the primary language. i. It lives on snakes and other reptiles.5 This bird is named the gxangxosi in Xosa Kaffir. Cicero makes the apposite remark. and means of thinging thoughts. a serpent-woman. 83. 5 xiii. whether applied to this life or the next. among the first figures of speech. whereas the Roman gods not only conferred no benefit. would arrest early attention. x.

it again returns. This end having been attained. hopping from bough to bough. where the Ibis had been drinking. it rises heavily upon the wing. These birds were honoured for work done.). they will run to the nearest cat. by administering it to herself. if closed. Of Isis and Osiris. ii.3 The cat. i. b.4 Hor-Apollo writes: “The Egyptians say that The male cat changes the shape of the pupils of his eyes according to the course of the sun. would fetch it from some place.”5 In the Ritual (ch. almost unerringly. No matter whether the day is cloudy or dull. 3 Hor-Apollo. than the indicator1 makes its appearance. So that those of the priests who were the strictest observers of their sacred rites. Whether the action arises from the bird’s desire to communicate the secret or to make a cat’s-paw of the new-comer. In the morning. and about sunset appear less brilliant. Davis. 5 B. when they used water for lustration. evidently inviting the stranger to follow in its wake. watching to see if it is followed. they are dilated. tells us of an intelligent creature. 10. as Plutarch relates. it guides him through the intricacies of the forest. who amongst other things was the god of medicine. Knowledge. in close proximity to the adventurer. at the rising of the god. 67. Feb. 17. or clyster. another curiousity of cleanliness. and when the wayfarer yields. Besides which the Ibis. one of the transformations of 1 2 4 The Kaffirs tell the same story of the Ngende. taught men the use of the enema. that represented Taht. nor come near any unwholcsome water. 37 Major Serpo Pinto in the account of his crossing Africa. and endeavouring by its monotonous note to attract his attention.2 Hor-Apollo says when the Egyptians symbolise a man that conceals his own defects they depict an ape making water for when he does so he conceals his urine. and at once determine the time by the contraction of the iris and size of the pupil. hopping and chirping as before. whence the statue of the god in the city of the sun is in the form of a cat. and perches a little distance off. for she will neither taste any infectious. 1882. He says no sooner does the traveller penetrate into one of the extensive forests of South-Central Africa. to a bees’ nest.NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY. . or Honey bird. she being observed to be after this manner washed and purged by herself. and worthy of the land which we look upon as the nursery of the human mind. it is very arresting if true. xvii. That such animals were among the teachers of the primitive and prehistoric men. in the middle of the day they become round. pull open her eyes. is witnessed by the way in which their portraits nave been preserved in the picture-gallery of the hieroglyphics. would also present a worthy example as a concealer of its own defects. If no attention be paid. The Chinese are still in the habit of using the eye of the cat for a time-piece.

a boundary frontier. and the longest-lived of them live as many years. that. and are just that number of days in hatching them. previous to a very heavy downpour of rain. when the Nomads who came down into Egypt had made their Dokes aod Dykes. was given to the Dog. who had taught the primitive man a lesson in making his Doke. which she raised some two and a half feet higher. she was observed to be most diligently adding to her nest. as the dog-irons fence the fire. the beetle khepr and the crocodile were the natural prognosticators of the height of the coming inundation. They lay sixty eggs in all. that being the first measure (No. 3 Yarrell. with no enemy to apprehend. cutting. “not being able to lay their eggs in the water. and to be the doke. He affirms that in whatsoever place in the country the female crocodile lays her eggs. The Doke is a furrow. 60) made use of by those who are employed in the celestial reckonings.”2 The crocodile was also honoured as a purifier of the holy water of the Nile. or dog in heaven for ever. 1 . British Birds. and the dog as Canis Major or Canis Minor continues to make his doke. that which incloses and guards. they still preserve their eggs dry and untouched by the water. iii. The dog is the tongue or voice of the gods. For. although they enjoy the benefit of the approaching stream at their laying and hatching. in his book on British birds. variant Tesh. as his wild ancestors had when they made their nightly bed in the long grass and liked to have it well beaten down. which shows the timepiece as the cat. Doke and dog are synonymous for a boundary. Man had no such prescience of impending danger. he is said. they have so exact a knowledge of futurity. When the dog turns round bcfore lying down to rest. a hollow. a small brook. or Takh is a name of Taht. It answers to the Egyptian Tek. In the celestial divisions the first Nome.) means the Adherer. according to Plutarch. It supplied the name of the district or nome as Tek. that may with certainty be regarded as the utmost limit to which the rise of the river Nile will reach for the year. defence. p. vol.” or Time. to be “making his doke. He made no preparation. Tekh. One day. but he still continues the habit on bare boards. But Tekai (Eg. tekh. dyke.1 The Egyptians had no “tide-predicting machines. a most appropriate name for the dog or doggie! 2 Of Isis and Osiris. the solar god is into a cat. but her nest had lifted the eggs just beyond the coming water’s reach. Yarrell. fence. That night the rain fell and the flood rose. The name is applied to the tongue of the Balance which was represented by the Cynocephalus as well as by the Vase. tells the story of a swan on the river at Bishop’s Stortford which was sitting on four or five eggs. or Doke. with a clear and ample space around for the purpose of watching.38 THE NATURAL GENESIS. but the swan did. and they were safe.” He bas no need to do so now. a division.” but. one of whose types is the dog. 2nd ed. 207.3 The DOG. in the Isle of Wight. and being afraid to lay them far from it. As such he “makes the likeness of Seb.

This can be interpreted. Wilkinson. the works and ways and on-goings of the intelligence thus manifested around him. . and Sharpe for his hints. This type of the spinner is British as well as African. respecting the symbolical and allegorical values of the hieroglyphics. The spider is an object of great reverence with the Maori. The type is one whether it represents the good or the evil power. How the primitive man observed. Ananse. and as it dies the disease is supposed to be suspended and to die out. They are symbols in relation to an 1 Trans. Heaven is the blue woof. from Punga. the ten-legged spider. the weaver of which was therefore the spider. as the first weaver. 367. or the nose as a type of life. called Ananse in Ashanti. 1870 p. and werewere. nor sustain itself. would have been washed out of life altogether but for its Arkite cunning in making ready for the waters by rolling up its little globe. The Bishop of Wellington said their priests taught that the souls of the faithful went to heaven on gossamer threads. serves as the type of the Creator of man. in Egypt. The nose is an organ of breath. In Inner Africa. was a deity of breath. 39 The beetle.NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY. The type of spinning and reproducing from itself is laid hold of as the representative of disease. is the Pungawerewere. to be suspended. during the Inundation. how he honoured these his early teachers and instructors. How they must have watched the clever creature at work. Hor-Apollo has been unduly depreciated by Bunsen. is at length recorded in the system of hieroglyphic symbols and mythology. and the illustrative proofs are extant to this day. in Maori. and burying it in the dry earth until the Inundation subsided. of Ethnol. Poetry has no finer image. no font of letter-type employed in radiating human thought could shed a clearer light of illustration on the idea of resurrection from the earth than this living likeness of the process of transformation into the winged world. how he copied where he could and gradually found a line of his own in the scheme of development. for when shut up it cannot go on spinning. and by the type we can explain the custom of shutting up the large house-spider alive in a pill-box or in a nutshell. as the spinner. to be worn round the neck as a cure for ague. They always represent Ananse as talking through his nose. Society. The god Khnef is called the breath of those who are in the firmament. One of the workers that caught the attention of primitive men was the spider. who are most careful not to break any webs or gossamers. The spider. with the seed inside. Thus it was the type of an Anchorage above. to anchor. and made theit forms the pictures of the primal thoughts which they had evoked from his mind. as spinner of the blue woof above. The spider. made the suspended woof.1 The insect’s name will show how this was to mistake the typology. according to the typology.

korone. and has been continued in Europe. but ends its widowed life in solitude. when men meet with a single crow. occult knowledge of their application to dogma and doctrine not yet possessed by readers of the hieroglyphics. at the place of the equinox. or Kamites. “one’s a funeral. he says. they depict a scorpion and a crocodile. “When the Egyptians symbolise one enemy engaging with another equal to himself. .1 The lion’s head was commonly used as a waterspout in Egyptian temples. when the year began with Scorpio. 9. the Egyptians depict two crows. 8. A night-raven signifies death because it pounces suddenly on the 1 Book i. Possibly it was the faithful crows that converted the ancient Egyptians. and if you see a single bird you ought to turn round three times to avert illluck. these two make a monogamous marriage and repudiate polygamy altogether for the rest or the lives. In three months the waters ceased to flow. Hor-Apollo now and again gives us a valid reason for the adoption of the type. and when onc of them dies the other does not wed again.”2 Whether this be a fact in nature or not. He tells us that: the lion is one of the signs of the Inundation because half of the new water is supplied when the sun is in the sign of Leo. ii. who is associated with the four quarters. The scorpion likewise represented breath and dryness. they look upon it as an evil omen. 2 Hor-Apollo. because they have met with a widowed creature. although “unacquainted with the import of the words. The scorpion is borne on the head of the goddesss Serk. two’s a wedding. the other a female. from polygamy to single marriage. that they hold no intercourse with any other crow. On account of the remarkable custom and concord of these birds.40 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Hence. the Greeks in their marriages exclaim ekkori. the Egyptians placed the crocodile in the sign or as a paranatellon of Scorpio. they seem to have held the doctrine which is still maintained by many modern clerical Rooks. and first instituted the prohibition of marriage with the wife’s sister. the place of poise and equal power. and the Two Truths of life. and the exhaustion began with the sun in the sign of Serk. water. Another reason is because the bird lays two eggs. 35. This is suggestive of the Egyptian origin of the Zodiac. To denote connubial intercourse. 3 i. kori. 21. for these kill one another. two other forms of the twinship of upper and lower in heaven. who know that a certain ideograph is the determinative of a special meaning. one of these produces a male. Hence it is that those who anciently presided over sacred works have made the spouts of the fountains in the form of lions.” says our folk-lore. So faithful are they to each other. because these birds cohabit with one another in the same manner as does a man by nature. says Hor-Apollo. the crocodile. without knowing why it is so.”3 We have the same symbolry in Britain with regard to the magpie. or the scorpion.

NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY. “he is elsewhere a man.e. or both. ii. who told him they were near neighbours in Bruges. Liebrecht. where the changing of storks into men. likewise. I have brought my orb in darkness. too. where the moon-god. Sefekh was the consort of Taht. Kelly. as the old dark moon renews itself. 1 4 2 Hahn. transforms into a radiant youth. like the moon. for. he gave this back on condition that the stork’s nest sbould be protected. and men into storks. whether male or female (for there is a feminine Aah-ti). A Cretan story tells how a poor woman once sat down and for very weariness sighed “Ah. the Sidonians made the bird an emblem of Erebus. 25. that the stork is also a man.” Here the woman is the bringer-forth. A Flemish legend relates that a. p.headcd god was also pourtrayed in the human form as a man. or speech of the gods. or Aah-aah. or Aah-ti. Hor-Apollo. or crane is the European representative of the lunar ibis. Aah. 94. G. i. and. “I am the Woman.” It is recorded. according to Damascius. the ibis. for the nest of one (as the stork) was next door to the home of the other and the storkman showed the other a ring which be had stolen from the Fleming once upon a time.” a name of the moon-god. Aah is the moon. has two aspects. The moon is considered to be masculine in Egyptian mythology. by Gervase of Tilbury. 3 Kelly. it is urged. thus a very natural origin before it was invested with supernatural power to become the prophetic bird of death with many other races of men.” whereupon a Moor instantly appeared whose name was “Ah. So Taht.1 Death. Thus the ibis. He. as death overtakes men. but Aahti was also a goddess. 157. the orb (hour) of darkness. and who was the lunar tongue. Livingstone describes the Ibis flying by night and crying “AahAah. 73. as in Egypt. and the transformation of Taht. with a continual metamorphosis. as testified to by the modern ear. and Hathor was a lunar divinity. This type of death in the dark had. Aah-ti in Egyptian. p. was a stork in one region and a man in the other. I have prepared Taht at the gate of the moon.3 In parts of Germany it is forbidden to hurt the stork. or Aah-aah. named itself as the Aah. the Hebrew Ereb or Ghareb.4 Bruges and Mount Sinai answer to the two opposite sides of the moon’s circle. . or darkness. Its feathers are on my body. No. and Aah-ti. and the bird is extant in the folk-lore of Friesland. The stork. Arabic Ghuráb.” a duplicate equivalent in Egyptian to “Aah-ti. means either Erebus (darkness) or the raven. is the ibis-headed divinity. 41 young of the crows by night. mouth. and mode of pronunciation. T. and the Kaf-ape transforms into the ibis-headcd Taht. In the Ritual we read.”2 The Moor is the dark side of his dual character. 94. it is changed to light. who was represented by the ibis. is still an article of popular belief. citizen of Bruges once met a man near Mount Sinai.

280-83. the nursery of unborn children.42 THE NATURAL GENESIS. The lady of the fountains has her Queckbrunnen or fonts of life in Dresden out of which the “clapper-stork fetches the Dresden children. ch. Ib. 2 Gill. 1 4 Mannhart. . the Kinderbrunnen. they say that it has given an Avesta with its tongue. The Mangaians say that the gods first spake to man through the small land birds. and also the bird Sâk (cf.”4 Karshipt is the bird-shaped Karshipta of the Gujerat Version of the Vedidad. The stork keeps its character too as the fisher of the waters. and thus furnished the type of the fisher-up of the moon out of the waters. Denmark and Holland is the typical bringer of the babies. xix.2 The little bird that tells is with us a living relic of the same mode of revealing. where the stork finds the little ones and leads them home. The native cat represents the moon. Its name is Bede or Bude. a sparrow or lark). the Persian Zûiah. All such sayings are readable in the hieroglyphics. and the refuge of those who are lost or strayed. rendered “let us go.5 The birds here. There they utter the Avesta in the language of birds. “Regarding Karshipt they say that it knew how to speak words. Birds and beasts are the divine personages of the Australians. and to mag in English is to chatter. and Taht the young moon is her messenger. and brought the religion to the inclosure which Yima made and circulate it.” “let us go. were the time-tellers set in heaven. Now when the Aztecs lived in Astulan there was a certain Huiziton who heard the voice of a bird crying tihui. which is the bird Zobara-Vahman (cf. was represented by the sparrow. but another typical leader. a magpie). The sparrow in Egyptian is the Thuu. whose figure surmounts the chapel holding one babe in its beak and two more in its claws. and the word Tehu signifies speech and to Tell. Persian Sak.3 Mak (Eg.xix. In the ballad of Sir Patrick Spens the new moon is described in popular phrase with the old moon in its arms. Tehu or Tekhu being one of the bird-headed tellers. 16. 3 5 Bunhadish. Hence her connection with the fountains so popular in Germany. 139. The German genitrix is pourtrayed sitting in her stately subterraneous home beneath the waters. pp. So the stork in Germany. apparently under the feathered or ibis image. Quetzalcoatl. ch. ii. and the crescent of light which clasps the orb of darkness was represented by the curving beak of the ibis as bringer. In Egypt the cat-headed lunar goddess is Buto or Peht. and messenger of the Genitrix Frau Holda.”1 The Fisher of the hieroglyphics is yet extant in the stork. speech personified. as elsewhere. tihui. The ibis was depicted as the fisher with the fish in its mouth.) signifies the tongue.” The little bird in this case was called the humming bird. 19. Regarding the bird ashozusht.

and a type of immortality. ch. B. 11. but drank blood. likewise. “When the Egyptians would symcolise an aged minstrel they portray a swan. on the Upper Wami. ii. Comptes Rendus. Bundahish. hence the death-song was the sweetest on account of the future life proclaimed by the bird of resurrection.”7 The usual form of the tradition is that the song of the swan when dying is the perfect sweetness of music: this has to be interpreted. xiv. the more near was the new era which it prophesied. but not for this world. This agrees with the name of the hawk-headed Kab-sennuf. More than one bird served as a phœnix. The Egyptian Rukh is a form of the phœnix. xxiv. in which the dog-star Sirius was so conspicuous a luminary. nurtured. its wings shake down the seed of future life:3 which the hieroglyphics will explain. B. accepts the discovery. They declare that the bird is said to have had its habitation about the equatorial African Lakes. the fœtal soul is fed.1 This bird is said to be the first created. 7. Minokhird. Captain Burton says: “The French missionaries brought to Zanzibar from Udoe.”5 Thus the real Roc or Rukh of Inner Africa. 37—39. . the tips of the flippers measuring two and a half feet long. The Gembsbok. Karshipt is the Roc. whose refreshment is blood. The reason given by Hor-ApolIo8 for the hawk being adopted as the type of soul is because it did not drink of water. 23. The Swan constellation of the Greeks was the Bennu. and every time it rises. 5 Camoens. now found chiefly in the Karoos of South Africa.4 The Rukh represents the pure spirits. and Herr Hildrebrand. fig. has been preserved as an ideographic type in the pictographic museum of Kam. xxiv. or Kam-rosh of the Persian scriptures) has been lately discovered in reality. it may be termed the phœnix of 3. or Phœnix of the Egyptians. 1851. ch. 43 because they returned and told of time and Season on the earth.NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY. 11. Wilkinson. The bennu is pourtrayed in the Asru tree over the tomb of Osiris. and the more imminent the end of the cycle that it represented. 62. by which.6 With us the type of the long-lived blackbird is extant as the rook Hor-Apollo says. i. It should be noticed that the mythical Roc of the Arabian tales (and the Sim-urg. and was set in heaven as the phœnix. the Persian Simurgh. in relation to the life in Hades.000 years. 11. 101. although extinct. 39. Ib. 405. xxxii. 7 Hor-Apollo. vol. 194. and sustained. The “Rukh of Madagascar” lays an egg said to contain the equivalent of 148 hens’ eggs.2 Its resting place is in the tree of life and of all seeds. From being a ceIestial type of Repetition in time the phœnix or swan became the symbol of continuity or immortality. ii. a well-known naturalist and traveller. is 1 3 4 6 8 2 Ib. Commentary. for when it is old it sings the sweetest melody. p. p.

“It is a remarkable fact than an ape. B. one of the Gibbons. the cry of the bird that hovers wailing round the robbed nest. i. ex genitalibus sanguinem emittit. The female also. one of the unclean animals. . and then superseded as a bad character. then the male Cynocephalus neither sees. as if congratulating the goddess. Darwin says. as with the rutting deer. And when they would denote the renovation of the moon. in the posture of standing upright and raising its hands to heaven with a diadem on its head. into which the Cynocephalus throws itself. when the moon becomes unillumined. and supplies a motive for the music. are evoked at parting.4 And for the renovation they depict this posture. such as it is. “alone of brute mammals. the crowned Kepheus. The call of the male to its mate. is incessant in their seasons. i. the roar of the lion rising higher and higher 1 3 5 2 Descent of Man. in the loss of the lunar light.44 THE NATURAL GENESIS. nor eats. This was a Typhonian type. ascending and descending the scale by half-tones. and by the sense of loss. and as such was turned into an image of impurity. singer. they again pourtray a Cynocephalus. Possibly the typology may tell us something more of the cause and origin of the ape’s singing. and later writer. and the mother to her young.”5 This presents us with a picture of the ape in the act of crying or singing. if we may so express it. in that they have both recovered light. Captain Burton tells me the idea survives in modern Africa. Want or desire must have been the earliest incentive to the dcvelopment of the human voice.”2 This. p. hence even to this day Cynocephali are brought up in the temples. Hor-Apollo3 says of the Cynocephalus. that the Egyptians symboIised the moon by it on account of a kind of sympathy which the ape had with it at the time of its conjunction with the god. and being afflicted in the same manner as the male.” And Professor Owen has observed that this monkey. The joy of various animals becomes vocal at meeting and greeting each other. produces an exact octave of musical sounds. 15. Virility becomes audible in the voice of animals and birds in their respective breeding times. 49. But the sharpest sounds. The crowned Kafi. as if lamenting the ravishment of the moon. The bleat of the parent in pain for her lost young ones. the Oryx of the hieroglyphics. i. This it does so punctually as to form a kind of gnomon. was the first teacher of the scale in Africa. may be said to sing. but is bowed down to the earth with grief. 332. in order that from them may be ascertained the exact instant of the conjunction of the sun and moon. whether this be in spring or in autumn. the personified speaker. Hor-Apollo. then.1 It would be honoured at first as a time-teller in the pre-lunar or Typhonian stage. 4 B. the tones of highest pitch. 14. vol. B. “For at the exact instant of the conjunction of the moon with the sun. ii. Hor-Apollo says the Oryx shows such antipathy to the moon that when she rises the beast howls with anger and indignation. in addition to its being unable to see. Cf.

NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY. as he realises the loss of his companion. illustrates this sense of loss. the Word of Speech. and that the hand-type of speech was identified with the language of gesture-signs. who presented the picture of hand-conversation and demonstrated the idea of Kaf to seize with the hand. also the fish. which is registered by Kaf becoming the name of the hand. and the singing of the Gibbon was therefore an earlier phase of utterance than human speech. A monkey crying for the light. They are identified by name with the Kaf as the Kaffirs. The Clickers were the earliest articulators of sound. In Hor-ApolIo’s description. and Ram are forms of the letter B. The Hand KAF bears the name of the Kaf monkey. until at length the notes by which he had expressed his perception of darkness and loss of companionship became a solace and a source of pleasure through constant repetition. From this we may gather that the Kaf idea was derived from the Kaf animal. who was not only the first singer. tend to show how the sense of loss. And with no language but a cry. but the earliest teacher of a musical scale and composer of songs without words. beginning with the Kaf. became signs of the letter A. but the essential types have been continued. and the consequent increase of the higher tones when the loss is that of the lunar light. and he was like a poet who trnnsmutes his sorrow into the music of his song.” became finally a phonetic A. The eagle and a bird of the goose kind. his scale of sounds. the Monkey crying in the night. and the voice more emotional. In the hieroglyphics the Ibis which cries “Aah-Aah” and supplies the type of “Aah-ti. The ape was certainly the predecessor of man. and was continued in Egypt as the Image of Language. The Kaf is likewise the clickcr. as the bewailer of the lost light and saluter of the re-illumined orb. Thus we may infer that sitting in the darkness of night and of the deeper darkness of death the Gibbon evolved and by degrees formulated bis voice. will increase the upward range of voice. that could climb and made such dexterous use of its forepaws. which is the typical Hand on the monuments—the hand of the Gods. when added to desire and want. 45 in the presence of death. Nycticorax. when the companion of life was lost. and as the ape has been continued for the typical singer and divine bard it looks as if a form of musical sounds may have been practised by the primitive man in imitation of the ape. . which could he understood before the formation or evolution of verbal speech. The hieroglyphics of Egypt may not contain all the signs made by the ape-men in their earliest phase of mimesis. The sparrow-nawk. and type of the Lunar Logos. and by the monkey and hand being two types expressed under one word. The sense would be still more quick. or cubs.

Now. Givir.) as well as the calf (Kha or Aâ). I. for she never conceives twice. when an accouchement was announced at the Zoological Gardeng that caused great consternation in the country. P. Lauth. N. W. Kangaroo. The chicken. and the beetIe. p. lion. The lion furnished one of the signs for H. J. K. O. Dinoun. The R is a. the frog and beetle two others. The T’s include the snake. The Egyptians. In Greenland the women also pinched the ears of Ridley. The ape and the crocodile’s tail supply two shapes of the K. Yaraman. the print of which they leave on the ashes that are strewn for them. eagle. Munich Site. ii. Mullion. who is the representative of the earth. 3 B. 42. whereupon he reminds him that when he was caught in the net of the hunters. female. The fish and another kind of vulture appear as N. and its horns are still extant in the shape of that letter. stork with fish. With them we may compare the Kamilaroi “sayings” (Gurre) or ideographic letters. Bundar. later this was the phonetic sign for L. lxxxii. This may be explained by the type of Seb. Oarumbon. the fables themselves as found in Æsop are Egyptian. The Little Earth-Men of the German folk-lore are said to have the feet of geese.46 THE NATURAL GENESIS. and hare are among the different U’s. These are ideographs reduced to phonetics. J. bequeaths the blank future to the woman not yet delivered. The jackal and perch are found as forms of the T. he the mouse released him. ii. Nurai. tree. man going. duck. It was held to be an unlucky omen for all who were child-bearing. when they would symbolise a woman that has brought forth once. Ber.2 Enceinte women in Hertfordshire still hear with alarm of a lioness having brought forth young. we can understand how these types and symbols got misinterpreted in popular beliefs and superstitions. D. swallow. depict a lioness.3 The lioness having brought forth. emu. The Cerastes snake supplied the phonetic F. 14. a bird. 1861. male. p. 1868. T. The fish is a supplementary K (Kha or Gha. vol. Inar. Y. Moses der Ebräer. The connecting link of the beast fables of Europeand Inner Africa is not only extant in the Egyptian ideographs. Waru. Tulu. Jimba. and whose image is the goose! The ancient Peruvians used to beat their dogs during an eclipse to make them howl. sheep. Zundel. Revue Archéologique. 1 2 . G. lance. snake. says Hor-Apollo. The owl and the vulture figure as signs for M. Karagi. A water-bird and the lioness are variants of the letter P. This is the result of misinterpreting a nearly-effaced type. bird. ch. The goose and jackal supply a form of the S.1 B. the present writer had proof of this a few years since. Pilar. In one of these the mouse is about to be devoured by the lion. M.

26.) to open. it was a sign that the end of the world had not yet come. whether of the male or female. was a type of time and turning round. ought to sympathize with the treatment of the ass. . and had its fall. in Egypt the scarab. and curses. The ass was once in glory.NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY. But the hare. sacred to Sut. the animal whose form was assumed by the witch. having borne him for the last time. All who have ever suffered mentally from the misinterpretation of ancient myths in the name of Theology. and if the animals howled lustily. Many games are typical. or carried the Cross at the time of the Crucifixion—as proved by the mark between its shoulders—and “beating the ass” became a Christian sport. The adulterer and the cuckold were mounted on the ass with their faces turned to its tail. and was bound to fulfil the character. And it is a pastime with boys to thrust a pin through the middle of the cock-chafer. and felt its brand of degradation in the very soul. When the Egyptians would denote an opening. It is likewise related to the egg of the opening that was laid at Puberty. willy-nilly. the howler during the moon’s eclipse. says Hor-Apollo. as well as picture-writing of the past.” therefore open. was degraded and assailed with stripes. the dog in Europe took the place of the Dog-headed Ape of the Mysteries in Egypt. The opening period is that of pubescence. and constitute a kind of picture-reading. It was the turner round. i. It is the sign of UN (Eg. The ass that carried the mythical Messiah was treated as the beast that bore the real one. The hare is considered unclean in various countries. solely on account of its having served as a type. and the ass who carried the Messiah in the Mysteries. Un is also an hour. and a type of the Hebrew Deity. had a double phase. it signifies “it is lawful” or “unprohibited. But Sut was transformed into Satan. 1 B. and enjoy his spinning round and round. The cockchafcr still suffers in another symbolical ceremony belonging to the cruel rites performed by boys. when the animal received the rain of bountiful blows. called khepr. 47 their dogs during an eclipse. kicks. and still awaits its redemption. as the circle-maker.1 they delineate a hare because this animal always has its eyes open. In relation to feminine pubescence. a period. and delivered a double message to men. a humorous pastime in which the pagan past was figuratively kicked out in the real kicking of the ass. and suffered the worst part of the punishment. as the emblem of the period. The chafer. for it is a fellow-victim who has likewise undergone unmerited punishment. The animal being cast down from his primitive estate was associated with all that was ignominious. For this reason. It was the dog’s duty to howl at such a time.

Buto was the nurse who concealed Horus. in Egypt. which is broken as an emblem of the opening period.” one of which will account for the red mouse. the hare is of a double sex. 159. in others the babies are said to come out of the hare’s form. the blind Horus. One story relates that at Saalfeld. and the mouse was a type of Horus in Skhem. 6 Mon. They shook the sleeper but could not wake her. Quæ 5. together with those of the solar hawk. And it was by its being shut up and transformed in the region of annihiiation that the future life was created. “is inexplicable to me. who had to be blended 1 2 4 Deutsche Mythologie. only to be understood in accordance with the “Two Truths. 141. Now. Rats and mice in Germany were held to represent the human soul. and in Swabia children are sent in search of the hare’s egg. They observed a little red mouse creep from her mouth and run out of window. whether lunar or human and these two are signified by the hare and egg. vol. Plutarch4 says the mouse was reverenced for its blindness because darkness was before light.48 THE NATURAL GENESIS. a girl felt asleep whilst her companions were shelling nuts. . were buried in the City of Buto. mus araneus) was consecrated to the Genitrix Buto. the hare being considered a feminine. The mouse thus represented the soul of flesh. 3 5 Herodotus.”1 Easter was the opening of another year. the shrew-mouse (mygale. Presently they saw the mouse creep back and run about in search of the girl.” says Holtzman.2 The goddess Holda was said to lead an army of mice. also known as a region of annihilation. and the mummies. Brit. Baring-Gould. It was simply the type of periodicity which had a double phase. iv. The uncleanness of the hare was soley symbolic. and at the same moment the girl died. hence the emblem of the hare of March or Easter. and the egg (of puberty) a masculine symbol. In Saxony they say the Easter hare brings the Easter egg. probably the hare is the animal of Astara. the flesh-maker. and she was the receiver of children’s souls. Plutarch Symp. p. Curious Myths. on the picture of Abnoba a hare is present.3 The animal was held to be blind. the first. the mother-soul. The hawk was the bird of Light. which was looked upon as the first factor in biology. the hidden shrine and shut-place. the eyeless and unseeing soul before the fatherhood was acknowledged. According to Pliny. ii.. but not finding her. Museum. “The Easter Hare.5 The mouse typified the mystery of shutting up the red source of life. and the hawk was the personification of sight. In some parts the Easter eggs are made into cakes in the form of a hare. in Thuringia. so to say. It is on this account that the hare is associated with the egg of Easter. ii. These furnished two types of the soul or being. it vanished. so they removed her to another place. p.

lib. sriu. p.1 This represented the Horus in Skhem. Eg. the shrew-ash or elm being the most popular for the purpose. It is well known that amongst other charms for healing and saving the shrew-mouse was selected to be offered up on or in the tree. that if the heart were cut out of a mouse when alive and worn round about the arms of a woman. But this is not a primary meaning or form of the word. 1661. the mythological shrine of re-birth for the Solar God in the Underworld. and a shrew-mouse was thrust in alive. Hist. the hole being plugged up behind the victim. sru is to dig.NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY. solar. where the sun disappeared to be re-born on the horizon of the resurrection. The digging to bring forth its young was the cause of its adoption as a sign of the Shut-place in Skhem. 49 with the second. In Egyptian. Gen. “the Egyptians pourtrayed the mouse. Panzoologicomineralogia.shrew-mousc would not have typified a disappearance but for its being the digger. named from schoren or scharren. with a prior form in skru. as the two halves of the complete soul. viii. . Sahagun.” says Hor-Apollo. the Mexican women who were enceinte and terribly alarmed lest the unborn child should be turned into a mouse. and the mouse an emblem of a disappearance. The stone was a symbol of founding and establishing. curse). tom ii. to dig. According to this primitive mode of thought and expression we can account for the shrew-mouse in England being made the victim of sacrifice. The shrew-mouse in Britain is a sufferer from the later sense read into words.” And the disease or ailment prescribed for was supposed to disappear with the imprisoned and decaying mouse. 1 2 3 Brand. whence skru and screw. so the Gerrman Schormaus and the Dutch Schermuys are the mole as the digging mouse. On the other hand. according to the doctrine of blood-sacrifice. the saviour-victim who was sacrificed in the physiological.2 The Hebrew abomination described as “eating the mouse” may have had a kindred significance. 230. and denotes something wicked. during an eclipse of the moon. The . The animal was named as the digger. Shrew in Anglo-Saxon means to curse (cf. A deep hole was bored in the bole. The shrew is the earlier scro-mouse. to cut and plough. It came to be believed of this type of a disappearance. and the digging is retained in the Gaelic sgar and Breton skarra. hence the poor shrewmouse is accounted wicked and accursed. were accustomed to hold a bit of istli (obsidian) in their mouths or in their girdles to guard against such a fatality. Physical Charms. and lastly Christological drama of redemption. to dig. to tear open. it would prove fatal to conception.3 The moon in eclipse represented the period opposed to gestation. and scro elsewhere. which is skrew in Somerset. “To denote disappearance. Richard Lovell. the plough or digger being the ska.

the bird of breath. the cat being a type of the moon as the luminous eye of the dark. The priestesses of Westem Sarawak make the figures of birds which are said to be inhabited by spirits. The Eskimos say that all living beings have the faculty of soul.” whereupon God creates the cat to destroy the mouse. 330. The Abipones are said to see the souls of their ancestors in certain birds. Russian Folk Tales. or spirit. There is a Bohemian legend in which the Devil creatcs the mouse to eat up “God’s corn. of a flying soul. who was the habitation of the hawk (Horus. and in Britain we have seven spirit-birds that fly by night. but especially the bird. But the bird as a type of the spirit or soul must be read all round. . the bird of soul. The soul (or spirit) is thus represented as typically passing out of the one type into the other. Pash (whence the Arabic Bisseh or tabby). a parrot flew from that fetish and entered another stone. and in the hieroglyphics. To a great extent modern superstition is symbolism in its state of dotage. her child) or more literally the birdcage of the soul. is the one of the seven elementaries which became the solar Horus. 1 Ralston. a sign of the soul of breath. in Hebrew rwt. The hieroglyphics are still unwittingly preserved by the Abipones. So that the hissing duck or goose was the symbol of a soul in Egypt. The bird imaged the object of worship. In this story the parrot takes the place of the hawk. for a certain stone had ceased.50 THE NATURAL GENESIS. The Hurons of North America are reported to believe that the souls of their deceased friends turned into turtle-doves. where we find the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt in the house that Jack built. the widgeon or other water-fowl that fly by night and make their cry. known as: the “seven whistlers.1 This belongs to Egyptian Mythology. It appears as the “abominable rat of the sun. English Dove. bears the name of the Genitrix Tef. The hawk of fire. is the widgeon or a wild goose in the act of hissing as the bird of breath issuing from the waters.” The: learned and conscientious Montesinos relates that when the worship. The turtledove. the Pâ. It is a mode of expression which may be variously interpreted according to. which was held as an object of adoration instead. and the fetish-stone its dwelling place. when it cannot remember what the types originally meant. and as Pâ (or Pepe) means to fly. or the dove. not only is the bird a symbol of the soul but one of these. or veneration. The Egyptians did not think the soul turned into a bak-hawk when they depicted or embodied the Ba (soul) in bird shape.” which was looked after by the cat-headed Great Mother. p. the mental stage. The dove as well as the hawk was associated with Hathor.

we turn to the hieroglyphics for interpretation. whether by the native mind or the missionary. Casalis. the star-god. iv. is the particular token.NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY. whose name it bears. with the human head. Green is the hue of the resurrection from the earth. xxxi. the original link of connection being more or less missing in the mind of the modern natives. the ape. The Ben-ape is a form of the phœnix. Also. 2 Ch. as the imager or imitator. offered a natural model for the transformer. not the bear. . It is often reported that such and such a people. believe that the spirits of their dead ancestors appear to them in the shape of serpents. and the moon made its great change in the character of Aan. Lastly. 246.3 Zulus are said to recognise the spirits of their ancestors in certain green snakes that are harmless. Shu. an emblem therefore of immortality. Num. not to the human race pre-Adamite or otherwise. or dog. When told that the natives of West Africa look upon monkeys who are seen near a burial-ground as being animated by the spirits of the dead. But in Inner Africa the real animal became a fetish-image confused with the spirits of the dead. transformed under this type. All such types belong to the hieroglyphical and symbolical mode of representation. the colour of the stone-axe and amulet of Jade. This means that in such a case the serpent. and the dead turning into monkeys is the same typologically as the ape being an jmage of the transforming dead. and of Ptah the revivifier. Basutos. depicted as winged. The true significance can be recovered in Egypt with whom survived the consciousness of Kam. the Gestator. The green colour also identines the type of irnmortality. ape. like the Kaffirs of South Africa. the souls of the martyrs are said to rest in the crops of green birds. and Shu. Prelim. There we find the ape (Ben) is a type of the Resurrection. is said to receive in death the 1 3 Sale. the belief that their ancestors survived in spirit was expressed by the serpent symbol. The soul of the hieroglyphics. elevated in the Ritual2 to the status of a Divinity. and this is independent of any perversion of the matter.1 This is the Egyptian imagery in which souls are represented as human-headed birds being fed with the fruit and nourished by the water of the Tree of Life! Also green is the colour of renewal. the colour of Ptah. The goddess Renen. 51 According to a Muhammedan tradition. sect. p. the same type was applied to the soul in death as a mode of representation. Discourse. The ape. is the original of the winged race of men in the Phædrus of Plato and the winged angels of Iconography. as the serpent was a type of the eternal by periodic renewal. In Egypt the animal was known to be ideographic. which eat of the fruits and drink of the waters of Paradise. and absent altogether from that of the missionaries. as the sign of rising again.

breaths (souls) of those belonging to her. was an emblem of renewal. and the vignette is a crocodile-headed snake—two forms of the Genitrix in one. Nor do the older races mistake the symbol for the thing signified. would enter the serpent-woman to be born again. who was a crocodile in her hinder-part. The horns of the reindeer were indicative of renewal coming of itself. intangible—which culminated at last in Christology and in the waxen image of witchcraft: as it had done earlier in the mummy-figure of the Egyptians. so much as is represented. The bone of the calf or of the child. and was beaten at times by the irate worshipper. The crocodile was a form taken by the Goddess of the Great Bear. or breaths. When the Greenlander who has been at point of death in an exhausting illness. or other fetish with apologies and appeasing rites offered to the animal they have killed. but seldom quite extinct. a crocodile may seize it and draw him in. not a real deity. not as the god in person. The doctrine of vicarious sacrifice and atonement dates from this origin in the most primitive stage of thought—in thus laying hold of something that imaged and represented the absent. crocodile. and as the serpent was a type of renewal before Renen was personified in Egypt. his shadow. Basutos. and like the bone of the child. recovers his health and pristine vigour. but as some sort of likeness. we hear the Inner Africans talking in the same figures of speech that were made visible by Egyptian art. . The reporters are mainly responsible for the doctrine of incarnation. The eighty-eighth chapter of the Ritual is named the Chapter of Making the Transformation into a Crocodile.2 This. they speak of his having lost his former soul and had it replaced by that of a young child or a reindeer.1 The serpent was one of her symbols.52 THE NATURAL GENESIS. p. But this also is only a figurative mode of speech. invisible. They recognise in some dim way that it was only a type of the hidden meaning. simply supplied a type of rejuvenesce. consequently these souls. The totemic naturc of the type is made significant every time the supposed worshippers slay their god in the shape of a bear. the imagery that of the bone-caves. one of her four types. and not an incarnation. ch. It was because the image was representative that it acted vicariously. is connected with the Egyptian typology. 2 Casalis. buried as such with the dead. The Basutos are said to think that if a man should walk along a river’s bank and cast his shadow in the water. a representation. or Seriti. The crocodile was one of the animals into whkh the soul passed or was transformed in ordcr that it might cross the waters in death. too. being onc with his soul. clx. The underlying typology is in many instances obscured. the language is that of the hieroglyphics. The speaker (deceased) says: “I am the crocodile whose soul comes from 1 Ritual. 245.

Thus the souls of the Egyptian dead entered the bear or hippopotamus as with the American Indians. I am the great fish of Horus. who bore them and brought them to re-birth. p.NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY. ii. can be traced to the typology.”1 A Chiriquane woman of Buenos Ayres was heard by a missionary to say of a fox: “May not that be the spirit of my dead daughter?”2 These were thinglng their thought according to the ancient typology which is yet interpretable by means of the Kamite mythology.” The crocodile (as Ta-urt or Typhon) was the earliest form of the Fish-mother. 254. and this therefore is represented by the crocodile. walrus. inside the fish during the three days at the winter solstice. So among the Esquimaux. It was the car of Osiris in Egypt. she was made to impersonate the womb of a new life. . Thus the tradition of the crocodiles seizing the souls of men in the shape of their shadows. and the Coffin which the Osiris deceased entered to be re-born in the eternal round. whether as Horus or Herakles. He is in the crocodile (or is the crocodile). 53 men. 6. because her late husband had entered into a walrus. She formed the principal Car (Urt) in Heaven which the thought of man mounted to ride round and . I am the crocodile leading away by stealth. whom they fa:ocied the creature to resemble. who brought forth from the waters.” says Dr. seal. I am the crocodile whose soul comes from men. Tylor. It is the bearer still. The same type is continued in the Arabic daughters of the bier (Ursa Major) and the Chinese coffin of the seven stars in which a board is placed 1 Prim. The Skhem is the shrine of re-birth. vol. From being the mother of the beginnings in space and time. because she had been the mother of the revolutions or time-cycles in heaven. among whom the aged she-grizzly represented the most ancient Genitrix. the recipient of souls. In this the Great Bear Constellation (the hippopotamus. 2 Brinton. a traveller noticed a widow who was living for conscience’ sake upon birds. and of the Elementary Gods. and would not touch walrus-meat which the Angekok had forbidden her for a long time. The speaker personates the crocodile who leads away the souls of men by stealth. the great one in Kam-Ur. Hathor or Venus. “In North-west America. as the Wain of Charles. or other water-type) was the Great Genitrix who became the reproducer of souls in a later phase of thought. the Derketo.ascend up out of the darkness of the depths when the constellation was the “dipper” below the horizon. and travellers have heard of a tribe begging the life of a wrinkle-faced old grizzly she-bear as the recipient of the soul of some particular grandame. p. Atergatis. and so crosses the waters as did the sun-god. Culture. I am the person dancing in Skhem. “we find some Indians believing the spirits of their dead to enter into bears.

a native dog which was burnt or buried with the corpse. and a quantity of lime and oil is deposited between the board and the bottom of the coffin. Bishops used to be buried in this country with a dog lying at their feet. chief of the mountain in which the dead were laid. exposing it thus to the 1 3 4 J. The jackal in two characters tows the bark of the sun and the souls. the other the road of light to the south. 419. by the Parsees. x. the lower wolrd of two. Cranz relates that the Esquimaux laid the head of a dog in a child’s grave as the type of the intelligent animal that was sure to find the way. 2 Waitz. vol. The dog was supposed to be its guardian against the fiend of corruption. and it is therefore called the “seven-stars-board. It is said that. was a type of the earth. the dog of the dead is described as being the messenger of spirit-mediums. p. a thread being fastened round its neck.4 A corpse which had not been seen by a dog was held capable of polluting a thousand men. whereas the snake was a symbol of renewal and immortality. that removed the power of pollution. was common with the Hindus and Persians. as an escort and guide to the soul. as the divine embalmer. Culture. China.3 The custom of bringing a dog to the bedside of a dying person. ch. whose stock-in-trade consists of a small box (supposed to contain some mystery known only to the craft) of somewhat less than a foot square. p. and the custom can be read by the hieroglyphics. It is the soul of the bad man that becomes the jackal. The practice of killing and burying a dog with a deceased person is not uncommon. vol. the head only being left above ground. for the dead to rest on. however.54 THE NATURAL GENESIS. i. The jackal.” It is fluted as well as perforated. H.2 With them. Shayast La-Shayast. the soul of the good man becomes a snake. a dog is buried alive. 33. Hence the protection afforded to the corpse by the presence of the dog. Gray. In a recent work on Japan. ii. The spirit of the dead girl being identified with the fox in Buenos Ayres is the exact parallel to the souls of men becoming jackals in the belief of the African Marawi. But when the corpse had been shown to an observant dog.1 The fox or jackal was a type of Anpu. who led them up to the horizon of the resurrection. and food is then put almost within its reach. there is another connecting link. This board contains seven holes which are regarded as representing the seven stars. One of the chief funerad ceremonies of the Aztecs was to slaughter the Techichi. or seb. 283. the dog as Anubis was the embalmer and preserver of the dead. In Egypt.” One opens the road of darkness to the north. Prim. 65. the conductor of souls. Tylor. . ii. ch. p. 426. and its office was to guide the deceased across the waters of Chiuluahuapan on the way to the land of the dead. in the south. and these two are called “Openers of the way.

The dog was identified as its type when there came to be a dog. and both these types are earlier than the dog. When in the greatest agony and near death. was looked upon as a kind of Psychopompus. The dog is a civilized descendant of the wolf and jackal. . and in Egyptian Tseb. and the fox-dog of Abyssinia. All three preceded the domesticated dog. This intelligent friend and faithful companion was sacrificed to become the guide of the poor cave-dwellers when benighted in death. as is acknowledged by the continuity of the name of the wild animal for that of the domesticated dog. Before this 1 Fu-So Mimi Bukuro. the jackal. but its still earlier forms were the jackal (or golden dog). who made the animal domesticated. The star Sothis is the well-known star of the dog. Pfoundes. showing that this faithful friend of man.NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY. an intelligent shower of the way through the dark. the head is chopped off and put in a box. at that remote time. the dog in the Ai-Bushman tongue. suggested by Darwin. and thus the dog (which was the wolf-dog. or the fox. Likku. or the golden dog—the Egyptian Mercury) fulfils the character of the Psychopompus. and in the abraded form Arib is the name of the dog. did man positively confound the wolf. the dog is supposed to utter its howl with prescient instinct. the wolf. Tsip is the dog in Inbask (Yukahiri). which again answers to Arigu. by C. And still. or is identical with the Akkadian name for the dog. is the wolf. with a real dog.1 This cruel treatment is intended to make the animal return in spirit. in the Egyptian mythology as in nature. 55 cruel fate of Tantalus. when the soul of the dying is about to go forth. Colonel Hamilton Smith in opposing the theory of the dog’s descent from the wolf and jackal. and this is likewise a name of the wolf. which not only confounds the dog with the wolf. has rashly asserted that a thorough philological inquiry would most assuredly show that in no language and at no period. The names of the wolf and dog are found to be equivalent in the pre-historic language. and all three meet in the dog of the Dog-star. And it happens that the name of the wolf in Greek. In Egyptian one name of the dog is Anush or Unnush. is confounded. In the Hottentot language the jackal is named Girib. So the hound of Hermes. The Barrow at Barra was a central room with seven other chambers that contained the skeletons of men amd dogs. This of course could only apply to the name. The bones of a dog were found buried with the human skeleton in a cave of the Pyrenees. but tends to show the derivation of the dog from the wolf. Arabic Dib. called the Fenekh. Lykos. in Greece. But the dog was a creation of man. Here it may be thought that a creature so intelligent as the dog might be independentIy adopted in various lands. came to guide the passing soul to the river Styx.

the abstract forms of power.”1 The Osirian in the Ritual. the prophesier. and when they come to the nest. and wheresoever they are extant. and a represntative of the great Mother Neith. and leopard is gfa. the jackal or fox (fenekh) in Egypt. The vulture is Egyptian (Neophron perenopterus). brings with him the head of a dog as a kind of talismanic toll. her Mercury. Thus in Inner Africa the chief type-name of the lion. who was such a subtle thief in Inner Africa. They can be traced to Upper Nilotic Africa as their birthplace. who brought on certain types of things in the simplest condition from Inner Africa to develop and send them forth into the whole world at different stages in her own development. The jackal. Hahn. and both he and the vulture feast on them in the most friendly manner.” “I have made away. domesticated dog could have been adopted as a type Anubis as jackal. He pleads with the gatekeeper. p. startled and frightened by the blow. Anup. and then Reynard breaks the eggs. The Khoi-Khoi declare that if the jackal discovers an ostrich nest he will scream for the white vulture. In Europe the fox is still the announcer.” The keeper replies: “Thou mayst go: thou art purified. In Egyptian kafa denotes force. Kafi (Shu). whose guide and companion. is the jackal! The vulture is also a prophetic bird with the Khoi-Khoi as it was in Egypt.” The Kamite types are to be found the world overt in one stage or another. or fenekh. 2 Ch. The ostrich. wolf. I have provided myself with a dog’s head. scuttles off. Tsuni-Goam. and he became the Greek Hermes and Roman Mercury. This bird then follows him. 1 3 Ch. which is covered by the ostrich hen. 84. “I have anointed myself with red wax. Anubis is designated the “preparer of the way of the other world. which was a type of the dog-star. as was Anup. Egypt.56 THE NATURAL GENESIS. can stilI give the sole intelligible account of their origin and significance. the announcer of the Inudation. Egypt alone is their interpreter. The fainche is a fox in Irish-Keltic and the fenekh is the fox-dog of Abyssinia.2 in the 10th gate of his passage to Elysium. But it also means to hunt and seize by force. The kafau are the destroyers and desolators. cxlviii. When the fox is heard barking in the woods at night in England. . he is said to prophesy a sharp winter. the vulture claws up a stone and ascends the air vertically over the nest to drop the stone down plumb on the breeding hen. cxlvi.” says the decased. was the typical thief.3 These sly rogues furnished two divine types. puissance. and god of thieving. was the still earlier guide of the sun and souls through the under world. potency. “by what Anup has done for me.

Nam is a goat in Kiamba. the glory (Peh). Mengue in Bayon. Gray describes the treatment of a Mandenga who had killed a lion. Here. and the cat is named Boode in Embomma. and who was considered guilty of a great crime because be was only a subject. and Hek is his frog-headed consort in Egypt. a figure of Shu (Kafi) and Hapi. Esu in Isiele. a type of one of the seven elemental gods. In the Makua language Paka is simply the cat. and Egyptian shows the later application of the same word to a more abstract or recondite meaning. and elsewhere. The tail of a lion suspended from the rcof of a Xosa-Kaffir chief’s hut as the sign of his power has the same meaning when worn by a Rameses as Pharaoh of Egypt. Mangbe in Momenya.NATURAL GENESIS OF THE KAMITE TYPOLOGY. Mengbe in Momenya.) is called the king of frogs. the first and foremost. Mans-Nube in Kisawahili. Manka in Udom. The type-name for the woman in Inner Africa is— Manka in Ekamtulufu. Mengue in Param.1 This status of the animal was continued in the ideographs where the lion (Ha) signifies the lord. Other animals (as already mentioned) which were first named in Inner Africa can be traced by those names in Egypt where they have become divine types in mythology. another type of the Genitrix. Inner Africa shows 1 Gray’s Travels in Western Africa. Gbami is the cow in the Pika. Nome is the serpent in Bidsogo and the deity Num is serpent-crowned in Egypt. and Boude in Malamba. who was divinized as the great mother in mythology. the Suckler. The position of the woman was that of concubine and slave. Manka in Mbofon. . The lion and leopard were the live types first-named. Mengu in Param. who forces the sun along. This is the type of Isis the cow-headed Genitrix called As or Hes as the Egyptian goddess. wears on his head the hind quarter of the 1ioness as the emblem of his force. is Vei. In Egypt Manka or Menka (Menâ) reappears as the wet nurse. In Egypt this is the Kaf ape. Amanka in Mbofon. Mangbe in Bagba. Mengue in Kum. Kebe in Kra. is an enormous kind of toad. rather than of wife. In Egypt Pekha is the cat-headed goddess. and the goat in Egypt is another type of the god Num. like the Kaffir Ncinza. Mengue in Kum. The monkey is named Kefu in Krebu. Asi is the cow in the Kaffir dialects. p. and in this double character she is named— Manka in Ekamtulufu. a type of the double force. 143. The Numu. that is gods and goddesses. Menge in Bayon. Manka in Udom. and Khebma is the watercow the most ancient type of the Gcnitrix in Egypt. whereas the lion was a lord or sovereign. Mengue in Pati. 57 a divine type of power. Num (Eg. She is also known as Buto (Peht). the ruler. Efie in Anfue.

the earliest status of things which became symbolical and were held to be divine in Egypt. the natural genesis. They belong to the same ancient order of evidence as the totemic signs. and these underlying facts show a more profound relationship between Inner Africa and Egypt than those of syntax and grammar in language.58 THE NATURAL GENESIS. the primitive forms. and the oldest primitive customs that are likewise found to be the most universal in their range. . gesture-language.

We know what they said to him. Australian. and Egypt remains interpreter of the land of the origines. Totemism and heraldry are two extant modes of making signs by means of external typology. America. totemism. . 3 lambs. Heron. reptiles. Colt. because they had been his tutors. Coote.SECTION II. Ramsden. must have had one origin and emanated from one centre. It is the original home of various natural prototypes. made use of them for himself. He adopted them out of necessity. Head. which is at the base of the hieroglyphs.” These are still to be found on the stones. 3 colts.” more particularly in the “inscriptions above their sepulchres. for they continue to say the same thing as types. The animals. 3 cats. Australia. of heraldry. Herodian mentions the “shapes of the heavenly bodies and of all kinds of beasts and birds” as the tattoo-marks of the Picts. According to Boece the ancient Britons used the figures of beasts after the manner of the Egyptains. which talk in the tales of the Bushmen and in the beast-stories of Europe. The zoological nature of British naming is shown even by the following coats of arms in Canting Heraldry:— Keats. 3 cootes. “from whom they took their first beginning. stereotyped them for us. which became the earliest symbolic types. now claimed to have been African. and we have but to learn this language of animals to know that the same system of typology which has spread all over the world and been eternized in the stars of heaven. and Aryan folk-lore. and in the hieroglyphics of heraldry. and India were adopted amongst the earliest means of expression for the primitive man. NATURAL GENESIS AND TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. Lamb. 3 conies. 3 rams’ heads. 3 herons. Cunliffe. and of the so-called beast-epic of the Red Indian. (The symbolical and superstitious phase of customs once primitve can only be explained by means of their natural genesis. 3 unicorns’ heads. birds and insects.) THE thesis here maintained is that inner Africa was the birth-place of the animal typology. the coins or talismans.

Chinese.” “stock” or “stow. as the German is the war-man. Wales). This would apply to the first landing-place on any coast. by their signs. the man. Gaelic beabhor) or beaver tribe. or Belgic. the tribal settlement. ing. if they do not penetrate to the root than once grew in the place so named. and the right to bear a crest is based primarily on a claim of descent from a particular tem. but it originated in the need of names and the adoption of types for the purpose of distinguishing the groups from each other. This is continued in the Cornish Min for the coast. Sir John Lubbock has called totemism a “deification of classes”. Welsh. They are found by name in Menevia (St. British. and became individual property.” which were placenames before they became personal. It may be very deceiving where the earliest place-names have become the later race-names. “Menapii” as a folk-name. 1 2 . border. Take that of the Menapii for example. ham. The Mena is a landing-place. wolves. or harbour. The luga were the calves. The warriors who fought at Cattraeth included bears. boundary. tun. the Gledstanes are kits or hawks. the “calves” were also located near Belfast.60 THE NATURAL GENESIS. If the Menapii as later settlers were named from the place. whose mother was possibly represented by the British goddess Rosmerta. People were once known is these islands as the taverns are now. Men in Egyptian means to arrive. and would be so named in the language of the first comers. North American Indians. brink. David’s. Thus Menapia is the place of landing.” the “ham” and “combe. Heralds still profess to trace back the branches to the stem of the family tree. is more probably derived from the Kamite Menefia. their name can be no clue to their race.).1 The Bibroci were the biber (Cornish befer. Some of these totemic types became the blazons of counties. the Menapii of Cæser.” “worthe. Persian Minâ.2 The first name was given at puberty to him of the totemic mark. My contention would be for the place-name. The Brockdens are the badgers (unless named from the den of the brock). Ap (Eg. Australians. warp to shore.” “ing. or other group which was known by its totem.” ”ford. Were these Menapii then of one race? That depends on whether the name be a racename or a place-name. or tribe. and anchor. The Aneurin’s Gododin. at Dublin. The mertæ of Sutherlandshire were the cow-men. is the first. Next to him of the common land. was called after the land. There is a form of the ‘ham’ extant at Gloucester with peculiar common rights and liberties. like John-o’-Groats. Totemism was as purely a form of symbolism as English heraldry and coats of arms. a port.” the “leigh. Irish. and ravens. Even when land was made several. for soldiers. and at the mouth of the Rhine. and both emanate from that inner African system of typology which was continued by the Egyptians. The formative suffix in numberless names shows them to be derived from the “tun” and “den. The men of Essex and the Isle of Wight are still known as the “calves”. and Apia as country denotes the first land attained. each being the symbol of the group. and other ancient races. clan.

Of the Fijians it has been said. the blood of the family is entirely lost in the offspring. which was continued by the Pharaohs of Egypt. Totemism. and nephews held their wives in common as with the Tottiyars of India. the young men being the “sons. the elders. and is founded on the argument that if the wives of the brother are faithless. Bowditch says of the Ashantis.1 Who was the British patriarch in this sense when. This marriage of the brother and sister was continued by the Singhalese. Freeman is also wrong in asserting that the clan grew out of the patriarchate. but should the daughters deceive their husbands it is still prescrved. ten or a dozen totemic brothers held their wives in common? When the brothers. The sister of the brother was reckoned of more account than the wife. i. p.”2 In Central Africa.3 the sovereignty always remains in the same family. Bowditch. the son of the king’s sister is the chosen heir. and each man counts his sister’s children to be his heirs. 3. Indefinite progenitorship gave mote importance to the brother’s sister’s son. a system of naming individuals first and then whole groups after some animal. consisted in venerating or divinizing the totemic type. because in him the blood-tie was traceable. Ashantee. the nephew. then from the sister. p. as among the Galactophagi. “So all over Africa. as Cæser tells us. with whom the only fathers known by name were the “olm men”.” The nephew was allowed the extraordinary privilege of appropriating whatever he chose belonging to 1 2 3 Comparative Politics. who likewise limited the custom to the royal family. no doubt originated and was preserved as a type of this blood-tie. however. the “two women” from whom the Karmilaroi tribes claim to descend. Travels. but her brother’s children as nephews and nieces. So was it in ancient Persia. 185. according to Caillié. the collective patriarchate. but the son does not succeed the father. there were none among them that could be distinguished as fathers except they were the old men. is not what the same writer thought. p. no child knows its own father. “Their extraordinary rule of succession excludes all children but those of a sister. as amongst all polyandrists. “however high a chief may be if he has a nephew he has a master. 61 deification. then from the uncle and finally the father. 153. Among the Malays. With the Nairs. if any.”—Captain Burton. The marriage of brother and sister.” Descent was first traced from the mother. With the Kenaiyers of North-West America a man’s nearest heirs in the tribe are his sister’s children. Mr. uncles. the family crest first adopted out of necessity for use.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. vol. if the speaker be a female she salutes her sister’s children as sons and daughters. the custom was sacred to them alone. .

not of the wife. and dra blood. Mahi. there are games and sports. 175. uncle and nephew.3 Aristotle4 says the Libyans have their women in common. he had his sister married. p. and the nephew succeeded to the supremacy. novi. The Fijians have a feast called Tunudra. Both the brother and sister are named nofi in Anfue. the uncle. vol. These two.) is the seed. When the child is the first-born. Nephthys (Neft) was the sister or Osiris. the men in sport marked each other’s bodies with the women’s tattoo. The girls remained with the motherm and belonged to her tribe. but which. i. were recognised personages before the father and son (as the son of the father). or those who were under his uncle’s power. being mothered by the sister.2 In this way mythology becomes a mirror that reflccts the primitive sociology. the knave is a lad. is the general rule in Africa. 5 Williams. when the child was named and entered into his father’s tribe. she who preserves the seed in its purity. in Fijian. and in Lap the sister’s son is named the napat. Neft is expressly designated “the sister”. desired an heir.) was reckoned as the child of the sister. p.62 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Nap or nephew. as Anubis. This fact is implied by the name. Fiji and the Fijians.5 appears to have more relation to the mother than the child. vol.1 So. The nephew of his uncle was an Emperor by nature. An at this festival of the eldest child and mother-right. instead of marrying himself. “the benevolent saving sister. says Captain Burton. Fiji and the Fijiana. Nap (Eg.” It is she. her basket (neb) being the purifier of the seed. had a custom for the boy to become the father’s property on his paying the mother a price for him. This. 123. In the inner African languages the boy is the napat in Kanyon. The Tunundra is in celebration of the mother-blood. At this stage the seed (nap Eg. the child. 4 Pol. who carries the seed-basket on her head. on purpose to trace the line of descent. and nâwie in Dahome. the nephew. and distribute the children according as they favour the men in likeness. This social status is reflected in the Egyptian mythology. nabat. 3 Lubbock. In English. or concubine. Tattooing is a custom typical of becoming men aod women as parents. when Vasouki. Sarar.” the “mistress of the house. Hwida. 2. The Limboos of India. The genitrix as Neft is the bearer of the brother’s son. not the wife. says Williams. There are customs extant which show the father assuming his right to claim his son by direct descent. a tribe near Darjeeling. i. tuna is the mother. 34. anaefi. in celebration of the birth of a child. and Nift in old Icelandic is the sister still. Origin of Civilization. and nafan in Bola. the Serpent King. 1 2 . or mother-right. 39. one of these consists in the men painting on each other’s bodies the woman’s tattoo. p.

pairing at pleasure. and imitated their cries. The types adopted to distinguish the groups were the earliest ideographs that served for signs when these were without other names. clan. The tribe 1 Indian Tribes. p. 63 the mother symbol being transferred to the male. ii. undistinguished by name or totem or law of sexual intercourse. It was preceded by the gregarious horde. The animals are the symbols. Nor had the deification of animals any place in the origines of symbolism. and this typology is continued in the personal names derived from the same mould of thought. a stone or a tree. or cobabiting until the child was born. It is the way of many very primitive customs to end in harlequinade like the British pantomime. a turtle or a hawk. was their progenitor. with property in cattle and wives. Totemism began long before the male progenitor was known. with later rules for the checking of was impossible to father the child. and that this was being done jokingly in a game of guesswork. or body. with descent on the father’s side.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. but it looks as if we here recovered a primeval picture of the communal system in which . or tattoo. 49. and by aid of the maternal type or tat. then by the family in which marriage was by single pairs.1 nor that they fancied the souls of their ancestors had entered into the particular totemic types. Men and women still clothe themselves in the wool. They dressed like them in their symbolical dances. of persons was only known from the gregarious mass by means of the natural figures which were at first branded into the flesh at the period of puberty. The still earlier clothed themselves as it were in the figures of birds and beasts. They were so in the absence of later hieroglyphics. Next by the organization on the basis of sex. and the polyandry of less civilized societies. when they have found no ecclesiastical place of refuge. in the process of making game of each other. and the tem. Earlier races wore the skins with the hair on. The Fijians had superseded the mother-right. So far from the patriarchal family being first. and feather of beast and bird. it is the last but one. That is only a suggestion made by the moderm ignorance of symbols. and the groups were discriminated by some particular sign. and were continued as and for symbols into the domain of personal names. The totemic types originated when the undistinguished herd was first discreted into groups. by which they would be identified still further with their totemic sign. vol. fur. as Schoolcraft alleges. then followed the patriarchal or polygamic family. the monogamic being last of all. . or tribal name. If. and finally the monogamic family founded on the individualised fatherhood. the totem of the Redskins had become to them a symbol of the name of a progenitor it was not that the Indians thought a beaver or serpent.

was the progenitor. and children.tended. although they did not appear to feel the want of such a means of distinguishing one individual from another. each class being compelled to use their own. or prairie dog. vol. and therefore show a continuation of the totemic mode of naming and distinguishing by the group only. or totem. p. Schoolcarft. in front of the house. In the Ojibwa dialect the word totem signifies the symbol or device of a Gens. It changes with every rank of the holder. passed through the underworld and rose again as a guide. still makes the typical return to her own tribe. it was the totemic. corresponding to the universal eight original gods. . The wolf is respected by the Lenni Lenape Indians as the animal which released mankind from their subterranean abode. “There are eight personal pronouns of the second person peculiar to servants. Steinmetz. 119. p. not the personal. in the various mythologies of the world. i. but of the clan. and saviour. By whatever names the Redskins might be known In their lifetime. Eight classes of the personal pronoun answer to the eight totems of the Kamilaroi or eight of the lroquois Indians.”3 These told which “thou” was in. Japan and her People. as one of a class. in Egypt. The distinction of an individual name was the latest of all.4 So is it with us. as is shown also by their being hereditary. one of the first types of time. 49. and not another. pupils. Lichtenstein describes the Bushmen as having no personal names. or the Adjedatig. i. 299. in the planetary character of Mercury. Their society had been arrested in the totemic stange of nomenclature. The Japanese people themselves were really divided into eight primary classes. vol. p. as the dog-star. p. 97. who. as is manifested by displaying the coat of arms on the scutcheon. The coyote. The Japanese have a different personal pronoun for various classes of persons. The totem is not the name of the dead ancestor.1 In Dahome the personal name can hardly be said to exist at all. although applied to a later stage of society. and the animal was the type of the whole group. at the place of burial. In death the individual still reverts to the totemic style. or male patriarch. The Scottish wife. with descent only on the mother’s side.2 These distinctions of rank and class-titles are another form of naming the division first. vol.64 THE NATURAL GENESIS. the principle of discreting from the undistinguished mass and naming by subdivisions is the same. was honoured as the bringer into the world of the ancestors of the root-diggers of Californja. 2 Burton. or prototypes. Coyote and wolf represent the golden dog. Anup. name that was recorded on the tomb. whose married name is changed for her maiden name in death. thence the figure of a wolf was the totem of the wolf 1 3 4 Lichenstein. or communal type. 49. ii. deliverer. which is any animal rather than a human ancestor. p.

Diambe. became a kingdom. to your Tembes. i. the Latin Domus. Latham. Maori Tamene.3 TheBrehon joint family. The Tem (Eg. the abode or domicile. wolf. The Attic township was a Dem. village.1 the figure of a serpent was the totemic sign of the Tuscaroras. p.) also means the total. by a masked man who acts the part of a being from the unseem world. Dsamei. the Keltic fine. in Goboru. Tanaru in Gbanda. is still extant in Central Africa. is preserved by name in the West Australian Dumbu. ing. who is thus adopted into the Tem. 475. or city. pe:rformed at the time of puberty. the chief shouted. hawk. and a totemic or national mark is made on the back. The Magars of India had an organization of twelve Thums. fish. How I Found Livingstone. and in Inner Africa the Tembe is also called the Tan in Koama. as a town. Morgan. as parts of the larger district. Tan in Bagbalan. the rekh. Idom in Anan. The Tem. dog. where the people are divided into the dwellers in “Tembes. district. vol. ape. as the especiaI name of the town. for the mother’s womb. The primordial Tem. Sa-ten in Guresa. The Toms in Scotland are relics of the same primary type of the dwelling in life. In Egypt the totemism of the tribal system had been continued in the towns and cities which bore the names of the zoological types. Tunk in Dselana. the Zadruga house-community. The second member of the Greek organic territorial series comprised the ten Demes. 1ike the English Team. p. crocodile. the type or mark of the Daim. and this agrees with the Gothic Dom as the whole of anything. A new name is then conferred on the youth. and others. and many other of the primitive units that held a domain and property in common. 165. lion. Descriptive Ethnology. The Daim. the Hebrew twelve tribes. as a birth-place. 65 Gens. Demgal. Tembe in Vei also means to stand in a row. The original of the word totem is supposed to be the Algonkin Do-daim. under the king. The Vei people have a religious rite. in Kisma. “To your Tembes. 198. of the Southern Sclava. this mark is termed the Beri-tamba. and the Tomb in death. The “Temai” had become the town.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS.”2 The town is also the Edume. The Zulu Tumu-tumu is a large assemblage of huts. the joint Hindu family. The Daman in Pahlavi is the dwelling. fort. Tengu in Mose. in Adampe. or fall in to rank. such as the hippopotamus. to be assembled together. . which is called the Beri. as a whole. and sending them to their homes. Wagogo. Tem and Tun permute. in Buduma. p. or mark of the pubescent male. a big Tumu. and the land itself as 1 3 2 Stanley.” In dispersing the mob at Ugogo.

When the Dyaks of Borneo caught the alligator or crocodile they saluted it as their grandfather. or brand. the lynx in Cornish). The animal is but a symbol. Anct.” This Ngaitye has also passed into individualized heraldry. Egyptian Ankh. answering to the Australian Kobang.2 The Britjsh were known to Tacitus as the Ing-gua the men of the Ing. equivalent to the Algonkin Do. Yingue. is a superstitious life-tie between two persons. 253. Songo. or any other ideographic type. the Sept. or mark of the Daim. or tribe. Nor was it the ancestor as male that was eponymous.3 St. The Aonac (Gaelic) is an assembly.—for the Ank. The Ing is an enclosure. those who dwell together.” This title reflects the pre-paternal phase. and the confusion of the symbol with the thing signified. because he was the brother of the mother.66 THE NATURAL GENESIS. and is regarded as the man’s tutelary genius.” The Narrinyeri of South Australia have a totem for each tribe or family. Society. on the Gold Coast by means of zoological symbols that denote consanguinous descent. John. Enec in Irish means the protection of the Clan or Ing. Ngatahi signifies “together. The Japanese Kob-ong. the dwellers in a certain district. stamp. the patriarch of the Tent. Ank in Sanskrit is to mark. 375. The Maori Ngt is a mark applied to the division of land also called a Tio. And such ties were supposed to exist between the brethren of the Ankh and their namesake of the Totem. but the totem. hence the true ancenstor so frequently claimed in the totemic animal. Chinese Heang. This view is corroborated by the Australian “Kobang. p.” which is not primary when applied to the type. as the uncle was acknowleged before the father was known. “perpetual man” were all forms or the Tum. 3 Morgan. Onnchu Irish. called the “Ngaitye. is the fact signified. 1 2 . or Ank. because they existed when the mate ancestry was too common to be individually identified. p. or Hanchi. is very general as a type-name. which they bear in addition to the personal name as that of the Kont-ong. ii. vol. The Hank is a body of people confederated. or Ancestors. When the Sumatrans speak of tigers as Nenek.1 The Yakuts of Siberia address the bear as their “beloved uncle. and did not descend from the common ancestor. the type of the Tem. it is becase the tiger was a totemic animal. but to the thing signified. applied to the people of a district. This was once the tie of the Ankh or Turn. Captain Burton tells me the brotherhood (ntwa) of the totems is uniformly recognized. Ang in West Australian signifies belonging to. which permutes with Tun. who preceded the people of Engla-land. that is to the family. (Inko in Kisama. Far East. Mungo Park gives a clan-name of the Mandengas of North Africa. which might be the leopard.

and the law is that no two members of the same section may intermarry. 6.5 that likewise implied. the totemic name still known with us by the heraldic type. Totemic signs served for various purposes of social intercourse. Looang. p. and this elder brother is marvellously great and powerful. and have their “Crests” of the whale. or others. 13. iv. p. p. 1866. serpent. is perhaps as large as our cabin. These sections are the “Thums. The Magar tribes of India are divided into totemic sections.3 The Munnieporees and other tribes round Munniepore are each and all divided into four families. and if a man should defy the law and marry a woman of the same totem he is laughed at and ridiculed as the man who has married his sister. Metlah Katlak. and other types. and has come from a totaIly different tribe. even though she may not have the slightest connection by blood. pp. 49 and 69. The Chinese. Members of the tribe may intermarry. they told me. eagle. “The say. 2 So is it with the Tinneh Indians. La Jeune in Rel. and “uncle” on the bear. conferred on the crocodile. that all the animals of each species have an elder brother. as it had carried on. and it dominates that of the tribe. The Ostiaks held it to be a crime to marry a woman of the same surname.” or old onc. 69. but the intermarriage of the members of the same family is strictly prohibited. whethe as leopard. i.” With the Trimsheen Indians of British Columbia who are temmed.”1 Here the big elder brother was the human archetype. Hence the style of “grandfather. alligator. p. published by the Church Missionary Society. and Ningthaja. The elder brother of the beavers.” Smithsonian Report. p. vol. 315. 6 Davis. And this continued dominant after men were known hy the individual surname. moreover. 282. the relationship of the “Crest” is nearer and dearer than that of blood or any other tie which we may consider near. 5 Pallas. who is as it were the principal and origin of all the individuals. that is. 1 2 . vol. frog.6 The first formation of society recognizable is the division into two totems. and this rule includes all descendants of the male branch far ever. 4 Account of the Valley of Munniepore. dog. Those of the same totem are not aHowed to marry under any circumstances. 1634. So is it still with the Somali of East Africa. dans la Nouvelle France. nor a frog unite with a frog. “Notes on the Tinneh. tortoise. Hardisty. bull.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. wolf. In China marriage between those of the same surname is unlawful. the Koomrul. A member of any of thesc families may marry a member of any other. des Jes. 3 Burton. stood for the general ancestor of the Tem and Ankh long before the individual fatherhood was known.4 The totemic name still implied an original totemic relationship. 67 The totemic type. Ankom. divided into totems. but not the bearers of the same crest. a whale must not marry a whale.

Murris.” Nor is this an uncommon type of name. both feminine symbols.. and Kubbis are the same respectively.. All the Ippais of whatever gens are brothers to each other and are theoretically descended from oncecommon female ancestor. Kumbo. Ippai. F." so that the grand-children of “Ippai” and “Kapota” are themselves “Ippais” and “Kapotas. Kapota. Kubbi.”2 These two brotherhoods were subdivided into eight totemic tribes. Buta.” apparently. Kapota. Mata. .. were subdivisions. New South Wales. 3 Morgan. Female. Kapota 4. Mata. Kubbi. 2. bear. 2.1 This is the oddcst social formation on earth. Male.” in like manner “Kapota” begets “Mata. which are rigidly preserved. 3. composing the two brotherhoods of the Seneca-Iroquois. Kapota. Kubbi . Buta. and the Emu. Mata. Ippai marries Kumbo . the very bifurcation of the promiscuous herd. Buta.. 3.3 The Two Totems are those of the Iguana. Female. Murri . Ancient Society. And so of the others according to the name. Male.. male and female.” as well as collateral brothers and sisters. snipe. Among the North American Indians the Chocta gentes were united in two phratries. 4. Ippai can marry 2. Morgan. from the most archaic form of society hitherto known. turtle. p.68 THE NATURAL GENESIS. and hawk. Ippata Their children . .. are still divided into the two castes or totems of the earliest separation. Male Female. The Aborigines on the river Darling. Buta 2. indicates the sexual purpose of the earliest division. wolf. . are— Male.. “Iguana-Mata” must marry “Kumbo.. Kumbo. note. These two. Female.. beaver. Murri can marry 4. British Association Meeting. Ippai. for breeding purposes. are . . of which the eight (gentes). for the same reason. The Kumbos. Mata 3. Murri.” her 1 2 Bonney. 425. heron. 1882. Here we meet by name with those who were distinguished as the “divided ones.. 3. “Ippain begets “Murri” and “Murri” in turn begets “Ippai. and the children still follow the rank of the mother. The Kamilaroi were organised in two primary totems.” and “Mata” in turn begets “Kapota.. If any Kubbi meets an Ippata he can treat her as his goleer or spouse. 1. Murri. 1. Female. Ippata. Male. A tradition of the Senecas affirms that the bear and the deer were the original two totems. Ippata. Male. which are subdivided into eight groups. and deer. The “beloved. Ippota 1. and as such are born husbands and wives. 4. Kubbi . and the first phratry was called the divided people. . 1. The second was the “beloved people. Kumbo . Female..

In like manner.” and of the Emu gens. and each Tem is made up theoretically of the descendants of the “two women” of the most primitive sociology. the mother heaven. the two sisters or mythology who were two forms of the Mother. and the two sisters of one blood were the primary cause of dividing the offspring into the two first Totemic castes. 69 children are “Kubbi” and “Kapota. and Mata. and Buta the mother of Ippata.). “Emu-Ippata” must marry “Kubbi. “Emu-Buta” must marry “Murri. This elaborate-looking divice is but the result of the uttermost simplicity. By following out these descents it will be seen that in the female line Kapota is the mother of Mata. in turn. who at first might intermarry.” Now.”—her children are “Ippai” and “Ippata. in the West Indian Islands. The Totemic Heroes of the Caribs. The two primary divisions and the later eight are also extant on the Gold Coast. whose signs of the Iguana and Emu distinguished the earliest Separate groups.1 The first division and the cause of it can be ascertained. Hence the descent from the two women. this identity is common with various races. the Emu (bird) and Iguana (reptile). were seen by them in the figures of the constellations! The clan. The two women were the mother and her sister. and thus return is for ever made to the dual feminine ancestry! The Tem is maintained by keeping in its membership the children of all its female members. Each starry family was composed of individual stars. gens. the reptile of the woman below. and the two castes were cousins. and mythology says the next was the sister. The earliest tie perceived was uterine. the bringer-forth from the abyss. Ippata is the mother of Buta. the next was that of the blood relationship. This is shown by the two feminine types of the two Totems. we see the later link of connection between the individual soul and the star.” her children are “Kumbo”and “Buta. working within the narrowest limits. The bird is the type of the woman above. 1 . and as the star and soul have the same name. because descent is in the female line. whose children were first divided and distinguished from those that lived in the state of primal promiscuity. the Mother of Kapota. this may account for the notion with which the Fijians are credited. that shooting-stars are souls of the departed. The two sisters of our sociology were the two female ancestors of the Australians. or Tem being represented by the star-group.” and necessarily Iguana in Gens.” and also of the Emu gens. The Kamalaroi eight tribes of the original Two Totems declared that they all descend from “two women. The star and soul are identical as Seb (Eg. as the crocodile (Typhon) or dragon (Tiamat) of the waters. the mother was the first individual recognised.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS.

. . and that an common naming on earth came from one common naming of the heavens. . . . These are the eternal witnesses above to the Kamite origin of mythological typology. . Acosta describes the people as venerating the celestial archetypes of certain animals and birds found on earth. . The twelve signs are likewise represented by or in conncction with the Chinese horary of twelve hours. . . His theory is that they believed there was an archetype in heaven of every likeness found on the earth in the animal shape. . . This was the Platonisation of the starry hieroglyphics. . . . although the earlier type is employed to convey a later signficance. . the shepherds looked up to a certain constellation called the Sheep. Cancer. We have to take the prior step from the natural animal to the celestial. . . . The chief totemic signs of the: North American Indians are to be found in the heavens. Capricorn. 222. . and they are all believed to exert a great influence on the lives of persons. Horse Sheep . Taurus. Gemini. . Lung . according to the 1 Tsuni-Goam. . 85. The mapping out of Egyptian localities. May good or evil fortune fall on you from the star of my grandfather!1 This was a totemic type. the archetypes of which were found on earth. . Sagittarius. ranging from the Great Bear to the Stone of the Oneidas (the Stone or Tser Rock in Egyptian). . . . . . . . . . . . . Aries. Tiger . Rat. Ki . . . . . . and the types that had been configurated in the heavens for totemic signs. . Monkey Cock . . . . . . . . . . . She . in blessing or cursing. . . however.70 THE NATURAL GENESIS. These are Shu . and also to read the thoughts and things of earth at times by means of the imagery Stelled in the heavens. ii. Hare . . . and the star called the Tiger protected them from tigers. . 2 Tylor. It is but a step from the celestial to the spirit world. . .2 Speaking of these star-deities he says. Scorpio. Dog . according to the hour and its special sign under which they were born. . Ox . . . . Boar . . It has already been suggested that the first mapping out of localities was celestial before the chart was geographically applied. . . Aquarius. . . . . . . Kwen Chu . . before it signified a translated soul. . Ma . . . Virgo. but the Indians did not figure them there as constellations. . . . . Hu. . commencing with the Great Bear and Dog. . . . . . . . . Star-totems were in use among the ancient Peruvians. . p. . are visible and physical. p. . Prim. however. . . . . Niu . . . Yang . . . . . . . The Twelve Signs of the Zodiac are totemic with the Chinese. . and this platonisation of mythology is the ground-rootage of Plato’s system of celestial archetypes carried out in the region of more abstract thought. these being reflected back again in the minds of men. Tu . . The origines. . Dragon Serpent . . Heu . . It appeared to him that the people were drawing towards the dogmas of the Platonic ideas. . Libra. will say. . . Leo. . . Culture. The Hottentots. . . . vol. Each of the animals is still recognised as a totem. . Pisces.

who is said to have “established the landmark of the south. and position in space determined. The supposition was that the heavenly family had taken up their abode in the birds and the fishes. From these we come at last to the ruling planet and the individual’s guiding star. Others reoognised constellations as totemic types. The animals 1 3 Records of the Past. He has to be forced backward step by step with face set all the while the clean contrary way. says Gill. lizards. The constellations were figured for use. It is the august staircase of the beginning of time. The stars were totemic with the ancient Arab tribes.3 "to symbolize the world. but. 68. i. The twelve signs of the zodiac were the twelve Totems of the Hebrew Tems. and became fetishtic. and these animals were all types. 34-35. This “celestial race includes rats. because they hold that there are seventy-two primitive countries of the world. the types were made totemic. The Mangaian mind was still in the symbolic stage. not the origin. The tree of seventy-two branches. sharks. setting up their landmarks like the heaven. as the figure of the seventy-two duo-decans. Canopus of the Tay tribe. and the mother of birth. 14. They use the ape (Aan). He made the district in to parts. xii. the birthplace. Rec. the point of completion. where the station of the ape was at the equinox. Jupiter was the star of the Jôdam and Lakhm tribes. first personified in the abyss. A very comprehensive designation for the divinities of all kinds. These things did not begin wIth any vague general worship of the heavenly host.4 is the “te anau tuarangi. and lastly as Apta in the Solar Zodiac. pp. .” the heavenly family. 133. 2 4 Inscription of Queen Hatasau.”2 Thebes is Teb or Apt. is described in the inscription of Khnumhept. says Hor-Apollo. with its seventy-two branches corresponding to the seventy-two duo-decans of the zodiac. 71 celestial Nomes and scenery. might just as well look on the black race as a very discoloured or dirty kind of white.”1 It is said that “Thebes is a Heaven upon earth. and several kinds of birds.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. Sirius of the Kais tribe. The system was full-blown under another type in the Kabbalistic Tree of the worId. or the diamondiferous dark. Fetishism began with typology. He stretched the Great River on its back. beetles. Mercury of the Asad tribe.” All such supposition is gratuitous and European. and sculptured the northern—like the heaven. next in the heaven of the Great Bear. not of Argelander’s map of millons. xii. Myths and Songs. The God of Sabaoth is the deity of the Seven Stars. is of Egyptian origin.” This world was in the heavens. Those stars were observed and honoured by which time could be reckoned. the non-evolutionist who looks on fetishism as a primeval religion degraded to idolatry. and both mythology and religion were the outcome.

1 Totemic types were not adopted without reason. One serpent figure has been traced a thousand feet in length. What they once signified in Africa was their meaning in Polynesia. so there were totemic types derived from ankh. Near the image of the Mexican deity was an altar upon which there is a hand of iron. the Ka image being the spiritual likeness in the future life. or the feathered serpent elsewhere. the mouth. and that these were represented by the animals. He is said to send to every child that enters its seventh year some animal to be its protector or guardian. until mesmerised. show the two powers of the Water and Air. The earliest two of the Kamilaroi.72 THE NATURAL GENESIS. These in all likelihood were delineated as the Totems of the buried dead. With the prefix this is Teka (Eg. These manifested powers superior to the human in relation to the two elements. Sa. 1881. are still named in heaven. the serpent and bird. however dim in the native memory. The Acagemans of Calfornia worship the God TOUCH. with the common people around. the diviners took narcotic drinks. Was this a form of the god Touch? Touch is an Egyptian divinity named Ka or Sa. the tie-type of reproduction. Sa or Touch. &c. like the dragon and bird. was the god of fetish images in Egypt. or Tacu. attach. this was in Adams County. looking at the figure of some animal drawn on the ground by one of the Mages. shaped the outlines of their inclosures in the forms of animals. each Daim having its own mound. as was the god Touch in America. the Karast. Ka.) to touch. the hair. birds. the nose. Gesture-language and names show that as the man was first distinguished by his pubescent attributes. or Fetiço. birds. The writer explains that he takes these things “apart from mythology and symbolism. Tesa. the eye. ankh. the first two elements. they had no other origin. the Iguana and Emu. In order that the child might ascertain what animal shape the protecting spirit wore. where the chief or the principal male and female were interred. which appeared on the surface of the country as huge hieroglyphics raised in enormous relief. and the stars are hieroglyphically grouped for us as for them.” But they cannot be taken apart. who appears at times in a variety of animal forms. particularly in Wisconsin. and many other forms of the amulet and protective charm. the beard. This Egyptian Ka (still later Sa) is the deity of emblematic types. as the ear of the jackal. the Ka. This was branded on his arm. These type include the mummy image. join together. and have no other meaning. The Mound-Builders of America. a sacred inclosure. 1 . At the Congress of “Americanists” held at Madrid in September. ankh. a Mexican savant professed ot have discovered the clay bust of a god Cay or Tsoa (unless these denote two different deities) amongst other antiquities which he had exhumed at Uxmal in Central America. Ohio. or the child fasted and watched in the Vanquech. the ear. the double of one’s self in this. beside the image of the god. ankh. and it was intended to give him a surer touch on the bowstring. Then the animal seen in vision was adopted as his type or fetish figure. and serpents. the tooth.

may be considered to constitute two factors of the belief in the magical powers possessed by the Munda of India for changing their shape into wild beasts at will. and appear as the typical beasts of the Totem. and at times female. vol. Carlin. ii. Gill. the tooth of Hu.” In the Kanuri language of Bornu (Africa). p. for this creature is at times male. 5 Sproat. the inhabitants of which are said to possess this faculty of transformation. the mouth of the Genitrix Rerit. and from this is formed the verb bultungin. and Kanuri Vocab. the God of Breath. and danced as buffalos.4 The natives of Vancouver’s Island had a religious ceremony in which the performers stripped themselves naked and plunged into the water. to be read by the hieroglyphics. 275. Such types are preserved in mythology. the eye of the hawk. and the acting of a primitive drama according to the animal or totemic characters.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. The hyena is one of the transformers or phœnixes (the Benn) in the Ritual. Afr. the sow and hippopotamus. Lit. but is sometimes strong.1 These doubtless originated in the hyena Totem. 3 6 B. . 69. because they offered types of superior powers. and that does not remain in the same state.2 Hor-Apollo3 says when the Egyptians would symbolise one that is unsettled. the Buffalos wore horns. and the meaning of their names. ii. Some of these strange customs and consequent superstitions originated in zoological typology. the nose of the vulture. It originates in the shedding and transforming phase being considered feminine. and survive at present in the “pantomime. as we know from various sources. the claw or nail of the lion.” There is a town named Kabultiloa. the nose of the kaf-ape. This transformation. 73 or dog. and at last they transformed and sprang up to join in the “seal-dance. It was the practice at certain ceremonies. the ear of the jackal. they depict an hyena. dragging their bodies along the sand like seals. and the donning of the hyena skin in their religious masquerade. In these customs the symbolism is acted and becomes 1 4 Koelle. the horn of the rhinoceros. xxiv. 128. 2 Ch. 256. which sigmifies “I transform myself into a hyena. then they went into the house and crawled around the fire. for the totemic people to masquerade in character. transformed into the earliest images of the gods or prototypes. no matter how cold the night. and crawled out again. Specimens of them were extant to a late period in British plays and pastimes. Sut-Anup. p. as the Mangaians did the crabs: in character when they danced the crab-dance. This belief is still held by the Arabs. The hawk of Horus represents Sight. the Adult. and tooth of the bear. p. Among the North American Indians. 66. the name of the hyena is Bultu. p.”5 They represented the seals. The Kamite typology can also be traced into the domain of primitive practices which are symbolical. and at other times weak.

crawls as a serpent. being afraid of Typhon. and compelled to conceal themselves for a while under the form of animals. dissolution. Ra passed through the signs.Typhonian discord. fishes.” The sun then passed through the bestiary. ibis. when he is faint they are faint. lion. as the representatives of dissolution and chaos. however. it happeneth that by the devil’s delusion they appear in the shape of that beast. or timelessness. We know that such representations were part of the drama of the Mysteries. the emblem of rising again from the Hades. This. in England. dog. . cackles as a goose. the gigantic Apophis. It is not more than three or four centuries since.” Plutarch refers to the idea “that the gods. at one equinox in to the hawk. did. In writing of the Guatematlecs. and think that when that beast dieth they must die. Diodorus has it that the gods were at one time hard pressed by the giants. In this version the giants displace Typhon. ram. and hawks. scattered fragments of which are now found in the form of inexplicable superstitions and beliefs. in the height or his power he transformed into the lion. but for which. or dragon of the dark. The lunar goddess assumed the form of the cat as a watcher by night.” and repudiates it as “a foolery beyond belief. as the hippopotamus. old Gage delivered himself on this matter thus:—“Many are deluded by the devil to believe that their life dependeth upon the life of such and such a beast (which they take unto them as their familiar spirit). and at the other into the phœnix. as it were. The gods taking the shape of animals to oppose the Typhonian powers means the typification of the time-keepers and celestial intelligencers. 17.74 THE NATURAL GENESIS. and thus comes between men and chaos. emphatically states that he himself is the respective intermediate type which he adopts in the process of being assimilated to the highest. In the Pool of Persea he made his transformation into the cat. and others by the aid of which the time-cycles were made out and order was established (or the world was formed). and this in the language of symbol was designated his transformation into the shape of the signs. as he did in Egypt. crocodile. hawk. is a matter of interpretation. He flies as a hawk. The sun-god is seen taking the shapes of animals that represent time (Seb). In the Ritual the deceased who transforms into the various animals. a drama of typology. when he is chased their hearts pant. which in consequence became sacred. nay. chaos. or soars heavenwards as a hawk. and destruction would have prevailed for ever. Many descriptions might be quoted to show that in their religious ceremonies the actors performed their masquerade in the guise of animals.1 1 Ch. hide themselves in the bodies of ibises. dogs. the Zodiac was called the “bestiary. ape. or birds. Horus escapes through the nets of Typhon as a fish.

because the wolf (Anup) was her warder and guardian during her search after Osiris in the underworld. Also the Phynnodderee is a Manx spirit. said to have been an outlawed fairy.”1 just as we say the sun passes through the signs. or dog. such as Benn.). clothed in wolf-skins. It was exactly the case with the swan-maidens. became. It is noticeable that Ven is a Cornish name for woman. so to speak. The wolf. was no doubt connected at times with abnormal trance-conditions which are now better. or transformer. 2 B. it is compelled to retain that shape. leopard. These are sometimes human beings. The head of a wolf was wom in the mysteries of Isis. it begins to change and swell and swell until its bulk threatens to sink the boat. In the Shetland Isles. they celebrated the resurrection of the wolf from the Hades. jackal. was the guide of the sun and of the souls of the dead.” and in the mysteries of puberty the initiate was transformed into the hairy one. iv.2 The Texan tribe of the Tonkaways did the same when. When one is caught in a net. and at other times seals. The station of the wolf in the Egyptian planisphere is at the place of the vernal equinox. a wolf for a few days once a year. Benn.3 The candidate as the Loveteau of French Masonry still enters as a youug wolf: also the “wolf” that was the guide of the Great Mother and of the sun is still made use of as the “guide” (called the wolf) in tuning the piano! The transformation into the wolf or other animal. 72. By means of a “skin” the men and women are able to turn themselves into seals. as a member of the Totemic tribe. the snake. Pl. when deprived of their skin of feathers. could not re-transform until they had re-clothed themselves in the stolen skin. cat. may be seen by the stories of transformation. or phœnix-tree. or it will cut a chip off the vessel and turn that into a boat. “I establish myself for ever in my transformation that I choose. a point of commencement where we find the double holy house of Anup. In the far north it was the seal that supplied the typical skin which was furnished by the lion. ii. i. like the natives of Vancouver’s Island. The: seal must have been a totemic sign of those who boasted of their descent from the Finn women. the transformers are known as the Finns. and if the sealskin be stolen from one of the seals when it has transformed into the human figure. and became a Finn. who. 75 He says. but by no means sufficiently understood. at that period of his life. wolf. Herodotus was told that the Neurian wizards amongst the Scythians. or on the line of the fishers. the palm. 105. hyena. . or cow in other regions. 3 A Book of the Beginnings. The hieroglyphics show various types of transformation under this name. or Phynnodderee. That the Finn represents the Benn (Eg. each of them.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. bear. whose name signifies the “hairy one. vol. only their metaphors identified and did not compare the person. 1 Ch. settled about the Black Sea. with the type.

In Egypt the various types had attained the status of divinities. The typology is all one. and both meet in the Welsh Cyfaeliawg for beetle-browed. Benn. water is the symbol of the hair. through the water as a crocodile. see in the dark as a cat. The flying beetle is a chafer. xlii. or bittern. the Finenn (Gael). in which the body of the deceased is reconstructed.76 THE NATURAL GENESIS. the Feannog. In the Ritual (Eg. He could make his way through the earth as a tortoise. by his eyebrows meeting. . the head into an owl. is the better type. “The hair is in the shape of that of Nu. the Shetland Vanega. Egyptian Khepr. animals. in order that he might effect his total transformation. and we describe such a person as beetle-browed. however. Nineteen divinities constitute the types or ruling powers in place of the twenty Mexican. a mythical cat. The beetle being a special emblem of the trnnsformer (as the god Khepr). and in the Peruvian mythology the lady of heaven pours out the water of heaven from the cross-shaped vase. and thus resembling a butterfly. So in the Indian hieroglyphic signs rain was depicted by a dot or semicircle filled with water and placed on the head. a buzzard. His chances or means of getting through the thicket of opposing enemies were represented by these types. He clothed himself with them as superhuman powers. is thus extant as the same type in the beetle-brows. a royston crow. in Mexican. we have the phœnix. Benn. the celestial water bears the jar or vase on her head as the lady of heaven. as a mode of preservation during the passage of the Hades. or the fox. We also have several kindred types in the Bunnan (Irish). a raven. the phœnix-bird. The Mexicans assigned twenty symbols. the hyena. The Danes are said to know the man. the fox-dog type of Sut. and Cyfl is identical by name with Khepr. birds. a type of the soul. The beetle. Benn. to the different parts of the human body as types of the ruling powers. as water. the Faing (Irish). some of them animaIs. and. the 1 Ch. soar through the air and the fire of the sun as a hawk. the ape.” Nu being the flowing. who is a Were-wolf or transformer. heron. he is put together again and there is not a limb of him without a god. a crane. through the mire as an eel.1 Being attached to the person of the god or assimilated to him is literally being joined to him limb by limb or piecemeal. and in the Fainche (Irish). The deceas:ed was transformed into these types of gods. Nu or Nu-pe. where dwelt the destroyer and obliterator of forms.). or Fenekh. And these types represented the parts assumed bit by bit by the deceased. The early men had no other means of expressing their thought! This typology explains its deposits as in the belief of the Pimos and Maricopas that in a future state the several parts of the body will be changed into separate animals.

a practice known also to the Fijians. The system of thought and manner of representation are one wherever found. In Maori the word Hongi means to smell. The New Zealanders apportion out the body in the same manner to the evil deities or powers which inflict pains. In the primitive masquerade the performers clothed themselves as animals. or prototypes. It survived in the mysteries and has descended to us in the Christmas pantomime—the supreme feature of which is still the scene and act of transformation from the animal shapes into the human or divine. The nose is an organ of the breath. Chinese.2 This shows the earlier stage of the idea. Me Nueg in Anan means “I breathe. In Zulu Kaffir Nuka-nuka is to discover by the sense of smell. and certain organs of life. which was continued after the link in the chain of descent had been lost The Maori custom of Hongi. Laps. It was simply a mode of expression. Shortland’s Traditions. In Egyptian “Ankh” means life. ii. Wakanga to make or take breath. We have now the means of reading this ideographic custom. when the actual physical pains were the powers represented as a sort of ghosts or demons. and birds being the ideographs in living forms. breathing. and this form and mode of pourtrayal was continued by the Christians. Others recognize in the animals the representative figures of their gods.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. . it was their “Long 1 2 Bartlett’s Personal Narrative. 77 feet into a wolf. 222. and the art of representing personifying. Africans. Eskimos. p. vol.) dialect denotes breathing. just as it is in the Mexican and Egyptiao apportionment of the parts to the presiding types.” Nga in Maori signifies to breathe. fishes. and other races. is a mode of saluting by rubbing or touching noses and smelling. and imitating these. even as it existed before the art of drawing figures had been discovered.) or life. as a formula for sneezing. Ankh as a word is equivalent to “Live. which is the Ankh (Eg. Ma-hungoa in Basa. 97-125. Ankh-uta-snab was the salutation to the Ra. pp. sniff. living. ailments and diseases on mortals.1 The Moquis identify the types they will be turned into with the original animals from which they came. by touching noses. and the Malay Chium. so in various other practices they acted like them. remained amongst the earliest races. and sniffing each other. Ang in the Yarra (Aust. and thus preserved the earliest natural customs in the later symbolical phase. because the gods were these prototypes of power. and had their first origin in expressing ideas by means of external things. salute.” an expression which is used by some races when one sneezes. The inner African “Nge” is a type-word of the whole world of language. the animals.

the Hongi. Papuans. i. 2 Royal King. It goes back to an animal mode of saluting by smelling. The primitive man was led by the nose. which is entitled. Ankh is “life.1 “Think’st thou to breath me upon trust?” asks the woman in Heywood’s play. the Somali. and others. however.” of which breathing or sniffing was the sign. “The Chapter of not Allowing a Person’s Soul to be Sniffed out of Him in Hades.” There is a comment on the in-breathing of life from one another by this mode of salutation in the 91st chapter of the Ritual. “you are as the breath of life to me. Breathing. Ponga-ponga being the nostrils. In this secondary or symbolical stage to touch noses and breathe was tantamount to expressing a wish for long life or a declaration of love.” To breathe. The word Nge. connected with more than one organ.” anka in Xosa Kaffir denotes kissing. The present writer. that is the final form of their continuity. for some African races. Expression of the Emotions. sniff. or smell any one in salutation signifies symbolically “I breathe new life from you. Such customs would survive as automatic actions when and where the symbolic meaning was forgotten. the custom of smelling and inhaling was the far older mode of manifesting desire. is used by the Zulus to express a wish or desire. This kind of salutation had been continued from the animal condition into a recognized form of ceremonial. “You are my life. Australians. would rather not have known the fact that the dog should have been vivisected to prove it.2 To breath or breathe was also synonymous with to smell under one word. The Maoris.78 THE NATURAL GENESIS. The evocation expressed by wishing “life” is enacted in the touch of noses. 1657. you are the breath of life to me.” The Chittagong Hill people have a form of invitation—“Smell me” 1 Darwin.” or “Your presence renews my life”.” It means “Health and long life to you!” More briefly. . Esquimaux. This is a most primitive gesture-sign that would serve several purposes before speech had been formulated. Doubtless. The first appeal made by external nature is to the sense of smell. whilst Nuki in Barba (African). which is breath or life in Maori. It has been demonstrated that if the olfactory nerves of a puppy are destroyed it will not learn to suck. do not kiss. But they were natural at first. signify “I love thee. and that the action of sucking is excited through the sense of smell. and coupling were the earlier modes of demonstrating affection and desire. and Nkowu in Pati. Whilst by taking a prolonged sniff they were complimenting each other as if they had said. fpr example. and became typical by consensus in the secondary phase as current coin of intercourse. live the King. and here it signifies futuere. would seem to have gone out from the African birth-place before kissing was discovered and adopted as a natural language of affection. smelling. ch.

after men had made their own masters and elevated their human (or inhuman) lion. This reminds us of Isaac smelling his son in salutation and saying. panther. meaning to breathe with joy.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. prostration on the earth adding profoundness to the homage of inferiors. to scent. though the smelling of the lotus as a means of indicating and giving delight is universal. at the meeting-point of man and the less specialised animals. Spencer finds the origin or ceremonial obcisance in the intrinsically coercive character of militant rule. Here. and it is an equivalent for “breathebreathe” and for the transmigration of spirits as breaths. Mr. he says. in the ceremony of Senta. instead of embracing. &c. and he deduces politeness from the prostration of slavery and inferior station. It is associated with smell by means of the nose determinative. “Sen-sen” has the signification of to fraternize. Also the name of the nostrils. is paid by breathing the earth. In the hieroglyphics. Also sen. among the Mongols. and. later affection.1 This is breathing rather than merely smelling. sherau. sen is the French sentir. and homage. is the double breather. a mark of paternal tenderness. the eighth being the highest in number and the lowliest 1 Lewin. bowing down and breathing the ground by inferior persons having taken the place of sniffing the person among equals. denotes the act of profoundest respect. thunderbolt. as chief of the tribe or people. is derived from sher. is nearer to nature. It cannot be directly shown from the monuments that taking a good hearty sniff of each other was an Egyptian mode of salutation. increasing in humbleness. The Chinese at the present time make eight obeisances. The nose. when Jacob bowed himself to the ground seven times in presence of his brother. out of compliment to the person. “It is the smell of a field which the Lord hath blessed. compliment. in the lowliest range or expression. in brotherly (and sisterly) union. For example. The custom was then applied to sniffing the ground as an obeisance of later law and ceremonial. When they come into sight they had probably attained the custom or art of kissing. the genesis of the act of smelling from animal desire (the smell of blood. It belongs to the language of lust. . which.” and they place the mouth and nose upon the cheek to inhale the breath strongly. snake. Sent is the English scent. senti.” The custom was still kept up by the conservatives of Egypt for us to find it in the Book of Genesis.). the primal phase. next. Timkowski describes a Mongol father who from time to time kept smelling the head of his youngest son. so that “Breathe me” is really the true rendering. 79 —answering to our “Give me a kiss. the number has a recognised significance to be sought for in the astronomical symbolism. sen is breath and to breathe. Moon-God or Sun-God to wield supreme power over them. to breathe. however.

on the day of feasting. The act of smelling passed into the domain of sacrifice. The number nine. The Dutch neuselen. The Danish and A. nys. due only to the emperor and to Heaven. It is also the name for the nurse. which were born of her. This divinity. means to sniff after. Smelling and breathing were primitive means of knowing. novus. nšoj.”1 “I will not smell in your solemn assemblies. Khnum is to ken by the nose. to guide. The Divinity of Israel threatens not to continue to be led by the nose in this way any longer. also the seven primary and elementary powers. Rak in Akkadian is to beget. accompany. where they have even a chronological sequence. “I will not smell the savour of your sweet odours. and survived in the mysteries where the branch and other emblems were smelled. and the sun in the nine dry signs of the twelve. sacrcd to the Raja (Egyptian Râ). nyr. In Maorij. licking. also futuere. 1 Levit. Sanskrit. and other forms of kenning or knowing each other. to get news of a thing. and contain dates in their data. this relationship. for the breath. To nose is to smelt. . Greek. in posture. In Egyptian. go together. 31. the nose being a primary teacher. khnum is to smell with the nose for determinative. and other animal modes of knowing.80 THE NATURAL GENESIS. The same word means to choose and select with the nose. as well as in human customs. The nose obtained the earliest news. in such an act as “numming” with noses. Latin. Nafs. was once limited to smelling. nevas. being represented by Heaven and the emperor. and to perception by means of smell. Breton. and they are not to be read apart from the rootage of ceremonial customs in mythology. direct. reka-reka is tickling and otherwise pleasantly provoking by means of contact. &c. are all related to nef (Eg. These numbers are figures quoted at their known value in the system of symbols. In Fijian the salute by smelling and taking a good strong sniff is named regu. It is also applied to kissing. and the word modifies into num. whose name was Sevekh or Seven. belongs to the nine solar months of gestation. is to get wind or scent of it.e. Lick is a form of the same root-meaning.” i. The Chinese eight. and in Egyptian rekh is to know and denotes relationship. In Bootan the form of obeisance rigidly observed demands that all who are permitted to approach the Raja.). must make nine prostrations in his presence. Our words new and news. tutor and educator. old Norse. and is traceable: in human language. These are all modes of knowing. This number answers to the Egyptian eight adorations to the eight great gods. S. nuadh. Gothict ninjo. as well as diversity of religious significance. xxvi. probably personate the genitrix of the seven stars and the son. Roke in English is to scratch. Arabic. and the language of the animal was continued. like the Kamite (Gold Coast) Ananse. nava. Gaelic. This knowledge.

Nekho in Limbu. Engisk . Yang in Honduras. . When the ear.”3 The food was a human ear.. .TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. but it was not unwarranted. The ear is Nakhu in Karen. . the organs varied. or ankh (Eg. New Zealand. Anko . B. the Maori identified the offering with the heavenly Henga and cried.” That was the flower of life worn as an eardrop by the mummy.2 as a mode of salutation.4 In like manner. The ear. Kra. Tino-eingtu . Eat. Nocas in Mexican. The custom. . Naksha in Mandan is ears. 2 Vol. iii.1 Charlevoix mentions a tribe of Indians on the Gulf of Mexico. like the hongi. The ear is Inaka in Shoshoni. Inako in Wihinasht. Naughta in Osage. .. p. motoi. for she respires (or hears) both through her nostrils and ears (Hor-Apollo. Ukuali. 4 When the Egyptians would symbolize a man who hears with more than customary acuteness they pourtray a she-goat. I repudiate the Voltairan mode of treatment. . Of course the sense of perception was one. with the ear for an ideographic determinative. listen to me. and the sacrifice was a mode of prayer.. It is a world-wide name for the ear.. And this 1 This mode of stating a Scriptural fact may be considered offensive by those who never consider the offensiveness of the fact itself. p. and in Inner Africa. the 13th chapter is “said over the drop of an earring of the ankham flower placed on the left ear of the spirit. Ngureong in Lake Macquarie. to pray. . &c.. denotes breathing and actually communicating life in place of wishing it. Unga in Armenian.. O invisible one. .. 3 Taylor. Bushman... who placed a form of the ankh-sign in the ears of their dead. Ngoli is the ear in Nguli . the type of hearing. . . ii. .. Mende. . . are named ankh in Egyptian. is the ear in Fashlaha. To Henga a te Rangi.. . 182. . Let that food bring you down from the sky. . Australia.. . . . Nak’h in Punjabi. Nogu . Nikobho in Mongoyos . 81 the spider-god. Nachit in Garo. talks through his nose.. in Maori. Landoro. . This is but a variation of the same ceremony. It was also an ancient custom in England to wear a rose in the ear. as for the nose and mouth. His offering. . Nicroca in Moxos. . means to beg... 68). Ngou .. having the same significance.) was eaten by the female Ariki as a sacrifice. who continued the custom of blowing or breathing into each other’s ears. It is the primitive god of the primitive man. Analogous to this was the practice of the Egyptians.. . “ Lift up his offering. In the Ritual. Inkon in Maram. . 16.. and ears. Gbandi.

the size of the hole being a sign of the hero who had bravcly borne the pain and suffering. and the large-ear supplied a type-name to various American and European tribes from the lobe of the ear being perforated and artificially enlarged in accordance with a most andent and world-wide custom. and of the organs of 1 Hahn. mentioned by Athenæus. Aingete in N’kele. and in the custom of the people. This was a survival of the breathing in the ear and the rubbing noses of an earlier time. If this be neglected the owner will die. and a piece of skin ju.”2 The name of the Orcgones or Orejones is derived from or-ejo. It was the language of the female animal converted into verbal speech. the nose and ears have a remarkable meeting-point. a gesture-sign addressed to the unseen power as the hearer. and they only permitted the Aymaras to cultivate the large ear-lobe a long while after the conquest. xx. 22). placed in the ear. p. The general object of these salutations is to wish or to give life and health. the fenekh and the ass were typhonian representatives of the hearer. like the ankham flower. above her nose is cut so that it hangs down in the shape of an ear-ring or eardrops. This was the exact equivalent of the Egyptian practice of offertllg the ankh. of Carmana. or healthy. Indians denotes them to be the wearers of “big earrings. to live. 295. and saith unto them. liquid of life is the name of blood in the Garo anchi. the blood being an earlier reality. and only in the primitive stage can the typology be fathomed.” or Breathe me. it is a custom with the Hottetots to catch her next mornings. is also the name of an ear-ornamant made of green stone. which. Nga in N’guru. . Nkindei in Nabu. becomes a visible prayer. Tsuni-Goam. the healer and lifegiver in many Kamite languages bears the type-name of life. If a cow during the night is heard to groan in her sleep. Hunga means medicine in the Omaha (Indian) language and in the African tongues. The jackal. To be well. breathe. In the following illustration of the ankh-sign. they used to offer life itself—the blood being the life—by “breathing” a vein and holding forth the red drops to drink. Lastly. the emblem of life. living. In John’s Gospel we read—“And when he had said this he breathed on them. 2 Mallery.) life. Ngo in Munio. Inga in N’godsin. as the large-eared people. signified. inspire me. the ear. The name and tribe-sign of the Arikara.82 THE NATURAL GENESIS. give me life. 87.1 Therefore the eardrop shape is a symbol of life or the ankh (Eg). Ngo in Bagrimi. is— Ngo in Kanuri. p. Ngo-dodo in Tiwi. The Incas had this type-name of the ear. receive ye the Holy Spirit” (ch. Ankh (Eg. In this aspect the invitation “Come smell me.

The dog. gives a man power to remember that the spirit is with him. has a very small spleen. iv... because the thoroughly splenetic are unable to smell. This is intimately related to the salutation by breathing and sniffing. Kisama. Nanga . Eafen. Kanyika. cast out by the sudden impulsion. and is founded on the same principle. Kiriman. and sayings which are connected with sneezing was laid in the time when the spirit was the breath and the breath was the life. be open. turn him out of the hospital. Ngan . 8. The sneeze is a vigorous expulsion of the breath. which connects the sneeze with the breath or life. Nganga . which was inwardly inspiring and outwardly expelling. the good spirit enters and the bad spirit departs. and frank-hearted.”1 Sneezing is not only a vigorous form of breathing. the name being chiefly found in the duplicated form. The doctor is dcsignated— Nagange Nganga Nganga Nganga Nganga in . Nganga in Nganga . Anothet ceremonial custom known to be wide-spread is that of invoking a blessing when one sneezes.e. Sneezing is a sign of life because connected with the breath. 83 breathing. blithe. Mubaya. If he cannot sneeze they judge the disease to be very bad indeed.. Kum. he avers. “He hath sneezed thrice. . A hearty sneeze when ill and faint would imply a sudden accession of the breathing power. Nganga . Nganga in Ngana .. The expulsion and repudiation implied in sneezing is yet glanced at in the saying that such a thing is “not to be sneezed at. 3 Ch.. Kabenda. . N’kele. or laugh. 2 Book i. . 39. Sneezing. Bumbete. beliefs.. Nganga . hence inspired or or an extraordinary origin. Mimboma. or sneeze. made by Prometheus was a sneeze.”3 “his spleen is in the God Fenti. Basunde. The Tongo (i tongo) is a spirit like the Wong and others founded on the Ankh type of life. Hence the object of provoking the sneeze and invoking the good spirit. the God of the Nostrils. and what spleen he has is the cause of his madness or rabies.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. The sneeze is a sign of health. The foundation for such customs. He says the Egyptians depict a dog to denote smelling and sneezing. was held to be the antithesis of the spleen. Nyombe.. according to Hor-Apollo. The first sign of life in the man. Musentanda. Isawu. Konguan. This may serve to connect the sneeze with something to be got rid of and breath as the means..2 This is supported by a statement in the “Litany of Ra.. . Ngan . Sneezing with the Zulus is a token that a sick person will be restored to health.. say the Zulus. It is common for people to take a pinch of snuff to cause a sneeze for the expulsion of headache.. and in this connection the British 1 Brand on Sneezing.” A sneeze. but it is involuntary. that is. of all animals. The sneeze is typical of the good spirit being with him..” i.

“Life to you. “its no a warlock. 184. Polynesia. The sneeze. To blow into the left hand is an lndian sign for medicine and healing. and wishing well or well-wishing. Taylor. or spirit.84 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Tutu is the ancestral spirit. “God sain the bairn. the expeller of the bad and evil one. and one Ashem-vohu.. p.1 The breath being the soul. A tree also named tuti. the good spirit. or branch. A native priest sprinkled the child with a twig.” The ancestral soul had descended. Jacob prayed that the soul of man might not depart with a sneeze. then. p. was a sign of life. It was a common belief that no idiot could sneeze.”3 The Samoans exclaim “Life to you!”4 A blessing is still the rule in southern Europe. Tutuka may be rendered “the ancestral spirit tries to speak. when the little one was not immersed.e. The Negroes of Old Calabar shake off evil influences with a sneeze.” said an old nurse when the little one sneezed at last. or pain by means of a sneeze.5 With the Parsees the rule is that when a person sneezes “one is to speak a Yatha-aku-vairyo. p. 348. 142. New Zealand. When the Zulu sneezes he exclaims. and that there was no surety like a sneeze for the new-born child’s having a soul. 3 Buxtorf.” or nurses. The priest kept calling over the names of its ancestors until at last the child sneezed. held the child to be under the fairy spell until it showed signs of spirit by sneezing.” as it was supposed to do in a sneeze. Wied. or tati is the sneeze-wood of the colonists. Hindus. i. This mingling and confounding of spirits”—that of the Breath and the Manes—is shown in the Maori rite of infant baptism. . “Tutuka” is an exclamation used by the Xosa Kaffirs. was with him. This also was a mode of saying. “I am now blessed!” the spirit. Ka denotes an attempt. The sneezing away of obstruction and blowing the nose to expel the disease would lead to the primitive practice of “blowing away disease. If a pinch of snuff were efficacious in expelling the bad spirit. i.” with the type on a large scale. vol. then the: plateful of snuff laid on the breathing-place—the bosom of the dead—was typically intended in relation to the breathing or the future life. 5 Turner. \yj \bwf or “good life. and that constituted the very nick of time for wishing and invoking. When the Hindu sneezes the bystanders cry “Live!”2 The Jews say. That was its name thus chosen by the child itself. soul.” which is still extant among the early races. On the eighth day after birth the ceremony was performed at the side of a stream. the opponent or adversary. stuffiness. or the ancestral spirit manifesting through it. British “howdies. custom of placing on the dead a plate full of snuff is most remarkable. and also when one hears the sneezing of any person to speak in the like manner is considered 1 4 2 Ward. die with the breath. a sneeze was a breathing sign of soul or the good spirit.

desire. ch. and Egypt. but the memorandum of a compact. or the Revealer of Good. the Honover of the Avesta. 85 as an action of good. Tison in Soso. vol. What causes sneezing? And the reply is “hungry living. Dsisin in Bulom. as the opener. the breath. belts of wampum were exchanged as determinatives of their intentions to keep troth. “after treating. of the sneeze was eminently Inner African.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. adore —Sanskrit. discover. invoke—all that accompanies the ceremony of sternutation is expressed by the word snes. The doctrine. Dsune in Bagba. iv. 138. vouches for the Kamite origin. Sani in Gbe. to wish. Snes also signifies salutation. Suana in Baiu. to open. “Do you not see that all the world is one?” said Hernando de Soto when he perceived the Floridans had the same custom or salutation on sneezing as the Spaniards.1 The invocation made on sneezing is a part of the same ritual relating to the breath.” was a common remark of their chiefs in council.3 Mr. The speaker then delivered a 1 3 4 2 Ibid. sans.” says Morgan. 14. Our word sneeze is identical with the Egyptian snesh. p. which is connected with sen. Theodore Irving. Morgan. 161. evoke.” or making an invocation when one sneezes. Conquest of Florida. When agreements were covenanted by the lroquois. . Ancient Society.” The remedy for its existence is the Ahunaver and praise of righteousness.and senn.2 Sneezing is certainty a spontaneous act enough. the explicator. The typology is certainly one. to invoke. Haliburton brings forward the universal habit of sayng “God bless you. “The Indian nations. . and that they owe their origin to an era anterior to the dispersion of the human race.” It is asked. i. as the Parsee rule for uttering one Ashemvohu with every coming and going of the breath on lying down to sleep. Dzieni in Bayon. Shayast La-Shayast. ch.”4 “This belt preserves my words. p. Usiane in Isonama. open of itself. to make the foundation and passage by opening. the belt being symbolic of the bond and covenant. as his strongest case for concluding that such primitive customs have been inherited from one common source. The name of the sneeze is Siani in Krebo. 32. The sneeze would not have been a type of the same idea without some pre-agreement and consensus. so to speak. our English sneeze. the Egyptian Un-Nefer. always exchanged belts. but without some idea connected with the act and attached fast to it no such universal ceremonial custom as invocation at the time of sneezing could have become world-wide. xii.e. ii. which were not only the ratification. wish. Dsuna in Momenya.

the natives had the same practice. follows the custom of licking as a mode of establishing and covenanting. the tat. and must have becn of the primitive man.e. also signifies unction and a ceremony. Licking with the tongue is a part of the language of animals.”1 This mode of covenanting may have a bearing on the figures of the hand found in the Australian caves. given. .” by spitting. The one word “tat” includes the gift. a belt-buckle. soul) as a form of oath-taking. before speech was formulated. or ownership. These symbols are supposed 1 Brand on Spitting.” says Brand. only their licking was done by the givers of the present. when it was evolved. and “tatting. taken. Hence. are said to pledge themselves to keep faith by spitting on a stone. anointing it. When anything is presented to the Esquimaux. “Here’s my belt. both of act and language. Licking it was tonguing it. In the symbolical stage licking was a mode of anointing. tat. Also spittle was a form of unction made use of for anointing in baptism. The buckle is based on the tongue. as explained by aid of Egyptian. with the same meaning of establishing the covenant of affection. giving and taking. is one of the customs belonging to the time of gesture-language. and assumed. the tongue. and there is a popular saying. ‘their saul.86 THE NATURAL GENESIS. By licking each other the animals establish a covenant with their tongues.” The Newcastle colliers.” was the equivalent of “Here’s my hand on it. and consecrating the gift whether received or given. according to Dieffenbach. we find language called by the name of the member. and was its antetype. and the act.” or “I give you my word of honour. Covenants were made by tonguing in this way. Bruisers have the habit of spitting in their hand before the fight begins in token of a covenant of good-fellowship. In New Zealand. an emblem of eternitizing in the region of Tattu. applied to persons who hang together. as they call it. In provincial English a “good licking” alternates with “anointing” as a nick-name for a thrashing or beating. The tongue as a tat is identical with Ianguage. the name of the tongue and mouth. in their combinations. and this custom can be followed into the human phase. In Egyptian. mutual agreement. and the use of the member as a sign of expression was earlier than words. belt to the other side in token of faith and honour in the execution of the treaty or promise. the first form of which had been effected by licking with the tongue. “In the north of England. “They spit upon the same stone. they have the habit of licking it at once as a sign or ownership.” The belt of wampum was a sign of the same significance as the Egyptian tat. and in exorcism.’ i. but the act of tatting with the human tongue preceded the tongue of the buckle. “the boys have a custom amongst themselves of spitting their faith (or.

87 to have been imprinted on the walls by placing the huma hand on the clean stone and spitting some colouring matter all around it. Wood. i. p. Fund. titi to stick or stamp in and make fast. p. and Egyptia. Christians. vol. I acknowledge you as my head! But the gesture was voluntary before it was made compulsory. vol. said to intimate “I mean to cut off your head.n will explain it. “be the head of an enemy.”5 The custom was Kamite.) French tête. by way of thanks as we conjectured.”2 Here the head was the “tat. round the necks of their children to preserve them from the evil eye. J. Trywhitt Drake. conflicting with later law. At the present day both Moslems. p. especially in the beard3). Statement of Pal. 141. not merely a trophy. Explor. Professor Palmer and I found a cistern whose cornice was decorated with hand-prints alternately black and red. a messenger. 16. and sword4 are each named the tat in Egyptian. ears and nose were struck by the petitioner. Paris. 1 . near Petra. On Superstitions Common to Egyptians and Ashantis.” Head. or the Dyak of Borneo must take a head in order that he may take a wife. So the young Somali of Africa. care is taken to put it in a conspicuous place outside the house before a marriage. 5 Spencer.6 “The hand-print on the wall is commonly used by the Jews to avert the evil eye. note. The personal member or feature had to stand in place of a personal pronoun in gesture language! In Egyptian. of silver or gold.1 The hand and spitttng were two signs of tatting or establishing a covenant to which the hand would remain a witness. This is an ancient symbolic institution. Tutu.” and tat (Eg. G. xxxi. Captain Cooke says the natives of the Tongan Islands “have a singular custom of putting everything you give them to their heads. The meaning (which may vary) is then interpreted by a gesture sign. and “I strike my head.” it is a token. 29. he who speaks to himself is he who speaks to his head. and Jews hang hands. in Qtly. Ceremonial Institutions. also to summon and gather in a solemn assembly. and only when the custom becomes coercive do we reach the degradation of smelling the earth or striking the ground with the forehead. 4 Bowditch. birth.” means I bow to you. and tā in Maori is a name of the tattoo.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. p. or other festival. 6 Litany of Ra.”—C. v. As late as the seventeenth century. 1873. abrades into tâ. January. 7 and 57. showing the typical nature of the head. 3 Archæological Journal. rudely cut out of a thin plate. T0 strike the flag is to lower it. as both tribes award punishment for murder. F. temples. The word tat. The forehead. In the ruins of El Barid. and so leaving the impress of a hand. a Russian petition began with the words “So and so strikes his forehead” and petitioners were termed the “forehead strikers. messenger. 221. The young Sioux Indian is obliged to take a head or scalp to win “the feather” before a girl will marry him. 2 Voyage towards the South Pole. is the head.” says Mr. to imprint and paint! Tete is to stand fixed in the ground. for hand and typing. “If need not. The Ashantis had a war-custom of sending a head with the Messenger-Sword (this head was found to show considerable likeness to ancient Egyptian work.

making the present. Eg. or as it is here represented. “No one. denotes the offspring presented. in this the give-and-take are enacted. or hand. E. is found in the Maori 1 2 4 Erskine. J. Deep down in the English nature there yet lingers the ancient sense of its almost superceded sacredness. Teb. to clasp and squeeze. Contemporary Review. to give and take possession. The Sumatrans touch the forehead or temples. implore. The Khonds have the custom of holding their two ears in their hands as the symbol of submission. Spencer. and ”loose in the haft. May.). and when tributaries approached their master.” says Hor-Apollo. “Two men joining their hands denote concord. alliance. Mixing together is for them a mode of civilisation. seal. Here at least we can shake hands with our predecessors. in Egpytian. The Egyptian “Tebut” is likewise a sign of hair cut off.88 THE NATURAL GENESIS. a mode of swearing by the Ankh. . The oriental salute of an inferior includes the putting of his fingers to his forehead. covenant.”2 Such customs grew by degrees. be responsible for. The Egyptian “tatting” had become handshaking. “By the Haft. a stage in advance of smelling and licking. and are drawn out of their primal isolation. 11. the token of a covenant. 1878. Such a custom would lead to cutting off the ears of the outlaw.1 This was a sign of subjection. In offering the paw. p. p. Cruise among the Pacific Islands. they were tatting. This gesture may be read by the Egyptian name of the temples of the forehead. Egyptian Texts. “can suppose that hand-shaking was ever deliberated fixed upon as a salute. and the type was passed on from one thing to the other as the special ideograph of the gesture-sign. Then the clasp and shake of the hand becomes a symbolical custom in the covenant of good-fellowship. and all of them docked their tails.” is a common English oath.” as hand. 7—89. answer. and establishing an understanding of friendship by this mode of invitation.” In this the handle follows the hand as the type of a covenant.” means “not quite honest. they were commanded by a messengcr to cut off their Tabes. or token of ownership. The next phase is the clasp-sign of a covenant (Ank. or Tobe is a kind of pig-tail. The Fijian Teb. the oath and covenant. p. Capt. Lifting the hands to the forehead or temples is also a sign of obeisance. The custom of making presents is based as lowly as this in the desire to make friends—a desire evinced by the animals the more they enter into a mixed condition.3 The sign is found as the determinative of amity. 3 Book ii. a word that means to pray. It is a form of tat-ing wtth the hand as in the other cases with the tongue or head. 454. 93. The hieroglyphic “Tat.4 Dogs and apes will spontaneously offer the paw. The Egyptian Ank.. which denotes the two ears. Birch.” says Mr. a lock of halr.

). in the belt of Wampum. and in the passage quoted Sut represents the child. or belt. as the currency used for bartering. the generator. that is one meaning of his name. and the customs in which the typology was continued are the hieroglyphics where there are no others.” is an ideograph of equivalent value to that of the Tat (hand) and Tat Cross. which denote reproduction or resurrcction. which closed to clasp and protect the lift in the waters. This may be read either in the physiological or the astronomical phase. Angaanga signifies agreement. These supplied the hieroglyphics in the language of gesture-signs. make a covenant. . to pair. In the present researches the clue has been continually found in the most primitive phase of the thought. or Mamit to swear by. If we take it in the latter. Horus is the pubescent male. Sut. a bivalve molusk. and Rite means agreed to. performed. as in clasping hands. limbs. or clasping shell. and the Angarite. The clasp of hands in shaking-them was a final token of the Ank-covenant. or Crux Ansata. In this language. p. and on his rising was the Great Bear cycle founded. for the cockle-shell. 254. of unity. no loop or knot. Thus Ank (Eg. to clasp. Tat-pillar. The born child did the same. Oyster and mussel-shells were sacredly preserved by the Wenya among their treasures. and so the opener became the founder of a circle of time. Sut opened whe Genitrix whom Horus sealed. We have to think our way back to the time and condition when the human body supplied the chief symbols of expression. and there were no manufactured forms. according to appearances. and possibly of re-uniting. to “cross the palm for good luck. 89 Anga. ii. the star Sothis bad to break its way up through the earth. The tooth which cut its way through the gums was a perfect type of that which opened. Rite denotes the likeness of the Anga. after long seeking for it vainly in the later stages. which is here one of the Ank-types by name. The title of Un-Nefer is that of the good opener. 1 Stanley. a token therefore of agreement. vol. Now when this opening was first observed. or book. no sword. and gestures. of covenant. when shells (coffins are still called shells) were heaped above the bones of the dead. opened the year with the rising of Sothis. Ptah was a form of the opener.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. He carries the Tat image of founding and establishing. or buckle. The shell of the bivalve. The “opener” is a title of the rising sun.1 together with the beads. is equivalent to the perfect two-oneness of the bivalve. Dark Continent. The idea of founding and establishing by opening was developed by the Egyptians into a doctrine of creation. almost nothing but the human organs. as star-god. would thus acquire its significance as a type of twinning together. The pubes another. The testicle was another. the earth being considered as a flat surface endlessly extended.

or established. Cut or indented teeth are still considered an ornament to the female in England. has the open~eyed hare for determinative. In this way certain corporate and temple rights were founded. This open condition thus denoted means “it is lawful. such as semi-castration. thus represent the open condition of lawful intercourse. the generative power.” The filed teeth of the females and the tooth forced out of the male. vol. This suggests the genesis of other customs like that of the Babylonians mentioned by Herodotus. be open and periodic. i.1 who says that every native woman was compelled to sit in the Temple of Venus (Belit) once in her life and have intercourse with some stranger. 108. vol. Many wore a crown of cord round their head.” In the rites of puberty. We are now in a position to read the typology of certain primitive customs and ceremonial usages of the Stone and Bone Age. p. and the temple was thereby enriched. “Thou shalt not bring the hire of a prostitute into the House of the Lord is the command which proves the practice amongst the Hebrews (Deut xxiii 18). whether the price was claimed by the temple or the tribe. The right of the reverend 1 2 Herodotus. Theirs was primarily the “droit du seigneur” (the right and rite of pucelage and cuissage) to open the young virgins— a right that was claimed by the elders among the Australian blacks.90 THE NATURAL GENESIS. The priest represented Priapus.2 This rite of opening was Totemic first and became religious afterwards. Histoire Abrégée des Cultes. Un. . or rather a rite of being founded as the woman by opening. b. This traffic in the rights of the priesthood introduced a mode of commutation and a principle of compensation. the top-knot of puberty.” says the jolly wife of Bath. 431. or the knocking out of teeth at the period of puberty.” or “unprohibited. 199. In the hieroglyphics. The offerings made by or to the females were the property of the priesthood. the cutting and opening are at times performed by those who impersonate the gods or supernatural powers. His rights were farmed out in Babylon as in India.” “I am open to you. When the female becomes pubesccnt she undergoes a sort of circumcision. and that is a modified form of the African charm which the “hussies”— denounced by Livingstone—produced by filing their teeth. It was a custom in India for virgins to present themselves in the temples to be opened and made free to marry. “Gat-toothed I was. Delaure. p. with her interpretation of the cut or opening. and that became me well. by being “opened. which have survived to the present time amongst the elder races of the world. ii. or filing them to make the opening visible between. The Vei people perform a rite called the Sande. from which time she can be bought or hired (Sande) as she too is SENNT. to open. i.

signifies to be “thoroughly-marked” and this agrees with Tebu (Eg. A picture is still called a cut. What has been termed fashions in deformity did not originate in the senselessness of the modern victims of the prison-house of pride.1 Here. when the male devotee was assimilated to the Eternal Child. therefore a tooth was knocked out at the time of puberty as the type or token of another foundation by opening the ground. The time came when there was a revolt of youth against the rights of the elders. . in the semi-castration of the Bushmen (in times past) as a rite of young-man-making. When the Kaffir female has attained the marriageable age. 91 seigneur was waived on payment of a price. Menka (Eg. the foundation was established and the consecration completed by total castration. and this mode of commutation probably indicates the origin of compensation for the bride who was captured in marriage.) to be sealed. and plenty of progeny. This was continued and modified in the customs of tattoo as the human skin grew somewhat lighter. acoording to Shortland. which was primarily that of puberty. This means that she is open to him. The tooth established a foundarion by opening the ground. Kaffir Laws and Customs. The Manaeka in Maori is a garment. 47.) denotes clothing. to become responsible. pubescence was founded by its opening of the ground. to be paid by the lover. the opening was made by extraction of one testicle. When the testicle descendcd. p. “Tapu” (Maoiri). and a price was set upon virginity. Gesture-signs were: not the only human hieroglyphics. the body itself was the first book of pictographs. and had their meanings and uses. The incisions which are cut in the flesh from the shoulder to the hip of the pubescent males among the Australian aborigines are called Manka. But the word signifies any opening.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. or has undergone the opening rite. or the opening of anything. These customs were ideographic. also means good luck. and the earliest pictures were cut in the live black flesh for uses belonging to the system of primitive signs. as everywhere else. Manka relates to puberty and to clothing. These are of such a secret significance that they must never be spoken of when women and children are present. Hence. The first clothing was the toga virilis assumed at puberty. she is at liberty to woo her intended husband by sending him an “um-lomo. In the fanatical and religious phase. the natural genesis only of the primitive custom can interpret it in the later symbolical or superstitious phase. consisting mainly of hair and 1 Dugmore.” The lomo is symbolically her mouth. The Zulu “Hlanhla” for the opening between the teeth. prosperity.

in Míut the ear-ring is 1 Schweinfurth. nose. or ready to bear young. pictures (cuts) of puberty. In the Balu and Bayon dialects. nose. a dance. and the pubescent are the clothed. or make game of. is a NGQONGO and the word which denotes the sexual gestures and contortions made in the dance that is performed when a girl attains puberty is Ngqungqa. they are exactly like the pegs of bone and wood and straw worn by the Musgoo women. But the custom dates from a time before metal rings were made. The earliest Ankh-tie in Egypt was the knot-sign of femine pubescence and of putting on clothes.92 THE NATURAL GENESIS. the circuit. This is identical with the Maori ngangahu. or lip of the women. Sin is the name of the nose-ring. her lower lip is bored. The plugs employed are cylindrical in form. . Wuanga in Lubalo. i. and the custom includes the rings worn in the ear. that illustrated the bearing of the brave. and provoke. In the Kaffir languages the ground-root of this NG or Nek may be studied in the most primitive relationships. for example. With the Bongas. vol. is written with the Shen-ring of reproduction. as was done by the women in the mysteries when the boy was made a free man. and of heroic triumph over pain. but the plug in the lower lip is alone the sine quâ non for the married women. or other emblem filled the place of the later ring worn in the orifice. We find the impubescent are the naked. and the orifice plugged to extend the circle. Heart of Africa. The Moori fashion of wearing the hair tied up in a knot at the forehead is called Ngou-ngou. but it was a token at first that the maiden was marriageable. Other pegs and rings are worn in the lips. Tattoo was a form of clothing the human body with the marks of mannood. The Coco is a ring worn on the heads of the Zulu men to distinguish them from theimpubescent boys. a stone. The plugs are gradually increased in size until the hole in the lip is five or six times its original proportions. In Egyptian. Not that the ring originated with marriage in the modern sense. and ears. and to distort the features. In Inner Africa the Gree-Gree as a bracelet or necklace is a form of the ankh called Wanka in N’goala Wuanka in Kisama. slashes in the flesh. p. 297. and the circle had to be incised and formed in human flesh. The skin beaten by women to make the music which circumcised lads keep time to in the dance of the pubescent. Owanga in Pangela.1 It is here the same token then as the marriage ring in Europe. when a bone. the completed course. Nganga in Songo. and the top-knot put on at puberty is named the Ngoi. as soon as a woman is married. and often not less than an inch thick.

the opening period of the woman. Nao. Belingu.) is a collar with nine beads. as in Egypt and Inner Africa. in relation to puberty.. v. ch. the founding and establishing of the man. then her head-fillet (Kambar). then her ear-rings.3 1 3 2 Shayast La-Shayast.. This many-plugged female likewise wears a round disk in the upper. Here it may be noted that Renka (Eg. the synonym of the Renka is represented in the Inner African languages by Lunga. Nlungo in Mimboma. English.1 These are the very ornaments put on by the most primitive races in token of the female having attained pubsecence. The Kustik girdle of the Parsees is assumed at the time of puberty. the ornaments of the pubescent maiden and the enceinte genitrix.. and stone which we shall find retaining the same name in the most diverse of languages. 3. Nlunga . the sign of gestation. It is the same word as LINK and ring. Fashion in Deformity. fig. the same as the number of beads (bubu) worn in the sacred collar of Isis. the circle being a visible figure of the cycle. The Hindu Langi is a peculiar boddice. and ear. and the name coincides with those of the other types of puberty. In the Parsee “Shayast La-Shayast” instructions are given for the woman. Orungu.2 The hieroglyphic Khekh (Eg. Longa in Orungu. Basunde. In the portrait of a Lobah woman. which was a type of some period com-pleted. Ch. the hair. Kasunda. Sannu in Bambara.) the Pubes.” These are founded on the necklace and collar.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. Lingben . p. 93 Tsen. the period of pubcscence. Nlunnga in Nyombe. a Gree-Gree. 2. and the Renk. figured by Schweinfurth in the “Heart of Africa” the plugs that fill the holes with which the ear is perforated are nine in number. . lip. Alengo. for the man. The ring. bone. the Ear-ring. were images of the founding by opening. Khekhru is a generic name for “ornaments. the Ear-ring. and the Dzeni is a Gree-Gree ring in Limba. and x. and apparently she is prohibited from wearing leather coverings or shoes. Mimboma... Until then there is no sin in the male or female running about uncovered.. Longa in Baseke. Also copied by Flower. The bones and stones inserted in the holes bored through the nose. iv. The arm-ring is a Lenke in Lubalo. 24. when they have turned fourteen years of age. iii. are related by name to the ring (Chinese Ling). and Langiam means fit to be joined (or linked) in marriage. . and a pointed cone in the lower lip. . Nlunga . the moment menstruation begins (not for the first time) to take off first her necklace. Kabenda. .

who had become servant to a settler. parallel with the mouth. iv. and is therefore the female emblem. It is at the time of young-man making or pubescence that the Batoka tribes knock a front tooth out of their children’s mouths.” sings the Welsh bard.”3 The Peruvian traditions affirmed it was a practice “very servicable to the gods.” for fathers to take out their children’s teeth.) denotes a period. Ark (Eg. it was a custom to give the tenant a stick of wood in one hand and some straw in the other. is finally the emblem of the female and the male. bone. Haygarth tells us of a young Australian native.. It had nine or ten beads. Vide Herod. The Thlinkeet female children have a slit made in the under lip. p. B. as he had grown up to man’s estate. 647.2 The earliest piercing of the lip is performed by the Eskimo. and in Nupe the armlet is an Uroka. When land was given by the proprictor to his tenant for one or or more years. The Menkua is an armlet in Afudu. and it was high time he should go and have his teeth knocked out. a covenant. Ka-menga in Sarar. about half-an-inch below it. 1 Martin. p. The recognised size is produced by putting in larger and larger objects. and it is a form of the Ankh-knot of life. emenga in Bola.”—Welsh Arch. the block employed hy the Thlinkeet matrons to fill the oval was of an ovoid or egg-like shape. and this act was the deed and bond of the lease. he must go away for a few days. The ovoid circle. ii. i. be perfected. Bush Life in Australia. with the stone. p. ‘the symbolical mouth in the hieroglyphics. which identifies it with the rites of the Maori and Batokas as sexual. for an offering of straw. 125. vol. corresponding to the egg of the male. which was then returned to the master. according to the reckoning. . and relates to the nine months or ten moons of gestation. “break the straw with my fair one. “The keen-darting Gwrneth slew the largest bear that ever was seen with an arrow of straw. the Loma or opening. The suggestive shape of the same oval figure has been observed in the whitish cicatrices raised by cuts in the black flesh of the African females. This is usually of an oval or elliptical shape. the same as the Ru. vol. “with a look of importance. In Ebe the ear-ring is an ark-ring called Arukâ. tie up. ii. that he said one day. A stick and a straw were two of the types employed as plugs for the apertures. to surround.1 In Egypt the collar called Menâ or Menka was the ring of the wet nurse. 3 Haygarth. 33.94 THE NATURAL GENESIS. “If she converses no more. and at puberty a block of wood is inserted. 68. or metal inserted. on approaching manhood. In the N’goala dialect Menu is the name for the nose-ring. Moreover. This is corroborated by the religious festival or sacred feast with which the ceremony is accompanied. These can be paralleled in Britain as the two signs of establishing a covenant. 103.” 2 See vol. In Java the opening is made by hollowing out the canine teeth.

however. In Borneo the teeth are drilled. 5 and 6. p. ii. The Egyptians had got beyond this blacking of the teeth and lips but the typology was continued by the women blacking their eyes. To attain this dignity was the earliest of woman’s rights.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. . and have a cloth to fold around her body. and the hole is filled with a plug of brass. an emblem of reproduction. was not the only symbolic colour. Flower. Black. Blackening the teeth and lips. This is a Bere. Fashion in Deformity. a custom very widely spread. Blacking the teeth would be a modified kind of tattoo. In the Vei language the virgin (which means the pubescent female) is named after the loin-cloth. 31.4 “waits with impatience the day when she can be married. and the wearer becomes a Beremo. painting the ovoid circle round them. pp.” till then she wears no garment. like the Egyptian womcn. and the colour was covered. A feeling of proud pleasure must have preceded any scnse of shame at this proof of 1 3 2 Dieffenback. having a round or star-shaped knob. as a sign of feminine pubescence. and many were tattooed only on the mouth. and the first natural need of concealment by means of the fig-leaf. put out of sight by tattooing the lips. Hence the figurative “fig-leaf” and the loin-belt. 52. This did Jezebel when she stimmied her eyes. 35. and continued into the stage of superstition. Sumatra. The eye is a mirror. Customs that are at last degraded into a fashionable form of meaningless mimicry were consciously begun for use. if they were not tattooed elscwhere. file them right down to the gums. says Stanley. 4 Marsden.3 to that they are made invisible that way. liku. had the same origin. the colour of reproduction. How I found Livingstone. and of putting on a covering. Yet the origin of the sensc of shame may be traced to the period of feminine puberty. particularly those of the Lampong country. and elongating the natural shape. There is a significant Accra saying. We still use the term of “green-sickness” in a like sense. p. this sign of adultship was never omitted. The beginnings of morality were of a nature too lowly ro be noticed by writers on ethics. “He has no cloth (or mama) and calls for a woman”—meaning he is too poor to provide the least bit of a garment to cover her shame. or ankh-tie. At one monumental period the female eyes were painted underneath with a band of green. and this was underlined at the time of puberty. 95 sometimes so deeply as to penetrate the pulp cavity.1 This agrees with the ovoid figure cut in the lip or on the inner arm. To have red lips after the age of puberty was a great reproach to the Maori women. The Rejang women of Sumatra are in the habit of making their teeth jet black. but some of them. So the Egyptian maiden went naked up to the time of puberty. Sometimes the teeth were so filed as to leave a lozenge-shaped white piece of enamal untouched. The earliest revelation taught the need of a monthly covering. The Unyamwezi girl.

” At the Court of Uganda. and it grew to be wrong in the man to look on the woman during her period. where womankind is still reduced to the pre-pubescent status. they are taught to speak the truth. but the tribal-consciousness demanded the covert. Inscription. Even his own daughters must conform to the custom. Tsuni-Goam. Then it was held to be a shame. according to Speke. 61-2. the Maori tattoo of the lips.. or childish condition elsewhere. a mark of the monkey. In the Australian ceremonies called Mur-rum Tur-uk-ur-uk. which are thrown by the young men at the pubescent girl. but Diodorus has described them as exposing themselves naked in presence of the God Apis. which denoted the period of putting on clothing. to violate the tapu. in the Inscription of Pianchi Mer-Amen. This right of cover.4 we read that the king had “peace-offerings” brought to him. on her side. Also. but will accord her their protection until she is given away lawfully to her betrothed. p. however.3 This knot was identical with the Ankh-tie of Egypt. is denied in various of the Inner African Courts. As a symbolic custom. B.1 or. it may be added. In Egypt the women were clothed. womanhood. whilst. and the covering of the hair by the femme converte. and the Ngoi of the Maori. she may meanwhile entertain any one of them as her lover. and not commit rape. “Women may only enter the presence of the Sultan of Meli in a stark naked condition. as a token that they will not assault her. and the sense of something to hide would evolve the feeling of shame in presence of the male. and therefore for reproducing. a covenant is made with sticks or twigs. It should be noted however that at a later stage the “naked Goddess” in Egypt and India is also the unchaste. Montaigne describes the females of his neigh~ bourhood as shaping the male image in their kercheifs. and the Japanese blacking of the teeth. line 63.” The woman in Proverbs makcs her invitation to the young man 1 3 Hahn. By this token Nature revealed the time of reproduction. 2 4 Smyth. then followed “the queens and princesses to adore the king after the wont of women”—or literally with the things (choses) of women. a type of the prostitute. On some verses of Virgil. it is identical with the African flesh-cutting and tooth-filing. and when they come to be widows they turn it round and hide it beneath their caps.96 THE NATURAL GENESIS. violate tapu. When the Hottentot boys come of age at puberty. 18.2 The top-knot of puberty was and still is worn by the women in some parts of France. i. full-grown women. respect the female sex. as the opposite to the femme converte. and to break it became morally wrong. . p. the valets were stark-naked. “But his majesty did not turn his countenance upon them. The first covenant was founded on this ground of fact. and wearing it as a fore-top.

hence the motive of the festival. The Hindus call the Wag-tail (Montacilla alba) Matta-Khanjana.”1 And so the Sistrums were shaken. so generation resolves and excites it by means of motion. kan is to dance. and Os. proffered with the simplicity of gesture-language. or those peace-offerings that were the reward of the warrior. Kina. Kisama. Mutsaya. Gina. Kena. Kini. Mbamba. Kanem. is to lust after one another. Gani. 97 with the statement that she has peace-offerings to proffer. It was a feminine form of kotouing to the male. This is:— Kina. Yini. those of Isis and Nephhys. and gave to it a symbolic significance. It has survived because it was a sacred dance and it was sacred because it was sexual. In the sacred dance the idea illustrated was that with the departure of Typhon all need of secrecy and seclusion was gone. The Wag-tail in love as the “MattaKhanjana” dances the can-can of love. a religious ceremonial dance with which women welcome back the returning heroes with wanton gestures and motions. typically —at the pairing season. Nyamban. The Egyptian kan-kannu is to dance and leap. The universal name of the dance and dancing in Inner Africa wil tell us where the can-can came from. Kini. moving. The Egyptians continued the leaping dance. but more particularly—that is. “they tell us that the Sistrums frighten away and avert Typhon. Tumbukta. Nkan. or the bull. The North Americans likewise danced a can-can. Krebo. .) is the tinkle-tinkle of a bell. the cohabitation of saints. insinuating that as corruption (i. Kina. the menses) locks up and fixes nature’s course. Khanjana denotes going. Kan. The Maori also dances the can-can. Kena. though less grossly doubtless than in Africa beyond.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. Bumbette. Kina. Lubalo. He says of the Sistrum of Isis.” The Fijians dance the can-can called gini-gini. “Gentikehn” in the Algonkin Delaware means to dance a sacred dance. and the waving to and fro of their limbs and bodies was a sign of Typhon’s dismissal. and the time of peace-offerings. in Kaffir. an emblem of the female in two phases. Salum. Limba. Babuma. a primitive form of which survives in the French “cancan. the bull of battle. Of Is. Kine. Yani. or kan-kannu. Kanu-kana. One mode of proferring peace-offerings was by exposure of the person in the dance. Kani-kan is to dance and to move backwards and forwards. 1 Gani. Plutarch tells how they represented generation by means of motion. the latter being a round dance performed with shouts and antic gestures.e. the secret pleasures of the Yatis. Padsade. Ntere. Songo. from Inner Africa. Khan-khana (Sansk. Kasande. and freedom of the dance. Penn said the worship of the Lenape Indians consisted of sacrifices and cantico. and kannu is victory.

The wives of a great man among the Soosoos bend their bodies to him with one hand resting on each knee. and personified as the hinder part. 210. Descriptions have been given that recall the saying of Proclus in Timæus. p. the toga virilis. continued to be the rump (Aliah)4 a the hinder thigh which from the beginning had been an emblem of the female. clapping their hands. How I found Livingstone. Description of the People of India. 551. the hieroglyphic “Ur-heka” the great magic power. or potent charm of primitive man. p. p. waky. 19. this is peculiar enough to cause perplexity to the Anthropologist. said that when he was present they were only allowed to appear on all fours.98 THE NATURAL GENESIS. intended to be a contrast to the person who is clothed with dignity. vii. or. Captain Burton says the Dakro.” So the oriental women are not compelled to veil the face before slaves or men of inferior position. Account of the Native Africans in the Neighbourhood of Sierra Leone. ix. exclaiming wake. That which was once natural is continued wholly or partially as a typical mode of doing honour. the wives of the Zulu King. which first began with the investiture of pubescence. Dingairn. huh. a type continued from the time when woman was the female animal. but only kneels to smaller men. 3 Dubois. 2 Stanley. and “as a rule she goes on all fours to these men. a woman who bears messages from the King of Danome to the men. The earliest Genitrix went on all fours.2 In some parts of India3 and in certain of the Pacific Islands it is considered a token of respect and an act of homage to present the back-side to a superior. a sacrificial type of that which was once offered in the custom of the feminine Kotou. The most striking feature in the females of the Bushman race is their protuberant hinder part. who goes on all fours to the male. This attitude is also assumed when he passes by. The most precious offering to the Deity of Israel even when the male idea dominated. In Africa it is found to be almost as at first in the action of the woman. 3. 5. “immense nature is suspended from the back of the vivific goddess. waky. viii.1 Among certain African tribes the women greet the men—and even half-grown youths—by bending their backs until the tips of their fingers rest on the toes of their feet. by turning their bodies sideways. wake. because it is a return to the status of childhood. 122. as she is pourtrayed in mythology. and always moved about on their hands and knees. goes on all fours before him. 4 Lev. they being more on an equality as mere women. . i.” But the doctrine of sexual selection and the customs of Kotou may suggest an explanation of 1 Winterbottom. Moreover. 9. Partial exposure of the person is still an African mode of showing homage. huh. vol. In Loango this was the prescribed attitude for wives in general in presence of their husbands. iii.

of fixing the cspousals by sending a matron from the bridegroom with a pin to fasten up the hair of the betrothed female. Such is the persistence of customs. a poor-thing sort of mode in being unmasculine. This denotes a primordial mode of Kotou. In the Maori language Kotua means respect. natural or unnatural. In these the obeisance is still made by the persons going backwards. the brown race and the black. with the back turned towards one. to he worn by . to pay homage. and the African belle was of the Bushwoman type of beauty. a girdle of human hair sometimes of the pubes forcibly extracted was presented to the initiated to be worn as the token of their manhood. The Australians of Botany Bay plaited strings of human hair and wore them as girdles round their waists. whilst the men all wear theirs long. a negational distinction of the sex. said to be a Tartar one. In the Tasmanian rite of young-man-making. or more feminine and servile. In Egyptian AN for the hair. regard. In some regions of Inner Africa it is a practice for the females to pluck out the hair of their eyebrows.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. Samoa. One meaning is conveyed by the Hebrew `dq. In Zulu Kaffir UkuKotamela is to stoop or bow down towards a person. The Australian Dieyeri manufacture a form of the “Ankh-tie”called a Yinka. and it was a practice when in the temples to perform the pantomime of plucking out the eyebrows and of blowing the hairs towards the Idol. The Chinese continue the custom. and so the bishop wears his Liku or shent apron of puberty. and offering the hairs to the gods. whether by the Peruvians. special pincers for that purpose forming a part of the outfit of their toilette. and the courtly flunkey bows backwards in happy ignorance of the exccssively simple origines of such specimens of survival. and are performed with much ceremony in every royal European court. the bearded one. It belongs to the stage at which the female performed the Kotou animal-fashion. New Calcdonia. Invertions of the custom of Kotou still abound. What the African female performs in kotouing to the male was also practised in sacrifice to the gods. Acosta describes the Perovians as pulling out their eyebrows and eyelashes. Hair is an emblem of pubescence which applied to both sexes. is the name for beauty of appearance. This is a kind of Kotouing to the male. and Tasmania. have their hair cut short or cropped close. But the hair type is found to be the especial glory of the male. that have once become symbolical. or by Lucian at Hierapolis. The women of New Zealand. to become beautiful. or by Paul in Cenchrea. and sexually inviting. 99 this feminine formation of an earlier time that made peculiar appeal to a primitive taste. The genesis of such a custom is not far to seek. Khetu in Egyptian signifies reversal.

clv. and is ordinarily 300 yards . The Yinka1 is greatly prized but is exceedingly rare on account of the difficulty in procuring human hair. 19. or pubes. hence her covering.”3 “No injury is done to my body. cutting. In the Egyptian paintings. iii. as a commuted form of femininc sacrifice. The Osirified in the Ritual rejoicing in his having retained ALL the tokens of his manhood in death says. At Hierapolis. From so simple an origin arose the practtce insisted on by St. Nor was this all. which “YINKA.” There is another reference in the words. and both betoken the impubescent one. cxv. the infantile and infertile. of the female wearing her head covered in presence of the angel. as in Africa to-day. the hair of the Man was on it!”4 Hair is one of those human types that lead us back to gesturelanguage in many lands. amongst other things. the devotee offered her hair. 3 Ch. as it is also with English sailors. the Hango. This is a string of twisted human hair which is worn round the waist.” The Zulu Kaffir “Yinga” is a necklace of coloured beads. the crook-legged abortion. The Pai-Ute Indians make the sign for the Chief by grasping the fore-lock of their hair and lifting it up at full length. So. vol. baldness is a mode of representing nonvirility in the pigmy Ptah. Indeed the word “rank” is one with the Egyptian Rnk for the pubes. under the order of chivalry it was a token of respect for the gentleman to pull at his moustache when in presence of a lady. Busunde. “I knew that eye. Austin also refers to those who think that woman will rise again in the male image rather than ber own.5 The more bair the greater the man. The bald head agrees with the penis manu compressus of his portraits. from wearing “Fur. “Ingu” in Aku. in the mysteries and out of them. The feminine pubes were turned into ornaments for masculine wear. Paul. the Ren in opposition to the Renka. In Mediæval Europc the inferior classes of the people were prohibited by statute. St. a phase of the god as Ptah-Sekari. the male at puberty. 1 The . p. Introd. 658. A lesser length of hair denotes a lower rank. 4 Ch. and in the worship of the male deity. It was a custom with the ancient Irish for the women to present their lovers with rings and bracelets made of their own hair. 5 Mallery. This emblem of the male was suppressed or diminished in the female. or plucking out of the hair. and pulling the forelock is still a provincial mode of making an obeisance to a superior.” Rank was then denoted by the skin of the animal. 2 Gough’s Camden. or edict.2 The hair became a symbol so essentially masculine and potent that the dead of both sexes were represented by an image of the bcarded maker as the Egyptian Shebti.100 THE NATURAL length. although he does not assign the true reason for making the type of resurrection masculine. “My eye-brow is not plucked out. is made of beads. is a chain-fetter. p.

with the view of sending the murdered man’s spirit to him as his slave in the other world.e.e. or blasted by magic. bereavement. the vanquished man became the conqueror’s slave by the loss of his scalp and hair. in England. widowhood. monkish. and time was. It is believed that the hair and nails ought never to be cut on Sunday. this will account for the lock of a person's hair being considered the representative of the personal self. baldness was the natural antithesis. and the loss of the hair was enforced as a later form of penalty. According to Hans Stade the Tupi warrior took away the name of the man whom he slew and bore it himself. repeatings of the hair. The Welsh Rhenc or Breton Rhenk is primarily the status attained at puberty which afterwards became the rank in the Male line of descent. because it had been held so sacred as a voluntary offering. and when the young Creek Indian brought in his first scalp he won his war-name.”1 As hair was the emblem of virility and reproduction. the stone. enacting of the malignant desire in gesture-language according to primitive useage. 20. i. With some races the woman shaved her head on losing her busband. at the time of puberty. beard. This is recognized by Isaiah who threatens Israel with a razor that will shave it at both ends and “it shall consume the beard. when his life is sought to be taken. The Osage Indians are reported as killing an enemy on purpose to suspend his scalp over the grave of their own buried warrior. like the white stone in the Mysteries. or on Friday.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. is the name of the widow and the bald. and still is in the Cult of the Virgin Mother and her impubescent Bambino in Rome. and became a Brave. is the detached scalplike tress of hair. The name of the man was originally conferred. when people would make a point of having their hair cut 1 Ch. were all indicated by the hairless condition. Loss of hair was degrading and humiliating. the day of the Genitrix. whether voluntary or enforced. Childhood. and shaving is the symbolic act of rendering non-virile. The hair being a symbol of reproducing potency. whether applied to the pubes. ignominy. . and slavery.” i. In the Hieroglyphics the determinative of the Kharu or widow. unsexual. and this interpretation is supported by the fact that when the Chichimec scalped his enemy alive. vii. The Lion Faru in the Ritual is called the “Lord of numerous transformations of skins. Thus the name. the day of Khem-Horus. The same word Mundai in Toda. Also plucking out the hair was a gesture-sign of grief and mourning. or crown. as it was in Egypt. and pubes or hair. were homotypes. and founded his supremacy over the female. the tokens of his manhood. 101 constituted the first rank of the male.

He would not rise again. the bridegroom should pare his nails and send them to his new wife. or the foreskins were piled in the circle of the twelve stones at GilgaI. It was an Egyptian custom to gild the nails. according to Egyptian thought. He was not reproducible. could not be reconstructed. Hawksworth Voy. the last tribute paid thus was the forfeiture or his personality in a spiritual sense. beard.1 two chief types of male potency. we can read the significance of the emblem in death. 457. vol. When we know the symbolic value of nail from the origin we can understand the reason why biting the nail by way of scorn should be considered an insult. teeth.”3 The act had the same significance as when the pubes or locks of hair were offered to the divine Genitrix. which done they lived together afterwards as man and wife. for without the member the deceased. it was aimed at the person’s manhood. By aid of the hieroglyphic values conferred on the image in lifc.102 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Each was dedicated to re-production. Cook. the female reproducer. Brand.535 members and hands were cut off from the dead after the battle of Khesef-Tamahu. . whilst the Moon. In one instance the “spoils of the Rebu” consist of donkey-loads of phalluses (Karurnatu) and severed hands. He was the living one.2 The act was equal to plucking the beard or cutting the hair. an image of the ever-living. By its excision the enemy was typically annihilated. On the monuments there are heaps of these collected as evidence of conquest. They had to be trimmed furtively while he was sleeping. It was a theory that the hair.” will account for a custom like this:—“The ancient Frenchmen had a ceremony that when they would marry. The male emblem of virility. and visible bases of renewal and resurrection.). and nails of the Japanese Mikado were never cut. was a trophy to be cut off in battle. 1608. 12. as a type of re-production. they served in a second phase as emblems of foundation.4 These were equivalent to the phallus worn by the widows. like the Ankh (Eg. He only transformed. iii. The Moon. and deposited as proofs of victory— an enacted report—before the Pharaoh Rameses. and membrum virile of the embalmed mummy. This corresponds to the assumption that the king never dies. Captain Cook dcscribes the Maori as wearing the nails and teeth of their dead relations. on the ground of nail being a representative of virility in gesturelanguage and the primitivc typology. as types of production. resurrection. a type of “renewal coming of itself. like the scalp. The nails as an equivalent for the hair. was in the sign of the Lion or the Ram. Hand and Finger-nails. Vaughan’s Golden Greece. a type of the immortal. These were glorified in the gloom of the grave because. 1 3 4 2 Brand.

eating the heart. and doubled as the dowry of Michal. and if a warrior slew any number of foes in battle and others obtained the scalps. Agni (fire) does not consume their generative organ. 2 1 Sam. to apprehend what terrible meaning there was in the custom of dismembering the body. see how he rejoices in the firmness of his phallus. or transferred. and was carrying it off in triumph.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. to the living. for that was the earlier period. In other forms of mutilation the hair was the primary object as a type of the male potency now utterly vanquished in the dead. it permitted of modification and commutation in the interchange of types. Thus the “bloody foreskin” of the slain came to be adopted in place of the total emblem. the Soundness and indissolubility of his vertebræ. swallowing the eyes. taking an enemy’s scalp was an honour quite independent of the act of vanquishing him. There was a recent massacre of the Kultas by the Khonds. To kill your adversary was of no importance unless the scalp was secured. We have only to become acquainted with the doctrine of the mummy in the Ritual. It was not only the act of killing that was consecrated by the mutilation of the dead. 103 as in the case of Osiris. Scalping had a similar origin. New Zealand. as with the Abyssinians. or prepuce-cover had precisely the same symbolical value as the sign of manhood. when the leader called out to him. on the most physical plane of thought. hence its excision at the age of puberty. depended on repossessing the member. The hair being a token of manhood and potency. 101. except in its being a commutated offering to the paternal deity. and see the fearful anxiety of the deceased to get all his members intact and solid.1 In the Atharva-Veda it is affirmed that when the dead passed through the sacrificial fire to heaven. they who took them had all the honour. the hardness of his heart. p. to avoid dissolution. described by Bruce. Cutting off the head was but a less refined mode of taking the scalp without the trouble. or pulverising the bones to drink them in water as an ocular demonstration of dissolution. in. whereas in the earlier thought of Kam it would have been held to do so. and the hundred Philistine foreskins demanded by Saul of David. symbolically. The type of individuality here was the emblem of existence hereafter. this went with the trophy. Because the custom was typical. “Why carry about a head without hair? 1 Taylor. who had just been decapitated. or to efface the type. . that is the type. xviii. still living. 25. and the Jewish custom does not retain the primary significance. which came to the same thing. Among the Shoshones. the scalp bore these values as a typical trophy. which one of the latter picked up the bead of an old man. The New Zealanders are said to think that a man who is eaten is thus destroyed soul and body.2 The foreskin.

civ. 1 4 2 Vol. According to the Vulgate. eat human flesh in time of war.1 It was a practice with the Maori for the victor in battle to scoop out the left eye of his dead enemy and swallow it. Thou shinest in the morning out of the earth. The idea of reproduction and continuity. the Maker stretched out the heaven like a skin. Many unintelligible forms of thought may be interpreted by an original type when once we obtain the clue to the origin—and very little short of the origin in these customs is really worth knowing—which enables us to follow them in their later phases of survival. and thus extinguished him utterly. and turn them into lute-strings. and Shungie. 5 Ps. This was done.104 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Hence the garment of cow’s hide worn by Vishnu in the Mahabhârata. p. that the cow’s hide has the quality of stretching and extending endlessly. Globe newspaper. Typhon tears out the eye of Taht and swallows it. in the folklore of Shetland. . Then the sun restores the eye when the moon is renewed. 129. According to Kamite typology the Maori warrior swallowed that which would have been his enemy’s light by night—his moon in the darkness of death. August 24. And through the same type of transference.5 It is by means of a SKIN which they possess that men and women are enabled to change themselves into seals. is the primary cause of the belief as expressed in popular lore. symbolled by the Hieroglyphic skin. Koelle. There will be no scalping of him!” and he threw away the useless trophy. 15. declared that he had swallowed the left eye of an enemy whom he had killed for the purpose of increasing the glory of his own when it shone in the firmament above. Hermes (Taht) is said to cut out Typhon’s muscles. and finishing them that way. thy right eye is the essence. Introd. p. That is the left symbolic lunar eye. the left symbolic eye is the eye of light by night—the eye of the moon in the dark.4 and then only. 1882. It is said to Ra in the inscription of El Karjeh—“Thy left eye is in the disk of night. Polyglotta Africana.2 The left eye of a chief was believed to become a star after his death.. There can be little doubt that a religious cannibalism had its origin or derived its significance from the victors eating portions of the vanquished. 3 Line 21. 2.”3 The right eye was the sun. the Seals are looked upon as human beings who have been transfigured. because the soul was supposed to have its seat in the left eye. In the story told by Plutarch. According to the typology of Egypt. says Dieffenbach. ii. a New Zealand chief. The Kongo Namaquas. like many other Africans.

” but the Egyptian “change of heart. worn in later times. and the most primitive customs were the sole records of such acting by men who performed those things that could not otherwise have been memorized. all others wondered when they beheld in the ether the unexpected light. In the “Orphic Fragments” we read. hawk. When the Finn woman is once in the power of the Shetlander. or other tribal type of the ancestral descent. a bull. The type is one whether it be the wolf-dog or jackal of Anup. it is bcatuse he has possession of her skin. which in this case means progeny. or feathers of the animals or birds. This mode of transformation was then continued in the religious mysteries. except the Sacred Night alone. 296.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. without which she can never transform back again or escape from her captor. He made his transformation in the likeness of the totemic animal. and worn with the hair on. by assuming the skin. p. The shoe of Vair fur or hair which fitted Cinderella was of the same symbolic value. the lion of Shu or any other form of the Phœnix-skin including the Seal of the Shetlanders. “No one has seen Protogonos with his eyes. Seeing the primitive importance of the skin as a type of prowess and a symbol ef reproduction adopted on account of its shooting the hair and renewing itself. The shoe is thrown for good luck. The Prince was in search of the reproducer. . and write was first enacted. and applied to other changcs. a type of change and transformation. and volumes might be filled in showing the (to us) unnatural-looking results of an origin that was quite naturaI. We have to think back beyond leather to the time when the sandal was made of skin. whichever way the transformation may take place. and this was followed by fur and feather. 105 All turns on the skin. a seal. and replacing it by the beetle. may be traced to the ritual and ceremonial of puberty. That which we can talk. and turn them into talismans to make barren 1 [Ancient Fragments] Ed.”1 The skin is here the same type of transformation as that of the Finn. a crow. For the typology is actively identified by the Esquimaux. Cory. he transformed into the hairy one. a wolf. they constitute the drama of dumb humanity. who seize an old shoe of the English with great avidity. and the skin with hair on. cut it up into strips. Thesc customs had their origin in gesture-language. and of the Ahts of North America. say. such as the SKIN of the immortal Phanes shot forth. a dog. hair. For example. The natural origin of all the transformations. and became a bear. it is more than probable that the custom of throwing the old shoe after the newly-wedded pair is connected with the skin-type of repetition (Nem). When the boy became pubescent. The first clothing was hair. we speak of a “change of heart.” was represented by taking the old heart out of the mummy’s breast to embalm or preserve it apart.

1 Egede. The bear-skin Busby continues the Bus-skin of Egypt. but who received the king’s pardon. The vesture. women fertile. was also a form of the skin. fur. The relationship of the skin to the hair and renewed life is demonstrated by the ancient custom of presenting a pair of gloves to the culprits who had heen condemned to die. and in this the man still tries to look martial. . the shoe. This custom was followed by a pair of gloves being given to the judge before whom no prisoner had been capitally convicted at what is termed a “Maiden Assize. whereby the glove: became the type of life renewed. In the time of Queen Elizabeth the bridegroom wore gloves in his hat as the symbol of good husbandry. protection. were made of skin. Such an application of the skin of the animal in the shape of the shoe will also explicate the custom of putting shoes on the dead or burying a pair with them. These being worn proudly. and sought to frighten his foe. and the Bes or Nem skin that was held to give warmth. At the famous Duke of Wellington’s funeral a pair of boots were carried to St. The shoe would have the same significance as the skin in which the Inner Africans still inter their dead. In the shape of the hat the skin is still a type of transformation from boy to man. and this identifies the type. as was done in England and other northern countries. 8. or feather. which were reckoned as votes. which was a sign of protecting power and of transference.1 This may be adduced as the connectinglink still extant. 198. proofs of his potency. which are interchangeable as symbols. and the boy pubescent. and hat. 2 Ps. and the non-wearing of skin or leather during menstruation by the Parsee women. were doffcd in humility. The pubes supplied a supreme type of male power. as shown. The Cossacks of the Don elected their Hetman by casting their skins or hairy caps at him. as is the rule at the burial of a field-marshal The shoe-skin being a sign of suprcmacy.106 THE NATURAL GENESIS. The hat. and the hope of a joyful resurrection. Paul’s Cathedral in the stirrups of the dead warrior’s horse. for instance. lx. by the declaration of the Hebrew Deity. Greenland p. or teeming.” The same theory of origin will also explain why gloves should have been given at weddings. In Scandinavia the burial shoe is called helsó or Hellshoe. or reproduction to the mummy in Egypt. The tall silk hat is an imitation of the hairy one. “Over Edom will I cast my shoe.”2 this will account for its being taken off as an acknowledgment of inferiority. The earliest skins worn were trophies of the victor and types or his virility. or beaver. The hat is put on by the Speaker of the House of Commons as the chief sign of his authority. it is a genuine relic of the primæval skin wherewith the conqueror clothed himself. with the custom of throwing the old shoe for good luck in marriage.

and duplicate. however. The knot then is the sign of capture and covenant. The skin was made use of in the ceremony of bride-capture. The skin was the same emblem of reproduction as if thrown after the wedding pair or buried with the dead. clasp. the scarf. and in short ravish the female as was done even in accordance with the regulated customs of capture. and was primally the determinative of Ark. we have the meaning of to capture. But the knot did not originate with the ceremony of marriage. are other circular and corroborative symbols. Thus the skin or shoe is a double Ideograph when applied to the bride. change from one to another. to end. Much has been written of late years on the subject of capture in marriage. As such it was carried by the: Great. denude. or knot. It is the determinative of Ark and Ankh to surround. described as tying the knot. and all the ideas connected with capturing. The hieroglyphic tie.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. The knot is still the symbol of marriage. noose. Under the sign of Fekh in the hieroglyphics. . burst open. be perfected. It is the hieroglyphic sign of life and reproduction. Bus. to put on clothes. The capture of the female by the male is so ancient that it may be compared with the capture of the hen by the cock. tying. inclose. The ring. is the determinative of Fekh. The act of capture goes back of necessity to the state of utterest promiscuity. as if it were a form of feminine capture. It was especially applicable on Valentine’s Day. clasp. It is the ideograph of periodicity. the bride in some instances being carried off in the symbolical skin. when lovers were chosen by lot or captured. undress. the bridegroom and a strong man should compel the bride to sit down on the skin of a red ox. and kisses without waking him. making a bond and covenant. also signifies transference. the wreath. couple. It is the determinative of Ankh. she is entitled to receive a new pair of gloves. as her emblem. or to become the femme converte. Some amorous pleasantry is connected with the belief that if a woman surprises a man when he is sleepinh. Nor is the type limited to reproduction. The covertness of the act has the look of the lady’s having earned the right to be covered. pair. is not concerned with tribal endogamy and exogamy. untie. which include all the various modes of marriage. Next lawless capture was regulated and applied to periods of time and to persons within and without the Totemic tribe. the skin. the end of a period. In the Sutras it was provided that at one important part of the marriage ceremony. 107 The glove hung up in churches and in the pews of those who had died young is a sign of the same significance as the skin buried with the dead as the symbol of a future life. whether of capture or covenant. envelop. and applies to the period of feminine pubescence. the enceinte. to pass. Mother. The present writer.

3 The tooth emblem of Adultship—Hu (Eg. or than they have the right to take. 2 Halak. hence their relationship to marriage. The laws of regulated capture are illustrated by the Narrinyeri tribes of Australia.. is represented by the Fijian Liku (a variant of the word Arku). tooth. Dolokie . Liga . girdle. Shirt. p. Ariga . Soa. The type was continued in the Egyptian and Inner African custom of tying up or snooding the hair after that period. 3 Smyth. and the status of womanhood.1 The Arku (Eg. vol. zone. or knot.. p. . a woman’s top-knot. Wolof.). and it constituted a primitive means of distinguishing between the right and wrong.. the sign of pubescence. 65. to be worn by the woman. The Fijian Liku and Victorian Leek-Leek. is Inner African. The Liku is the feminine loin-doth. whence the Juang. This tie is stiII made of leaves in the Kaffir Cacawe. as do the Juangs of India—described by Colonel Dalton—whose name is possibly based on their early type of the Ankh-tie. ivory. Liga. 272. Shirt. or knot is identical with the Zulu Foko. and sign of the covenant. Smyth. The message conveyed to him by this sign would tell him that when the girl put on the Liku at puberty she would become his wife. of which is shown by linen hung up to dry. i. called a Leek-Leek. The first Ankh-tie was put on at puberty. and the period of possible pregnancy. Williams. Timbo. band. Melagiye . Beran. Fekh (Eg.108 THE NATURAL GENESIS. and as a pledge that her daughter should be his wife.). Shirt. were typical of pubescence in the two sexes. Fiji. so that they may not claim more females from another tribe than properly belong to them. The Liku is likewise known to the Australian Aborigines. with whom members of the different clans are present at each other’s ceremonies of young-man-making to see that they only enter those youths who are of the proper age. and loin-cIoth. Lugod . The tooth. i. because it had become the token of feminine pubescence. tie. as the Lok. i. Mbarike. he presented to the mother some whales’ teeth as his pledge. the mother carried a Liku as a present to the intended husband in token. vol. Here again the tie.. or the lock of hair sent in later timcs. 1 Loga.. the tie. by the leaf-wearers. It was next adopted as the sign of reproduction. Kano. Waist-cloth. The origin of the tie then can be traced to the simplest necessity of nature.2 When the daughter of a Fijian chief was betrothed in infancy. the nature. . signified that the wearer was capturable—ready for marriage. or loin-cloth which is assumed at the time of puberty. 168. and the Adult Solar God.). The young females of Victoria put on a girdle or very short skirt made of opossum fur. to dress. according to the rude inter-tribal code of ravishing. girdle and apron all in one.. Kore. Wodai. In return. Dsarawa. vol. some of whom still clothe themselves with a leaf-girdle to-day. Halak. Kadzina.—was one with the Nails of the Frenchmen. p. therefore a symbol itself.

i. to be attached. ed. or an abstract kind of word. . Matatan.e. } .. Oruka. and the same root has supplied the German Schmerz. This meaning of love began in collecting and capturing or binding the females. Mer is to love. Such types founded in the necessities of nature—the sole revealer in the matter—were continued as signs or symbols. A. whether legally or illegally. Opanda. is the metaphysical phase of Smaru (Eg. . in the Aryan stage. Ngoya Nke Nke Nke Nke Nket or Landoro.2 S is the causative prefix to verbs. .TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. in Egbria-Hima. . hence Hor-Apollo says truly a noose denotes love. Owanga .. Bagba. and representative ring. Such is the part playcd by words in obscuring the meaning they had in the past with the sense they bear at present. Uroka. 1862. 3 Goodwin. or bound together. Momenya. tie.. In one shape or other the knot.3 and the Sanskrit Smara. Orugba. Forcible and legalized capture preceded the bondage of affection and the name of the one was continued for the other.. the Merti (our married) are persons who are attached and bound together. Papiah. . i. 26. Ear-ring.. Pangela. and the English. 109 Aruba. Ear-ring.. not in semtimental recollection... to recollect. 2 B.) to collect. also means to collet. 125. that:— “The Sanskrit name of love is Smara. Ngoi. Max Müller has remarked. Pangelo.. Kisama. Mende. to re-collect. slaughter. Songo Wuanka . Ark. Kum. 383. N’gola. whence Smar (and Smart) to bind. Nek. to kiss. . a Cord. ii. Ankh. Wuanga . and still survive in hieroglyphical customs where they are no longer read. { Rope Cord. .. { Rope Cord.. in Igu. And so the type was carried on in the bridal knot. attach... smart. . and is applied to the collecting of taxes. used for “kissin-the-ring. which again agrees with mer. Pati. which serves to connect the word with pain and smart. . 1861. . Bracelet. . Balu. as the primitive mode of abstracting. when coupling had attained the status of monogamous marriage. or tie of binding. called by the Maori. Gree-gree. made the same communication as the knot in the handkerchief. R.. or Mer-circle. is universally worn.” which signified to capture and kiss. Lubalo. . p. Smara (Eg. Wanka . Also the Ark and Ankh Nooses are names for cord or rope:— Orugba. } Nganga. twist. Bayon. } . { Rope Cord. The typical knot on the head. or Konguan.. Armlet or Nupe. Nke Nke Nkui Ongai Ungos Nkoi or Bamom. it is derived from Smar. Ife. Olugba. bind. N’ket. Mer is determined by the noose.) to bind. vol. as Ngoba. figured.. Paraza.”1 In Egyptian. Runda.. and pourtrayed tn the coupling or marriage 1 Lectures. pain. Ebe. because the time had come. { } The Ankh tie is likewise Inner African... . a Cord.

and on the wedding day she presents this to her mate who puts it round his waist to wear till death. A front tooth was knocked out and the prepuce cover either closed or the mark was made by the longitudinal slit of the Australian Aborigines and the Fijians. The woman twists a cord. The brand of the deserter shows this custom on the reverse of the coin. this was their marriage ceremony. by the other he was consecrated as a future generator.110 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Hence the noose-sign of capture under the term Fekh.” The mutilation took various forms at different times amongst many peoples. In this ceremony the noose-sign of capture and covenant continues to do duty in the act of transfer and the making of a new bargain. as the rites and ceremonies of pubesence were transposed to the time of infant baptism. Enacting the knot came first. and delivers her over to the buyer with a noose about her neck. and the hank is still the hieroglyphic Ankh. In the marriage or the Aztecs a priest tied a point of the bride’s gown or huepilli to the tilmatli or mantle of the bridegroom. ceremony. It was primally the making and sacred sealing of a bond and covenant in the blood of a responsible individual who could understand the nature of it. because their origin is unknown. who. are said by another writer to use a symbol of duration for the union of the man and woman who pair together. 236. Some of these lost all their significance when they werc transferred from one period of life to another. The religious ritual of the modems also is crowded like a kitchen midden with the refuse relics of customs that were once natural and are now clung to as if they were supernatural in their efficacy. according to Tennant. At other times the circle was traversed. But when the custom of circumcision was transferred to the time of childhood. Farrer. By the one cut he was dedicated to the clan as its kinsman. according to the savage condition) in transforming 1 Quoted in Primitive Manners and Customs. At the period of puberty the youth was inducted into the tribe. to be performed on the infant of eight days old. Hence the name of the rites of “young-man-making. The act is continually cropping up in the newspapers.1 The supposition still prevails amongst the working classes in some English counties that a husband may lawfully sell his wife to another man provided he puts her up to auction. His Totem-tattoo was scored into the flesh of his back. p. as it had been by the Jews. have no marriage rites. The Veddahs of Ceylon. and mode of tying the knot. The Burmese for example bore their ears and the custom takes the rank of a baptism. Such customs are like thosc rudimentary organs of animals that nature suppressed and superseded. . the tribal mark and totemic namc were conferred on him in a baptism of blood. then the natural (i. which only tell of uses long since passed away. The bridegroom carried the bride on his back and made the circuit of her house.e.

It is a common Moslem custom in Africa for the child to have its hair cut when the name of the father is given to it. The same less of sense occurs in transferring the rite of baptism from the age of puberty to that of infancy. the Lombard king. or cutting its hair at the time of conferring the father’s name. Tsuni-Goam. Hahn another. At a later stage such symbols became ancestral. to Luithprand. and. and family had its blazon printed on the body ranging from great gashes down to a diminutive pattern-prick. Casalls describes one form. 87. Clovis offered his beard for Alaric to cut in token that he adopted him for his son. and that these were totemic signs.1 The custom was continued as symbolical. Ceremonial Institutions. p. There is abundant evidence to prove that the earliest tattooing was done by cuts in the flesh. In Europe too cutting the hair of the child or young man was a mode of adopting and fathering. and the sky appeared to be one continued flash of lightning. But when the ceremony is enacted in infancy it is meaningless and becomes inexplicable. that he might cut his first locks and thus adopt him as his son. 63. as an eye-witness. Park in his travels into Inner Africa says it is a custom among the Mandcngas for the child to be named when it is seven or eight days old. . but the transfer of the rite from the time of puberty leaves the natural genesis so far behind that it is lost sight of. he describes them running to and fro in this manner when the thunder roared incessantly. and the ceremony commences by the priest shaving the infant’s head. can only be explained by the first intention. The Kaffir and Hottentot girls undergo the baptism of water at this time. sub-tribe. but they originated as tribal marks and were primarily adopted for use in the earliest societary phase. p. 111 into the symbolic custom. yet to be quoted. and affiliation to the Totem was first. At the period of young-man-making the shaving and hair-plucking represented a typical return to infancy. It is a Hottentot custom for pubescent girls to be exposed stark naked to the first thunder-storm that follows their period. The custom of shaving the head of an infant. The totemic preceded the individual ancestor as father. Burton testifies that in Abeokuta every tribe. and the rain drenched them in a deluge.2 1 2 Spencer. and Charles Martel sent his son. and the pubescent male was thus reborn and adopted into the community as its child. The Peruvians also cut the babe’s hair ceremonially with a stone knife when the name was conferred at the age of two years. Pepin. and it becomes cruel in its dotage. loses its sense.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. They were signs of the bond of fellowship before they were turned into the badges of bondage to an individual tyrant. Dr.

Indeed. a left hand was borne in the sacred procession with the palm expanded. in preaching against cerwn innovations made in the Ritualistic practices of the Reformed Church says the Communion-Table must “stand as it had wont to do. Not that the evolutionist can justly complain of these specimens of survival. When we know that the human race first dated from the dark. Baptism at puberty was also a rite of consecration by means of blood. otherwise the minister cannot stand at the north side. The Talmudists assert that man was created ftom the left hand. . The continuity of the custom is shown by the child’s taking the father’s name instead of the tribal one of old. was a consecration of the generative powers to righteous use and a cleanly life.” Nature herself wrote the first rubric. becomes an imposture. The Vamacharis. the Manes of a meaning long since dead. but from east to west as the custom is of all Reformed Churches. is nought but a delusive shadow of the past. Neither must the table be placed along from north to south. that will explain numerous customs connected with the left hand. and reckoned the place of darkness in the north by the left hand. and no written record in the present can compare with the unwritten records of the past which are preserved in symbolical customs. there being neither side towards then north. The Lord’s table elevcn years ago was 1 Apuleius. the women to the north on the left hand. A custom like this yet affects the Ritualistic controversy. those who recognise the female as primary. In the Roman worship of the Great Mother. as the altar is set. “As it was in the beginning. or right hand. because blood was the announcer of the female period of pubescence. all the greater for its sanctity.112 THE NATURAL GENESIS. In the year 1628. This was next applied to the male at puberty by the bond made in his blood. But a baptism of the unconscious babe as a rite of re-generation by ministers who are profoundly ignorant of its origin and significance. the lower side.” is the gospel found to be continued by them. the whole masquerade of Roman Ritualism in these appurtenances of the past is now as sorry a sight to the Archaic student as the straw crowns and faded finery of the kings and queens whose domain is limited to the asylum for lunatics. The followers of the female still lean to the left side and the place of the Genitrix in the north. which is precisely the same symbolical custom as that observed in the burial of the Bongo dead. Prebendary Smart. So lowly of status was the “primæval revelation.1 because the left hand was a feminine type. whether with water or blood. however. The re-generation doctrine. In English churches and chapels the men used to sit on the south side. Sut was born from the left side. Adult baptism. and her red was blood. or left~hand worshippers of Siva are Yonias.

and the Eucharistic table standing “in the sides of the north” represented the Virgin Mother just as surely as if she had been the Vāmorū-tarā. and the unclean shall pass away from the earth. and others. because there is no side of the table standing northward. from left to right in their circular dances. till the Holy God shall build the temple and establish the world.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. when exalted to the divine office. and so placed that the minister cannot stand to do his office on the north side.1 The left hand being first. “Don’t have the mother-in-law to live in your house. then will His Holy Word meet with due honour. 113 turned into an altar.” from right to left. The right hand had become foremost of the two. so is it with the lower that preceded the upper.e. contrariwise to the apparent diurnal motion.2 Captain Burton tells me the custom is common in Africa. the: earliest progression was made from left to right. A Phrenologist among the Todas. Prebendary Smart was an English Vamachari. which reflected the pre-monogamous status of woman. 141. and thus represented the “backward way” of the moon which passes through the stellar heaven from west to east. As with the left hand. the step-mother. and others have suffered for the parts they once played in symbolism. that if a child cuts its upper teeth before the lower. who has always used the right hand for the purpose of washing. and—to take one illustrative custom —the lower is so sacredly the first with the natives near Lake Malo. as the widow. the cock in the springtide pastimes. 276. and all such customs have unwittingly registered facts for the evolutionist. This was illustrated in the ceremonial of the “Sabbath” when the witches always went “Widdershins. . A practice like this is unconsciously typical. i.” As in the Hebrew arrangements. which is the inferior put first. it is killed as unlucky. always uses his left hand to wash his face and teeth on first rising in the morning. who have been victimized on account of their typical characters in mythoIogy. it is the same conflict of the male with the female. so has it been with woman. the worshippers went “deasil. that is yet current in modern Ritualism. and thus each offers the place of honour to the other. because that is the inferior hand. p. the north side represents the birthplace of all beginnings. When the “Sohar” declares that the left side will have the upper hand and the unclean will be the strong. the mouthpiece of emanation. Dislike to the mother-in1 2 Marshall. Livingstone’s Last Journals.” is a prevalent piece of advice at the time of marriage. as the law expressly chargeth him to do.” i. It is the English rule of the road in driving for each to take the left side. of the Tantras. The Toda Palal (priest). Also as certain animals like the ass. In the later Solar Cult this was reversed.

” and the Kaffir and his mother-in-law are taught to avoid each other. Hence when it is new moon he turns the burnt and blackened side of bis face to us and the blots are still to be seen. independently of the person. History of Man. the son-in-law must shun his mother-in-law. vol. and leaving him stark naked by casting every rag of clothing away. . in Ashanti. Schoolcraft. however. p. vol. With the Beni Amer. Philander Prescott. but there is a natural genesis beyond. 325. Smyth. and she may not look on him. says he had heard of instances in which a violation of this law had been punished by stripping the offender piecemeal. made love to her. ii. hides herself at the approach of the mother-in-law. and she will seek the protection of a bush. According to Richardson. The mother-in-law is thus a generalized character.2 The custom belongs to the laws of Tabu. Certain rules of courtesy and etiquette look ridiculous to us chiefly 1 3 5 2 Munzinger. both would become old prematurely and die.114 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Early History. in other phrase. Should they chancc to pass each other. they endeavour to screen her. not to look each other in the face when they meet. would be a typical custom. when any of the Cree Indians live with the wife’s parents after marriage. it was unlawful for the son-in-law to look on the face of his mother-in-law. and other parts of Africa. the wife. pp.1 This is current in Zululand.5 In the lowest caste of Hindus.” p. the man sleeps with his mother-in-law until the promised bride comes of age. These scarred his face forever. 285. too. law is cultivated by such sayings. They were partitioned off from each other in the same house. whereupon she threw a handful of ashes at him. p.4 Among the Australian Aborigines. or.3 This. writing of the Dacotahs. and belongs to the same class of ideas as that of the Liku being presented by the future mother-in-law to the intended husband. and not to repeat each other’s names. There is an Indian story of the man who looked on his mother-inlaw. 95-96. With the Arawaks of Guiana. The man was the lunar god. It is believed that if they were to look on each other. he will hide his blushes behind his shield. and sat back to back in the same boat. 87. 4 Tylor. Nat. 196. as well as her husband. The custom had become typical. This strict etiquette commences from the moment the female child is promised to the man. “Africa. Wood. If they chance to meet he will hide behind his shield. but they do not mention his name. and she will squat down in the bush-grass. If she is near her tribe when he goes by. the etiquette of the family demands that the husband’s mother-in-law must not speak to him nor even look at him. i. The Zulu Kaffirs have a custom which is termed being “ashamed of the mother-in-law.

who. she can 1 Hahn. that the moon frequently came down on a visit to their wives. but was prohibited from taking the elder to wife. she is allowed to carry off the finest cows or sheep from his flock. is honorifically the elder sister. as a mode of memorizing the law. On the Isthmus of Darien the people have a tradition that the man in the moon was guilty of incest with his elder sister. is to swear by his eldest sister. When we learn that among the African Khoi-Khoi (or first men). and when it did not descend. and the etiquette of the Hottentot is but the shadow of a primal reality. Thus the sister and the mother-in-law meet in the same myth. The eldest sister can still inflict punishment on the grown-up brother who violates that traditional etiquette which now typifies the power of protecting her own person. we see at a glance why he was bound not to look on. or to have intercourse with his mother-in-law. the sonin-law was compelled to spend his earliest years. and still takes. if no one else is present. man may not address his own sister personally. The Greenlanders told Egede. the highest oath that a man can take. were accustomed to anoint themselves with spittle. Still the dog goes upon the ground of the real scratch. pp. With the Veddas of Ceylon the brother might marry his younger sister. the missionary. We see in this custom a relic of the earliest code of morals as ancient as the time when incest was prohibited. But we have to go back a long way to attain the true standpoint. or rise. it was a part of the sorcerer’s work to charm it and “bring down the moon.” The Arabic saying that “When a woman has a husband. like Jacob. in the service of his father-in-law. but so sacred in their end and aim. But what moon? That on which the feminine fertility depended. The Esquimaux likewise charge the man in the moon with an unnatural love for his sister who daubed his face over with mud to frighten him away. The Chaldean Magi and the Thessalian Charmers are credited with the power of bringing down the moon to the earth. 115 because they were so simple in their origin. One kind of intercourse was then interpreted by another. and if he should perjure himself in taking her name. a.” for the mother. 18-21. Also. It is noticeable that the Tamil “Aunei. and to be the old man’s constant companion. Tsuni-Goam. So much is apparently made of so little. he has to be overheard by her as he expresses a wish that somebody would tell his sister what be wants. .1 This looks as ludicrous as the sight of a dog scratching the air whilst some one is scratching him. on the occasion. He must speak to another person who addresses her in his name: or. Again.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS.

and that it would participate in the natural faults of the animals on which its father had fed. Dr. as was that of the Egyptian hieroglyphics previously to the nineteenth century. Dyaks of Borneo. How they can fast so much and not die of it is amazing to me. turn the moon round her little finger. the child would be deaf and have no brains like this animal. for now comes the sauce they prepare for him. the key to which has been mislaid. but the father begins to complain. 292. This is. and so on with the rest. firmly believing that this would injure the child’s stomach. ii. Basques. Hist. and takes to his hammock. the strongest they can get. Paris. so these cassava rims they keep for the feast at the end of forty days. During this time. for they sometimes pass the first five days without eating or drinking anything. who. before they set to eating. Navarrese. the Greenlanders. for through the space of six whole months he eats neither bird nor fish. in such sort that from being sick by pure imagination they often make a real patient of him. In this we have another ceremony which survives when the clue to its origin and significance has been lost. only the fish. West and other Africans. they take sixty or eighty large grains of pimento. and there he is visited as though he were sick. the people of West Yunnan in China. as we think. the child would have little round eyes like this creature. and after well mashing it in water. then up to the tenth they drink oūycou. however. 3rd ed. In performing the couvade the father takes the place of the mother. who. It has been found amongst the Iberians. and fol. being arrived. if he ate manati.” goes to the root of the matter. . where he remains some days more. he must not utter a single word if he will not pass for a coward and a wretch. One of the most curious of all symbolical customs is known as the Basque Couvade. Nor is this all. which has about as much nourisment in it as beer. and the rest go and make good cheer in the house at his expense. I believe. hack the skin of the poor wretch with agouti teeth. or Indian pepper. if the father ate turtle. Tylor’s suggestion is that “couvade” shows the “opinion that the connection between the father and child is not only. hanging them up in the house with a cord. goes to bed with the new-born child and “lies in” instead of the female. the Tamanacs. and underoges a course of dieting which would cure of the gout the most replete of Frenchmen. they begin to east cassava only.116 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Caribs of Arawak.”—Du Tetre. drinking oūycou. Tupis of Brazil. and other primitive or pre-Aryan races of men. and identifies the moon. This ceremony finished. however. so to speak. When the forty days are up they invite their relations and best friends. the mother goes presently to her work. Corsicans. Another of those enactments that belong to the system of a common typology. Indians of California. des Antilles habitées par les Français. Early History of Mankind. p. and draw blood from all parts of his body. or the act of hatching. for example. Abipones. The following account is given by Du Tertre or the Carib couvade in the West Indies:— “When a child is born. they wash with this peppery infusion the wounds and scars of the poor fellow. 371. suffers no less than if he were burnt alive. they only eat the inside of the cassava. p. 1667.—Tylor. These ten days passed. vol. The custom belongs to some of the most diverse races of the world. however. called by the French faire la couvade. and abstain from everything else for the space of a whole month. Gén. they bring him back to his bed. According to Rochefort’s account the very severe fasting was only for the first child.

For the Macusis of Guiana might not scratch themselves with their own mails (a type of pubescence). and a rib of the palm-teaf was hung up for use instead. but the still more arresting phenomenon is found in his becoming as the child. He makes a typical transformation into the character of a child. . So with the Arawacs. as if the male parent were performing an act symbolical of his superseding the female parentage.”2 or he has handled metal. The custom shows that the parent identifies himself with the infant child. 247. The act did not transfer the child to the father. ii.” If so. amongst others.3 When the child is born the father exhibits the offspring as his. The father not only takes the mother’s place in bed with the child. it is because of some sin of omission or commission with whcih the father is chargeable. so that what is done to the one acts directly on the other. and this fact is fatal to the reason assigned for the one part of the performance which was intended to insure the safety and well-being of the child. Dobrizhoffer on the Abipones. Among the Coroadas as soon as the woman was known to be pregnant the strict regimen began and the man lived chiefly on fish and fruits. Travels in Brazil. surely some of the parent’s sufferings attending the ceremony were calculated to kill any number of children. his infantile diet. and duty. He did also take the place of the mother. and this is limited at times to the most infantile food. 355. 3 Dobrizhoffer. If the child dies. 1 2 4 Spix and Martius. and there is no transfer from the mother to the father. An Abipone resisted the luxury of a pinch of snuff for fear it should make him sneeze and the sneeze bring some danger upon the child. The men of the Carib and Acawoid nations abstained from certain kinds of meat lest the expected child might be injured in some mysterious manner by the father’s eating of them. But with the Macusis of Guiana. He becomes as a little child in his habits and diet before the child is born. vol. He receives the congratulations of friends instead of the mother.1 they continued to trace the line of descent from the mother. the father and mother both lie in. or injured his nails. affection. Indian Tribes of Guinea. 117 a mere relation of parentage. He has “neglected to shave off his long eyebrows.4 Thus the father represents or impersonates the child before birth and religiously abstains from everything that could hurt an infant. but that their very bodies are joined by a physical bond. p. He takes no more nourishment than would keep a mere child alive.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. Bachofen suggested that the custom of couvade originated as a ceremony that was typical of a transfer in the line of descent from the motherhood to the individualised fatherhood. Brett.

In the Ritual4 the re-born spirit makes the transformation of Khepr in its manifestation to light or re-birth in the likeness of the young sun-god. 10. “Homage to thee. p. on the truth of her interpretation of couvade. and the word for this transformation is “khepat. and no natural genesis will directly account for it.118 THE NATURAL GENESIS. There is no modern meaning: in the act itself. because the Scarabæus is a creature self-produced. O God. In the couvade the beetle’s proceeding is imitated in all simplicity. From a papyrus rendered by M. who was the creator by transformation. nothing rational. and the name of couvade agrees with the Egyptian khep. the beetle (Khepr) that folds his wings. in the earth. The Scarabæus also symbolises generation and a father. being born through repetition of thyself. who changed into Horus of the Meshken. created from itself.” says Hor-Apollo. Ra. because it is engendered by the father solely. What then did the couvade mean symbolically. that rests in the Empyrean. begotten by thine own becoming.”3 And in the Egyptian mythology. thou art without a mother.”2 “To denote an Only Begotten. “the Egyptians delineate a Scarabæus. Khepr. Khepr signifies to create. 4 Ch. who hast made his own father and impregnated his own mother. Hibbert Lectures. or in hatching. It is said in the Litany of Ra. the beetle. being unconceived by a female. thou art without a father. The act of couvade is a ceremony typical of the transformation of the father into the child. . Doubtless the act of Couvade did imply an attempt to individualise the ancestral spirit believed in before it could be personally 1 2 3 Text cited by Renouf. which can be read by the doctrine of Khepr. the Scarab-god. who was a form of Khepr-Ra. O God. It is done in violation of the natural law of nursing. lxiv. architect of the world. but it also means to transform. and what was the natural phenomenon in which the custom originated? The Kamite typology alone can tell us. the beetle whose name means the transformer. and the present writer is prepared to stake the authenticity of his rendering of the primitive system of dramatic representation with Egypt as the mouthpiece of Kam. B. is the “old man who becomes young”. with his seed. Khepr.” One of the titles of Osiris. and the father issued forth as the son. buried himself. whether animal or human. the place of re-birth. makes his transformation into his own son. and must have been utterly humiliating to man unless dominated by some idea which protected him from ridicule and derision.”1 In another text we read:—“O divine Scarabæus. is addressed thus:—“O God. to change and transform in giving birth to. that is born as his own son.” In the inscriptions. there he transformed. Khepr is designated “the Sacrabæus which enters life as its own son. i. Chabas.” Ptah. 222. who hath made the substance which is in him.

where the father was reproduced by the cat as his own son. as if he too were the former of his own future body. in which. which far exceeded those of a mother. It was the transformation or that which was recognised as the ancestral spirit before the individual fatherhood was known! Also. and observes. This cutting of the hair was also typical. the old Scarab being renewed in its young by this act of immersion or regeneration. Rit. i . representative of the sun in the six lower and six upper signs. So far Bachofen’s suggestion was right.” This would correspond to the lying –in or abstinence from certain food for one month. 119 recognised. like the beetle.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS.” Every time the sun was represented as lying-in. and the young beetles issue forth. 12. the lunar god.”1 That is as a solar symbol. as the pigmy or child who represented the fire of the sun in its dwarfage. The father had to cut off his long eyebrows. in his resurrection. where it opens. makes the transformation into his ambu. “They say also that the beetle lives six months under ground and six above. On the nine-and-twentieth day—the day of the creation and re-creation of the world—occurs the baptism of the beetle. his eyelashes (or eyebrows). said to procreatc without the female. Taht.4 The long eyebrows answer perfectly to the horns of the Scarabæus. the father ate neither fish nor fowl. the father’s sufferings. lxxviii. and demonstrating the line of continuity and renewal by the transformation of the parent into his own child. but as transforming into his own seed or other self.” “never-born. The forty days are identical with the forty days of suffering found 1 3 Clement Alexander. the two images of the two truths of air and water. 4 B. Hor-Apollo also describes Khepr as a lunar type. How faithfully the drama was represented and the typology presented intact may be seen in the Carib Couvade. “The beetle deposits its ball in the earth for the space of twenty-eight days. Lepsius. is called the “self-created. It belonged to a very primitive interpretation of phenomena. for six months. 5. xvii. and the father acts as if he were the gestator and bringer-forth of the child before the time of lying-in. The act of couvade was a representation of the creative process.” the solar birthplace. So the god Tum. not by the father incarnating himself in his seed. Todenbuch. and transforming. and was a mode of fathering the child. Khepr casts his ball into the water. for inthat number of days the moon passes through the twelve signs of the zodiac. 10. on which such stress is laid in the Ritual. were probably intended to do so in proof that he was worthy of being reckoned as the parent of the child. The non-virile Ptah was depicted baldheaded. 2 .2 Khepr was said to form his own body continually3 from selforiginated substance. he performed the couvade annually as the “Great Cat which is in Annu. Strom. ch.

by the doctrines of the solar drama. where the parental moon (as male) is seen to reproduce itself as the young one. and detained his mother until at length her friends were out of sight. the tree being his especial type instead of the beetle or cat. including the forty days of Lent. Heitsi-eibib.120 THE NATURAL GENESIS. and forced his mother to the ground and committed incest. and the scoring of his back answers to the cutting in pieces of Ptah. The father was a follower of the suffering sun-god. . Couvade goes back to the time of the mother and child before the individual fatherhood was ascertained. and was delivered of a son. Heitsi-eibib is the young moon-god who is born without the fatherhood. “Don’t you hear your 1 Shayast La-Shayast. cut in pieces.) Then he transformed into a baby once more. when the mother and her friends were travelling. the old into the young one. The natural genesis of the doctrine is visible in the lunar phase. Once on a time. (In Khoi-Khoi the word is Xai-si. did not diet but was changed. This. and when she came to her mother. xv. In one account of his birth it is said there was grass growing. sacrifice. In the solar phase it had become symbolical. or beetle. and brought forth a young bull. and a cow came and ate of the grass. ch. 19. or. its successor remained during forty days shut up in an island of the Nile.1 So in the transformation of Apis. and she called that boy Heitsi-eibib. But the beetle type of transformation was lunar first. who was very clever. Levit. iii. when the old bull died. and the lunar transformation and renewal were the earliest observed and imitated. At: last her mother said. he was very naughty and fretful. or the sun which they both typified. cum matre coīit. aad the Hottentots have the myth of the virgin mother and her self-begetting babe in the most primitive form. is Lunar. and swallowed the juice. chewed it. too. in many myths. or the dismemberment of Osiris. and one girl took a hobe-ga (a juicy kind of sweetish grass). she put him down on the ground and took no notice of him. like a tree. Sekari is the title of the suffering Ptah. ch. and sekar means to cut. and she grew pregnant. The deity or the Hottentots. the forty days of (comparative) fasting in the solar drama. then. Forty days was the period of seclusion after childbirth appointed for the woman by the Parsee and Levitical Law. Couvade can be explained. and she became pregnant from this juice. was a form of the couvade. 15. Again he was naughty and dirty. to score and scarify. He was the transformer and renewer. Then all of a sudden he became a big man. so that his mother had to stop whilst her friends went on. the bull. as we have the word in English. In another version the young girls went out to fetch fire-wood. and all the other young women came and helped her to nurse the boy.

affords a natural genesis for couvade. The irrational or insane clement is introduced only when the mythical is assumed to be historical and human. I have fallen down with him in the Eastern Valley. “I kiss.” It was applied to Sut. was male. transforming into the child. The word Bes signifies to change from one to the other.. It occurs when the friends of the mother are all gone out of sight. is Heitsi-eibib. but let big men help themselves as big men do. In the Ritual the lunar goddess or mother of the moon describes this re-begettal on herself: She says. Previously she has said.”2 As the genitrix preceded the fatherhood in mythology.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. He is said to throw her down to commit the rape on her. 69. his protruding tongue. and its culmination in the christology 1 Hahn. are intended to pourtray the bringing forth of the child. p. Bishkala. and to naked nature we must go to read it. I embrace him.”1 This is the myth according to naked nature. In Egypt the doctrine appears midway between the primitive nature of the Hottentot myth.” “I have united Sut (the Child) in the upper houses. “I have prepared Taht at the gate of the moon.” and the custom of couvade offers the best interpretation of the meaning of that group in which the grinning jolly Bes acts the part of the male gestator or reproducer of the child by transformation. . the young moon-god who. This representation shows us the “old man who becomes young. to split. but especially to Horus. The moon reproduces itself visibly. and a symbolic figure at the head of their beds. it is changed to light. “I hear. The Moon in Egypt. at puberty and therefore only typical. and the male Moon. The particular transformation signified by the Bes-Horus group is that of the Elder Horus into the youthful Virile one. as the old one who becomes young. that his wide-legged pose. as Taht. the type of the male child renewing himself was evolved as in “Heitsi-eibib. 2 Ch. who is pourtrayed with the god Bes standing behind him. Ptah.” i. parturient). the first mother is the Virgin Mother. through the old man with him. I come to him. 121 child crying?” The daughter replied.e. Nor does it contain any irrational element when once it is fathomed in phenomena. As a child his mother carries him on her back in the Hottentot fashion. Bes was a great favourite with Egyptian women as an ornamcnt to the toilet-table. but the first part of the rebegettal is out of view. and the god or child begotten of her is self-begotten. lxxx. Sans. My conclusion is. in the Khoi-khoi myth. Shu. Bis. From the origin in lunar phenomena. and parturient expression (cf. Tsuni-Goam.” “I have brought my orb to darkness. In this myth Heitsi-eibib personifies the male moon.

can find no explanation in science. and thus representing a trinity in unity. Early History. A. as well as that of the mother. R. 3rd ed.” In the couvade that conversion was religiously enacted. Belcher. The Bechuanas in public orations call themselves sons of the late king. by the male performing the two characters of the child and the pubescent male. and each sought a new partner. In its latest inexplicable phase it becomes a part of the grossest superstition the world has ever seen.”1 Not until we have penetrated to this depth in an artesian attempt to bore to the bottom. which became the later theological mystery. and some approximation even to this phase of utter effacement and extinction appears to have been attempted. the godmother must put on a clean shift to go to the baptism or the baby will grow up untidy.122 THE NATURAL GENESIS. “It is believed that the habits and proceedings of the godfather and godmother affect the child’s life and character. and has no foundation in human nature. 1 3 2 Spencer. 45. It is in accordance with the natural and mythological origin here suggested. The old moon or sun never emerged again from its lying-in. Particularly the godfather at the christening must not think of disease or madness lest this come upon the child. in which the father and mother remained together until the child was weaned. Tylor.3 In the celestial allegory the son preceded the father as bull of the mother. with a pathetic childlikeness. except in the regenerated shape of its own child. that in Germany similar superstitions cluster around the godfather. when they separated as a matter of course. . and may be at the root of other primitive custom. by the aid of known phenomena. It must be referred back to the mythical origines to be understood for the first time. 304. vol. of Rome. Ethn.2 The passing away of the father would be actually realised by the arrangement of the Andamam islanders. Here we find the indefinitely earlier form of the only-begotten Son. Trans. who partially plays the part of the father in the couvade. Society. and the boy became the husband of his own mother.” but that he was not altogether effaced. A theosophical doctrine like that of the Virgin Mother and the Child-Christ. p. p. do we get at the origin of religious doctrines into which far other meanings have been interfused. and the real origin and primæval illustration of attaining eternal life by conversion —the later name for transformation—“into a little child. he must not look round on the way to the church lest the child should grow up an idle stare-about. nor must he carry a knife about him for fear of making the child a suicide. table 21. The wonder is not that the father and husband was made to suffer so much in the “couvade. v. as commonly accepted.

when a man’s eldest child was named. Ethn. and “Mut-Suten. the mother (from Ngangki. he in turn takes up with some other boy’s wife. as woman) become Kadlingangki. With them a young woman is married to a boy of five or six years of age. In such wise the Inner African origines which passed out over the world as natural customs. 194. . The child being names Kadli. Polynesian Researches. who became the actual possessors. becomes Kadlitpenna. vii. which was first named after the mother. But the marriage is consummated by her living with some adult male. The son became as it were the husband of the mother. N. Under the same system the land-owners lost the fee-simple of their land and were turned into trustees for. Ellis. and took their place in the rear of it. Also it is the first child. the female. This pre-eminence of the son is shown by the Egyptian titles of “Atef'-nuter. there was a singular custom that may have realized this mythical relationship of the child-husband to the mother. and the more primitive 1 2 Short. as the nursling. In Australia.” mother of the king. who begets the chidren which are fathered on the boy. Symbolic customs and usages are among the oldest data extant. the man of the child. the father and mother both were called after the child. 346—7. where the monarch abdicated so soon as a son was born to him. man). It followed from the social condition that the father should be called after the child. Penna the father (Penna. the woman of the child. S. the father of) the father of the child. he grows up to become the later father. the Renn. it may be with the boy-husband’s own father. the father is caIIed Pa-Rindu (from Bapa.2 In Sumatra. Society. When the boy himself grows up. Here the boy precedes the father as the husband of the mother. as did Sut and Shu in the Stellar. were enshrined for ever in the Kamite typology. The son was the great male divinity and type before the fatherhood was established. that he is named after: he himself was the second or grwn-up form of the child. ii. 123 And amongst the Reddies of Southern India.” the father of the Divine One.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. p. pp. vol. is in Egyptian the Renn. Trans. It has been shown how the most ancient customs practised in common by different races may be a guide to the pre-historic past where language fails to lead us farther. the child. the Renpu of the mythos. which. and Sevekh or Khcm-Horus in the Solar mythos. and procreates children for another boy-husband. their own sons. vol.1 The priority and supremacy of the son which is reflected in the mirror of Egyptian mythology was acknowledged in Tahiti. So Khem-Horus is the secondary form of the child Horus. the Suten being named from Sut.

as it had been and because it had been in scraping and cutting the stone and bone. with the knees drawn up to the chin. and call them all snakes without distinction. The incisor of hard. p. This was a custom of the Tasmanians. and Baris.1 The Stone Age of the Hottentots. Close by the engineer found what he describes as a well-made and beautifully-finished flind adze head. Kaffirs. It is a strict injunction in the rubric of the Ritual that the 100th chapter should be painted with the point of a graver of green felspar (with yellow colour). Again. Explorers of Inner Africa have not yet got to work with the mattock and spade. being sacredly used in the later painting. The Kaffirs to this day eat no kind of fish. the cutting-face sloping from one corner to the other. Tsuni-Goem. to bury the dead in a sitting posture. and Nature herself suggests the primary model. is still extant in South Africa. from which a dense forest had been previously been cleared. Kaffir Folk-lore. and in the sacrifice of animals offered to the manes or the god. 22. usages. Bongos. in the hard gravel. still bury their dead according to this likeness of the embryo in the uterus. in what Burton terms the pre-historic adornment. charred sticks. when they do.2 The Bongos of Abyssinia yet employ flint chips as their fleams for bleeding. with a bevelled edge like a chisel. and in obvious imitation of the fetus folded in the mother’s womb. And wampum. Theal. the common wear. green stone. the Uat. consisting of shells ground down into small thin disks for threading. along with the bones of the mammoth and other giant mammals of the Quaternary epoch. 16. just as the Egyptians preserved the stone knife for embalming. who placed the corpse in the hollow tree (for a coffin) in a sitting posture. a custom like this ought to yield up some valuable relics of the pre-historic past. he found a good many flint instruments. where they have been continued because never outgrown by culture and development. The Hottentots. at fourteen feet from the surface. and other modes of thought and expression still survive in Inner Africa. The primordial customs. Bechuanas. in the red loam. p. This is employed in the rite of young-man-making. who did not use them as an article of diet. the navvies came upon the remains of a fire. as revealed by the bone-caves. It was recently reported from South Africa that in making the “Umgeni” cutting (through red loam. and the other end finished off with a round flat knob. &c. Fish were considered an abomination by the ancient Egyptians. of these preserve the most fundamcntal human relationship and speak of a unity of origin in a kind of universal tongue. So is it with the Somali and other Africans.3 2 Hahn. at forty feet from the surface. the two most remarkable ones being a round stone. gravel.” is proved to have existed by the fact that their priests preserve and still use the sacred stone knife made or a sharp shard of quartz. about the size of a large orange.124 THE NATURAL GENESIS. It was a practise in the old Stone Age of Europe. and limestone rock). Wampum of cockle-shell was found in the bone-cave at Aurignac (in the year 1842). The type is extant in the Peruvian mummy. ceremonies. The custom has been universal.. very much 1 3 . or “Khoi-Khoi. amongst others.

. 125 It is certain that this was the intention in burial. . Esthonian. Bulanda. female breast. i. . . born of his mother. Anduman. . and by the side of it a stone handle seven or eight inches long. it may be suggested.... Sanskrit. navel . . called the Nabhi-yoni. in . belly. the circle was cut straight across. is called chief of the mountain in which the dead were laid. . the “Gods rejoice when they see him coming forth from the womb.”2 That was from the mount of the horizon. .. Ankaras. and uterus. . We shall find that the Great Mother was representcd by the natural mount... ... the earliest burial-place. . . when put together it had the appearance of a small stone-mason’s mallet. At a short distance from this was a stone quoit.. speaking as a re-born spirit. And such.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. Mbofon Meto. Matatan. . An Egyptian formula for the living and the dead is literally those who are on earth and on the mountain. Finnic... except that. or female umbilicus. the Psychopompus. The tomb being founded on the womb will account for these mounds as burial-places being identified as navels. An Egyptian name of the navel. ..1 Navel. . for about a quarter of the circumference. the mounds were reared as artificial mounts.. 2 Ch. . lxxix. as is the Hindu image. in Lap. identified with navel. Musu. The Osirian. as Khepa. They thought Mississippi was at the centre of the earth.. 311. . navel in the Avestu... Ashante . one end just fitting through the hole.. . almost exactly like the iron ones at present in use. . 1882). . .. called Jonah’s Tomb. with a three-quarter inch hole drilled through it... (A page of the remotest past is missing in Africa generally in consequence of the lack of flints). belly .. The navel is a type of the birthplace.. . Wun. .” Anup. . The mound then.. as well as a type of the mount that is still known as the mons veneris.. which in Egyptian is Nef. are synonymous in the pre-historic languages. was the Nebbi-yunus. one of the two great mounds opposite Mosul. belly . .. called the “Tser Hill. places of re-birth. . and the other end rounded off. by a round handle. although the Indians are said not to have had any idea whether these were natural mounds or artifcial structures. . June 23.. the sanctuary.. the secret intimate abode. Some of the large mounds left in Mississippi were called “navels” by the Chickasaws. . . is also the name of the womb... Wun. Nyefe Nefo Naŵo Naŵo Naŵa Neben Naŵo Nibele is the belly. Alege.. figured as a mound instead of the vast Hindu flattened at each pole.. . from where the indentation for the thumb is. . Nufuo is Nafo Nape Napa Nabba Nabhi Napoi Nubo the female breast. The mountain being a solid figure of the celestial dome and breathing-place above.. the concealed place. wombs. .. is further identified as an enormous swelling Nabhi-yoni. (Knowledge. or navels. and a sign of breath. the gestator and breather of life being personified in Neft (Nephthys in the Greek). 1 Schoolcraft. Next. says. or both in one. and the mounds were as the navel in the middle of the human body.. . because the tomb and womb are identical under various names.

Ancient America. also the Tupis. In Africa the womb or belly is the Memba in Nyamban. The Nafedhrô apâm. come to Kha. . “Beloved of the Adytum.” exclaims Nephthys to Osiris.3 just 1 2 3 “Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys. or emblem. This may account for the custom of the marriage ceremony being commenced in the porch. This mother-mould of the beginning. has been continued up to the present time. Menka (Eg. the womb was the adytum. Some of their work has been found perfect as that of the ancient Peruvians. An urn holding forty-six quarts was dug up near Harrison Mound. in the shape of a vase. the base of all building. or lady chapel. The type was continued in the Roman catacombs. the breathing-place that rose up out of the Abyssal Sea. There is a Knap Hill about three miles from Silbury Hill. The Vase is another identifiable type. We have the navel mound in Britain by name. and Mimba in Marawi. hence the vase with female breasts. The Yumanas. p. is the sacred mount of the Avesta. Baldwin. umbilicus of stone.”—Records. The Hill. was a Greek designation of Delphi. The original birthplace of mankind was thus externalized on a vast scale. which is still extant as the letter D. were accustomed to bury their dead doubled up in an earthen pot. the mount. typified the mother’s womb. when it had passed into the vessel of glass. as burial-mound. 123. The pot. and the types are interchangeable. The Navel was not the sole feminine type of the Hill. and concluded within the body of the church.” Kha is represented by the vagina1 emblem.2 The vase was an important and prominent symbol in the Aztec and Maya mythologies. argha. The Pap and Mammæ were also applied. This was found in the Mound or Mount of Hissarlik as a vase with breasts. ii. the Alborz of the Bundahish. The vase was personified in Europe as the woman-figure offering her womb. p. vol.126 THE NATURAL GENESIS. as the Knap Hill. the “fructifying bull. her navel or mammæ without. So the “Tut” hill is identical wlth the Teat and the Hieroglyphic ° mammæ or teat-sign of the female. This will account for the “Mam” —as in “Mam-Tor”—a breast-shaped nill.” the navel of the earth. or umbilicus of the waters. the holy of holies in Egyptian temples. the swelling image of the procreant mother. was the uterus of Mother-Earth within. Nipple and Navel are two forms of the same name. in South Carolina. and the interchange of types will account for the teat or titij being the Yoni in Greek. The mound-builders were far advaned in the art of pottery.) is the vase and the Genitrix. or Vase. “Omphale gês. which had been buried with a quantity of beads. The nave still shows the church to be a navel-mound. in a pitiably pathetic manner. Plates [xxix. nave. the entrance or porch. 24. xxx] in [Thomas Wright’s] The Worship of the Generative Powers. or a rising ground.

Sut. and the significance of the custom is the same as in Egypt and the bone-caves. having both eye and point. and its image in the tomb can be read by the Egyptian “Litany of Ra” (34). The same type was worn as an ear-drop by the ladies of Latium. were found together with flint implements. chiefly post-tertiary. 425. denoting a place of burial for those who expected to rise again. In the Book of Revelation those who stand before the throne are pourtrayed with palms in their hands. The Scottish Cos. as the image of Khem-Horus. “Images of pollution have been found at Hissarlik. The genesis and development of the coffin or shell is an interesting study. and of Khepr-Ra. excavations of a bonecave were made. or the navel-mound. on which was scratched a rude figure of the male organ of generation.1 The branch of palm has now taken its place in the imagery of heaven and the typology of the eternal. Ra! supreme power.” exclaims the author of Juventus Mundi.). formed on the most natural grounds. and still is. That emblem was a type of resurrection. which was followed by the Kist (chest) or familyArk for the bones. a needle of bone. and that these things were dug from beneath ten feet of stalagmite.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. a symbol of gestation and reproduction. The mother’s womb was the natural type for the Palæolithic cave. The branch of palm was. The widows of the aborigines of Australia are in the habit of wearing the dead husband’s phallus round their necks. during the month of January 1865. and a plate of an argillaceous compound. that in the province of Venice. and bones of animals. the re-erector of the dead. an emblem of renewal. the re-arising sun. this rude figure had the same significance. with a palm-branch in his hand.] . indeed this primitive type is found in a fourfold form in the Christian iconography of the Roman catacombs. for the coffin. [p. This was continued in the vase with female breasts. the ray of light in the sarcophagus! Its form is that of the progenitor. The link between the domestic bone-ark and the hearse was extant in certain Scottish villages not long since as a general burial-chest. Italy. The tree was the earliest coffin of wood. and the voice of the primitive consciousness says the phallus typified the earliest ray of light that penetrated the darkness of the grave. In the Bongo burial the vase or pitcher is placcd on the summit of the cairn of stones erected over the grave. Horus is represented in the monuments as defending himself against his evil enemy. agrees with the Kas (Eg. a hollow tree. “Homage to thee. The emblem was sacred as the type of reproduction. It was stated in the Paris Moniteur. the beads of Isis.” The self-erecting member was the type of resurrection. According to the Gnosis. But 1 Vide Drawing in Section vii. and is yet worn in southern Italy. or Satan. 127 as the beads were entombed with Egyptian mummies.

the Australian aborigines. The red Indian. As already shown. 12. The practice survives in the Maori Hahunga. Now. which was also the maypole and the phallus. the transformer. who anoint the head of the corpse with grease and red powder. 1 Inscription of Abu Simbel. the branch of birch that was buried with the dead in the barrows had the same meaning. p. and in that land alone did it culminate in a suprerne art of embalmment.1 That is. “my body does not decay. and embalm their dead as rudely as did the Inner Africans (or the men of the mounds) ages before the Kamites of the Nile Valley had developed the natural custom into an art of absolute perfection. as it was in Egypt. line 9. represented a resurrection. and is still continued by the Bushmen. as the bard Meilyr tells us. or. “Having had my flesh embalmed. the black Australian. Beads denote reproduction. because it was first necessary to protect the live flesh from the fury of the sun. America. at Caithness. Ptah’s dress of clay was imitated in the rudest mode of embalming the bones of the dead in the red earth used by the Maori. Ptah is the re-clother of the soul of the deceased in flesh. the North American Indians. which makes them shine like statues of polished bronze. the beetle type of Khepr. 2 Theal.” The god himself tells Rameses II.2 The practice of the living was applied to the dead. was also buried with the dead in Britain. The Bedwen was typical of resurrection equally with the palm. As these were imperishable it should be noticed that a kind of bead which is made in Africa has been found buried in Britain. or Britain. all the conditions for the natural genesis of this custom meet in Africa. Beads in the tomb typified re-birth. whether in Africa. A barrow at Kepwick was found to be lined with the bark and branches of the birch. Beads were likewise buried with the British dead as they are with the Africans. the Glains. The red earth was used there to preserve the dead. the red clay which represented the flesh. and with Egyptian mummies. In the Ritual.” says the Osirified deceased. Kaffir Folk-Lore. From beginning to end the custom is traceable in Africa today. .” and the bones were coated with the red earth long before the body could have been embalmed. “I have made the dress which Ptah has woven out of his clay. The Glainiau Nadredd of the Welsh were the serpent bead which symbolized renewal. that he has re-fashioned his flesh in vermillion. and the palæolithic Briton had no such need of protection from the solar fire. That is the Bedwen of the British. and were worn by the genitrix Isis when enceinte. The Kaffirs still cover their living bodies with an ointment of fat and red clay. (named from Hahu. and the mound-builders in Britain. Australia.128 THE NATURAL GENESIS. as it is said in the 64th chapter. as the beads and berries are worn by pregnant women in Africa to-day.

in the eschatological phase. and remove them to their last resting-place). as it were. and tightly wrapped in the Opossum-rug. 129 to disinter the bones of the dead. In the comical Pilgrims’ Pilgramage into Ireland. and the Ngobera is identical. wrapped in a red-stained mat. 95. during gestation. so the Ngobera is still brought forth by the Australians into the midst of the domestic circle at the gathering of relatives and friends. Bari. An old name of the English midden is a Miskin. a heap or pile in the Grisons. in which the bones of the deceased chief are taken up and scraped clean. in the Collar containing nine in number. and these have persisted both in Inner Africa and Australia. and deposited in a painted tomb. It was the Egyptian Purgatory. the divinity who refleshes the dead with his red clay. The corpse is then doubled up. 2 Smyth. the Meshken became the place of re-birth for the soul. This is painted and ornamented with strings of beads.2 The custom and mode are indefinitely older than ernbalmment in Egypt. the transformer. Further. It had undergone a transformation which. The bones of the dead were buried in the ancient British middens after they had been rudely embalmed and preserved in red earth and sea-shells. p. all through the ages during which the long procession of Egyptian civilisation was slowly filing past. Now the Meskhen is the Egyptian place of burial and re-birth. They are then re-fleshed. is denoted by Khepra. The strings of beads correspond to the network of beads with which Egyptian mummies were wrapped as the symbol of the Net that recovered Horus or Osiris from the waters of the Nile.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. or Bechuana of Africa.” and is kept in camp with the living. “An Ignis fatuus the silly people deem to be a soul broken out of Purgatory. with a coating of red earth. a reminder of immortality.1 The Australian black warriors are anointed with grease and embalmed or ornamented with red ochre. in Egyptian. And just as the Egyptians had their mummy image carried round at the banquet as a type of Khepra. After the body has lain in the ground for some months it is disinterred. like the Bongo. it is said. and the typology of the burial customs shows that the dead were buried for their re-birth. . the Muschna. and packed in a roll of pliable bark.” and in a Wonderful History (1704) we are told that in superstitious times the Popish Clergy persuaded the ignorant people 1 Taylor. with the Egyptian Khepra (Ptah). the beads that were worn by Isis. It is then called “Ngobera. New Zealand. The typology is the same. the bones are scraped and cleaned. even by name. and the Irish have the Miskhen as the Purgatory. and placed in a box or a bowl smeared with the sacred colour.

“Explain to him (the deceased) why thou hast made for him the amulet (handle) of green stone after thou buriest him.2 The ritual and hieroglyphics of the Egyptians contain the typology of the skin. The custom was Kamite.” and “I make to Thee a skin. The skin was of course a preservative in itself. ch. the polished jade. In the “Hall of Two Truths. “Thou makest to me a skin. a tumulus. and the Souls. my soul. Will-with-a-Wisp. in the region of the under-world. We read again. Alexander has described the most ancient woman in Scotland who had been buried deep in a bog. in the spirit world. to renew. ch. and so the natural image of preservation becomes symbolical. had survived by name in the Gaelic Mamsie. But the deer-skin goes with the deer’s horn as a type of renewal. 4 Ibid. The axe of the Stone Age was Egypt’s especial emblem of power 1 Brand. with their dead.”3 This part of the ritual is especially Inner African. who can explain them. that the “Will-o’-the-Wisps” were souls come out of Purgatory all in flame.1 In Ireland the “Will-o’-the-Wisp” is known as “Miscanne Many. clxvi. 664. The deceased whose body has been laid aside. in the Ritual. cv. says to the God. the Sun. they had other green stones called Uat. 2 See Book of the Beginnings.” as may be seen by an allusion in the story of Morty Sullivan and the Spirit-Horse in Croker’s Fairy Legends of the South of Ireland. or double of a person. I have done what they (the wicked) could not when I was (or when I represented) the amulet of green jasper protecting the throat of the Sun. and if the Egyptians had no jade for the purpose. “Man-in-the-Oak” is an English name for the Ignis fatuus. vol. which is the name of the Purgatory. and was well-preserved in a deer skin. and Miscanne repeats the Egyptian Meskhen. It likewise looks as if the Egyptian Mammesi.” the Egyptian judgment hall. a second time or form. “I have said the opposite of evil. ii. to move the people to pray for their entire deliverance. 3 Rit. another name for the place of burial and re-birth of the Mam (Mummy). p. The Bongos and Bechuanas still wrap their dead in a cow’s skin. The Inner African mode of burying the dead wrapped up in the skin of an animal is identical with that of a remote age in the British Isles. the reason for this custom was explained.” And it must be admitted that they are the right authorities to consult in such mystical matters. The Nem (skin) means repetition. . It comes from the land of Kena or Nubi.130 THE NATURAL GENESIS.”4 This is the chapter of propitiating the Ka. It has often been a subject of wonder why the men of the Neolithic age should have buried the axes and other amulets of green stone. as the place of burial and re-birth for the Stars. It is said in the 125th chapter of the Ritual. General Sir J.

ii. a bottom into the grave. as it were. or deer’s horn. soul. and therefore appropriate to the buried dead. “I am the Felspar tablet. according to the idiomatic mode of expression they impersonate it. Shu is the god of breath and soul: and here it should be remembered. 93—4. the colour of reproduction from the underworld. Birch.3 Long before the axe of jade could have been cut and polished for a type. This chapter “was placed at the throat (breathing place) of the mummy” and the green stone was one of the amulets worn by the dead. and reproduction (like the green things) from the under-world. I am well. Also. as the god in green. vol. and the typical branch served the same purpose.”2 It was a type of duration impenetrable to the tooth of time and corrosion of decay. I am not scraped. In the chapter said over a tablet of Felspar. As Hor-Apollo says. and horn being types of permanance.5 If the rite were only prompted by mere desire for the continuity of the dead. that also retained its polish. It is not injured. the stone. The green stone therefore was not only the symbol of divinity in general. Shu is the heaven-bringer. It is not scraped. in the same paragraph.. 10. and says. our Jade. I am not injured. ch. . pp. It is well. 131 and divinity. Rit. 3 5 Rit. IT was them. ii. B. a physical foothold. But the god and the soul are not only represented by the green stone. ch. the symbol of the stag’s horn signifies duration. And so many of the ancient British barrows are found to have been strewn with shards of pottery along with flint stones. Axes of green stone were also buried in the ancient mounds of Japan. the speaker personates the green stone called Uat. For this purpose a shard of pottery was as good a type of duration as the stone of power. This mode of inter ment with “shards. and renewal. making a passage. it is said of the mummy awaiting its re-erection: “Shu has walked to him under the name of Felspar.” or Uat. clxi. B. continuity. 21.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. bone. and pebbles” is recognised by Shakspeare 1 2 4 Book of the Beginnings. flints. and an emerald was made the base or heart of the Aztec mummy. These talismanic tokens buried with the dead were emblematic of preservation. clxi. It hates all injury. the living who buried these types of power and stability were already founding for another life by putting. a shard of pottery being equivalent to a flake of felspar.1 The custom has its representative likeness in the most mystical parts of the Book of the Dead. And again. the parturient “Bes” is a form of Shu. stone. the type of founding by opening the ground. as another image of resurrection. the flake of flint. i. but of the god of breath.4 The symbol of bone denoted permanence and safety.

and therefore a pagan form of burial. with which the dead were supposed to knock at the portals to get free passage through. as non-Christian. who came for the dying. reserved for suicides. an action emblematic of future production (of milk. The same primitive phase of thought is exemplified by the Hottentot hunter. or young) which may be paralleled in the human domain by the practice of inserting the bones of young children into the skulls of the adult dead.” This was a faith so firmly founded in Britain that a few years since a woman of Oldham prosecuted the owner of a dog which had bitten her. as the lamed animal limps off. as they are found in the caves of France. and of the planet Mercury. It is an English superstition that hair when cut off or combed out should be buried.1 Such primitive customs are like the actions of the dumb. and here the hair. or the tuft worn on the chin of the mummy by both male and female alike. The male and female are interred with their faces turned in opposite directions.3 Hair as the sign of reproduction will explain the custom of cutting it from the tail of a weaning calf and stuffing it.2 He was the hairy god of the Dog-star. The axe of An-up the Opener was continued in the stone purgatory Hammers of the Irish. into the ear of the cow from which the young one had been taken. or re-creation in the next life. continue to bury their dead in a symbolic fashion. as remarked in the previous volume. S. which is another type of reproduction. v. vol. it is said “Dog’s hair heals Dog’s bite. that preceded speech for the ear. A. She said she would not have done so if the owner of the animal had given her some of its hair to protcct her against any evil consequences from the bite. Tradition and custom preserve the typology intact. The Hair brought by Anup (the Dog) for his work of embalmment is alluded to in the Ritual. v. The Bongos. the male facing the north. and conducted the dead through the darkness of the nether-world. to throw into the air and bring it down by this obliteration of its track. This offers good ground for the origin of the belief in the efficacy of a hair of the dog that bites you. xc. . so to say. never burned. Notes and Queries. 581. which they themselves do not understand. is used by him in the work of embalmment—the preparation for the resurrection. will. the hair of the dog of Death is employed in the restoration to life and health.132 THE NATURAL GENESIS. That is. take up a handful of sand from its footprints. In the Edda (Havamal. the female the south. p. as an emblem of the rising again. 138). or gesture-signs addressed to the eye. because of a tradition that the owner will come and search for it at the time of the resurrection! The hair being a type of pubescence and reproduction is the same here as the hair of Anup. who if he has wounded game without causing immediate death. And in the Egyptian typology the south is the front of 1 3 Hamlet. 1. 2 Ch.

164. whether at the vernal equinox. “Address of Horus to Osiris. especially of fat! And if the dotted circles represented eyes. and the north is behind. In fact Dr. Without inscriptions they protect themselves with the two heads. they pourtray two human heads. i. Many of them are oval or egg-shaped. And these “Heisi-Eibega” are found scattered wherever the Hottentot race has lived in East and South Africa. to sleep. x. Now the Egg ˜ is an Egyptian ideograph of enveloping and embalming the dead. as in the zodiac of Denderah. “I have filled for thee the eye of Horus. the female being considered the hind part. one of which was seen by Alexander in a cleft between two eminences. Birch reads. Hor-Apollo tells us that when the Egyptians would denote an amulet. A plain circle also served as an equivalent for the eye. This is a type of protection. 2 St. and twin circles were the same as a pair of eyes. p. or the dead returned as it were to the egg-stage in the under world for the re-hatching or couvade. and these egg-shaped signs are incised on the cap-stones and coverings of the dead. vol.”4 The eye. Hor-Apollo. It is also noticeable that many or the cups are dotted at the centre. Far East. xvii. i.” where M. The nearest likeness to the British long-horned cairns. Lastly. as did the earliest cairn-makers of the remotest past. then we are able to read the custom of filling the cup with fat or oil by the Egyptian doctrine of “filling the eye. “Oh! Sun in his Egg!” is an exclamation in the Ritual. Naville. p. 1 4 .2 The Hottentots. to dream. who rises again. “I have anointed thee with the offering of holy oil. or above the grave of their god (or chief). as reflector of the image. John. 24. 198. to be watched over. This was a heap of stones eight yards long by one and ahalf high. The sun. or at the summer solstice.1 Here the typology is identical with that of the Bongo burial. was turned Into a type of reproducing. and in the hieroglyphics the eye is the ideograph of watching. The egg was a most primitive type of birth and re-birth. the male being before. So the Dayaks will make the rude figures of a naked man and woman and set them face to face with each other on the way leading to their farms as a mode of protection against evil influences. and other African tribes still raise the same memorial mounds of stones over their dead. The year was re-born from the eye. it is possible that some of the Cup-markings on the British stones may be read by the Egyptian typology.” line 39. Naville has it.” Filling the eye of Horus is synonymous with bringing an offering of holy oil. Birch. 133 heaven. for they say that no demon will molest any person thus guarded. is extant in the long cairns of the Hottentots. Ritual.TYPOLOGY OF PRIMITIVE CUSTOMS. one of a male looking inwards the other of a female looking outwards. B. vol. Records. 3 Ch. the Bongos. These cups or eyes are known to have received offerings. and explains it.

Hence it is said of the deceased. most universal. The Osirified deceased boasts that he obtains assistance by his eye.134 THE NATURAL GENESIS.” which was so sacredly buried with the Egyptian mummy. so that to feed the eye with fat was to feed the spirit. Supplying the eye with fat was an earlier mode of feeding the lamp of light which was placed in the graves of later times after lamps were made. i. In like manner the pot or cruse of oil is carried by the Ram as the light of the dead in the iconography of the catacombs. 1 Birch. the eye filled with oil or fat. This serves as a link between the lamp of light and filling the symbolic eye with oil or fat. cxlviii. most obscure. was pre-eminently African. . The person of the eye then shines as he did at first. Thus the Ritual or “Book of the Dead. Also.e. becomes a live tongue in the mouth of Death itself. “His eye (his spirit) is at peace in its place or over his person at the hour of the night. some of the Roman lamps have the shape of an eye. full the fourth hour of the earth. like anointing the body with fat.1 and this becomes a Lamp to dazzle and daze the powers of darkness.” Here the eye and spirit are identical. ch. and in the hieroglyphics the “AR” is both the eye and the candle. The offering of fat or oil to the eye would be made with intent to make the spirit of the person shine in glory. a primitive mode of glorifying and causing to shine. In the North of England the pupil of the eye is called the candle. complete on the 30th of Epiphi (June 15th). the interpreter of the typology of the tomb and of customs the most primitive. which.

for sayings. lxxvii. and that the essential character of a true myth consists in its being no longer intelligible by a reference to the spoken language. Chips.) means Lo it is. Mutheomai is not simply to say. a word. And these formulas and wise sayings were part of the Muthoi in Egypt. represent and invent. Muqologew. or It is verily so. before the dawn of history. ch. which is usually taken to mean a saying. Mythology has been declared to have originated in mere sayings. the clue to which was lost before Mythology proper could have existed. 73—77.”—Egyptian Ritual.) signifies the pronouncing of conservative formulas. Muthos. and if the myth be no longer intelligible in the later languages we must look for it in the earlier. In consequence. vol. MuqikÕj signifies that which pertains to fable and Myth in an early sense. “I have penetrated the region of the Two Truths. which brings on a saying and an ancient mode of saying under one word. Nor is the Myth a mere word in Greek. is to recite fables. but to feign and fable. “So Mote it be” is used by our freemasons. and Mythology are derived from the Greek mÚqoj. . For it has been affirmed by Max Müller and maintained by his followers that the radical meaning and primitive power of certain words (and sayings) must be obscured or lost for them to become mythological. ii. Mut (Eg. In a similar sense. The muthoi or myths did not begin in Greece or originate in any Aryan language. ch. Mutuni (Eg. The Mythoi were no mere sayings in a modern sense. i. The Greek Muthoi. “I follow the Two Truths.SECTION III. In Attic prose the Myth was commonly a legend of early Greek times. 1 Comparative Mythology.”—Egyptian Ritual. represents the Egyptian Mutu. mythos. and is sometimes equivalent to Logos. NATURAL GENESIS AND TYPOLOGY OF THE TWO TRUTHS. pp.1 Such teaching of “comparative Mythology” is the result of its being limited to the Aryan area. THE words myth. for ejaculations or brief utterances. nor with the sayings which are the fading metaphors of Mythology and the utterances of its second childhood.

not written. with the Egyptian Mâti. In consequence of his being primarily a representative of the dual lunation. xiv. the zodiacal Gemini. The two Truths (or twinship of Mâti) appear in the Sanskrit Mithuna. 51. in Egypt.” but Mu and Ma are interchangeable. The ass (Aai) and the cat (Peht) are the Sayers of great words in the house of Pet. Mati in Sanskrit signified measure and exact knowledge. or double justice. The Sayings or Logia were likewise attributed to the youthful Solar God Iu-em-Hept (the Egyptian Jesus of the Book of Ecclesiasticus). vol. The myths are sayings because they were only to be said. and a Logos. It is said in their Sayings. a twin couple. the Moon God. 20. “I have heard the words of Iu-em-Hept and Hartataf. who was personified as the utterer in the Mythology which preceded Theology. it is immaterial whether the Greek Muthoi or Mythoi be connected at root. they were mystical. 9. it is the science of Truth in a twofold phase or character.” who was another of the Sayers of whom we read.” etc. Taht was the Sayer.136 THE NATURAL GENESIS. John vi. and one form of the Mâti as Ma and Shu was that of the zodiacal Gemini in Egypt. . They are myths because uttered by word of mouth alone. ii. So far from Egyptian Mythology being founded on words that have lost their senses. or Heaven. or Word in person. called Mâti. according to John and Matthew. 36. or sayings. or Logia. Logia or Mythoi. The Christ of John is the Word. are assignable to a Sayer or Logos. Mythology proper—by which is meant its relation to time as 1 3 2 Rit. Mâti. Book of the Beginnings. xviii. as Divinity. but they were so uttered because they contained the hidden oral wisdom and dark sayings of old. or the stretcht-out finger. 11. who represents the “Two Truths. vii. were assigned to Taht. Matthew xv. not merely etymologically. the straightness of the plumb line. 290—302. that which is strictly accurate in measure. the reckoner and registrar of truth in the hall of the Two-fold Truth. In them the mysteries were uttered by word of mouth to the ear alone. pp. Mâti is also a title of Taht in relation to the two Truths. was conveyed by the Sayings. His teaching. cxxv. When Paul speaks of a true saying he means one of the sayings of Truth. In Egyptian Maât as a noun means an inflexible rule of right. and these Sayings were held to be the words of truth and wisdom personified. 60. ch. viii. who was the measurer of time. tongue. Greek Meta. of Aletheia. like the Smriti of India. Utterer of the divine words. and the Logia. is the goddess who presides in the hall of the twin Truth. The Mythoi are the Logia.2 The Christian Gospels were founded on and originated in the Logia or sayings as Papias emphatically declares. 106—109.3 Now. 12. xv.1 and the “second Atum. and perfect as the poise of scales. Logos or Sayer in person. The Sayings. hence Muthos denotes anything delivered by word of mouth. the state of being dual.

the Circle and Cross (in the knot or Ankh). Mato. numbers and language. Taht and Maât then are two personified forms of the Measurer and the Utterer of truth. Mato in Fin is the Grub or Worm. the house of the Two Truths. the two Waters. Muthi. in the second of two phases. in Toda. in the Gorgias. in Egyptian denotes measure. the word that was made Truth when impersonated in the god HarMa-Kheru. 137 distinguished from space. Máti may denote Water and Breath. and the earliest ascertainable human thought was related to opening. Moreover. time being measured and reckoned both by the Mother and the Moon. a pair of Feet. to found is to open. The eye opened for seeing. Darkness opened into day. Mâ. Mata in Sanskrit is the Mother. So the place of opening is the Teph (Eg. Night opened the starry heaven. also the moon as the measurer of time. and one sense of the word Logos is a true narration. This has two aspects like the Mother. In Maori and Mangaian. to measure. The male opened the female. mythology. which are at the foundations of Egtprian thought and expression. For. and Mêt in No. the Caterpillar or Grub. So far as the evidence reaches back. the Collar and Counterpoise.TYPOLOGY OF THE TWO TRUTHS. can be traced to the Opening of a Oneness which divides and becomes dual in its manifestation. the measurer who in the dual character is Mâti. that all veritable Beginning in typology. These are signified by the double serpent. In English the Moth is the winged Worm. In Egyptian. Gothic. the two Solstices. to being. The mother opened to give birth. that is a total equal to two hands or the two feet. The black cloud opened with its quivering Assegai of the lightning. It is now intended to show that Mythology is at root the science of the two Truths of Mâti. on accound of its transformation from the Grub. the Twin Lion-Gods. earlier Mak. Menstruation and Gestation. all beginning in synonymous with opening. Light and Shade. the Tuba in Kaffir. The child opened into the woman or man at puberty. . is to open as the bud and flower. the fable differs from lÒgoj. a Worm. is the new moon. in Lithuanic. is to measure. 10 in Coptic. Decay and Renewal. For instance. in tupu. generally. Mathu. Myth and Logos are interchangeable in Greek. in her dual Lunation. or any other type of twinship in which the beginning at First bifurcated. the Moth is a perfect type of Mâti. because the latter is true. Lap. which are also Mâti in Egyptian.). sometimes called a Soul. Thus the Logos or myth is identical with the Ma-Kheru or “True Word” of the Egyptian Theosophy. or the Moon. and these Sayers in Egypt preceded the Sayings in Greece. which will be hereafter described—began with the measuring and establishing of periods. the double Lunation. Mata signifies ten fishes in Fiji. Wet and Heat. as it is said. it may be affirmed. Matoti. The Mother measured time in the two phases of feminine pubescence and gestation.

It is likewise applied to the younger sister. Neneye in Pangela. our neuter. or Ninu. In the act of opening things became dual. Nuane in Isiele. Nay. Nyan in Yula. or young one. Italian. Fijian. The Hottentot. or young one. the other to the male. is a Hottentot address to a hero. of Both. “Thou son of a red ‘she-bull’ ” (i. A Nene in Kisekise. Nande in Nyamban. the Khart of either sex. The mouth opened to utter forth. The Egyptian type of Divinity is the Nunter. we are in the very thick of Mythology”. Nunina in Toma. reaches back to that stage. A Nene in Soso. was the name of the child. Homo was born twin (within the limits of language). Until that time the child-name was not distinguished by gender. or Nuter. Nana in Bagbalan. as is the child or the colt. the ear for hearing. or ¼lioj.1 that is. because Nin. was not a sex-denoting word. of a heroine). as Nau in Koama. in the Assyrian. and it will be shown how the one statement is related to the female. The Totemic mysteries reveal the fact that the individual personality was constituted at the period of puberty. So Nin. and it is Inner African for the young one. and this was the bifurcation signified by the Kamite “Two Truths” of all beginning. 2 Hahn. denotes both the Lord and the Lady. Ninda in Biafada.2 This agrees with “The Bull called Sothis at her time. As the child. 604. or severed by the stone of the opener. p. and determined as twain by the manifestation of sex. Max Müller asserts that “as soon as Sûryas. as soon as sex is distinguishable in words. Greek. the “Two Truths” of reproduction. The Nnu is the Ninny. and the child so named might be of either. as Nina in Mende. the impubsecent boy. and other languages. for the child. the English Ninny. and was separated and distinguished at puberty. and the child was named before the two sexes were distinguished by different terminals. Ninda in Landoma. p. Nyena in Dselana. vol. Tsuni-Goam. Nin. 3 Rit. We shall find the two sexes are said to have been divided by the lizard or serpent.e. Nyene in Kiamba. amongst other languages. In Egyptian it was also the Nakhen. This type-name is found in English. appears as a masculine form. i. as the Impubescent. Also for the younger brother. Javanese. . Neni in Kiriman. so far as the type goes. Nina in Gbandi. but we are caught in the thicket before language was sex-denoting at all. hence the mouth and mother are one by name. The nostrils opened with the breath of life. 72.”3 Language had but one name then for the beast of both sexes. 1 Selected Essays.138 THE NATURAL GENESIS. North American Indian. and it is at that stage we have to read some of the hardest riddles of the Sphinx of Mythology. and. ch. cx.

This is the secret of the Sphinx. vol. 5. cxxxix. 4 Berachoth. born of the Mother. p. those who did not need to be clothed. Batolocci. Book of the Beginnings. which the terminal en negatives. Hence the two classes in the Hall of “Two Truths. just as we find it was in language and is imaged in the Typology. or to expose the person. the Hottentontot language shows a primitive mode of distinguishing the one sex from the other. whence P-har-iu. Sex was first denoted by gesture.TYPOLOGY OF THE TWO TRUTHS. The Pharaohs. who wore the tail of the Lioness or Cow behind them.” The Rabbi. the 2 Tsuni-Goam. p. In one of the chaunts the Mother of the Lion calls him “the yellow child of the Liontail. is the Nakhen. Nguna means to be quiet naked. but of both sexes as the Child. Like the Gods they included the dual totality of one Being in one person. The orthodox sphinx of Egypt is masculine in front and feminine behind. 139 Nakh denoted pubescence or virile power.4 “Thou hast fashioned me Behind and Before. Tract. was born twin. the hinder part. f. Talmud. and afterwards divided. is the child in the same sense. Within such limits of expression. 5 Ps. and next by images. Salayer. 73. and Nagnaka for the girl who is yet impubescent.3 It was a common tradition with the Jews and other races that man.”5 Other Rabbis affirm that Homo was male in front and female behind. Again. are called the “Clothed and the Unclothed. and the front was the male.” in accordance with this simple origin of the typology. 1 3 . who preceded him as the Har-Iu. Bibl. the Lord or Leader. and these limits of early thought and expression were the cause of the dual and epicine types. were male in front and female behind. in Malay. and he maintains. male in front and female beind. 61. and in English Nakne is to make naked. and on that account allowed to go naked. Nicholas. which alone can explain it. Nakhen (Eg. and Javanese. the back female. or Nakh-las. Jeremiah Ben-Eleazer.” the Good and the Evil. that the Pharoah was not founded on the Râ (who was the earlier Rek or Rex) but on the double Har. Rabbin. 165. of herself as female Lion. whether as human or beast. the dual Horus. and of the later superstitious beliefs. just as it is in the hieroglyphics where the forepart of the animal is masculine.2 She is the Liontail. the effeminate (or feminine) and the virile one united. Homo. the good genius of children. that which goes first. or Khem. The naked were the impubescent. 65. which were retained in the mythological figures like those of the Sphinx. In Zulu. also supported this view with the authority of the text. the “Ha!” whereas the hind part denotes the female sex. the male and female were distinguished by their sex as two forms of one being. iv.) reappears in the Sanskrit Nagna. The present writer has suggested.. a type of horn and tail.” i. ii. p. So is the image of Sut-Typhon. was formed of both sexes at first. Homo. It is so stated in “Genesis.1 The A-nak. This was then but one being. who was always a child himself.e.

Hlonipa was not assumed at first as a sort of fig-leaf apron of the feminine consciousness. Doing. There are two genders in Iroquois known as the noble and ignoble. so to say. (Eg. The Mexicans evolved a dual kind of language on this principle. The Mother is the Papa in the Australian dialects. in the other everything belonging to the brute creation and inanimate objects. The Dravidians also have a “high caste or major gender. the first being applied to divinities and the male of human beings.) to produce. So papa. remains neuter. Centaur.” which is that of the divinities as well as great men. Sut-Typhon.140 THE NATURAL GENESIS. It is negatively sex-denoting. There is a formal absence of gender in the Australian dialects. The Algonkin language has no direct distinction of gender. vol. in relation to sex (from which peculiar customs have descended) preceded saying in sex-denoting speech. Not only typology but language itself was also evolved from this primary phase that contained and divided into the Twinship of the Two Truths. demonstrating. to be unmasculine. The sign of gender in the Bonus Pater and bona Mater is obtained by means of the adjective. It is similar to the woman distinguishing her sex by denuding herself of her eyebrows and pubes. The especial language of the female becomes so by her avoidance of male names and masculine terms. the God. In one is everything belonging to humanity.. i. 28. may be applied to either the father or the mother. At first the genders were dramatised. there was a stage at which language was not sex-denoting and different words or signs were used by the two sexes (as such) to distinguish them. In the Fula language of Central Africa there is no distinction between the masculine and feminine genders. Certain words. The Kinyamwezi and other African languages have no genders. The Kaffir custom of Hlonipa shows us language in the act of becoming twain. but it divides beings into two classes. one form of which is used solely by the superior castes. Language began without distinction of gender. In 1 Gallatin. Pan. so to say. or Pharaoh. Notes on the Semi-Civilized Nations of Mexico. The person. the other by the inferior in social position. although it may look so now. expressions. which shows the neuter was first. or sounds were only used by each sex because they were sex-denoting. and the primitive mode of denoting the sex was by each keeping to its own words.1 In the Aryan languages the father and mother occur without the signs of gender. and the speech was according to the character or sex of the speaker. As already affirmed. p. or become more feminine. and the distinction between animate and inanimate which forms the genders in the North American Indian dialects is visibly earlier than the distinction by sex. . with the feminine tail. the second to all other things. these have been termed the human and the brute genders.

or as the North to the South for the front. But the sisters call both sexes Lamnen. as in other languages. the custom being confined to such words and to the interjections. In Egyptian the feminine article is also found to serve for the neuter one. 3 Smyth. Peni. p. and the woman menstruating. positively. the woman expressed contempt by a sound like that of the c click. and his sisters Lamnen. and “Purragaga” is “You lie.” and a very primitive Gnosis. for with the Zulus. the force of which has not been determined. p. ii. whereas a man does it with the x click. negative. and the human being was made twain. . 163.2 In the woman’s mouth the distinction based on sex is effaced. Aborgines of Victoria. 2 Ibid. The Fijians have an interjection Neu. v.” when addressed to a woman. whereas “Ah” is the exclamation confined to the males. and is used only by the women. to this day. for the female. which is prohibited to the men. In the African Hausa language the two genders of sex are distinguished by the terminal Ia used for the male.3 The reason for this is unknown. certainly. Na is No. In the American Indian dialects woman use different words from the men to denote various degrees of relationship. Ia and Nia are common forms for Yes and No. Hence they served as signs of the male and female nature. as Liontail to the Ha. and was afterwards prohibited to the female. and Nia. In Egyptian. not primarily from shame or modesty. The woman was being limited to her own negational sign expressed in sound. Ia is Yes. according to the Two Truths. but because it was representative of the male at first. 1 Archæologia Americana. or front. Negation. as were the two castes in other languages. the mle cames to be the superior one. which preceded sex. just as she was the hinder part. and this name the female avoids. The Apaches “Nyau” is an exclamation strictly limited to the females. and this is according to the secret signs or sounds of “Nci-fila. denotes the male organically. Even when the genders of language had to be expressed by gesture-signs and interjectional sounds or clicks. This is a universal form of the negative. 141 this way the genders were dramatized. a division answering to that of the ”noes” and “yeas” of the two castes of people in Australia. or to use any words in which the chief syllables of these names occur. Although the first. these contain the Two Truths. 264. The Kaffir women are forbidden to pro-nounce the names of any of their husband’s male relatives in the ascending line. the Two Truths or diverse aspects of the one were represented by signs and clicks. and in the hieroglyphics Nnu is No. among the Araucanian tribes the brother calls his brothers Peni. So in a Murray dialect (Australia) the word Purragia signifies “You lies” when addressed to a man. she became negative to the male.TYPOLOGY OF THE TWO TRUTHS. however applied.1 For example.

103. Akkadian. 1869. Visarga is a distinctly audible aspirate. and ter. Light and Darkness. the English Teat and Titty. Negative. the Yes and No. This sign then denotes the Breath-giver who was at first the quickening female and afterwards the causative male. the full and the empty words.” for the father. The Egyptian Nu-ter contains the elemenu of Nnu. Akademie. Such a manner of distinguishing the sexes was developed in the Ibu “Nna. ideographic Paf (The). including Sanskrit. and Nuther means No. Grammar. This phonetic T is an ideographic Tt. N denotes the negative element (water) in many languages. The one . is an art which teaches us how to distinguish between the full and the empty words. which took the place of earlier signs. on the way towards a sex-denoting terminal for single words. and they became the two masculine and feminine articles and sex-denoting suffixes.1 In the hieroglyphics the natural ideographic Signs of Sex can be traced into sex-denoting suffixes. and in the Kooch Nana for the paternal grandfather. it may be inferred that this is negative in the sense of the Neuter that becomes either. image. the teat or mammæ. to denote the feminine gender of words. for the type. becomes a terminal t. Egyptian. Chinese. and Paf signifies the Breath.” the papa as Engenderer. for the female breast. The feminine terminal and article “The” is the sign ° of the female sex. or status. These signs are related to the “Two Truths. Abhandlung d. next the Words of Sex. of the primitive typology. This and the H therefore represent Breath. by means of a vowel-intonation in a name instead of a personal click. represents N and is the symbol of nasal sounds. or sexual gesture-sign. they say. In the Sonorain dialects of America the gender is indicated by the addition of words denoting the Man-word and Woman-word. Japanese. designated Chi-tsen and Lin-tsen. The language of “No” is equivalent to the “No” or Negative people of Australia. The Melbourne blacks used to distinguish their language as Nuther galla.” and to the breath and liquid of life.142 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Pepe having the same meaning as “engender. Judging from the Egyptian Nuter and the English Neither. and “Nne” for the mother. . The other : is the symbol of H. Breath and Water. and Nani for the paternal grandmother. and the sibilant called Visarga. it is onc of the two Mammæ separated from the body. Berlin. Full and empty have great nearness to the original nature of the Two Truths. Galla is language. The Rabbins have a saying that all came out of the letter H. Thus Gesture-Signs of Sex were first. The pre-pubescent 1 Buschmann. The masculine article The is Pá. lastly the Woman-Sign. Positive and Negative. i. The Two Truths appear in the Chinese division of the roots of their language. In the Nagari alphabet there are two peculiar signs for symbolic sounds which may also be related to the Two Truths of the Water and the Breath.

340. like that of the pubescent male.” the Repa. The twofold oneness of the primordial Neuter is still attained or preserved in the various duals of dignity. Those who date from the Mother. as in the Hottentot. is called Nuteira and Nuteiran. are the No-people. The human being was broken in two (as it were) to be divided into male and female. the I or Me. and become “You Two. 143 period of the child was neuter in this sense ot neutral which became dual at puberty. It has been said that in no language does the plural precede the singular. was earlier than the personal I. In Samoa this is continucd to the extent of asking the single chief.” The personal pronoun.” and “Us. but distinguished neither. has a name that signifies either. U. is one of the Cruxes of all beginning. Penti in Egyptian is emphatically the one. is a dual in severaI ancient languages. “You Two. who has doubled. The parent when 1 Turner. It was because the Nuter preceded sex that it became a type of divinity beyond sex and the Neuter remains the sexless gender. the dual does precede the singular in language and was necessitated by an earlier stage of expression. I. which is an equivalent for the Cow-tailed Râ and is represented in literature by the infallible “We” of the Rcviewer and Editor. who fancicd the Zulu maiden must be a pair of people.TYPOLOGY OF THE TWO TRUTHS. This plural is pourtrayed by the hieroglyphic sign of Nakh (or Ankh. Here. They who begin as her children are both Yes and No. The Egyptian Ank (I) is plural in Ankh. would be Nuther or Neuter speech. the Negative one. and the bifurcation and individualization from the group or from the typical one. the “We. which is of either sex.” “Our. or the female in her second phase of the Two Truths. the I being twin in sex. a pair. In the Kamkatdal and Koriak dialects or the Aino language. man. the one-legged race. of two characters. This led to the primitive legends of the split men. At this primitive stage the type of a biune deity was founded in the likeness of the child. male and female. . as the dual being. restores this onginal unity." or the Twinship. in the negative sense neither. is also a plural for they or them. the doubled Horus. the Mother. It belongs to the pre-pubescent period of the child. the pair). Nineteen Years in Polynesia. and the language formed before Homo could be sexually distinguished by the name. The Egyptian “Heir Apparent. But the one. as group. no longer Neuter. or typically of both. p. because the word is plural and indicates a dual nature. who preceded the dual child. The Neuter of deity is either he or she. the Repa being the royal or divine Child of either sex. the type of pubescent power in the male. but potentially both. as elsewhere.” of Royalty.1 “Have you Two come?” “Are you Two going?” Thus “Your Twinship” is a perfect plural of dignity. The name included both sexes. as Homo. With them there is a dual that precedes the singular. the half men.

. a whole. The Single Leg. an orbit. Religion of the Africans. so do “Yes” and “No” cover the two hcmispheres of the world of language. The same typology is continued in the custom of “Wishing over the double kernel found in a fruitstone called a “phillipine. Such customs and ideas date from a time when there could be no such thing as female fidelity. undivided. 332. says Rowley. short of which there is no beginning. Tunic.1 In death the: Egyptians returned to the type beyond sex. was first put on at puberty when the second of the two phases was attained. The “Two Truths” originated in there being but one name or type for the dual manifestation of an object. which type indudes the male and female. person. and the “Two Truths” of Egypt relate to this primary phase. because as we read the symbol.144 THE NATURAL GENESIS. or thing. As Day and Night embrace the whole world in two halves. This one-legged divinity was continued in the mummy-type of Ptah. It was the circle of the year. and these may be indicated even by the nod and shake of the head in Gesture-language. Hoho was the Dahoman god of Twins. p. and they hop round in his image on one leg in their sacred dances. is emblematic of Unity.) for instance. Shen (Eg. The mummies were bound up in the undivided image of the single-legged Ptah. the double-Crown. and the Shen. In the sacrifices to the Mexican god Tlaloc. This the present writer considers to have been the reason why Twin children were especially chosen to be offered up in sacrifice and not from any absurd notions connected with the infidelity of the mother and a double fatherhood. or as they called in. But Shen is also Twin. like that of the divinities and kings of Egypt represented the Two Truths of the biune one. or Osiris. children were selected who had two whorls in their hair. and shows the process of individualizing. and the Twins according to the same idea would furnish the perfect offering. whose legs were at first undivided. 2 Bancroft. is a circle. but served for both. The Shen as the brother and sister were Shu and Tefnut (also the Shenti) 1 Rowley. enacting the Couvade might also have been addressed as “You Two!” The Baroling regard their god as a person with only one leg. 24. iii. the dual child. The Twin Being in Mythology is the complete one.” When words become sex-denoting in themselves we are out of the thicket of Mythology or Typology. These being sacred to him would be sacrificed to him. or were what we call “doublecrowned. being first divided into the Two Times. The “Two Truths” may be said to commence with the natural antithesis of the positive and negative. and Two. the circle of the year. The Shebti or double of the deceased shows no distinction of sex for the male or female.”2 These were held to be the most agreeable offering to the gods. The unity of the lower part corresponds to the pre-pubescent period of the child in which the sexes were as yet undistinguisbed.

152. before the two sexes were distinguished by genders. that traveller records how the people of Cashmere would go to the spring acoompanied by the priest. two halves. especially in the two phases of the female. the Two Truths in a biological sense. Thus the womb Aahti is the dual house. or Shenat. the place of the Two Truths of the Water and Breath.). or or duplication in reproduction. The Ojibwa signs or hieroglyphics contain a unique symbol of the Two Truths. as the hinge or juncture and point of unity. consisting of a serpentinc double line which represents the River of Words in a twofold flow. and the Shen-ring is a symbol of reproduction or duplicating. it is invoked in the one character for fine weather. The Serpent. Shen and Sen are interchangeable. Sen is Two or Twin. In India. in the other for rain. This form of the bi-une one was finally fixed in heaven as the Twins of the Zodiac. the Serpent still images the two primary Truths represented by the elements of Wind and Wet. Aah denotes the house. by the quickening breath or spirit. In the time of Hioun-Thsang. and “snapping their fingers would invoke the Dragon and at once obtain their wishes.”1 The rootage of Language and of Mythology has to be sought here where the oneness bifurcates in duality according to the Egyptian doctrine. Sen means to be made. on account of its sloughing became a pre-eminent type of the Twin Truths. The name of the Goddess Aahti is the name of the womb. This servcs as a visible figure of unity bifurcating into duality. The knee-joint and elbow are both Shena (Eg. the moon. . Thus the Shen (as one) includes both sexes. So that the root of the present matter is not reached on any line of research until we bave attained the starting-point in a twofold oneness. and a pair of bdlows. ii. thence representative of the dark and light of the lunar orb. or two manifestations of the one. 145 the Lion-Gods of the two gates North and South in the earliest halving of the circle. the dual foundation of being. The genus had to be identified before sex and species could be distinguished by name. The Lunar Aahti is the manifestor of the Two Truths in the waxing and waning of the moon. by means of the Mother-Source. first observed through the Mother. to become. and secondly. or the thing which is duplicated by the ti.TYPOLOGY OF THE TWO TRUTHS. p. There were two forms of the primary one. to be founded. and lastly assigned to the Father. moon. Also Sen (Eg. two times. the Twin as two principles of life under one and the same name. and when the one tongue spoke falsely that became the double-tongue. In like manner the Human Being was named as one.) means Blood and Breath. The Ibis Aahti was Black and White. the equivalent of joint. Vol. 1 Voyage. It is an Accra saying that men have Two Ears but these do not hear Two Stories. legs or shanks.

the Greater and Lesser. These also are the Two Truths of Light and Shade. There can be nothing older than Day and Dark. in front. two Lions. the Ass and its foal. The Twins (who in Egypt were the two Lion-Gods). iii. 484. She the inner and the left hand. The White and Black ermine worn by English judges continues the typology of the Two Truths or the dual justice. The He is before. He being the type of out. c. and as the Ostrich Feather was an inner African sign of the Two Truths. Chalmers. or Mâti.3 Also it is said that when Moses was with the Lord during forty days and forty nights he was taught the written law. and corresponds to the feather of Light and Shade which was worn by the Goddess Mâti 1 2 3 Book of the Beginnings. North. Buxtorf. the tip of its tail was an ideograph of sunset. The He is the head and She the tail of the first dual coinage as well as in the latest currcncy.e. the division as the connecting link of two heavens and the express emblem of the Two Truths. it has been suggested that the type was first made use of in a land of equal day and dark. or Father Heaven and Mother Earth. He is the upper and active. two Fishes: two Mothers. Basil. . p. vol. She the lower and passive when the one becomes Twain. xcvii. and the ideographic signs are the members. 14. in Egypt. 3. the Polar Dragon. The earliest division of the human being is founded on sex. Synag. South. and as Hor-Apollo says the symbol was adopted because of the equal length of the ostrich feathers. the Major and Minor. as the LionGods. of Ma-Shu (Eg). studying in the Scriptures by day and the Mishna by night. the other who brings forth the Solar Child in the sign of Pisces. Origin of the Chinese. one in the sign of Virgo. and when he was taught the oral law he knew it was night. c. With the Chinese the Two primal principles called Yang and Yin. were originally known as Light and Shadow. The Hebrew deity is represented according to the Two Truths. which is the sign both of Light and Shade. 54. ii. or equatorial Africa.146 THE NATURAL GENESIS. One of the symbols of Ma is the Ostrich Feather. two Dogs. He is the outer and the right hand. p. and She is the hinder haIf. All the earliest imagery in the Planisphere is arranged acording to these Two Truths.1 This would be a form of equal poise and of the balance before the equinoxes were made out in higher latitudes. There are two Bears. Jud. or the dual one. p. whatsoever the terminology. with the Scales figured at the equinoctial level. f. and Hydra. Midrash. and She of in and within. 1661.2 These are the Two Truths of Ma and Shu. the double Anubis or dual form of Sut:. The two eyes of the crocodile denoted sunrise. then he understood it was day. Ma and Shu. i. the Virgin and Gestator. the Male and Female.

who. and its Dew. In many lands the waxing and waning moon conveyed two messages to men as its form of the Two Truths. West. 147 in the Judgment Hall.TYPOLOGY OF THE TWO TRUTHS. said water was the mother of life. the feather of Light and Shade. These in one form may be the Breath of heaven. 1. They likewise denote the breath of soul and the blood of source. “The region of Light is the place of Ahura-Mazda. and also of that Darkness. and girls during the wane. also reads Ma. in the same way ye shall also die and end. 7. 3. Also. The Orkney Islanders prefer to marry when the moon is waxing. the Milesian. “and dislike to eat its flesh because of the message it brought.” Aharman “in Darkness. The ermine. having to be sought for and supplied as drink. This made the Moon so angry that she struck the hare on the mouth and slit it.” On its way the insect was overtaken by the hare. 2 4 Bundahish. beeing a fast runner. with backward understanding and desire for destruction. as Tef is to drip and drop.”4 Shu. 31. personified as Ahura-Mazda (the spirit of Light). he did but formulate the first perception of the primitjve man in a thirsty land. was the first of the fur animals that was produced. The present writer has personally met with a prejudice entertained by English villagers against killing the pig in the wane of the moon. ShuMa is a name for the “Pool of the Two Truths. proposed to convey the message to men. and the place of that destruction. are set forth in the Hottentot legend. the mystical water of life.” When Thales. the double tongue) or lying lip. The Moon once sent an insect to men with this message:—“As I die and dying live. According to a Lithuanian precept. whereas the air came of itself. was in the abyss. Ibid. “As I die and dying perish. Bleek.” said an old Namaqua. The insect consented. and his sister (Tefnut) represent the Two Truths of Breath and Moisture. is what they call endlessly dark. Water and Breath were the two elements of life earliest identified. and his omniscience is in vision (sight) or revelation. .1 The Two Truths of Light and Shadow appear in the Bundahish represcnted by Two antagonistic spirits. 12. says the Bundahish. “We are still angry with the hare. or Black Man of the Avesta). boys should be weaned whilst the moon is waxing. which they call endless Light.”2 In the earliest phase these two were simply the Light and the Darkness.” The hare then returned to the Moon and told her what she had said to men. 2. because the meat willl waste so in cooking! The Two Truths conveyed by the moon’s message to men. and Shu-Ma or Shu. No. so ye shall also die and dying live. and it is he who will not be (he only exists negatively). xxiv. ch.3 So the hare-lipped mouth became a type of the double (cf. and Aharman (the Angro-Manyus. When the hare arrived she said. and water. p. would make the earliest appeal and first 1 3 Ch.

The Breath of Heaven is born of the firmament. says the Lord set His mind to the creation of Heaven. The one like Uati consists of the water and heat. And in Egyptian.” The vapour was the breath. Sesha shows that Breathing out of the Waters which is represented under the waters by Vishnu and Ananta. 129. The god Shu. or gestating. . Come give the fire. Water is the primal Element. however mystified by later rendering. Ses is to breathe. ii. upper. which was called the celestial water. and was derived from observation. Texts. the firmamental water.e. 3. and so the earliest wind. According to the Vishnu Purana. who represents the element of breath and air. and obscured by still later translation.2 the creation proceeds from the quality of Darkness. desire. making his burning in flame glowing within the sea. demand for recognition. The name of the Genitrix Uati signifies both Wet and Heat. 3 Rig-Veda. We read in the Ritual. for water as the drowning element would impress the primitive man as profoundly as did the deadly sting of the Serpent. clxiv. fervour. called Sesha. ch. 6812 ff. in Mythology. Bh. Hence. and heat are yet synonymous. the exhalation. the second element of life. B. The two primal principles of Wet and Heat are the bases of beginning in the Vedic Hymns. In the Hindu creation it is said that “From the foam of the water was produced the wind. life-making. The soul of man. the first of our Two Truths. say the Australian blacks. came visibly from the water. All begins with or issues from the Water. v. when the breath of life ascended in bubbles of air. Heat is a means of converting water into breath or vapour. Al Zamakshari affirms that this smoke or vapour of darkness ascended from the waters under the throne of God and rose above the waters and formed the heavens. Susu. the later spirit or soul. in the Inner African languages is smoke. was breathed into him through his navel.”1 that is the Breath or Anima. i. Breath. Hence the element had two aspects.3 as everywhere else. is the born child of Nun. is a secondary condition of water in the form of mist. or vapour. In drowning it was observed that the vapour was transported from the being. and although the latter may be expressed as fervour and desire. 357. vol. The doctrine had a natural genesis. and it was darkness or smoke. p. San. The Two Truths of life as the first and second are well illustrated in an inscrip1 2 In the M. water in its second. The “Revelation” concerning creation in the forty-first chapter of the Koran. the Water of Life was also the Water of Death. breath. S’antip. 4 Ch. and they saw the Beb or Pef (gust or wind) was exhaled in bubbles or in foam. Muir. the Egyptian Pef (or Beb). raising the sea by his vapour.) is to exhale.148 THE NATURAL GENESIS. “Oh the Being dormant within his body. Beb (Eg. and the water was converted into breathing life by the Mother when in heat. and to breathe. aerial or ætherial condiuon. transport the vapour to the Being.

and such is the relationship and sequence of the Two Truths. Italty. and Na means to come. The Goddess Nut stands in her sycamore tree from which she pours the Water of Life. the first creation. Thus the Dsina comes from the water. once fulfilled by offering a virgin to the water as the Bride of Nile. 149 tion on an Egyptian vase. Engi in Munio. It was a commuted kind of human sacrifice. One of the Hawaiian expressions used to designate the death of a man was “He has gone to the moist earth and the muddy water (soil) from which he was made. 2 Fornander.1 “of whom I inquired concerning its origin and import.” and again he alludes to it mystically as a “certain fountain.TYPOLOGY OF THE TWO TRUTHS. is a form of Ankh (Eg.” The Goddess replies.”2 Images modelled in honour of the Genitrix were a symbolical offering of the human form which was clothed and shaped by her in the womb.) the liquid or water of life. Ngi in Kamen. Nke in Balu. It is the mother of substance. they knew not why. answered that it was prescribed by the Veda. as it was put by later theology. and one of the most curious ceremonies in the festival of the Water-Goddess Ganges: is to make her image and cast it in to the river. Dsi is water. as the clother in flesh. in the mystical rendering of the water of life. Aningo in Orungu. or. the Water. The deceased awaiting his resuscitation cries.” That fountain was the mother-source. Nke in Bamon. that thou mayest breathe the breath of life resulting from it. So was it in India.” The Water precedes and is the creative cause of the Breath of Life. The confusion of vapour that rises from the water with spirits or apparitions ascending from the lakes is common in Arric:a. Ngongi in Maori. with her crown of hemp. Nki in Kanuri. or Wraith.” Ganga. The Vei ghosts manifest from the water as one of their 1 Gods of Greece. The goddess Ank represented the mystical water. in the Vei language Dsina is a Ghost. Spectre. . which we hear of in Egypt and can read by the images made to be resolved by the Nile or the Ganges as a mode of return by proxy to that source from whence we came. Water was the First cause in Egypt. For instance. The Romans at one time used to make fetish images or dolls to cast into the river Tiber as proxies for the earlier sacrificial victims. and the casting of the image into the waters was typical of the human formation from the waters. Water is the first form of matter in all the oldest Mythologies or so-called Cosmogonies. and India. and mother and matter are one. Nki in N’goala. like Khenka in Chinese. Water is called by Plato “the liquid of the whole vivification. Ngi in N’gura. “I bring thee the vase containing the abundant water for rejoicing the heart by its effusion.” says Sir William Jones. “The Pundits. “Give me the water and the breath of life.

Falling Water.) who are literally the people of the division. or breath fot the suffocated. the knee. pp. The beatitude of Paradise pourtrayed in the Ritual is to drink of the Nile and breathe the bliss of the vivifying wind of the north which had brought coolness to the burning land. typified by the kneejoint.” to kill the Ponaturi and the Troll. the air in motion. and their four wives the mothers of the buman race were four forms of water. the joint. in the American myths. the level of the Two Times. like the Norse Trolls. 161. According to that typology the dead in Egypt were buried between wind and water. &c. this was still represented by the well. The Maori have a race of beings called the Ponaturi (from Pona. Two Abodes. their aerial abode. and the Beings of the water-half ascend by night to breathe the air of the upper half. “She’s hit between wind and water” is a provincial English expression for one who is more likely to be a mother than become a wife. 203-205. for. The Two Truths of the Inner African beginnings were further emphasised and enforced by the peculiar conditions found in Egypt. Their country was underneath the waters. Brasseur de Bourbourg. where land or breathing-place was attained. who were created by Hurakan. Exactly the same expedient is adopted in the Maori legend of “Tawhaki. the givers of breath and bringers to life. the two primary and supreme elements of Life. The Great Pyramid was a symbolical sepulchre containing a Well supposed to have some communication with the Nile. Every year when the new inundation had poured forth its water of life. Where there was no water.2 At this mental stage the primal biology was formulatcd. p.1 the high land of Breath. and the place was at the division or crossing. The myth belongs to the division by two of a world of water and breath.150 THE NATURAL GENESIS. &c. The wind or breath was allowed for in the small air-hole of the serdab left open to the north quarter from whence came the revivifying breath of life. They were obliged to come up to breathe. or in the womb of a new life. if the sun saw them they perished. Vei Grammar. The other is considered to be on the summit of Cape Mount. and Water of Birds. In relation to the Two Truths of water and breath Empedoclcs may be quoted 1 2 Koelle. but every night they ascended to sleep on dry land in a large house called Manawa-tane. the join of the upper and lower worlds. Note. . the welcome wind of the north arose with its breath of life and spread the tide of the stream out over the thirsty soil. but as they are mere vapour-spirits the sun consumes them with its glance.” and the Norse story of “Lord Peter.. Beautiful Water. are four forms of the spirit of breath as males. Water of Serpents. The Quiché four ancestors. Le Libre Sacré de Quichés. and turi. These Two Truths of Life are illustrated by the wind and water. But they had to leave before sunrise under penalty of death.

”1 In the beginning all came out of the Nu (Nun) the waters of the firmament. which denotes the second phase. is the same word as Neith. and Mâti. as it were. 151 who said:—“The earliest breath was drawn by the first animal when the moisture in infants was separated and by that means an entrance was given to the external air into the gasping vessels from which the moisture retired. In Tamil Nid or Nitt is to swim and also to be born. The Fish being a type of the Breather in the water. to be going jn the cabin. The primordial image of power and type of time was set in heaven as the Hippopotamus (Ursa Major) the great breather in and out of the water. The “secret of Horus in An” is how his mother made him or caught him in the water. In the most ancient typology (the Typhonian) life was emaned from the waters by the genitrix imaged as the Water-cow. air or breath the invisible. in the cabin or Argha-Yoni.) as entity. Nuti. hence the priority of water. The perch on the head of Neith. Water being the negative of Two Truths when the Breath is included. to float. or the Net. Neith. When the goddess Neith was created. for froth. . One form of Mâti signifies to float on the surface at the water. Neith) in whom the breathing power was entified and named as that which came “out of” and was aItered and personified or represented as tha mother of life. Being born of the water is equivalent to being borne upon it. out of (the water). So Ank. Enti means out of.TYPOLOGY OF THE TWO TRUTHS. is identical with swimming. Her name is synonymous with Net. Neith also carries the Shuttle or Knitter of the Network. There were no human fishers then. Natalis. hence this type of birth and existence was found in swimming on the water and in coming out of it. Neith is Hathor. xxiii. froth. fished the child from the water. Nuti as froth shows the breath of life issuing from the Waters as it might in frogspittle or the breath-bubbles of the Submerged Water-cow. is a symbol of birth from the waters. or Aphrodite personified as kindling into breathing life and beauty as she rises from the foam. or Hathor. ch. In several languages birth. that of the breathing life. men had learned how to catcb fish. This is seen in Latin as well as in the Egyptian Enti. Morals. the goddess who wcarn the bundle of hemp or flax on her head shows that men were weavers when she was created. the Egyptian Venus. beginning. Man was not a born swimmer and never could live under water. Neith was the Knitter or Netter and typifies the mother as the 1 Plutarch. Water also imaged the visible type of existence. and existence is Nuti or Enti (Eg. Aphrodite from the froth or Nuti (i. who bad two characters derived from the liquid of life and the breath of being. and Aphrodite was the froth or breathing life of the waters. Sentiments of Philosophers.e. existence in a negative phase.

Hierog. A Maori meaning attached to the word “Ewe” or Uho. are both derived from nga. or in other words gave him birth under the type of the fish. is to draw together with a cord. the after-birth. The Whenu is a warp. Taugaenga (Mao. If the shell should swim it is a lucky omen. They also reckoned to come from the waters. The goddess Hathor (Venus) in the tree of life pours the water with one hand from the vase. Vocab. and the aboriginal natives of Australia consider that children with large navels will be famous swimmers. Ngita. Moor.-the hvo types Qf the Two Truths of the beginning.” Whenua. to breathe. Notan. to appear above water. and in the other she holds the cake emblem of land3. the breather. where 1 3 2 Hooper. the placenta. then is figured as an escape (Net) out of the waters. is likewise the “land of one’s birth.152 THE NATURAL GENESIS. The Maori language has various forms of “Net” with this primary meaning.) is a cake. Noto. Nati. the. and the cake sign is the Egyptian ideograph of land. the Mud of the mythical waters. also means one’s own land. or literally. Likewise Nef (Eg. Journal of Ethnological Society. Mat. an oyster that keeps shut and safe under water.2 Others cast the cord into the waters as an offering. Nef (Eg. or evolved. and place the shell with its freight on the water. bring forth. That which could breathe and keep its life under water was the object of deep attention to the earliest observers. the New Zealanders put it in the mussel-shell with which it was severed. retains the idea of the primæval land. to make fast. In Kanuri one’s native place is na dabu kambe. existing. are identical. means to be performed.) the cord. to draw) and thence a Netting as the means of being born. Ea. fish. She is pourtrayed as suckling her fish in the shape of a crocodile.) is the sailor. to be produced. and Tangahagha. a drawing out (Net. secure. the Placenta.) for breath and the navel. Wilk. 24.good swimmer is called Bilyi-Gadak. carry. Aust. that is having a good navel. Being. fished from the drowning element. to make fast. The West-Australians used the term “Netingar” to signify their ancestors or beginnings. catcher of fish who netted Horus from the water. a form of the Net. saved. One name of the navel in English is the Nathe. as breathing-place. Ewe. country. native place. hold firm. When the umbilical cord drops off the child. but if it capsizes that portends an early death. Hathor was that Queen of Heaven to whom the Israelite womcn offered their cakes. This mode of attaining land and breathing-place gave especial significance to the placenta and the umbilical cord. pl. . 1869. to take breath. The Placenta (Lat. earth and foothold. which arc called Placentas in the Vulgate. is to shut. another name for the placenta.1 The navel is the Bilyi (belly) and a. Noti.

it taught them how the child breathed in the womb. Through the navel was the first manifestation of Nef. in Hebrew.1 It was this beginning that gave such importance to the navel as a kind of mesmeric disk which the Ecstatics and Seers of India gaze at until they enter the state of trance. the soul of breath. the navel being an image of breath in the waters of the womb. That way the life was held to be inspired into the child by the mother. Through the navel men were told of the breathing source. And that way they sought the breathing power. the navel-moundr as breathing-place. and there buries it. If the frontier be a stream (the natural boundary) he buries it on the bank. v. . This navel of the waters was the typical mount and mound. This is a secondary sense. Namyad-Yasht. he carries it home and buries it at the threshold of his door. or more anciently.” cries the Brahman Seer. O sons of the Gods. when a child is born the father cuts the cord and travels with it to the frontier of his district. for he hails you in your dwellings. 153 one’s umbilical cord was buried. which is preserved amid the waters by means of this Mount. or the later God. 51. 544. the “navel of women.TYPOLOGY OF THE TWO TRUTHS. How I found Livingstone. that relating to Breath. Nabhanedishtha Hymn. 4.e. one who speaks through the navel (Nabha). It is said to take posscssion of and to guard the imperishable majesty. They concentrate their thought or vision on the navel because it was one of the first oracles. apparentiy unknown in Egyptian. “Hear. viii. and they gave it apotheosis.2 Whatsoever his idea of the Gods and their dwelling.” the feminine producer being first. is to prophesy. and as such maintained its symbolical value. i. The Placenta thus identifies the place of birth. Both Pliny and Solinus say that when Apis was led in the solemn procession if children could get to smell its breath they were thought to be thereby gifted with the power of predicting future events. When the male Vishnu takes the place of the female the sacred navel loses significance. and we shall find the early men were very loyal and worshipful to every educational fact of this kind that offered any response to their wonder. The Hindu Nabhi-Yoni was a dual type of the Two Truths of the breath and the waters of life. The navel of the waters is personified in the Avesta. the imagery belongs to the simplest beginning of human thought and expression. The navel was one of the earliest doorways between two worlds. because the male has been made the source 1 2 3 Stanley. or breath. Then taking the root of a tree (in exchange). in relation to one’s native land. and they made the navel a type of foretelling. to utter forth. p. Naba. and then made the type of another meaning. It was the oracle of one of the Two Truths. Amongst the Wanyamwizi. In the Sirozah.3 a the navel appears as the navel of the kings.

The caul was the work.1 The sail was a lady’s smock or body-garment. or soul. The profoundest mysteries are the simplest. Nape. that no man had lifted her veil or peplum may now be interpreted. Napet. and the Generator had not put aside her mystic veil. It is an old saying. you were wrapped up in a part of your mother’s smock. This sail. Also the caul was a head-dress in which the hair of the pubescent maiden or married woman was Snooded. of breath. the flow which ceases with generation. p. and on it was hung. The caul of fat that forms the network of the kidneys was to be especially offered to the Hebrew deity. the peplum that no man had lifted. a basket of woven wicker-work. Nef (Eg. In this they were netted and fished from the waters. called the ΠΑΝΑΘΗΝΑΙΑ. The caul in English is synonymous with the smock.) not only means the sailor. nun (Eg. “Oh. 1 2 . in the tomb were invested in a network of bugles or beads. Isis or Hes is the liquid of life personified. at Saïs. the Egyptian sign of breath. in which they placed the bones of their dead children. In the Athenian festival in honour or Athena. in English. In the same sense. Maori. She was both Argha. The first clothing or veil was assumed on natural grounds at puberty. Egyptian Nebt. to weave (also a fishing-line). and Athena the weaver. Egyptian mummies awaiting their re-birth. and sail (the Egyptian hieroglyphic of breath).). and the type of Neith the knitter. derives its name from Pef (Eg.2 And this sign of breath.” when born in the caul. Nabh. Potter. The most occult signification of the saying of Isis. and laid them under their heads by night. in the manner of a sail. The Two Ttuths of breath and water were being celebrated. and weaver in the Sanskrit Nabhi and Nabha. the veil of Isis or Neith. and the sail and mast were afterwards given to the god as Argha-Nautha. and wore them tied round their nccks by day. it is likewise a type~name for the knitter. without the female nature. 421. as the caul. you are a lucky man. Antiq. The net-type is the same in both cases. The caul in which some children are enveloped at birth is the network of Neith. the Nun (cf. But Isis always wore her veil as divinity. the sacred garment of the Goddess. spinner. woven linen. breath. as shown by the boat and sail and the water-pots following the sign of breath. Hence she who inspired the breath of life into the child was the weaver or spinner of the web of life personified in Mythology. whereas the female was first. that represented the net of Neith. in which the child Horus was fished from the Nile. mystically a veil. i. Greek. as was the mythical Gestator. is to be realized at last in one form. It represents the caul of birth and afterwards of re-birth. Buckler states that the Australian mothers likewise made nets of hair and twisted bark.154 THE NATURAL GENESIS. There is no male Vishnu. vol. the ark or boat was carried in a procession. She came from herself.). however. the Net of Neith. One English name of the spider’s web is a caul. for negation) takes the veil that remains unlifted by the male in marriage.

to “hinder the ghost from coming back.sailor. for the purpose or making them eloquent. and the lowered flag now takes the place of the earlier sign. i. also to Advocates. The typology is the same when the English or other ships still make the death-salute with lowered masts or flags at half-mast high.” but the souls let out were the breath that was to fill the sails. or men. When a canoe arrived at a place for the first time after the death of a chief. Time was when a chief would kill a man. Navel. vol. the sail was also flung away into the water to be scrambled for. and taken to him AS the “lowering of the mast. 10. When the Brandcnburg peasant empties a pan of water on his doorstep after the coffin has crossed it on.”3 or letting out the breath of his sail. and the fat that is upon them. Fiji. and try to sacrifice a life for every fresh plank added. the wind. sign of the revealer and maker known. are derived from this origin. Why was this? It was because the life was the breath in one aspect. some poor creature was sacrificed. and extract a portion of the kidneycaul to anoint themselves with. is the . Nef (Eg. 13. . some of which are universal. iii. So is the belief that the ghost cannot cross a running stream without some kind or bridge. and make the voyage prosperous.) breath. and the sailor still holds on to the hieroglyphic signs. The sail was an Egyptian symbol of breath and soul. They make an incision in the flank of the live victim. on laying down the keel of a canoe. Williams.” to the custom is based on the antithesis of Water and Breath. The Two Truths of the water and the breath are especially operant in certain primitive and traceable customs. and burn them upon the altar as a ‘sweet savour. if only formed of a single thread. Lev. p. acquired such significance for sailors. the day of the burial. 2 Smyth. 155 “Thou shalt take the caul that it about the midriff and the two kidneys. 1 3 Ex. naval. or network. The first connects it with the saving from the flood. leaving the sufferer to die slowly. If a chief did not lower the mast of his vessel within a day or two after arriving at the place. the second. the blood in the other. 15. with the Nabi.2 It is in this connection that the caul. because it was a. and sign of saving from the waters. Midwives used to sell the caul to them as a preservative against drowning. The dead men were eaten as “food for the carpenters. 206. the breeze. 4. and on the spirit or soul being founded on the breath. and nautical. but it must be human. the “rollers” being afterwards cooked and eaten.TYPOLOGY OF THE TWO TRUTHS.’ ”1 The same caul of fat is still sought for and highly prized by the Australian blacks. On launching a canoe a Fijian chief has been known to slay several men for “rollers” to facilitate the launching. the mast was not only lowered. xxix.

As soon as the gude wife has sufficiently recovered her breath to reach the bottte dhu. When the Hottentot goes out hunting. 75. the doors and windows are completely closed.3 These Two Truths of the Water and Breath are illustrated in like manner by Herodotus. and then put the seed on the red-hot stones.1 says some of them wear round the neck certain roots. . or they chew the root and spit out the juice around the spot where they encamp for the night to ensure protection. her husband will not be successful. Horses. shout alound with delight. Then they set up the tent of fumigation. A discreet or wise man is then sent to the Dead-and-Living-ford to draw a pitcher of water in profound silence. coughing. she does her best to regenernate the wheezing. 17. and every crack and cranny carefully stopped. When this is ended.” The Scythians.2 We shall not find a simpler application of the Two Elementary Truths. 73. 621.156 THE NATURAL GENESIS. 4 Book iv. in his description of the Hottentots. if she elects the other element. One of them then takes a large brush. p. transported with the vapour. and then blow the smoke and ashes about. or. The more intense the Smuchdan. P. purify themselves by washing their own bodies. for if it should go out. this smokes. and other live-stock. Tsuni-Goam.4 He likewise relates how the 1 3 2 Hahn. Dapper. nearly choked sufferers. 27. The juniper collected in the various rooms is brought in and set fire to. p. with which he performs an act of lustration by sprinkling the occupants of all the beds. or some one.” “When the Scythians have taken some seed of the hemp they creep under the clothes. is drunk as a charm that is potent till the next New Year’s Day. cattle. Early on New Year’s morning the usque-cashrichd. believing that that fumes or smell will keep off wild animals. Stewart. On the last night of the year the Strathdown Highlanders form themselves into bands and fetch home great loads of juniper bushcs. who describes the way in which the Scythians made use of Indian hemp in their rite of purification after the burial of their dead. her servant. When on a journey they set light to these in a fire. or water of the Dead-and-Living-ford. When she is tired. On his return they all retire to rest. Dyer. and a rite of fumigation is performed by aid of the suffocating vapour. she must pour water on the ground. He says “The Scythians having buried their dead. Superstitions of the Highlanders. and she must do nothing else but tend it and keep it alive. must pour the water ceaselessly. the more propitious is the solemnity. his wife will kindle a fire. which they find in the rivers far inland. without letting the vessel touch the earth. are then smoked to preserve them from evil or inimical influence during the coming year. or the hunter will not be lucky. which are ranged round the fire to dry until morning. and produces such a steam that no Greek vapour-bath could surpass it. The effusion of the spirit following this baptism of water is also represented by the drinking of whisky.

pt. one of the hunters placed the stem of his pipe between the bear’s teeth and. and the fumes narcotised the sitters. and twelve men crept within. The smoke of sacrifice and of incense represents the breath or spirit. Inf. a small hut-oven was set up inside the house of sacrifice. p. who were carried out swooning. An old man then threw twelve handfuls of tobacco on the stones. ii. The Chinese burned beasts and rich silks and jewels for their vapour to ascend as an offering to the celestial spirits. Ind. breathing. It was the marvel. Aztecs. the mystery of heat.TYPOLOGY OF THE TWO TRUTHS. and in-breathing an inspiring life. Breath. pt. and covered over with blankets. adjuring the soul of the animal not to be offended!3 The smoke was a temporary revivification. 65. of breathing spirit into the embryo. breathing into the bowl.1 In Russia custom requires that on the third day after child-birth the mother shall take a vapour bath. therefore sacred. Author. were synonyms of the Spirit. The Two Truths of the Water and the Breath are combined In the vapour bath. made of twelve poles tied together atop. 1 3 Book i. 42. The vapour or sweating bath is a prominent and hitherto inexplicable feature in the mysteries of the American Indians. Lev. At a festival of the Delaware Indians said to have been held in honour of the God of Fire. as did the Brazilian sorcerers by the same means. and the North American Indian yet adores the Great Spirit. . x.4 The Jews were commanded to burn a perpetual incense before the Lord. the master of breath. De Plancy. Vapour produced from water by heat was a primitive illustration of the breath of life. and thus continued.) also means to fumigate. 157 Massagetæ had discovered trees that produced a peculiar kind of fruit. of North Am. forced the tobacco-smoke backwards into its mouth. then they rose up and betook themselves to singing and dancing. The smokers and fumigators with tobacco were inhaling spirit. and sat round it in a circle to inhale the odour till they became intoxicated.5 The household deity of the Siamese was supposed to delight in the fragrant steam of hot rice and Arrack. 2 4 Loskiel.). Vapour is the breath of water. This was performed with vapour or other fumes produced by fire. i. Intoxication by tobacco was held by the North American Indians to be a supernatural ecstasy in which they saw spirits. xxx. Dict. 1. of fermentation. Kept (Eg. a delirium of delight. vapour. 5 Ex. by breathing the smoke of his tobaccopipe toward the sun. It was heated with twelve stones made red-hot. 203. When the Canadian Indians killed a bear. the mystery called Kepu (Eg. a typical giving back of the breath. and other races. but the practice is typical. or a mode of spiritual communication by means of the breath here represented by the smoke. . p. The results are often evil. 37. which the inhabitants threw on the fire.

The priests suddenly cast off their belts and brecches.”1 The Kaffirs eat the animals which they offer to the Manes. 7. 1. To light a candle Sta (Eg. the one to the east for the wine. The onc toward the west was for the water. the nearest of kin had the right to inhale the breath or soul of the dying. the second of the Two Truths.2 The wine to the eastward was the Water of Life. The Jewish breeches were not a masculine garb. and of the second of the Two Truths represented by the 1 2 4 Trans. v. and probably includes both in relation to the Two Truths. .) is synonymous with begetting a child. new series. a strange transformation scene occurred. the dress and strap. vol. the breath of the flowers. the first mode of celebrating an influx of the Spirit. bk. Each was perforated at bottom with a small hole like a nostril. At the Jewish feast of Tents or Tabernacles a golden pitcher that held three logs of water was filled from the fountain of Siloah. the same as the Egyptian Ank. tore them into shreds and then made use of the strips as candle-wicks to which they set light. 3 Ibid. Mishna. At the moment of pouring out one of the waters. the name of which hag been read Khent and Fent. which often appears as linen hung up to dry. In offering flowers to Coatlicue the Aztec Goddess of flowers. The tearing up of this was typical of the negative period past. it was forbidden to smell them before they were presented to the Goddess. The double basin with the nostrillike aperture repeats the hieroglyphic vase with the two spouts. iv. The unleavencd bread of the Egyptians and the Jews was symbolical of the first feminine period. in this case the Water of Life. ch. Soc. p. Scent was considered the spirit of the offering. p. also Wars. ch. by the primitive races. the flesh to themselves. When they came with it to the water-gate the trumpet was blown. Fermentation (Kepa) was the primary form of spirit. and it is at the same time a water-vase. vii. 5. Josephus. Eth. The Limboos in offering their sacrifices dedicate the “life-breath to the gods. and represented the effusion of the Holy Spirit. 9. bk.3 This was the analogue of the rising up to play in the Exodus. and conjoining promiscuously as in the Witches’ Sabbath. where two silver basins stood. The Seminoles of Florida held the babe of a woman who died in childbirth over her mouth in order that it might receive her spirit with her parting breath: the breath was the spirit! So with the Romans. the hunger of the spirits being satisfied with smoke. Ant. still put on first by the priests. the priests ascended the stair of the altar and turned to the left. 153. considered by some Talmudists to be the effusion of the Holy Spirit. The Makanase4 was a form of the primordial garment of womankind. vii. or a vase of the Two Waters. p . and the setting light to the strips as candles was the equivalent of procreation. for it sjgnincs the nose (which is fent). 3. v. Treatise Succah.158 THE NATURAL GENESIS.

Sekha-hut (Eg. ii.”—Hurd. and these titular deities are made in the form of grapples or hoods which we use to shake our fruit-trees. “they place fetishes before their doors. and of the Lama in Tibet. it needs to ungergo the process of fermentation. on this night we dip twice. are signs of these Two Truths. The “Passover of the Rcsurection” is spoken of by the two brothers in the Gospel of Nicodemus. and flour called Therumoth. the fruits of the soil in their natural state. Fermented milk represents virility and spirit. or Lady of the Loaf. that they are to plunge their hands into cold water to prevent its breathing.”6 The Two symbols held in the hands of the Egyptian Gods. 125. the Hek or Aut Crook7 and the Khi. and breath are synonymous. p. oil. ch.TYPOLOGY OF THE TWO TRUTHS. it commenced breathing. and she who is the Lady of Breath or Seed is the later Llafdig.4 The initiated in the greater mysteries were purified with water and breathed on. “Tis the Lenæan feast (Bacchic). or winnowed by the purifying spirit. lord of the humid nature. Pesachim. But we ourselves now. Bacchus. when fermented. The child Horus was fabled to be drowned. iii. the adults hold it puerile for them to drink it. Before milk is considered fit for the use of men. Tract. 7 The Crook is an Inner African symbol. because it set up a process of fermentation on the way to becoming leavened. Hurd says of certain tribes.1 It was likewise a law that during Passover no man was allowed to chew wheat for laying on a wound. 471. with the Kaffirs. when leavened began to show holes and rents. But the Inner African fetish image is primary. 1 4 . New milk is only fit for the young. and in English the breathing-plaee is called the Bread-basket. 7. xi.” and that afterwards they celebrated the Passover of the Resurrection.2 Bread. the sign of breath or spirit. or the Breather. carries the bread and seed basket on her head. Aristophanes. 2. The Jews also apply the Two Truths to fruit. 4 5 Ch. The Hook which denotes laying hold of is the determinative of matter as “Aut. Dough. From this natural genesis the type becomes the Crozier of the Pope of Rome.” Other ceremonial observances show the unification of the Two Truths. 374. Achara. Plutarch. the Symbol of the Gods in the temples of Japan.” The Khi is a fan. or to hinder the dough from rising.) is leavened or inspirited bread. and the fruits in their prepared condition of wine. p. 2 Mishna. are winnowed (pure). at least.4 They state that they were “baptized along with other dead who had arisen. fanned. ch. and make a distinction between Biccurim. and the Osirified in this character enters the water. Treatise 4. Isis and Osiris. 3 Dogmore. p. So the Goddess Neft whose name signifies the Breathed. pt.3 Of the Passover feast the Rabbins say: “On all other nights we dip what we eat once. In the Mishna instructions are given to the women who make unleavened bread. 159 leavened bread. in being raised again ascends from the waters and in the character of the twicc-born was called the Fanman or winnower.

or Miscellany of Traditional Memoranda called the Shayast La-Shayast. p. These bringers to birth in the naturnl genesis. xxi. Author. that were made use of in the purifying rite. 15. John says.” The “Two Truths” of Biology survive in their primitive perfection as the “Blood and Fire” blazoned on the banners of organized ignorance by the “Salvation Army. 3 Journal Ind. or the Water and Breath. no flint. Archip. and the child is passed to and fro through the fumjgatory incense-smoke. Tsuni-Goam. The Two Truths are recognizable even in the formula of the Christiansr applied to heretics who were “to be baptized or burnt. If these injunctions be not duly observed. ii. and the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove. ch. reborn and saved. the “double primitive force” of the Creator Ptah. or breath of fire. x.” but Jesus is “He which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost. the child will surely die. There a fire is kindled.5 The PIacenta is still offered up as a burnt sacrifice by all good nurses. When a child is born it is carried to the nearest stream and washed.1 In the New Testament records we find the Two Baptisms contending for supremacy. p. as by Fire and Blood. When divorced from their origin and unexplained by the Gnosis. bk. 5 Ch. Hahn. gives instructions for the fire to be stirred and made to blaze high the moment the navel-cord of the new-born infant is severed. p. The “Two Truths” are represented by the Water and the Spirit or ghost in the dual baptism practised in many lands and in all the known Mysteries.3 When the child is born the Khoi-khoi kindle a fire with the Dorob.160 THE NATURAL GENESIS.2 They are likewise illustrated by the Two Baptisms of Joh and Jesus. Nothing must be cooked on that fire. 1. 2. fragrant wood is burned. steel.4 The old Pahlavi Rivayat. John is represented as the Baptizer with Water and Paul with the Holy Ghost. and for three days and three nights no one is to pass between the child and the fire. one of the symbolic birds of soul.” The blood of the female and the vivifying fire of the male are the two factors in the human creation. vol. “I baptise with Water. 77. a fire-drill. The Two Baptisms of the Gnostics were recognised by them as the animal and the spiritual. fire being the superior 1 4 Irenæus. such doctrines and dogmas culminate in publicly profaning all that was once held sacred under the Seal of Secresy because they were so natural in their genesis.—were continued as types of re-birth in the symbolical representation of the Mysteries. or matches being allowed. . Among the Jakun Tribes of the Malay Peninsula the Two Truths of the water and breath are recognised in their dual baptism. where the soul was supposed to be regenerated in baptism. and by the fire which Justin asserts was kindled in the river Jordan. 264. 2 Acts xix.” The double baptism is pourtrayed in Jordan by John baptizing Jesus with water. This fire has to be maintained until the navel heals and the umbilical cord drops off.

and other types of that which could cross the waters and live beneath them. the eel. i. the perch. but such thinkers. the solar or masculine fire. and call it possible. Four days later there was another ceremony (the Nem. Primitive Culture. or second festival of Egypt). Next she blew her breath on water held in her right hand.TYPOLOGY OF THE TWO TRUTHS. whose “Nimble souls Can spin an insubstantial universe Suiting their mood. p. or Argha-Yoni. This perception led to the pourtrayaI of power in the image of the frog. They saw the breathing image of life issue from the water in various forms. Modern writers may begin their account of the religious origines with the “Perception of the Infinite”. ii.1 These customs were continued in the Mysteries. 394. 2 Spanish Gipsy.”2 are not calculated to interpret the thought of primitive men who began with a perception. In one figure of life issuing from the waters the Lotus is the type of the bearing and breathing power. It is also an English custom for the parturient woman to breathe in her left hand to bring away the after-birth. the Uat. Hence when they tried to express the perception of a power beyond themselves. The Papyrus-Sceptre. and it is said the child was passed four times through the fire. means to hold water. and in gestation the bearer as vessel is water-tight in the mystical sense. The Womb. They observed the fish. vol. at which the babe was named. 161 element of life. the crocodile. the hippopotamus. the water did not extinguish their breath as it did that of the human being. . The child was washed by the nurse in the name of the Water Goddess to remove the outward impurity. It is noticeable that the Greek word stšgw. is the express sign of the feminine nature of Uati who impersonated both 1 Tylor. Sooner than see one grain with eye exact And give strict record of it. Hence the pregnant Water-Horse was adopted as a type of the bearing Mother. They found that water was an element opposed to breath. Such is one of the great facts registered in the Kamite Typology. which is used for bearing. The Lotus represented Her who came from herself or from the Water of Life. the fire that vivifies. But the Water and Lotus are both female emblems at first. was the primary form of the boat that goes of itself without sail or wind in the mythical tales. the Lotus on the Water is the early type of the natural Argo.e. the frog and the hippopotamus could keep under water and live. and misfortune. it took one shape as the power of breathing in the water. of the Definite. In ancient Mexico the first act of lustration took place at birth. foulness. and prayed the invisiblc deity (the Holy Spirit) to descend upon the water for baptism of the inner nature and deliverance from sin. the blood source.

the water of life in one sense might become the water of death in the other. enters into the veins of the females. . or Menkhat. ch. but they were divided to distinguish them. 1 2 4 See plate in Bonwick’s Egyptian Belief and Modern Thought. and is a form of the spirit that broods over the waters in creation or incubation.5 Considered as Liquid or Uat the Two Waters are One. carries in her hands two Vases. the Pool of Natron and the Pool of Salt. In this the seed of the male becomes the uppermost of the two. and the water of death to the seed that was mixed with it through the non-observance of time and season. as all milk arisesfrom the seed of the males. 5. 5 Ch. thry identified Water first as Source. and at the same time any one (child) is born it becomes milk and nourishes him. as may be learned from the Ritual and the process of regenerating. In the mystical phase it was the water of life when it nourished the embryo. Truths of Wet and Heat. blue signified the soul. 8. and the blood is that of the females.”3 These also are two opposite forms of the Waters as male and female. 38. and onc of them is underlined with red by John as the water and the blood. In the Bundahish there is a physiological account of the Two Waters of Source considered as female and male. and the seed of the males will remain above it and will fill the space of the womb. Maka. p. 7. including the Breath. The blood represented the Hesmen.162 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Water and Breath. West. as the menstrual fluid and milk. Menka.1 To image Source as Water. When distinguished as the male and female of source there are Three. x. the red source being reckoned first as it is in nature. Bundahish. hence the water of purifying and the water of vivifying. whatever refrains therefrom becomes blood again. ch. They were One when the Water and the Breath constituted the Two Truths. the genitrix. The Two Waters are divided. 3 Shayast La-Shayast. and the water the masculine source. or Body and Soul. where red denoted flesh and blood. the water of the womb and breast. 1 John v. xvi.”2 According to the Parsee Ritual the rule is that “That which comes from the menstruous woman to any one or to anything is to be washed with bull’s urine (gomez) and water.4 The double baptism of the Mysteries was also by water and by blood. A mythical form of the Twin Watcrs of Source was supplied by the Red and White or Spotted Cow. It says in Revelation— “The seed of the females which issues beforehand takes a place within the womb. according as it was drink of life or drench of death. the symbol in a dual aspect of the two Waters of the Motherhood. It was the blue and red Lotus in Egypt. or two aspects. This was the one existence with Two Manifestations. the menstrual purification. xvii.

Destruction depends upon the Waters mixing. the Welsh Bala. Book of Enoch.” The Alexandrine version distinctly says He came by Water and the Spirit. John has taken the Two Truths of the Water (male). The negroes of St. the Blood (female). on becoming Christianized objected to be baptized by the water from the earth. but these were blended to produce the Son who was a third to the preceding two as the one in whom they united and were reproduced. p. which. The 1 3 Contemporary Review. xvii. “and these three agree in one. The Talmudists say the waters of Jordan are unfit for healing the unclean because they are mixed waters. the Spirit of Life being here evolved from the Two Waters. This uninterpreted Gospel mystery is only explicable by aid of the Two Truths. where the river Esk takes the double form of the white and black Esk. liv.”3 Unlike the Jordan described by the Rabbins. and Spirit. ch. to evolve the Spirit as the third witness of his Trinity. “The water which is above shall be the agent (male). Various legends inculcate the never mixing of the white source with the red. is smilingly ignorant of any distinction between the two. The Catholics sanctify the water of earth by adding salt. and all shall be destroyed. 7-10.TYPOLOGY OF THE TWO TRUTHS. they insisted on using rain-water which came down from heaven. In the Book of Enoch. 1875. Blood. especially in the Protestant phase. and gliding like oil over the surface of the waters by which the gods made their covenants. 773. Homer describes the river Titaresius flowing from the Styx as pure and unmixed with the waters of death. Another version gives the Water. and Spirit.” he says.” There were but Two Truths. and the water which is under the earth shall be the recipient. existence. and this turns the water of Hesmen (blood) into the Pool of Salt according to the Egyptian Ritual. 163 and John identifies the later three as the Water. on going forth from the source at the head of the twin river Dee was famed for not mixing its dual waters which ran into one lake but were reputed to pass through it in separate currents that never blended together. Blood. “The Christ came. 2 Ch.2 When the Two Waters are distinguished as male and female. This is a relic of naming from the Two Waters considered as male and female continued from the time when distinction of season was first taught. West Indies. and purity are made dependent upon their not being mixcd. and by distinguishing their variations. The Twin Waters are also localised in Dumfriesshire. male and female. “by Water and Blood. when the world is destroyed it is described in the same typical language. Croix. the water above being considered as masculine source. healing. The same was said of various other waters. .1 Such a superstition belongs to an earlier form of faith than the Christian.

or named as the water above. one is a kind of Styx. the one time of the “Two Truths” of Light and Shade. The Water that divides in space is a type of bifurcation in the beginning. the red source. p. 519. and the myth presents the eschatological aspect of the Egyptian judgment. vol. In the inscription of Darius at El-Kharjeh the two waters appear as the young and the old Han or Mu. vol. 1794. If they liked each other they were then united for life.4 the Northern being the lake 1 2 Sir John Sinclair’s Statistical Account of Scotland.1 The Kabala Denudata says there are two dews. The Basutos. a fair was formerly held there annually. of being like the Egyptian tesh and pant. p. Here. the Two Waters appear just as in the Ritual. and therefore they date their day from that hour.3 In this. Various legends may be read by an application of this type. probably. 248. the river of death. the Abyss. Even the island answers to the Isle of the Blessed in the celestial Nile. in a cistern. xii.” in consequence. cix. the Great Lady of the earth. The good enter the stream to the right hand. The wicked enter the water on the left hand and suffer from starvation and perishing cold. iii. in the realm of Hea and Nin-ki-Gal. the other. according to the Assyrian mythos rose the stream Miebalati or waters of life. and was represented by the two manifestations of day and dark.164 THE NATURAL GENESIS.2 The natives of Millbank identify the water with Two rivers guarded by two huge portals and flowing from a dark lake. this is the water of life from which they are eternally supplied. p. This was divided in creation as we find it in the Hebrew Genesis where the water is separated into upper and lower. at which it was the custom for unmarried persons of both sexes to choose a companion with whom they were to live for the year following. The Basutos have a mysterious region in the world of spirits called Mosima. Casalis. 4 Ch. or the Great Mother Earth. This was called hand-fasting. Here the universal Two Waters are located. The Twin Waters are found at the centre of all in the Assyrian place of beginning. and if not they separated and made a fresh choice. 3 Bancroft. is the water of life and nectar of the gods. the dew of Macroprosopus (the primal cause) and the dew of the Seir. The Chinese have a saying that Chaos opened and unfolded at midnight. The one water that is divided in the Ritual became twain in forming Two Lakes. The separation was next marked on the two horizons of dawn and darkness. The Baperis on the northern shore of the Fal river affirm that the entrance to this region is in their country. and here also the “waters of death which cleanse not the hands. 615. place where the one water bifurcates was once sacred to most ancient rites. the water of life and water of death. Youth and Age being the two aspects there assigned to the same element for typical purposes. The heaven or firmament. . (the Nun) was first apprehended.

or Ma-Shu. The mid-day cleft discloses the water of life. Sprenger. were the bright and the dark waters of the Two heavens. and the heaven is the water of light and shade. xiv. Thus the south. p. 4. and half of the Mountain shall remove toward the North and half toward the South. or the waters into upper and lower. Wenrig. 165 of primordial matter. When the vast cleft shall open into a deep valley the “living waters shall go out from Jerusalem: half of them toward the Souther sea (in front or before) and half of them toward the Hinder sea (i.e. Similar stories are told of the Moslem Mount Kaf.TYPOLOGY OF THE TWO TRUTHS. There is a Slovak version of the myth. The Muhammedan traditions speak of the two waters as the Pool of the Sun and the Pool of the Moon.3 These are the Two waters of the earliest division. was an early form of the primordial water of the nocturnal heaven. This imagery or the cloven mountain is applied by Zechariah on the grand scale to the great year when the Lord shall go forth and stand upon the Mount of Olives. and the seeker of the healing and vivifying water must be ready on the instant to dash through the opening.”2 This is the Mount of the Equinoxes. But for two or three minutes in each day they open. dip his two flasks and as instantly rush back. This shows the waters in relation to the keepers of time and period. light and shade. as it is in Egyptian when the pool of the two waters is called Shu-Ma. yet to be described. the north. This was in the vaguest stage of distinguishing before the Two Solstices could be determined by Two constellations or stars.1 In this version the division is that of mid-day and middark. and the “Well of the Seven Stars” the Hebrew Beer-Shebâ. “Generator of Years” is another name of the Two Pools—the Pool of Natron and the Pool of Salt—in which the Sun was re-born by day and the Moon was renewed by night. “And the Mount of Olives shall cleave in the midst thereof toward the East and toward the West. from the depths of which the constellation arose in latitudes where it dipped below the horizon.4 In Polynesia the god Tane was the mythical divider of the heaven from earth. and the North as the domain of darkness. 111. 3 Verse 8. which implies the other being south). the mid-night one reveals the water of death. Leben Muhammed. The first definite indicators of the Year were the seven stars of the Great Bear. the lake of sacred principles or seminal (later spiritual) essences. which makes the cleft in one mountain open at mid-day. Then it became the Pool of the Sun and Moon on the two opposite sides of the Circle. We find the water of life is sometimes said to be concealed between two lofty mountains which shut closely together. the Southern.e. i. . p. the other at mid-night. when the waters were divided. 148. and the divided or 1 4 2 Zech. as the region of light.

Legge’s Chinese Classics. The dragon-writing was derived from the River Ho. This first division of the heaven. but our departed ones come not back. the women assembled and bewailed those who had died during the last moon. hast returned to life. Prol. or River of the Division. thou. north and south. In such customs the original meaning continued to be enacted when otherwise forgotten. It is said to have been in this valley that Hwang-tc the first mythical Emperor of China obtained the Map-writings in red lines and in the Seal character. Crocodile. 1 3 . O Moon.166 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Annals of the Bamboo Books. When the mist removed the Emperor saw a great fish and sacrificed to it. was the primordial type of the genitrix who brought forth the writings from the waters. “Alas.3 At the time and place of receiving the writings there were three days and nights during which all was wrapt in vapour. The Chinese have the Two Waters of the Egyptian Ann as Two Rivers in the Valley of Han or Han-mun. or Ma2 Wilford. At their only festival. dividing waters are still represented by the constellation Eridanus. that of the New Moon. drink out of small bowls which are marked across the middle. the two waters which are still representcd by the double stream of Aquarius. or the circle. 54. but there has been no fountain of living water to restore life to our departed ones. Three days and nights was the length of time during which the hero was immured in the fish’s belly. the tortoisewriting from the River Lo. p. is possibly symbolised in the custom of the Algonquin Indians who.).p. In a Maori myth the Waters of Tane are the Waters of Life and renewal for the Moon. 1. the Iarutana (Eg. whcre the one water of heaven was divided in two for the earliest mapping-out. by means of two stars. or Water-cow. the water. This was an early sign of the solstitial division.109. Thou hast bathed in the livingWaters of Tane. vol. Kepheus was known in India as Capuja2 and in New Zealand Kupe (a name of Maui the Maori Shu) is celebrated as the Divider of the north from the south islands and as the Former of Cook’s Straits. and Cor Leonis in the zodiac. The Fish was in all likelihood the Pisces Australis which contains the great Star Fomalhaut (the mouth of the fish). Notes. Te Ika a Maui. one of the determinatives of the four quarters. and had thy life renewed. In going out one side of the circle is placed to the mouth and in coming back the other. iii. crying. Asiatic Researches. As before said one name of the Egyptian pool is Shu-Ma. It was when the fish floated off to sea that Hwangte obtained the map-writings in the Valley of Ran (Egyptian Ann) the Birth-place. and the Fish.”1 Following the division of light and shade the two Solstices were established. when on the war-path. such as the double Law-giver Kepheus (Kafi or Ma-Shu) north.

with which the face of the dead is washed. the fish and the throat. supplied the name of the fish-tailed Semiramis. was born. holding in his hand the Word. He says. The Pool of the Two Waters was also formed at the place of the great Serpcnt Tcmple. or to the well at the village gate.).). the two copper coins. the fish-tailed genitrix. It has been previously Suggested that Semi (Eg. and in the temple of Roma there is a representation of the child as Vishnu issuing from the mouth of the cmaning fish. . the fish. the twofold property all tend to identify the Mae-Shuwy rite with the Two Truths of the pool called Ma-Shu in Egyptian mythology. and for the throat out of which issues the Word. each lake covering about five acres of ground. Now the Fish was a sign of the birth-place from the beginning. 176. is one with Semiramis of Nineveh. is still represented by the mitre. and the Chinese have a curious ceremony designated the Mae-Shuwy. and this ceremony determines the heir to the double possession. to the city-moat. It was then the princc. It is the celestial locality that will account for Roma in Cambodia and Rome in Italy. whose name is mentioned by the native historians. 209.TYPOLOGY OF THE TWO TRUTHS. Rumo was an ancient name of the River Tiber. which has been rescued from the waters. Land of the White Elephant. and from this the city was undoubtedly named as the birth-place of the twins. where he deposits the money and takes some water. Nagkon-Wat.1 In this typical ceremony the water at the gate. accompanied with other mourners. On either side of the immense causeway. Whoever brings this water is entitled to a double share of the property. shaped like the fish’s mouth. 725 feet long. Vincent. pp. When there are no children or grandchildren the next of kin purchases the water. which is an Egyptian name of the Valley and of Fish. On the death. is an artificial lake fed by springs. and Roma. p. in relation to the Two Truths represented by Ma and Shu.2 Popular tradition assigns the foundations of the temple to the prince of Roma. in Cambodia. Ram (Eg. the Repa and heir-apparent. was represented in Jerusalem as the Two Pools called Bezatha by Eusebius in his Onomasticon. which was fixed at last as the sign of Pisces in the solar zodiac. This is in Ann.). Romulus and Remus. called the mother of the twins. The Great Hall of the Two Truths in the Ritual stands at the place of the double pool or lake. and Rami (Eg. 167 Shu. China. worn by the Pope of Rome. of a parent the eldest son living puts two small copper coins into an earthen vessel which he takes in his hands and goes. The Pool of the Two Waters. denominated the Twin Pools. Rama is another Egyptian name for the fish. It was there that Semiramis or Derkêto. 175. brought forth her son. that being the sign of re-birth out of the waters. “there is a pool 1 2 Kidd. the image.

the white water being Southward and the red Northward. was one of those sacred cities that were mapped out according to the Kamite model in the heavens. not by the sheep-market. and the Assyrian Bit-zida—for the same imagery is found in the Assyrian mythology and mundane mapping out from the one original pattern. and when the Zodiac of the twelve signs was formed the solar birth-place was figured in the sign of Pisces.) from which come the Hebrew Bethesda or Bazatha. and the Waters of the Abyss.” The Well Zem-Zem at Mecca.” the depth) and the Water from the source. 2. 3 5 Griesbach. It is still the water of purification or regeneration in accordance with the meaning of Sem-Sem in Egyptian. that had formerly five porches. at Jerusalem. “A shrine of Anna was built on the Mound near Bit-zibal. the good opener (Un-Nefer).168 THE NATURAL GENESIS. the other to the Water of Life. Near the Church was a reservoir of water which is mentioned by Brocardus. The waters also preserve their dual character as of old. it is the greatest of all secrets.) denotes the regenesis. 2-4.”5 The Pool in the Ritual is the Well of Sem-Sem. Anne. and now is pointed out as the twin pools there. they say. vol. 512. “An angel of the Lord washed at a certain season. The Pool of Two Truths was in Ann (Heliopolis) and Ann is the name of the Fish. corresponding to the pool or well that supplied the two waters. into which the moon is fabled to have fallen. Book of the Beginnings. The “moving of the waters” is periodic. as the outlet from the northern quarter. Here the Church of Anne answers to the Temple of Ann in Egypt. retaining a trace. but the other exhibits its water tinged in an extraordinary manner with red. xv. The twin-pool was located in Ann. In Jerusalem it is the Fish-pool. As such they include the Well of the Abyss (Egyptian “tsta. ii. and both drinks of the water and pours it over his body.”2 So in the Ritual the deceased is restored to life by the water in which Osiris. Ch. Every pilgrim who visits the shrine seeks its well. the Mount of Peace. p. of the victims that were formerly cleansed in it. Thus the miracle of the healing1 belongs of necessity to the Astronomical Allegory. the Nabha-Yoni of the earth. of which one is filled by the rains of the year. is an extant form of the Pool of the Two Truths.” The red one answers to the Pool of Pant and Hesmen. or Tesui-ta (Eg. John v. The Assyrians likewise have their BitAnna. the depth.”4 just as the ancient British had their well and water of “St. The Ritual says: “Inexplicable is the Sem-Sem. as in all other forms of the mythos. It was the place 1 4 2 Alexandrine version. They are the Water of Life to the true believer. John v. It depends on the coming of the Angel—the very impersonation of periodicity—and on his washing in the water first. In the Greek text3 the pool is said to be by the sheep. which is the Piscina Probatica. and the Fishes of course are next to the sign of the Sheep or Ram in the zodiac. has washed. . Sem-Sem (Eg. Jerusalem.

Report in Times newspaper. The “two-topped mount divine” was a form of this rock that divides in two in various myths. The well or pool of Ma-Shu (Eg. At the top of a rock near the fort of Khomushi there rises a spring of brilliant water. thus Nu-Shu is equivalent to Ma-Shu. south of the Hindu-Kush. Hapi-Mu is painted red and blue. E. hot in winter and cool in summer. at Rhedesieh. xvcii. Sep.”1 “The Osiris is pure by that Well of the South and of the North. All Justification is redoubled on my behalf.” and containing 579 grains of solid matter per gallon.”2 The water of Zem-Zem is sent forth to Muhammedan devotees abroad as the water of life and spiritual healing. hence the epicene personification. In this legend Shu appears as the grandson of Noah. Nu (Eg. Shu having been the opener of the rock from which the water sprang at first. Shu was the divider of the rock whence came the water as the god of the two Solstices or divisions in 1 3 4 5 2 ch. “Nu-Shu” is said to be the sound made by the murmur of the water. Ch. And it is very literally the water of death. 9. One source of the Two Waters of HapiMu called the “Abime of Karti” was localized at the Ivory Island. denotes the one in whom the two were united (Hapi). Frankland showed it to be sheer sewage “seven times more concentrated than London sewage. Hapi. 1881. I draw waters from the Divine Pool under the Two Sycamores of Heaven and Earth. 169 not only wherc the Moon fell but where both Moon and Sun were renewed.5 This personitication of the Waterer was finally fixed as the Waterman pouring out the Two Streams in the zodiac.TYPOLOGY OF THE TWO TRUTHS. in a basin always brimming. in the land of Egypt. for a late analysis made by Dr. Inscription of Seti I.) bubbles up from this mythical mount or rock of the horizon in a legend of the people called Shu-Paropamisans. The double rock which marked the Solstices first.3 The division of the water is likewise pourtrayed on the monuments by the figure of Hapi-Mu. being of both sexes. and afterwards the Equinoxes. But long hefore the zodiac was formed the Two Waters were said to issue from the mount. sometimes called the Rock of the Horizon. a figure of the height.4 Thus the one water is visibly divided into the two waters of Mythology just as the one Nile became two in the Blue Nile above and the Red Nile below. He says: “I wash in the Pool of Peace. In accordance with which doctrine the deceased seeks the well to receive baptismal regeneration and be purified and renovated. cxxv. Elephantine.) is water and a variant of Mu or Ma. Pourtrayed on the tomb of Rameses III. . the name of the pool in Egyptian. From the mouth of Hapi issues the one water which enters two other figures that emane it from their mouths in two separate streams.

however widely scattered.. Matatu is to begin to flow.4 Such customs are correlative. and Matahi is the name of the two first months of the year. whenever a large fish was stranded. When this happens the fish must be cut in two and thrown into the water again. The Buddhist pilgrims describe the tree of life. the head going to the two eastern chiefs. The whole round of the world is a reflector of the celestial imagery. the divided fish typifies the one fish of the primordial division which is represented for us by the twin fishes of the zodiac. the bifurcating or dual point of beginning. and the Apophis serpent that lies in the Pool of Pant.2 as it was in Mat. One ancient Egyptian name of the birth-place in the beginning where the water divided into two—as in the double stream of the Waterman—was Mat. Trade Report on Saigon and Cochin China. as growing on the summit.170 THE NATURAL GENESIS. p. Also the Annamcse consjder it bad luck for a fish to leap out of the water into the boat. is another version of the same original mythos.). the middle. an exact equivalent for the dual Mati (Eg. like the Hebrew legend of Moses or Mashu smiting the rock. heaven. In the kingdom of Udyana. Mata-mata is the source of all. division. At one time it was identified with Mêru. there is a sacred mountain called “Mount Lan-po-lo” by Hiuen-Tshang. or periodicity. in the Bundahish. the boundary. Matua signifies the first. and the GanEden in Genesis.3 Again. 128. later Ann. planted the trees upon which the heaven was raised up from the earth. the sky-supporter. 1881. It was on Rangi-Motia that Ru. where there is a lake from which a large river issues. or “the garden. Matahae means the stream diverging from the main channel where the water becomes the Two Waters. Matauai denotes the fountain-head. middle of the heaven. the parent and parents. Rangimotia. straight along the back-bone. This. It is the source of the waters as is Alborz. and in accordance with this mapping out of the land it was the custom in ancient times. 58. and this is extant by name in the Mangaian and Maori mythology. The Three are inseparable in the Ritual where the Pool of the Two Truths is also the pool of the two trees as well as the two waters. Consul Tremlett. note. The division of Mangaia was based on that of the hill Rangimotia. the centre of the heavens. Gill. to dividc the fish in two. near Cashmere. p. p. and in the water lurks a dragon. or the centre of the heavens. and the middle to the two central chiefs of Mangaia. Kalpatura. the tail to the two western. Motu means dividing. Comparative Philology. .” a form of Eden. is the point of commencement marked by a hill. In many mythologies the “Two Waters” are localised along with the tree and the great serpent (or dragon). Myths and Song. and then apportion it in shares. to be severed. one half on eachside of the boat. 3 Ibid. 1 2 4 Latham. 241.1 In Maori the Two Truths of Mati find expression the most perfect.

Into another lake they flung a decaying log. They are often among the precious treasures guarded by the Serpent in a cave. and these can be traced in many localities. For example— The same Pool of the Two Truths.1 The legend preserves its two branches of the two trees and the two waters of life and death as found in the Pool of Ma-shu. in a modern Greek story.” but the bee flies to the one that gives life. The Egyptian pool of the Two Truths is represented in the Bundahish by the Abyssal waters. 234-280. and around this garden coils a mighty serpent like that of Midgard hidden in the waters. These narratives belong to the same original myth as the burning bush of Moses and the budding rod of Aaron. pp. The waters. with the log or tree cast in to make them sweet. or Rock. arc co-types with the water at the point of all commencement. and the Tree. along with the Tree of the Ritual.TYPOLOGY OF THE TWO TRUTHS. 233-234. the bitter waters. the flying serpents. These are identifiable by the tree and the lurking monster. cellar. The Two Waters are also described in the “Bundahish” as belonging to the “beginnings of creation. The oracle declared that the olive was the sign of Athena. and the green bough forthwith breaks into flame and is consumed. The Mount. the cleft of the mountain opens at midday. One of the Skazkas tells of a wondrous garden in which there are two springs of healing and life-giving water. and this immediately burst into blossom. As such they have been preserved in the northern folklore instead of being converted into Hebrew history out of the Kamite mythology. vol. The Apophis dragon of the Egyptian pool is here the lizard with a log-like body. and these flow from a rock. which is at eternal enmity with the good mind. Here it is the Hom tree.2 The Healing Water that is periodic in the G0spel according to John is onc with the water that only heals periodically in this form of the Mythos. the tree of healing and immortality. and the people were to choose from which of the two—tree or water—they would name their city. also 250. 2 Hahn. It is related that a double wonder appeared springing out of the earth—the olive tree and water. is found in the story told by Varro of the origin of Athens. In another. . the water of Poseidon. the name of Athens being adopted. 1 Ralston. Each of these cries “Draw from me. a serpent-woman. ii. 171 In a Russian story a flying snake brings two heroes to a lake into which a green bough is cast. which encircles the world until the last day. or other hole of the under-world. are guarded by a Lamia. In the Russian stories these Two Waters also appear as the water of strength and of weakness. and for ever tries to injure and destroy the Tree of Life. and the springs are disclosed. where the Aredvivsur fount of the waters is the source of all. pp.” They are said to flow from the north.

It takes years to fathom the simplicity of the primitive thought and expression. but the destroying and corruptive part hath its motion from him.” Mesr is Egypt. West. for these are the three supreme types of divinity with several races. may be identified at last as Inner African. xx. Anahita. O Ahura-Mazda!” The fertilization of the world arises from these two waters.172 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Dahome. and Spêtos therefore represents the word Egypt. Burton.3 This myth of the Heaven that divided into the Two Waters of Day and Dark. and the name of Anahid is applied to the planet Venus in the Bundahish. Three deities only are adored by the Negroes of Guinea—the Water. and one towards the east.2 The S in Pazend being equivalent to the Avesta G or Pahlavi ik or ig. and the Serpent. of South and North. if the Pazend form of the word be transcribed through Pahlavi. For which reason they call the form part Isis. and belongs to a total system of typology that is one and indivisible. 2. which are clustered together in various myths at the point of commencement. 15. is a title of the Goddess Anahita. which they also call Mesr. and the Tree. Bundahish. . The Arag is described as passing through the “Land of Spêtos. The Tree. Bosman’s Voyage. but the celestial Egypt and the Nile of the Waterman are indicated as the originals of the common Mythos. especially by the Greeks:— “The generative and salutary part of nature hath its motion towards him (Osiris).” Of these it is said: “Through those finger-breadth tricklings dost thou pour and draw forth such waters. The waters come “part from Alburz and part from the Alburz of Ahura-Mazda. who is the female Angel of the Waters. the mythical waters have been confused with actual rivers with which they were identified. the Serpent. footnote. from going. one towards the west.1 Here. and they call it there the river Niv. the Mes-ru. ch. is universal. West. Tree. that is the Arag. she being a kind of living and prudent motion. Ardvi-sura.) or with Nil. and in order to procure non-being. but thoroughly illustrative of the way in which the simplicities of the early time have been transmogrified into the “Mysteries” of the later. This is shadowed forth by Plutarch in a somewhat abstract and remote manner. ch. or arrest in relation to the female. p. in the Aban Yasht. For her name is not of a 1 2 3 Bundahish. or outlet of birth. The Water. sometimes classed as a triad. is the Persian form of the Egyptian Anit (Neith) and the Assyrian and Syrian Anne. are the objects of worship in Hwida. and in order to procure being. Spêtos is a form of Egypt like Coptus or Egyptos. The Two Truths were also typified by motion and non-motion. xx. the knowingness of the “ignorant present” is totally antipodal to such matters as are herein interpreted. ch. Niv is also identical with Num (Eg. of Life and Death. the Water. and Serpent. that is the Veh River. as elsewhere. and being born-along with knowledge. vii. 195. 8.

and motion was equivalent to generation. which was looked upon as the opposite of motion. that they attribute the verynames of the Agathon (or good) and of Arete (or virtue) to the Theontes (or runners) and the Euroüntes (or well-movers). and when it ceases to flow it is dead water. and confined matter from Jesthai and Janai (that is. Aporial (difficulty or difficult motion). 1 3 Plutarch. 2 Bleek.TYPOLOGY OF THE TWO TRUTHS. 1704. or water of death. was in living motion. is afterwards externalised. 14. Morals. or a time of motion and a time of arrest. the Typhonian torpidity which required to be aroused by means of motion in generation. The water of life flowed. during the negative period. and that is derived from the first two letters of Theon (runner) and of Theatos (visible). iii. The Polynesians and North American Indians call water that flows living water. Some of the strangest matter in all folk-lore is related to this subject. moved and agitated). likewise. wheras corruption. As corruption locks up and fixes Nature’s course. p. from agitation and motion). represented as the water of death or negation in the occult sense. but as all the gods have one name (Theos) in common. as also that Neosis (intellection) and Phronesis (discretion) had their names given them for being a Phora (or agitation) and a kind of motion or Nûs (or mind). so generation resolves and excites it by means of motion. which was then. with whatever they were holding in their hands. they used terms opposite to motion by way of reproach.”1 The simple foundation for this doctrinal abstruseness is that the early men perceived and taught that there was a time to go. So. for they called what clogged. locked up. and Anina (sorrow or want of motion). Deilia (fearfulness or fearful motion). p. “locks up and fixes Nature’s course. or the solution of continuity in time. ch. . Also. during the ordinary menstruaI period. a solution of continuity. Shayast La-Shayast. As likewise on the other hand again. that it was as much as to say to be in commotion. and the petrifying is often assigned to water. The water of life. 119.”3 This arrest was transferred and reflected in the persons of those who looked on the maiden at the tabu time. she smites with a look. as other legends show. as it were Hiemenos and Pheromenos (that is. knowledge and motion). Bleek tells us how in their folktales it is affimed that by the glance from the eye of a maiden (this. and the like he affirmeth of Syniemay (which signifies to understand). vol. a phase of arrest. Kakia (baseness or ill-motion). tied up.”2 That is. 173 barbarous original. and a time not to go. he says. it was the dead water. is probably at a time when she would be usually kept in strict retirement) men become fixed in whatever position theythen occupied. They were also transformed into “trees that talked. At a later stage of thought it is said: “The fiend or demoness Geh is so violent that where no other fiend can smite with a look. Many legend of a transformation of living things into stone originated in this way. 29. Plato tells us that the ancients opened the nature of the word Usia (or substance) by calling it Isia (that is. iv. an end of time.” and this corruption was that of the dead water. Nay. The Hottentots speak out more plainly. London. according to the symbol. as Plutarch has it. so also this very goddess is both from motion and science at once called Isis by us and Isis also by the Egyptians. he saith moreover.

and the female represented the water.3 this correlates with the belief that evil spirits. or. which is sought for the purpose of turning age into youth. from which the Water of Life alone can recover. who lies on her couch in the Enchanted Castle amidst the realm that is locked in magic slumber. both of whom are cured by one of the Two Waters. the Sea or Pool of Dissolution in the Ritual. it is more than probable that the myth of the Sleeping Beauty and her water of life is founded on the condition of the pre-pubescent and un-opcn female. 2 Ibid. non-motion. Isis and Neft. as they do in the Russian story of the Blind Man and the Cripple. or Nef. Breath was the second element of life—the spirit that fluttered over the mystical waters. in other phrase.2 The Norse tales speak of two waters: one—the Water of Death —induces a magic sleep. The mother gave the Water of Being as flesh-maker to the child. the first lock-up to primitive man. 240. in two characters. The Two Truths were also assigned to the genitrix. The Living Water is held to restore the body to life. here represented as the feminine Water of RenewaI. the precious water is contained in a flask concealed beneath. 235. the pillow of the Sleeping Beauty. p. A Yoruban saying 1 3 Ralston. becomes the male breather. the witch being destroyed in the other. Russian Folk Tales. and breathed the qukkcning breath of life into the embryo through its navel. one of whom represented the Red Source. This is employed in healing the wounds of a corpsc. for reproduction. the other the Breath. . Remembering the Liku token of a marriage covenant and other customs connected with the reckoning of intercourse between the sexes from the time of feminine puberty. p. This. both meeting in the one meaning of non-going during the time of Tabu. Ibid.” In a variant of the same Russian story. and she the Former of flesh. p. 231. Next the male was made the breather. was a condition of not going. Both Truths of the Water and Breath were at first represented by the Great Mother of Mythology in accordance with the earliest appearances. too. The Phallus as Nefer.1 The Russian Folk Tales almost invariably recognise Two Waters as being made use of for the miraculous restoration or transformation. One of the Two Waters is described as a magic fluid flowing from the hands and feet of a fair maiden. when exorcised. those of the two sisters. flee to and find their place of disappearing in the Red Sea. who is a form of the “Sleeping Beauty.174 THE NATURAL GENESIS. until the Prince comes to wake all up and to carry off the prize. arrest. passivity. which was also applied to menstruation as the opposite of motion in another sense. He was the Inspirer of soul. One is called the Water of Death. These waters in the Folk-lore make the blind to see and the lame to walk.

ii. The Two Truths of Water and Breath were likewise represented by the God Num or Khnef. The Hindus reduced the feminine to mere nonentity. to distribute the Bread of thy being. is strangely illustrated in an Indian sculpture from the Cave Temple of Elephanta. are not reproducible now. p. it is ghastly in its grossness. Yet denunciation is altogether beide the mark. The critic of the present work should take a lesson in symbolism from this sculpture. as in the Indian drawing. in which the female.”2 Bread and Breath are homotypes. as the beloved of the Adytum. 122. The male is the breather of life in a twofold character. the Inspirer of Breath. and the breather or inspirer of the female. as the active agent of a Biune nature. . And the male as Bat or Pater. and the act of natural congrcss could not have represented the meaning as does this biological allegory. and here ascribe both the breath and the liquid vivification to the male. This transfer of the breathing-source from the female to the male can be traced in Egypt. a fragmcnt from Sodom. When the two Divine Sisters invoke Osiris. 175 affirms that “Marrow (cf. and men also. and the mind that is uninstructed in such teachings of the past. vol. the Hebrew }m`) is the Father of Blood. called the Bâ. but they have never been explained. as in the dual emanation procecding from Khem in the drawings at Denderah. The Bât (Eg. the female being now pourtrayed as the receiving instead of the emaning double-mouth. The group here referred to very simply sets forth the male as the supplier to the female of the Breath and the Water of Life. a damning proof against the carnal heathen mind. Such things.1 When this repellent subject was carved it was to demonstrate the idea that a male source was the nourishing potency of nature. that the Gods may live. now in the British Museum. In the Ritual the speaker in the new life says he has been “snatched from the Waters of his Mother. the fructifying Bull.” At this stage the father had become the breather of life. is being fertilised. pl. where the primitive pictures were drawn on the walls of the Chambers of Imagery. To the eye that is unfamiliar with. Copied by Payne Knight [Worship of Priapus. and both the Water and the Breath of Life are here assigned to the male. of course. But the mother was primordial. the Lord of the sixth day’s festival.TYPOLOGY OF THE TWO TRUTHS. eatlier Paf. the 1 2 In the British Museum. He is the Lord of the inundation.) is the Father as the Inspirer of the Breath or soul. and thus the Male Divinity is here the Lord of the Two Truths. as the passivc recipient. Once the meaning of these representations was piously expounded in the Caves of the Mysteries. and the male principle had been made primary.” and “emaned from the nostril of his father Osiris. Isis says: “thou comest to us from thy retreat to spread the water of thy soul. xi] Records. and supplier of the Water and the Breath. to come to them to Kha.” Observation had then extended to the region of causation.

by command of Moses.”3 Then he was called the sun in linen. The tallest wax candle in Rome is the same. 2 4 6 Num. or puf. 9. the feminine personification. the waters of Soma are seen issuing from the head of the male deity. were feminine names at first. King of Frogs. and Bah signifies the male.2 This was the Water of Meribah.) signifies dilatation. Records. p. in Smen. vi. Mu is water and the mother. Fu. The English Ritualists still cling to their long sperm candles as the sign of the Light of the World. pl. When the masculine deity had taken the place of the mother. the Sailor. pp. 596. 115-116. it is changed into working bees.” Shu and Tefnut (an equivalent of Shu and Ma) are said to weep much. they work in the flowers of each kind. denotes the breath of life. swelling. he was bound up as a woman. and Parvati. however. Ibid. We read in the “Magical Texts”: “When the sun becomes weak he lets fall the sweat of his members and this changes to a liquid. In Cbinese FuMu for the parents is now understood to mean the father and mother. . the same imagery of the Two Waters and the Twin Source was applied to the Solar God. the Solar Mcssiah. and a liquid source of life which is typified by wax or sperm. fuf.176 THE NATURAL GENESIS. bearing. Both. Gallery. “Shu and Tefnut give it (the liquid) to the living members. Fu (Eg. xx. He is characterised as the Great God making (like a Potter) the Son of his race with the good Breath in his Mouth. The change to the masculine occurs when the water gushes for the first time from the Rock Sela. and Fu (Chin.1 In the Hebrew version of the Mythos the water of life flows from the Rock Tser until the time of Miriam’s passing away.e being 3ymboHsed by the bloody wafer of the Papists. and in Egyptian Meri is water. the red sourt. 1 3 5 Birch. vol. She represented the feminine source. 8. symbolically. and honey and wax are produced instead of water. a more abstract form of the primæval Two Waters. or he was Osiris-tesh-tesh in his bloody sweat. the great Mother. whether represented by the male or female. 17.”4 But the sun is the deity who in the later mythos sheds one water that turns to blood. the Spirit breathing on the waters in creation. tom i. Moor’s Hindu Pantheon. Bartolucci. and both meet where they can be explained in the typology of Kam. and the sun had been adopted for the creative type. and the two parents are identical by name with the two elements of breath and water. the Mouth (Mut) of the feminine source. the mother as gestator.5 In a Hindu picture6 of Mahadeva and Parvcti.) is still a name of the wife. he bleeds much. The Hebrew deity is also represented as shedding two creative tears. and from the mouth of the Cow. In another of the sun’s weepings or sheddings he is figuratively said to “let water fall from his eyes. Siva is the mouth of the Male Source. as the most elongated Linga of Siva in India.

vapour. 384. as is done by the breath and the blood. Sne. the cow. Sunnt is that which is founded. and the snout. great Father of all. The reed as Vetasa in Sanskrit. purify us with butter. the blood and breath named Sen or Sun (the u being earlier than the e) are apparently extant as English in relation to the sound of fishes. From this comes the sennt or sunnt as in the Sound. the mothers. a strait. Sound is likewise that which is breathen. from sun which in biology is the blood or the breath. Sun (Eg. is synonymous with the male emblem. who adds. Texts.TYPOLOGY OF THE TWO TRUTHS. vol. that on this account a prophet asserts that the Spirit of God moved on the waters. p. where he represents the powers of nature by painted symbols. the Butterer or female Anointer is an epithet of the Goddess Saraswati. v. the blood will account for it as a blood-vessel. where alone after all superficial philological discussion we can reach the root of the matter. 1 3 Muir. is to swim. in English.”2 is one of the invocations. Sans. “May the waters. the great. to breathe. And rightly too. Thus the golden reed and the butter are the biune source imaged in Prajapati. as Numenius says. then sun. both of which are named Sen in Egyptian. Sunnu in Assyrian and Sen in Chinese denote foundation. Butter of the female. the very self-hood. as the souls descending into birth. This golden reed is described standing in streams of butter1 (Ghrita). or breath. as generator. And if the name of the “sound” belongs to both. Sen (Eg. a sea passage.) being breath and to breathe. These two are organs of breath and blood. the nourisher. we have the Two Truths of Egyptian biology under one word. as it well may.”3 In this later phase the souls descend instead of ascending in froth. If the aorta. “the ancients thought that these souls are incumbent on the water which is inspired by divinity. . Porphyry tells us that Zaratusht consecrated a cave in a mountain on the borders of Persia. The cod-sound is scientifically known as the “swim-bladder. 174-7. then sun. The Two Truths of Egyptian biology. He who knows the golden reed standing in the midst of the waters is the mysterious Prajapati.” and popular1y as the aorta or great blood-vessel. and in the sacrificial rites Soma was typical of the male origin. cleanse us. It also signifies to pass. pp. The golden reed of Prajapati is the Priapus. not of the male. 2 Ibid. butter is the representative of female source. Ghritaki. 177 The golden rod standing amid the waters is a hieroglyphic of the biune one. p. The linga and reed also cross by name in the Kaffir Hlanga for the reed and for the name of the Zulu Prajapati or progenitor. It came from the female. and Saraswati was this Purifier personified. a passage for the breath (sun). 338.) means to make a foundation by opening.” he remarks. foam. If we take the fish-sound to be the air-vessel or swim-bladder. Taylor’s Porphyry. is the root of sound. they who purifiy with butter. “For. Opposite as it may seem to any direct resemblance.

those of the blue heaven and red sun which are also found in the tongue of Hu and in the two colours of spirit (blue) and flesh (red). This has nought to do with colour-blindness or defective perception of colours. He remarks that ”a child of three years in our nurseries knows. and in the sacred writings all other colours were affiliated to the parental pair. The Two Truths may be followed in manifold directions.”2 It may be that the archaic or primitive man set out with a limited perception of colours. In the beginning an was luminous and non-luminous. The twilight of the Two Truths was perpetuated. that is to say sees. is typified as black and golden by the bird of darkness and the gold hawk. as Sut Nub. like the sound. the boundary is the most sacred part of the domain occupied. the past for ever reproduced. The colour-blindness. p. the fetters are more highly prized than any freedom. religiously preserved. as the most hallowed thing that could be done by Art. like much of our modern blindness. 539. The moon is black and white. but that the perception of colour was almost absent. Black and red permute in Homer or in Egypt as the lower of two colours. Plato bears witness that for ten thousand years the religious art of Egypt was forcibly held in bonds like these and doomed to repeat itself without innovation or change. and these were imaged by the black and white ibis. So Homer founded upon light and darkness as the two opposite poles. October. is an organ of breath or air. From this undoubted fact he infers that the author of the Iliad and Odyssey was especially sensitive to light and dark. This stage is expressed by the Two Truths of Light and Shade as the two aspects of one truth which determined the earliest classification of colours. It is a relic of the past. because in the beginning there were but Two Truths of what came to be called colour—those of light and shade.1 and that in his use of words for light and dark he is unerring. 2 Nineteenth Century. Light and dark were the two primaries. The author of Juventus Mundi has elaborately demonstrated that Homer’s colour-phrases all resolve at last into epithets of brightness and darkness. and the snout. upper crown and lower. more of colour than the man who founded for the race the sublime office of the past. Scientifically.178 THE NATURAL GENESIS. White and black were equated by the blue and red of the solar colours. The world was very old when Greece was young. This was the sacred sign of the 1 Juventus Mundi. was not natural but sacerdotal. These pairs conform to the primary dual of light and shade. The Two Truths dominate in Homer’s system of colour. which is symbolical. whereas his other epithets are confuscd and indefinite and his colours all run. But Homer could in no wise have represented the primitive man.. The double Sut. . all colours resolve into light and its negation dark. And when the limits are thus imposed they are held to be divine. 1877.

and other dangers. or Sushen. through their following the Egyptian canon.” And he further remarks. whose perfect flower-symbol was the Lily-lotus of Egypt. ch. when the creative spirit looked into it. 3 Iliad. Also Sushen was continued in Arabic. sec. and as the English female 5 Jebamoth. 179 religious writings. In these the Light shades of colour were all in one class of signs denoting peace and pleasantness in different degrees. Theog. But the Greeks represented the first toe as being shorter than the second. observes. and the doctrine of mental evolution.3 The Lily-lotus. The same limitation to the law of the “Two Truths” found in Homer can be traced in the colours of the Wampum belts used by the American Indians of the North Atlantic coast. But the Greeks were no more Ape-toed than Homer was colour-blind.2 “We must be silent concerning the Times of the ancients. The Greek Muses were said to speak with the lilied voice of the gods. 152. 41. Isis was said to have conceived by smelling this flower. and so it was perpetuated as the token of a well-proportioned foot. This was symbolised by the Black Mirror of the Magi and Mysteries.1 They copicd from the Egyptians who had derived and retained the type from the negro on the way from the ape. Lond.: 1654. In like manner an important ethnological fact was registered by the Greek artists. xxx. and Nn or Nu is the Water. 54. while our teacher Moses looked into the luminous mirror. and Flower.”5 The nonluminous mirror was the dark water that first reflected a face or likeness. signifying gradations of warfare. name of Susan. was the flower of the Two Truths and two colours. “All the prophets looked into the non-luminous mirror. and the long great toe is an attribute especially human. Sush is to open. 4 In Spanish a Lily is still called Azuçena.4 There were two mirrors made use of in the Mysteries. 49 b. and. It is said in the Talmud. Jacob Böhme. page 67. For example. and this has been conventionalised in modern art. who was one of the illuminati. as it turns out. incontrovertible evidence for the Kamite origines. The monthly prognosticators in the occult sense looked in the black mirror. the breather in and out of the waters. the note of the initiated. or rose of the lily.TYPOLOGY OF THE TWO TRUTHS. is the only flower really identifiable in the Hebrew Bible. the Sushenin. to unclose. Works. offers the lily to Mary at the time of her conception. whereas the Dark hues were all in the second. One frequently meets with proofs that the ancient symbolism survived more or less in the secret socicties. So Gabriel. the Announcer. The Lily-lotus. “Those who are ours will know what I mean. that is the Egyptian Sushen (from Sushein). iii. the Lily and Lotus in one. Fashion in Deformity.” Here is an allusion to the two times of the Two Truths. 1 2 . whose number shall stand open in the Rose of the Lily. In the Apes the second toe is consicierably longer than the first.

was caught. Egypt will reidentify Masonry as a mystic craft. p. to the intense delight of the gods. The gods decided to entice her out by means of her own image shown to her in a mirror. Ma.’ What do they know of that mystical personage known to some adapts as the ‘venerable Mah’?” This question is asked and left unanswered in “Isis Unveiled”2 by an Initiate in various mysteries. that is. The Ba or steel was also a type of the Blue Heaven. her garment slipped from her altogether! The laughter of the gods shook the heavens (šsbestoj geloj!).”3 A mason in Egyptian is a Makh (Makht). whose petulant tenant was to be aroused by the dancing and singing of a certain lovely goddess. Also a mirror of steel and one of water were employed. Hail to you. 388. prophesied. is also to mirror with the eye for the mirror. The Initiates in the Greater Mysteries were designated magicians of the steel mirror. The essential idea of Masonry is that of a Company or Brotherhood of builders working under the Master Architects.e. and rushing up to it. because the sun-goddess was concealed in a cave. Tef is the genitrix and the Pupil of the Eye. . who test by their Level (the Mason’s level) the words of men. till at least. just as the Company of the Seven Khnemmu work under the direction of Ptah and Mâ. ye gods. This goddess danced. ye associate gods. The Seven Khnemmu are their operatives. with Mâ. Also the goddesss of rule and measure had a prior personification in Makha (or Menka). 3 Text cited by Renouf. Maât). like David. An Egyptian scribe addresses the gods as the “Nutriu.” and her excitement and her action rising together. p. thus revealing more and more of her loveliness. is Masonry. The steel. who came 1 Mirror. The Mother of the Gods was their Mirror. and would not appear. who survives in them. Here. for rule and measure. and obliged ever after to perform the office of light-giving. Paul alludes to this black mirror when he says we see as in a glass darkly. 2 Vol. The water of life and of death was a form of the Twin-Mirror of Ma. while all the gods made music.). That is. the lord of law (i. to see. “How few newly-made Masons but go away (from their initiation) imagining that it (the word communicated with mouth to ear. “with all her might. and at low breath) has some connection with the ‘marrow in the bone. and the sun-goddess rushing out of her cave.1 The Two Mirrors also represented the Two Trees—of Life and the knowledge of Good and Evil. The Japanese make much of this type. the water represented the female source. with foundations in facts that go beyond the religious Mysteries of the Hebrews. ii.180 THE NATURAL GENESIS. and Mâ has an earlier form in Makh. or Greeks. for this purpose they made a mirror with steel got from heaven. for example. we only see in the non-luminous mirror of the Mysteries. 208. Romans. loosened her dress. described by Pausanias. Ba (Eg. identifies the one with Ba. saw her beautiful image in the mirror. the soul. and the Eye was a Mirror. A correspondent sent me the following:—The Japanese have an ancient myth to this effect—In the beginning the earth was comparatively dark. Hibbert Lectures. and hung it on a tree opposite the cave. Ptah being the artisan who built with Truth. even by her name. as in the temple of Neptune. The Mysteries of Masonry are founded on the “Two Truths” of the goddess Ma.

1 are the same symbolically as the pair of feet on the ancient stones of Britain and Ireland and in Polynesia or other parts of the world. Thus derived. and these may be interpreted by the pair of feet or the “footstep and the sole” of the Two Liongods of Egypt who kept the gates or divisions of the Two Solstices. the crossed loop. The council-chamber of the “knight of the east” degree is illuminated by seventy-two lights. The half-closed compasses which accompany them denote the midway of the equinoctial level. One sign worn by Mâ is the ostrich feather. compasses. the square. and is consecrated to the Truth. 2 Yasna. Masons read the twenty-four inch rule as a sign of the twenty-four hours. The Initiate is instructed to be true and trusty. In their processions the Masons always walk Two and Two.TYPOLOGY OF THE TWO TRUTHS. not only as masons. Hence the symbols. and other Masonic emblems. north and South. and the fraternity would be that of Mâ. and the hand extended to offer and give is an ideograph of Mâ. the wife of Nevy. but as that of Truth. The Masonic Brotherhood is founded on “Truth. The hands crossed in making the circle of the mystic chain form another hieroglyphic of Mâ or Mah. Discourse on Architecture.) denotes a brother or brotherhood. erroneously supposed to be in memory of the seventy-two years captivity of the Jews. which alone is immutable and eternal. The Masons likewise wear a suit of black. The pair of shoes occasionally found with the pair of half-opened compasses on the tombs of masons in Rome. 81. a pair of footsoles. but which relate to the seventy-two duo-decans of the zodiac of twelve signs. Sen means two. which denotes both light and shade. and sometimes white shoes. 181 into these islands as Macha. gloves. with white aprons. The twenty-four inch rule represents two feet. 401. or crown. the Mâsen or Makh-senwould be the Brother-Mason of the craft. or black and white.2 1 Dallaway. and two feet in Egyptian read Mâti. and Mâ is dual. tie.” as one of its primordial tenets. p. Sen-sen means to fraternise. as well as the Two Truths of Mâ. The eye is one of the Masonic signs. and Mâ is Truth. In Egyptian Mâ is the eye and the word also signifies seeing. stockings. these were also typified by the tree with seventy-two branches and by the Parsee Kustik or Sacred Girdle formed of seventy-two threads which represents the girdle studded with stars that was first prepared in heaven according to the good Mazdayasnian Law. The hand is proffered in greeting to make the peculiar sign of the Brotherhood. wreath. which are the exact equivalent of the feather of light and shade worn by the goddess Ma. ix. the Two Truths that were the basis on which all stood. This Truth was first founded and expressed by the stone-squarers and polishers in the typology and language of building. whether accompanied by any Masonic mysteries or not. . Sen (Eg. or day and night.

the Truth in its dual aspect. Dr. in addition to a provision of three loaves daily. 2 Potter.) is blood. the WetNurse. Hampshire. The same mysteries are now performed by daylight.) is to show. 1 . The Petroma was the book of Mâ written on stone. interpreter. and this mode at least is extant in the signs of Free-Masonry. This type of Mâ. Report to General Board of Health from the Parish of Havant. is the colour of Ma. Under the Totemic system certain signs were given to each fraternity whereby their brotherhood was known. Hence the “Peter” or interpreter of the mysteries who became the typical interpreter or “Peter” of the Roman Church. 391. the Two Truths of Mâti. vol. Red. explain. Seng in English is both blood and true. interpret. the book being of stone and formed of two stones fitly cemented together.”1 When the candidates were initiated into the Eleusinian Gnosis the holy mysteries were read to them out of a stone book called Petroma. Some of these signs have persisted from the earliest times because they belong to those gestures which are the oldest form of language. and every Sunday the Petar. its slope being that which builders call nine by ten. Another illustraRawlinson. The number ten is lunar. Blood is sworn by in Masonry. The Didyma were keepers of the Two Truths. The number nine of Mâ and Ptah is that of dry measures and the reckoning by nine solar months. used to be the chosen colour of the English felon about to be executed. goes to the Petroma and reads the Ten Commandments. Nine solar and ten lunar months are the Two Truths relating to feminine periodicity. and the two leaves or tablets corresponded to the Twofold Truths of Mâ. the true. In an inscription on the San-tablet these two numbers meet. There was an order of priestesses called the Didyma or Twins. Ment denotes number ten and liquid measure. The Two Truths are likewise illustrated by the numbers nine and ten. p. Petru (Eg. The double tablet of stone is yet represented in English churches with the Ten Commandments inscribed on it. i. who held a red handkerchief in his hand when on the scaffold to show that he had betrayed no secrets. who were allowed ten gallons of oil of sesame with nine bushels of barley a month. English Free-Masons in Australia have felt convinced that the aborigines were in possession of some of their own secret signs. de Plongeon is certain that he detected traces of the mystic craft among the ruins of Uxmal. just as the Peter of the mysteries read out of the Stone-Book to the Initiates. it is the number of Menat.182 THE NATURAL GENESIS. but died “bloody true. There is nothing incredible in this. and Sen (Eg. and thus supplies the true colour.2 But the Petroma meant more than the Stone Book. The Great Pyramid was built according to these two reckonings.

10. the One Blood of the Motherhood which became dual through the typical “Two Sisters” when the fountain-head was divided into the first two Totemic lines of descent. That which begins with respirations (prana) is called real. of Annihilation in the Pool of Pant. or the Red Sea of the Ritual. This latter. or of all things good. . When the soul was assigned to the male. The Two Lives correspond to the Two Truths as Matter and Spirit. says the Sûrya Siddhânta. Ahura-Mazda is the teller of Truth. These two intellects are called the First and the Last.TYPOLOGY OF THE TWO TRUTHS. v. In the ancient languages of India this is the name for blood. which came to be applied to the here and hereafter. and on this was founded the doctrine of Mays or illusion in India. There are Two Times. the negative element that only served to give life by vanishing away. the Extinguisher in the hemisphere of Non-reality.t. It became the Unreal one of the Two. The one Truth of all Beginning is probably extant under the name of Nuter. and 1n Egypt. Further illustrations of this natural genesis of primitive ideas might be adduced. out of whom all issued in the beginning. not to say of personal identity. the water as feminine source was made the passive factor. as Netru. Netra. as it is represented by the Indian gesture-sign with the two fingers diverging from the corners of the mouth. Kohatar. and others. and this source was typified by Neith (Isis) who was designated Nuter. or the Truth in its twinship. The real and unreal applied to time is akin to the Parsee doctrine applied to Vohu-Manyu. that which begins with atoms (truti) or matter. and the evil spirit the teller of lies. Netturu. and as the embodiment of two opposite principles with a spontaneous tendency toward good. has no other foundation except in the perversion and misapplication of the dualism of the primitive Two Truths. according as it is gross or minute.1 Time the destroyer of worlds. The “Two Spirits” of the Parsee writings also illustrate the Two Truths. and another Time which has for its nature to bring to pass. Canarese. supposed to originate in the Spirit. the feminine Nature. 183 tion may be found in the English game of skittles with either nine pins or ten pins. real (murta) and unreal (amurta). Netteru. Sudugur. By degrees the first of the Two Truths in the primitive biology was degraded from its primacy of place. or Body and Soul. and an antagonistic impulse towards evil assumed to be engendered by the blood (or flesh) which are destructive of individual responsibility. the Good Mind that dominates the hemisphere of Reality. and Akem-Mainyu. perfect and true. The origin of Good and Evil in the nature of man considered as a being of flesh and spirit. hence the double tongue. is called unreal. Two minds or intellects and “two lives” are also spoken of in the Gathas. 1 Book i. Telugu. is called by two names.

It was but the transformation of Mythology into Metaphysics. in which the supposed revelation of a newer truth was largely founded on a falsification of the old. and Theology. There was no new point of departure in phenomena. and as we shut up the glass again in the return process and attain the early stand-point and focus of vision we perceive with more or less exactness what the early thinkers saw. Philosophy.184 THE NATURAL GENESIS. nothing added to nature or human knowledge in these later views of the Metaphysicians and Theosophists. From these “Two Truths” of all Beginning the total system of Typology and Mythology was telescopically drawn out joint by joint. .

the one. The Omagua gets his number five from the hand. a hieroglyphic hand.SECTION IV. serves also for the Number 5 in Labrador. and to demonstrate the one is to define the other. the Inner or female hand. Tatlemat in the Eskimo (Tshuktshi Nos. and the Variant Seb is Number 5. WE have seen that the first Beginning is figured as Opening. In the Kamite Typology the outer or second of the two is considered the male type. originally a Kafa or Kaph. because NUMBERS furnish a crucial test of this beginning with the Two Hands as demonstrators of the Two Truths. NUMBERS constitute a true connecting link between the earliest gesture-signs and spoken language. a hand. corre- . An Irish A. The Phonetic V or F was a syllabic Fa. our English Hundred—the Arabic hand—is found on the Hand-type of counting up to ten.) is a hand. Pua.) is Number 5. i. The present Section will determine whether the writer has securely inserted the knife into an hitherto unopened bivalve of the “Two Truths” type. The limits are here identical with the origines. an equivalent for Number 2 or Number 10. also the Number 5. Tut (Eg. and his ten by duplication from Upapua. the first. Hand-reckoning with digital numerals is one of the primitive customs found to be universal. as a letter. conventionalized to represent the divided thumb and fingers. and this bifurcation of the one in the commencement may be compared with the opening of the oyster. NATURAL GENESIS AND TYPOLOGY OF NUMBERS. and 10 by two hands. The Lower Murray natives of Australia express 5 by one hand. The Latin V for Number 5 is obviously a hand. and lem denotes the arm. Tallek. and the word is connected with the arm in Greenland. The Hottentot Koru for Number 5 means the Palm cava. is named Acab. whilst in Egyptian Tat is the hand (a Number 5). Kep is the fist.e.

So the clavus was used in the ancient Roman reckoning of years in place of the Unguis. and in Kono Mo odon bande. The Greenlanders. Nonandi. the Nail as Clavus surving instead of Unguis. Khep (Eg. The Aztec 10 is Matlactli from Ma. 7. one half. 15 a whole foot. count by the hands and feet. Koelle. whilst Momba is Number 20 in N’goten and Melon. The Rajmahli tribes still reckon by twenties in this way.) to make the figure also denotes the figure as the fist. Polyglotta Africana. Taru is 3 and 8. 5. these denote a person completed. Also.186 THE NATURAL GENESIS. In Egyptian Ten is one half. is Kobolo. But 20 implies an advanced stage of reckoning. So in the Aht language there is but one name for Numbers 1 and 6. which means half a man. it distinguishes the completed male from the Child-Buddha. the Number 20 being equivalent to a whole man. that is. 5. the man of twenty years. The 2. Gamana. Thus when the Buddha is represented with a Nail in the palm of his hand (as in a statue now at Birmingham). Nona. . 5. hand.). in the Ai-Bushman. and tlactli. In Algonkin Ten is the five more than the first five. 14. The Nail is a type of Virility and of manhood as previous shown. Pati and Momenya. although they have the Hindi numerals as well. to Witan. end. Kaph. The Number 20 is equivalent to a whole or completed man. In the Mbamba they reckon up to Betan. so to say. according to the gesture-sign. 8. literally two heads or two upper halves. in N’Ki. equal to the second of the two hands. Guisa 6. 2. In the memoria technical of the Hindu Sages the Nail is a sign of Number 20. Vei Language. Number 20 in the Africa Pika. is the name of the digit. Chiffre. with a whole man for 20. 5 and 10 were the earlier limits. Guii is 1. Thus Man is Momba in Bala. and others. Hebrew. sponding to the hand. the Kep (Eg. in Tiwi. and one for Numbers 2 and 7. 10 is the upper or hand-half of a man. The British letter “Cailep” is the 10th and it signifies the double or second hand. 3. Gap Akkadian. Man and the Number 20 have the same name at times in the same group of African languages. as well as the 20 Nails. and then they begin again.1 The Tamanacs reckon Number 5 as a whole hand. instead of denoted the crucified. to Mitan. So in French. a place of division. of five digits. for the figure. and 20 a whole Indian. Gam. and 10 as both hands. p. in N’Kele. Cheshe is 4 and 9. 3 and 4 on either hand. 5. In the Makua numerals Pili is 2 and 7. The Vei numeral for number 20 is called Mo bande. Eskimos. This agrees with the Number 10 of the Towka Indians of South America. 27.2 The tan is their division. p. or one hand. and cutting off. This mode frequently survives and the hand type is 1 2 Koelle. 2. of tenning. to Tane. Various African tribes only count up to five.

as the two hands. or two other limbs. The names of Numbers throughout all languages show an incessant interchange in this way under one and the same type-word. with those of No. 187 implied where the principle of naming has been lost sight of altogether.) signifies double. Kamkatkan. the two hands being equivalent to the ten fingers. So the Hebrew Jad is one hand. Kâsi. The hand and No. Mexican. 10 are constant equivalents under the same name. is a figure of five or ten according to the gesture-sign. Kaph. This is what we do find. Kaksi Karelian. Kep. Kasi. Also Khkha (Eg. Kaâs.). But they had the means of reckoning up to ten in their digits. “Keba. So in the Norway Gipsy Dy is Number Two. Vod. for the beam of the balance. Tcapai. Esthonian. Here we have a test of the unity of origin. or Khaûsu.) for the fist of five. For. Movima. In Egyptian Shera is the boy or girl. were reckoned first. two. Keb (Eg. Lokke being Number 10. yet it agrees by name with Kep (Eg. but it suffices for the . The Tasmanians counted one. is an Inner African type-name for the hands. 1 as arm or hand. Hebrew. and other dialects. Gap. Olonets. Pujuni. as one hand is a figure of 5. then. many. Karelian. or the reckoning. Kaks. And this type-name will be often found as the title of Ten. and two hands form the 10. Kâssi. will often agree with those of No. Lekh (or rekh) in Egyptian is to count. Fin. two. or leg is a dual member. Kêsi. and the ten digits afterwards. 10. The hand. although they had no names for the numbers. are explained by the name of the hand. the two sexes being likewise equivalent to the two hands. The Mexican Quipu. In the Yukahiri Tungus language the Numbers Two and Ten are both named Dshur. knot (Egyptian Khabu). The New Hollanders reckoned one.TYPOLOGY OF NUMBERS. and Khepti is the two hands. Fin. is the name of Number and to number. Kefto is the number 2 in Mordvin. which would serve to signal how many. the child of either sex. The Egyptian Khekh. and the hand. which is Kâsi. Kaksi. it follows on the development theory that the names of No. a fist (of five) preceded the modified Seb for the Number Five. arm. as hands. This is continued in the Kab. Kaks (modified Kâs) Number 2 (or twin) in Akkadian. The oldest Australian languages show that originally they had no names for numbers beyond two. 5. Kaf. Kabti the two arms in the hieroglyphics. and the names of two. 5. or rather two arms. a handful. is a tie of 10. for the hand in Egyptian. Gaupen. Cab. is another form of the one that is twin in its two arms. the two hands and No. plenty. Esthonian. to duplicate. and Ty Number Ten. Kaks. in Scotch. We see by the hieroglyphs that Kep. Lokhet in Finnish is to reckon. Chopa.” in Kra. and in Russian Ruka (Luka) is the hand. Olonets. Akkadian. or Khep.

or the two hands. or one hand. . the only one. The Akkadian Ua for the sole. which is as early as adding another one to the first to reckon two. by making the fist. . numeral sign of 10. Khuba is No. Nompah in Dacotah. . 9. Nomba. Fa. thence the other or second half.188 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Api. Here the digital origin is likewise shown by the name for the hand itself. second. one-half of a whole. a broken piece.. as a twin-total. in the same language. Yankton. â. With the exception of Number 1. Uâ is written with the barbed hook. In the Manyak language Number 2 is Nabi. Zheba . repeat. Five is a fist. and the two hands clasped together and cut off at the wrists form the hieroglyphic sign of Number 10. Ten means together. the earliest manner of fiving. 3. all the numerals of the Abané (Circassian) language are based on this hand-type of name. again. by breaking a cake of salt. the all.. Winebago. Two signifies duplication. 5. a later type of laying hold. 2. The root of the words Numero and Number may be found in Num (Eg. Ishba . for the other. Shabun.. Shâ. Nombaugh in Osage. not by addition to it. Ziba .. The Egyptian Ua or Uat (Coptic Ouat. Number 1. Nahbeehah. which is Napai. is identical with the Egyptian Num or Nem. . chief one. This Uâ (Eg.. agree by name with the Egyptian Uâ for the one. Bishba .. Nompiwi in Winebago. Akhba is No. No. Kefa. the total expressed by two hands. Num for twice and second has a variant in Nub. Nompah in Mandan. 6. Omaha.. 9. or following. Í. Uâ. and is probably a worn-down form of Ufa. or put together... and the earliest is by division of the one. Pairing the two hands would be a primary mode of signifying or reckoning two. the one alone. Nooment in Crow.. 8. But there is more than one way of duplicating.. One is the hand. 10. or ten fingers in detail. . Nomba in Omaha. from Kufa. are all Egyptian forms of the first one. Toda Vodd. from Tchaba.. This . 1.) has the hand for determinative. Clasping the hand. for the one) is Number 5 in the Ostiak Uet. Three means after. add. Numba.. Six denotes the other hand. that is the one as a hand. the male and female. to break. 4. . Nema in Sanskrit. The Assyrian numbers are digital. and the Fijian Vua for the one only. Naperra in Catawba. Noopah in Minetari.) to join. the hand or fist.. Osage. The foot is Shepeh. The Gallas obtain their two as two halves of the one. . Soba Ukhba Khpa Pshiba is . Nimei. . having the meaning of one-half. twice. and in the North American Indian languages it is Nopa in Yankton. .

Hetz. Anan. Kapala. or other member that divided in two.). Ppat. or one half. No. Hurur. The principle may be illustrated by the Gab for the mouth. The principle of derivation through division may by illustrated by the Hebrew Achad for the only one. Darrunga. Kaf. Keddy is one in Begharmi. It in Milchan. Zulu. Yet in Tharu. Ektai in Kirata. the elbow. Oua-naim-guien is Oua-naim-bait .. the opening. Katang in Nowgong. Comparative Philology. 5. Oua-nait Oua-duo Oua-tagien Oua-tbait is . No. Gcaba.TYPOLOGY OF NUMBERS. Maori. The body is one. is to crack open. 3. Gabha. 8. to number. Gudio . is by dividing. p. tp (Heb. No. “I Cebo” is true and good counsel when the word is used in the singular number. No. Oua-naim-hic ... This the Wings to for flight. Puthu (Eg. Adde .. San Antonio. Assyrian. 381. to be cloven in two. Kede . Khatu in Tengsa. and in Tahitian Pae denotes the division or portion divided off as a hand. Arab. by opening.). Hhad. putting forth. or Gap (Akk. .). Ahad . Pepu and Pû (Eg. Xosa Gabu. Hebrew. 7. doubly.. Chuodschæ in Kamacintzi. N’godsin. These denote the opening one that divides and duplicated. The Hebrew Sephr. Ahad.. No. and the two hands into ten digits in accordance with the natural process. . Put or Pet in Chinese signifies the very beginning. Oua-naim Oua-naim-guik Oua-naim-dou is . Kabili. but in the plural it means false or bad advice. Fath. Kadu in Pwo. but when divided the hand or foot becomes tchaba. Kuppoa. Arabic.. part..) is to open. Wae in Maori signifies the limb and to divide. Ketch.. Bat is the Basque name for Number 1. and by the Gape. Omar. Tigre. 1 Kado is one in Afudu. Bagrmi. These can be followed by Kat in Lepcha. Kotum. Kitol. Koporo..1 This oua is otherwise rendered Paih and Wae. Kudom . No. Kadenda . Soso. Ket . Godsi . The New Caledonians count ten with a prefix to the names. to be abreast.. Legba. Yengen. or duplicated. Pita (Ass. 9. No. by name as the divided or duplicated one. No. No. . No. Achad. to part in two. the Geb for the bird’s beak. double. 2.. This is a common name for the Numeral one. . Kate in Gyarung.. Kudum . one half.. 189 is the Egyptian Kab. Syriac. So the Wing or foot divides to become a figure of two. Hido . Kedem . Foda is Number 1 in Bulanda.. Kab. to figure forth. The Gab becomes dual in the gape. Akkadian Gab. Murray (Aust. Xosa Kaffir. Doai. Kiamba. 6. for the female breast.. for example Gade is one in Bode. 4.) are to divide. 10. Khep.. Ikhet in Watlala. double.) is to open the mouth. It in Sumchu. Applied to the hand it would denote the dividing of the one hand into two. Ahad. truncated. Kat in Magar. 1. Sanskrit. Batta. Kuden . Kaure. Latham. Hence Ppat means to fly. Akhet in Khari. separate. Pidu is an Akkadian name of Number 1 or the first one. Akt in Lap.. In Africa. as in the Chap. Insam. Khuta in Pumpokolsk. also denotes a splitting and dividing into parts..

or ear).. . and severed. the Hinko in Nyamwezi: the Ancha. The Xosa Onke. hand. and duplication. } womb. Ket. Lap. This one is the Man in the Eskimo Inuk or Innuk. Quithi. Massied. Maori.. Achad is applied to unity as well as to the unit. for one (one loaf of bread) every one. Old Norse. the naked type of Durga in India. for the hip. the Inoku for the Navel. 17) in a confused but conscious passage. and Kotavi. English Cat. Welsh. Niko is the tie. Aku. Kat. . in the Ankle.. .. Haunch. the two hands. Hebrew } The Hebrew name of the one. the I or A one.. Kutte. This is also a type-name for the Woman. applied to that primordial unity only to be found in the female nature. The Hebrew rites of Achad. Here then we have a type-word which signifies the one (like the hand. as Likewise for the hand and the uterus. French.. Cut or womb. Hangi. the British Ked. hence it means together. Ucht. Inek is number 1 in the African Shiho. Several other types of oneness and the one that duplicates are extant. or a one in phenomena. which is represented by the Ankh-tiem the Hank or Ing as a comrnunity. . as the initial point of reckoning. which was personified in the mother. that which divides in two. Figi. and signifies the All which. Inneke in Danakil. also the place where the two halves divide. as the typology shows. Cape York. foot. Under such a type-name we may expect to find the numbers 1 and 2. Kowrarega. may be . . Nyamwezi. denounced by Isaiah (Ch. The Anga. lxvi. The female alone divides to become Two and she therefore was. Knuckle. an Egyptian form of the naked goddess Kên or Chivn. Arabic. and the digital origin of reckoning. is oneness applied to personality. and the Ng as first person who duplicates. Enika.190 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Alemannic. . Maori. Assyrian. Kat in Karigas. Geta. and the Neck. as the place of duplication where the two were joined together. Nyamwezi. Cwythu. In Egyptian Ank is the one as the King. Kithia in repctition. unique. Quida. . English. 5 and 10 because of the two sexes. womb. Hanche. the first person. Kota in Kwaliokwa. means connection. Qatu or Kevdte. . Naka. the only One who is still worshipped by the Yonias as the one alone from the Beginning.. Ankh also denotes duplication. is also a plural. as the Breast. as Chad or Achad is related to Chadi ydj the Middle. In keeping wjth these initial limits the Maori Anake is the one. only. as in Geta. Gælic. without exception. is a bivalve fish. Geta. Katesh. as Kat-Mut and Hat-hor. &c. the Only One. Chedar. Under the type-word Ankh we also get back to a oneness. and Ank the Mother is the one who duplicates.

Abenaki. Singpho. In the Portland dialect (Australia) the ear is named Wing. Nkho in Atna. Sanskrit. Neguth.. Onhong. . Nga .. Ango is fivc in Dofla. and in this form of Number 2 we have Nyis. Tuscarora. Ankh or Nak is also a common type-name for Number 2. Nass. Ahinka.. Anju . Pankti (Sanskrit) number 5. the Hottentot Hongu is one as a group of Seven. . is both one and two. Ongefoula in Cocos Island. Naghur. earlier Nge. sub-divides into 5 and 10 as fingers. Kutshin. Koriak. Ingsing in Karaga.. Nge in Kakhyea. So is it with the Hand or Panka (Sanskrit). 5 in Ankua . Malayalim.. Chepewyan. Kakhyen. Nish. 5 in Dofla. Naes. Etchemin. for number 1. Gadi. Onger in Amberbaki. In the Kaffir languages Nye. in Banyun. Nish. two ears.. the one species of the two sexes. Ango is No. Niokhtsh. Onogha. Miri. . Changlo. Wonka in Tshuvash. Neczhwand. Nge or Nye is the African gutturalnasal. Adaihe. which reminds us that the wing also duplicates and becomes a pair. . Panch .. . .). Nubian. the Sound of Negation which was first. . Inge in Abor and Miri. Kolyma.. as Ear.. Kushutshewak. Darnley Island.. Faslaha.. Hongo in Chetemacha. Ankh. Nkaik. Magar. Yerukali. Tibetan. 191 comprised in the dual one or oneness of the Beginning. Ainak. or the left hand. Milchan. Nakha. Potowatami. Bunch (of five) English. . signifies oneness. NO. Anju . that divided and became twain. Nishuh. Rukheng. Nis. Nies. The type-names.. Nakte. These may be the one Being that bifurcates as Omoroka. the male front .. Sak. Erroob. Nes. Ongus in Teniseian. Sunwar. Anja . Iangpono in Tagala. Wanche in Yankton. Neish. Hanac is the one in Quichua. or had a dual manifestation and are not limited to the hand. Knistinaux. Nak permutes with Nas. is Number 10. Agumidr. . Jungkihkh in Winebago. a set or cluster of five. Panch . Quenchique in Bayano. the Motherhood. Nokolou in Fonofono. Arapaho.. No. Panj . Dog-rib Indian.. Aniko. then. . Kohatar.. like the ear or the hand. Ankua is No. Penjeh . Nyik-ching. Anje . unity.TYPOLOGY OF NUMBERS. Ojibwa. Nishi. Tamul. The English Ing or Hank is one as a body of people. is also the number 10. Naksh in Piakaws. Tumbuktu. the one Mother that divides into Mother and Sister or Mother and Child.. Niyoktsh. Nakhei. Pancha . 2. Nkhong.. Neis. Nes.. Hanak. and Inge. Shienne. The Ankh (Eg. Egyptian. Kooch. and the Number 1 is Onji in Tula. Deer. whether represented by the Water. as Arms. Sumchu. include various forms of THE one that became two. .... because the Pair. in Abor (the same group of languages). Persian.

to form and figure forth. the wife of the right hand is the secondary and lesser one.” says Max Müller. and those figures were so called because. right and left. as the first or fifth. and the female hind parts. which are called the “Gobar" figures. 1 2 Theal. “Gobar. Khepr means to figure. Arabic Sifron. which the Rabbins tell us “all came out of. hence it interchanges with the Jad (hand). denotes the thumb. One person with two halves. Italian Zephiro. 6. it is the repeater and dominant determinative of figures. is still the primordial figure. The Welsh Cyfr.192 THE NATURAL GENESIS. The Egyptian Un or one is the round of an hour. is the first that was used in reckoning the number five. Gobar. The Left. The Circle is represented by the Cipher. or inferior first. was an early form of the Cypherer or Chiffrer (French) because he was observed to roll up his ball in the shape of a cipher. ii. the Left Hand was first. The Australian Ngangan. 292. the KoroMatua. as the sign of zero. the equivalent of one Hand.’ ” Ghubár is dust in Arabic. or He. and the chief of the first clan.” the other Thumb. superior—who is the principal heir. vol. the Nought. just as the Circle of heaven was divided to become two. as Night on the left hand. the son of the right hand being the inferior one—the head only of a secondary clan. The Circle. as the Arabs say. and still gives significance to all the rest. the Mother-hand. The Mother was first. the Cipher. In Africa the Beetle. French Chiffre. or rather remains first. or hands. and this had several types. is also the name for number 6. This was a male type. bear the name of Khepr. may all be derived from the Egyptian Khefr or Khepr. form or type which in the Cipher is a Circle. inner or female hand. Darkness was first. Whereas “Tupa. in Xosa Kaffir. Reckoning from the left hand as the first and foremost is yet extant amongst the Kaffirs in whose social system the wife of the left hand is the great lady. or of the world.2 “means dust. Sifuru. His name is derived from Khep. . Swahili. the one or the sum of the five. the Parent. to make the figure.” has the numerical value of 5. signifies the Thumb. Chips. p. So in Maori Matua the first. upper and lower. Khepra. as the first figure or one. Hebrew rps. Also the son of the left hand is the elder. Kaffir Folk Tales. It has gone down low. for the Mother. The Hebrew h. and Day on the right. The notion of oneness and firstness preceded that of one in reckoning. they ‘were first introduced by an Indian who used a table covered with fine dust for the purpose of ciphering. The first one and five were those of the left hand. The figures made use of in Africa. p.1 This progression from left to right illustrates the bifurcation of beginning in the societary phase.—a name probably derived from the Scarab (Khepr) as the figurer. Water wis first. English Cipher.

and the unit is the origin of every number. who carries in her hand the Noose sign „ of Ark. This. So Uâ (Eg. Book i.TYPOLOGY OF NUMBERS. like Unity. Mbo in Ndob. The Mother then is our chief type of number One or the first in figures and numbers. and Kaka). when they would denote two drachmas they. it we read Khepr for the Indian who used dust for his figures we shall recover the original Cipherer of the legend in the Beetle (khepr) that rolled up its ball of dung and dust and covered its seed in making the first figure or Cipher. circle and cycle of time. an ending. Hor-Apollo tells us the Vulture.” who wore the double crown.) in the feminine gender is Uat. But the earliest maker of the Circle in Heaven that is related to time and number was the genitrix Kep. therefore. The figure of the new moon is Kupra in Etruscan. The Vulture. inasmuch as. the genetrix. 11. the one that first duplicated. These correspond by name to Khepra. Uata. the goddess of the Seven Stars. as she is in nature and in the mirror of Mythology. in a latitude where the Great Bear was the Dipper below the horizon at the Crossing in the north. 193 cow-dung in Hindustani. registered as a figure. . but. the royal mother. as Mother. Kep or Kef was the Mother of Beginnings. was the sign of the gestator. represented Two Drachmas. depict a Vulture. Mu. and Kep is the first ONE in Egyptian rnythology— the genitrix whose hands are said to be the Two Bears. a time. it seems to be Mother and Generation in one. Mmo and Mo in Bayon. The Beetle was a lunar emblem before it was assigned to the solar god. and the one in Coptic. Mumo in Mubaya. Nana. and to the “Gobar” figures of the Africans. For the Drachma they use the half of a Didrachma. or the dual one. the Woman. and the figure made by the renewing moon was that of the horned crescent orbing into a circle. Her symbolic figure combines a Circle and a Cross. and Kibulia in the African Guresa language. In the Inner African languages the Mother is identical with the number 1 as the Mama (variants Nga-Nga. a turn round. a period. The Alexandrine interpreters of the Old Testament always reckon the Hebrew money by the Didrachma. tÕ ½misu toà didr£cmon. the figurer of the Circle in Egypt.”1 This was as a type of the Two Truths. with good reason. shows a beginning with bi-unity of type in which the dual may be said to precede the singular. Number 1 is: Mom and Momu in Tiwi. In making her circle and in crossing she formed the Cipher and the Cross-sign of Ten. Mu. and in Bambarra Kufolo is the beginning. She was the MQther of the first revolution. “because among the Egyptians the Unit of money was the two drachmas. the image of the Circle above the horizon and the Crossing below. 1 Momos in Babuma. too.e. and Uat is another form of this Goddess of the North. in Hausa. i. the woman of the “Two Truths. Momo in Bumbato.

Mam Grandmother Mame . Mô in Kam. Mama . Kano. Mama . Mamame Mamma is the Mother in Murrumbidgee. Mama . Mama in Babuma. Mô in Mbe. Mu. number 1. In the single form of . Padsade. Mu is the Mother in Amoy.. Mom or Mam. the Vulture-type of the genitrix. and Ma. } } These. .. Gbandi. Mma in Benin. . Mama in Kasands. 1. Mama in Landoma. .. .. This reduced form of the primary Momu takes on the terminal t and becomes Mot. Ama is the Mother in Erroob (Australia). Mama .. Amama in Meto. enables us to identify this name of the one with the Mother. and Mua Mmo or Mmae in Momenya. Umma. THE NATURAL GENESIS. Parama. Mô in Papiah. Mama in Nyombe. Dsalunka. Mô in Pati. Mam is the Mother in Welsh. Mama . Biafada. moo or mu is the Mother in Chinese. to carry. Mandenga. Mametu in Kisana. Mma is the Mother in Aksonga. Mame in Koro.. the old... Bamoin. . just as Mmu and Mu become Mut in the African languages. Vei. Tonquin. Bagba. Tene. Mema in N’goala. or the Mâ. In the African languages the Mother is: Mama in Kanyika. Umot in Penin. dmu or momu } is No. Maman in Nyamban.. In the Tungus dialects:— Mu. Was the first person. The Mother. Umam. Gadsaga. Mama . Baga of Kalum. with their variants and reduced forms. Mama Mama Mma Mama Mama Mama Mama Mama Mama Mama Mama Mama Mama Grandmother . and Mu. show a general type-name for the Mother in Africa. Mam. . then. Mama . Mfu in Isiele. Mot. Moe in Khong is No.. Anfue. Woloi. .. Mam (woman) Dsarawa. as the Mama.. Hwida. Kabungu. Landoma. Mô. Mma in Guresa.. Memi is the Mother in Barre (Australia).. Mama . It is still more to the purpose that the Grandmother.. Mama in Songo. Mmu.. first Mother should bear the same name almost universally as the Mama. Mama in Basunde. Toronka. Momare in Baseke. Bambara... Moi in Bute. 1. Mma.. Mmae in Papiah.. Kisi. Mama in Undaza. Mma in Kiriman. 1. Momo. as in Bayon.. This typename for the Mother is wide-spread. or M. N’kele. Balu. Mende Adampe. Mama in Makua. Solima. is the reduced word. Kono. denotes the enceinte Mother. Mama in Mutsaya. denotes the Mother. for the one. Moma or in Mimboma. Omma in Wadai. Momo. Mama (Eg. Mama . . Mô Mô Mô Mô in in in in N’goala.. The full form is Momo or Momu. Mama . Cochin. Mô in Momenya..194 Mbo in Tumu. Mbo in Aro.. Mue in Mon is No. Mama in Mose. . number 1. . Mama in Ntere. Émot in Konguan.) to bear. Moe in Ka is No. are the Mother in the Kiranti dialects. Îmo and Mo in Param. Kisekise. in Egyptian.. Bulanda. Mama . Mame in Kaffir. 1. .

the first one. . This appears in the African languages as Mom. Bola. Me. Mi. in Ottawa. ... . Memfo. like any other infant. and for the number 1. Ngob in Mbe— which furnishes another form of the first personal pronoun. and Breast. Yagba.. Nengui. Mumi. Momi. Nyombi.. . Uniun. in Khamti. in Fonofono. is the Mothers breast. in Cornish. . Param.. in Mam. in Mutsaya. as does the milk from the Mammæ —the Maameyhu. for the Mother. Nancas. Mahi.. Dutch. in his fear or distress. Musentandu. Kasande. . in Siamese... Ngoro in Mbamba. . Fin. . we may expect to find hers is the first personal name.. and this also is a type-name in language for number 1. Ngue and Ngie in Orungu. Nga Nge Ngini Nga Ngo Ng is I in N’gola. Mbamba. Ngua in Musentandu. Mamme. Ngo in Dsarawa. Estrucan. The Inner African N is commonly sounded Ng. Mamma. . and Nana represents Nga-Nga. . Latin. The Africcan “Mama. or as we have it in English. Finnic. in Adaihe.. Mem. Nein. Nung. . Mu. in Mbaya. or mother’s breast. “Mame” is a Kaffir exclamation. Menet. .. Fulup. . . is the abstract form of the Motherhood. Landoro. Nge Nge and Nya Ngo Ngo } is I in Mende. Legba.TYPOLOGY OF NUMBERS. in Malayalim. Ngo in Tiwi. Memi.. Koriak. Marawi. Unin-itegni. Kise-Kise. .. the Me. Ma. Me. Mû. the MY ONE.. and “Mame” "is my Mother. Akkadian. to quote no others. Unan. . in the Kaffir languages. or Mo. Nung. Onon. . Ennene. ... . I. I. Onnon. Dsebu. . or the pronoun of the first person. . The African Mame. Proto-Median . In Egyptian the reduced Mâ or Mû takes on the feminine terminal t to become the Mât or Mût. . .) Nin-gotchau. Songo... and an invitation to a feast. Mem.. .” intercbanges with Nana. in Apya. Gbandi.. Bushman. Unname. Dahome. Nga in Tene. Mamman is to give suck.. The primordial personality was not that of Self—not the I or Me.. This is Mam in the Avesta. . . in Maori. Ng Ngi Nho Ngi Ngi is I in . .. the Mater and Mother. Mama. a call to stop.. Mu. in Reindeer Tshukshi. The Mô... is to suck. in the Carib languages. Nga in Kisekise. in West Shan. Captain Burton says the African Negro is still a child who. for the Mother. . . Noki in Hwida.. in Manx.. Breton. Mâ. Padsade. Onno.. Gbere. Thus the mother is named Nga in Soso. will call on his “Mama” above. Mimboma. Mampe. and Mi being likewise universal for the I. Mâ. Welsh and Irish. Engo in Kiana.. The Hindu does the same. . to ooze through a tiny aperture. in Niki. . Ostiac. whence came those words. I. Lachlan (Aust. mime. Nge in Mende. Ziranian. as. 195 the word this becomes Mâ. The Mother being the first person recognized as Primus.. Mem. Momi. is the Mother. Nurse. the Mother. Idsesa. but that of the Mammy.

on account of the blood-tie. Seneca. Bidsogo. Ngango signifies the very beginning. answering to Ank (Eg. Gi.196 THE NATURAL GENESIS.) to duplicate. .. or sound. Attakapa. And Ankh (Eg. I. Kaffir. Ank. Hang in Thara. Nînge. Egbele. Onogua in Akurakura. Ai. The primary mode of duplicating in language was by repeating the word. Nƹgangri. Ehnek.) at puberty. Landoro. Anaku in Assyrian. Ngai in Port Lincoln. Kisi. This primordial type-name is that of the woman. Unnaach. Ayung in Cherokee. Baniwa. I. Uta. The earliest male Ankh. Nalu. is the name of the mother in the duplicative stage. in Xosa. Woman. as Iga. Nêing-Menna. Nga in Burman. as Nâ-nga and Ngu. Nogaha . the mother being the first duplicator. as Nike in Eafen.) dialect. is the typical old woman. Nyang. a pair. Tene. This supplied a universal form of the first personal pronoun. Winebago. Naika in Kamilaroi (Ngui is My) Ngo in Chinese. and the Ankh or Hank of people. Anakhi in Hebrew. In the Pine Plains (Aust.) the mother of life. the goddess of life in Egypt. however. Time. thy Mother. I. Nyoka.) for king. Toma. Ho. A. Tumbuktu. Landoma. Nichib . I. Kasm. Woman. Naijah. This dual form is perfectly preserved in the Australian and Maori languages. Maori Heinga. he who became Nakh Or Ank (Eg. Mu-entandu. Sarar.. Malayan Inchi (master) . Diwala. Negne in Bute. Ngaango in Yarra (Aust.. Ngoingoi. Tasmanian. and therefore was recognised and named as the primal parent. Peruvian Inca. Nak in Gundi— and numbers more. These were applied to the male who came to the front as the chief one. Irish Aonach (pdn. Nguâtu. Ngatoa in Wiradurei. Mother. and I. to double. These show the Ankh of the beginning under the duplicated form of the name. Bola. Mende. It did so in Africa. the ruling I of later times. the Basque Jainco (Jingo) for the divinty. Maori. Bini. Gi. but the uncle. the one. Australian. Nŷongo or Nyongongo. Greek Anax. the Kaffir Nakwabo or sister’s brother.. The Mother of Life. where Ngangan is the mother in the West Australian. Nga-Nga in W. Gi. is the mother. were still earlier. Yehung . Nga wears down to the Eka. Ung in Khaling. Ink in Palouse.) is the breath. Ankena in Bushman. Noika in Chinook. Enga. Chemmesyan. Arabic Anuk. Nkas in Marawi. I. This root of The One gave the name to the Ank (Eg. Woman. Neŷau . With the Hottentots the Uncle is the Naub or Ancestor. Bini. ranging through Nge in Æthiopic. the eariest Ankh or Ancestor. Ungue in N’goala. Nʖai in Tarawan. is the first in time. Inga in Limbu. Nyangei. I. The female was the first known reproducer of the particular child. Ich. Santa Barbara. syllable. was not the father. Ank in Egyptian.ce).

Eva in Ihewe. Mba and Pipa. . Mampuka. 1. It is now suggested that Ma-ma signifies the mother (bearer) in Egyptian— Momo in Chinese. No. and in the Assyrian creation the Mumu or Mami are the waters of creation. Mmeli in Isoama. Beba in N’kele. Mamari in Polynesian is the spawn of the waters. Momel in Filbam. Mam in Welsh. Mbê in Tumu. No. Mbê. the mystical water of life. Mba. Bepai in Konguan. 2. Lutuami. or Ampo. Mbê in Momenya. It is the primary truth of the Two in Mythology. The Mb of the primitive pronunciation having been worn down to the simple B in “Befai. Param. 2. Beba in Diwala. Mfa in Okam. No. The Number 2 in the African languages is— Beba in Melon. Karaga. Mmei in Aro. and both have the same name in the earliest stage of language—that of the mere duplication of sounds to constitute words. 1. is another form of the first one. With many variants and worn-down forms in ômi. drink. the first. and mâ. Vli in Fan. African. Upper Sacramento. No. And water is Mema in Lubalo. Bagba. Mimeil. Mbê in Bagbu. Mem.TYPOLOGY OF NUMBERS. Mambes in Padsade. Beba in Udom. or suck. The Param language shows that Pipa is a modified form of Mpipa or Mbipa. Memi in Barre (American). Mva in Yasgua. 197 Again. ûmi. Pajuni. Mag Readings. Mba in Pati. Mbê in Kum. 2. 2. The Kolyma. Befe in N’Ki. Copeh. Epfa in Egbele. No. Mbâ and Pa in Papiah. This Inner African type-name for Water and the Mother-source still survives. No. Mimpo. Mumdi (River) Sekumne. Mô. Bamom. No. âmee. Tsamak. Biba in Baseke. is Mme in Abadsa. as Mem. Befai and Mbefai in Afudu. Wiliamet. Mamma in Australian— because of the origin in Inner Africa as the birthplace of language.” As abraded forms of the originaI Momo for number 1 and Mbefa number 2 we have Mô. Mba and Pipa in Param. Korika. Mimal. Mmi in Isiele. Blood. 1. Momel in Fulup. Mbê in Bamom. Mô. Momi. Eba in Ekamtulufu— and others. The Mother and Water are one in Mythology. Reindeer Tƨhuktshi. Mimal. Mimlipil. Mba in Puka. Mehm. Mum in Japanese signifies that which is primordial. Mmeli in Aro. 1. Mbâ in N’halmoa. Eva in Bini. Mbê. as Befai is the abraded form of Mbefai in Afudu. as the element of life derived from the Mama and Mammæ. Momi. Pati. Mama in Fin. No. water. Mambia in Biafada. Mô.

The Pup is the young one. .... . Lepcha.. Kabunga. Mose. Boy.. Sarar. Karekare. Hebrew Hammoh Ama .. Apa Aba Appa Ahpa Aba Abo . Mai . These Inner African type-words for the mother and father are found in various other groups of languages.. 10 in Kafen.. Bola. who was first named.. Basa... Um-Ntu is a person. Toronka. N’godsin. Biafada. . Bube.. Father. Dhimal. Father. Baba . Pa-pa means to . Dsalunka. Boy.... Baba . Oworo. Mother. &c. Landoma. Popere. Baba ... Ama . Aba-Ntu. Baba. Baba . Mfa. Tibetan. Idsesa. Papa. Momo . Salum. Father. Yoruba. Mba . or Bébé— Pupombo. Mother. Songo. Goburu. In Egpytian. Kamuku. and as the foot is also a figure of two. Aust.. Baba . Bube. . Dewoi. Father.. . Baba . . Baba .. the Babe. are numerically equal to One and Two. Tumbuktu. Baba .. Baba Gurma.. Wadai. Kisi. M (Mam) and B (Bab) as signs or the first and second. Father.. The African Mb is also preserved in the Barre dialect of America... Ota. . .. Baba . Aba-fazi. Abba . Baba ... Pakhya Pba .. Papa.. German Bubboh.. .. Baba . Burmese. . Pui . Aba .. Wun. Baba . Kanem. No. Arabic. . Baba .. THE NATURAL GENESIS. . this will account for its being named Pupu... Memi. Father. Ba... The Pubes constituted the one who was pubens. .. . Bulunda. } Here the father coincides by name with the number 2. Bagrmi. Pepel... and Aba is the first plural... Toda. . or the singular and plural numbers in language.. Baba . Dsebu.. Boy. Chinese Eroob.. Baba . Eki... Ba. however.. Mama Amma Ama Amma Ami Ama Amo .. Mother. .. . } No.. as well as for Bofo.. Wadi Abba Aba .. . Limba.. . Wartashin.. Baba .. whence the Papa as begetter. Kano. or Mu Ama . Babalnecrahuk being equivalent to the two as feet.. Baba . Thus Um-fazi is a (one) woman. these persons (from which we may derive the Bantu name). Little Boy.. Oudo. Lewis’ Murray Island. Ama. Egba. Baba . Baba . Ipupo. . Baba . Dsumu. Baba .. in the Carib languages.198 Paps. 10 in Timboras.. } Babai. Kiriman. Mose. Dosi. Fu Bab Baab Aba .. the Mother and Male. Nalu. . Filham. Yagba.. Vei Mba ... Baga. women.. . Omma . .. Baba .. Bafes. . Kankanka. { Barre. Baba . Baba . Baba .. Baba . { The worn-down forms are also African.. Kisekise. The father in Africa is a type of Papa or Mbefa. . 10 in Padsade.. number 2. as— Ma. the Boy. . Baba . Bambara. Baga. . Papa Papa Papai Papa Paba Papa Bapa Fafa Fafa Foba Mfafe Mfa Mfa Mfa Mfa Mba. Serpa. No. Garo. Miba Father. Ba.. Fernando Po— was the earliest male. . . Kadzina.. and in the Kaffir dialects the Um prefix stands for the singular number. .. Lubalo.. Mother. Baba . Ife. Gadsaga. Bidsogo. Ama . English & others Murmi.. . etc. Baba . Timbo. Tene. Barba. . It was not the individ ualised father.. Ma.. . Baba ... Mbaba. Singhalese.

) signfies to engender. or a sign of 2. This dual one was the Child. as the Mama became the Mât or Mut. second. Japanese. in Akkadian. Tahitian. Egyptian shows the visible passage from this Inner African stage of mere duplication of the same sound to denote the second. RECKONING was superseded.” or Inner African father. to the later mode of indicating the duplication by means of a dual terminal.. is the Lioness in two halves. Peh-peh. . . to engender.TYPOLOGY OF NUMBERS. based on Sen-Sen to breathe.t or Pât. It is visibly reduced to Pâ for the masculine pronoun. whereas Papa was limited to the producer. and Pât serves for mankind in general. give breath to by means of the male. In the same way Sen-Sen is the Coptic word for Sound. Pe is No. a dual terminal T was added. we have the plural in a more workable form. or Father. as in “Papa” for the father. .) as the name for the Pater. for a terminal. based on Puberty. With the addition of T. But in the secondary stage of formation Sen-Sen is represented by Sen-t (Eg. Instead of Pepe. Fut (Eg. and the Father of later language. Another type of the dual one is the foot or Put (Eg. contains the elememts of “the He. for example.” the him or it of a masculine gender. as the name for the second. Futa is Piti Pitco Peetho No. in which process the Papa or Baba as reproducer became the Bâ.) and. whether as the Second of Two. Bheda. . is synonymous with Pehti. Papa then was reduced to Pâ. So “Papa” served as a sign of Number 2. Bit. or Pehti.). Avesta. In various African languages the boy is known by two different names—the one before. Bi is No. Papa. ti. . Riccari.. and then instead of the pa being repeated. This is continued in Pepe. at first. Vater. and the sign for reading took the place of the sound repeated for the ear. Pepe (E. In Egyptian. Avesta. reckoned by the repetition of a sound. The name for mankind. .. is to separate and be doubled.) is two handfuls. the Mother. she who was the primordial Producer. dividing. Path.. and these likewise show the two modes of duplication.. 2 in Batta. or as the re-producer and male duplicator. Thus Put (Eg. but. the English Sound.).. and Pats (Sanskrit) for the Husband. or breathe-breathe. Chinese. division. . Also it was the male child at two periods. 2 in . is indicated in the duplicative stage of sounds. the reproduced.. to engender. the one that divides and becomes twain. The reduced Pâ also becomes the masculine article. The T or D being used instead of repeating the same sound. Peh-peh. the race and the male. The “Papa. Bitya. or the reproducer. or dual one. with the figure of two added in the T. B . Sanskrit. and the terminal T (or ti) was added to form the word Pât (Bat). 2.. puberty. Pawni. and the foot is a type. or Pepe (Eg. Tamul. on account of the Two Sexes. is derived from this root. Bat is to inspire the soul (or Paba). and we have Pât or Bat (Eg. 199 produce. and this is first applied to the female being delivered of a child.) is to be divided and separated. the pud or hand. and the other after.

. Australian. The Goddess Pekh divided into the two halves of the Lion which was masculine in front and female behind The Brahmans say.. Pata... Solony. two hands or two feet. foot. Fodu. .. Gadaba.. Opa. Ubo. Patula... Thug. or Bak. . . . Pud. Put. Maori. 10. is to cleave.. Malay. Esitako.. . Afota. . Maori. . . . is Number 10 in the Micmac Indian. 10. Egyptian. Thus Putolu. especially in the old non-Aryan languages of India.. It was named in the Inner African languages as— Pêta. for the typical Two. This accounts for other type-names of the Number Two. . Khotovzi. Pada. Sanskrit. fut. Aftia. to the eye. The foot is a type of Numbcr 2. Pak. Karagas. Pêta. Victoria. . .. by Yoga.. in Basque. foot. . and in the hieroglyphics a double P deposits or represents the sound and sign of B. Evuo. Javanese. the uterus. Petiran. Pattu . The mother became two by dividing or bifurcating at the link of the umbilical cord. Put. Afota. Basa. in Baverian. Anfue Fata. foot. Petchem . Bûta. And this will explain why Number 10 has the same name. Pattu . foot. Putu. Gothic. when applied to the digits. in Latin. Padth . Pothu .. .. Beth. Ulea. Foot. in Malay. . Two-fold. 10. Malayalim. Fud. Gundi. in N. which is the Bed.200 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Ôpoa. So in the African languages the name for Number 10 is a form of the Number 2.. Bêta. Rotuma. Padha.. Avaturu . feet.. Singhalese. The one is followed by two... Pahlavi. for two handfuls. two feet. Bofo. In this final form the letter B suffices to figure the duality of Pat. .. Pakoto. foot. American.. English. Pampango. feet.. Pianoghotto. the earlier Pa-pa. Paduri . N’goala. Patta . Pats.. Irular.. and Pat (Eg. Brahma Vaivartia Purana. . Gugu. Tobi. Kupa. Pethi. Bast.. foot.. And this type-word is universal for the foot. Ptari. Petiran. Adampe.).. Pud. Padsade. Bulanda. Tulu. denotes the sound made in 1 Wilson. Kamuku. Fotus. Eafen... Latin. . Pakohu. .. . in place of Papa. in English Butah. Tamul. Rossawu. Tamanaka. Pedis.”1 Pik. Cartaret Bay Pidna. Yerukali. Votiak. in Hebrew. Isuwu. Patte is 10 in Kohatar. Thochu. . is the cleft or division. as— Papo.. W. . . Pado. Putta . either through dividing or adding. is equivalent to Number 10. foot.. Bud is 10 in Pade . But the primordial type of the one that divided to become two is the female or uterine abode. Puka. One of these is Pek. Musu. Ebêta. Put. Lutnami. in Chinese. We have now got Pat. Pudendum. Batta. . But.. Eregba. Zulu.. “The supreme Spirit in the act of creation became. . put. Bitis. Padi is 10 in Telegu. Pake.. Pat.

Avar. the umbilical cord is the Pokku. Koelle. when the one becomes twain. When the human being is divided into front and hind part. Pak. The Page is one side of the leaf. The Bat is a twin-type. and the divisional name is applied to the people on the land. “The Bat. or Pepe. or two-coloured as is the Magpie. is the Back. like the Pye. and in Toda. Phaka. that which is severed at birth. is to divide by spontaneous or internaI action.1 According to Cæsar. a halfpenny. Bisi. foot. The Pekha or Fekh (Eg. just as Bakie and Bat are two names of the winged mammal in Scotch. clans. and next was typified in the Bach or Bacchus. the Epoke is the native name for the division. and this was the primary form of Fee and Pay. The worn Epoch. And in the African Isubu language.) or rump.. both in nature and by name. and number 6 on the right.TYPOLOGY OF NUMBERS. be double. A Pickel is a two-pronged fork. Peg. The Peg is divided. the Child of both sexes. or communities. the back. for a solemn date. is one half. Vayu. and in Devon this duality is called Pie-picked.). Gaul. is to divide. English Gipsy. 201 dividing or rending in two. denotes the division applied to time. both “Bat” and “Bakie” denote the twofold nature. A pick-axe is a double weapon. will explain the name of the foot. is a parti-coloured bird. the pekh (Eg. . Bak and Pak. In this instance the pagi is tribal. as— Peg. foot.”2 It represented that biunity of being which was first seen in the mother who had “bagged”. means by halves. become twofold. in Sarar. The Pigeon. and both are derived (with two different terminals) from an original Baba. in Biafanda. In the African languages number 6 is named both Pagi and Padsi. in Kaffir. 52. that the people divide their day into three Epokes. to divide. Ceram. Number 5 is the dividing number on the left hand. Pagu in Tamul. Paga and Padsi. and the Scotch call this winged mammal a “Bakie” Bird. the hinder of two halves. is the application. Tshari. 2 Book ii. of the Keltæ. Posh. which divides in two. Antshukh 1 Peg. In Java and Tibet the number Two is expressed by paksha. or serves to divide. the Maori name for it is Peka-Peka. a wing or other member that is twofold. Papa. Thus Piga. was divided into fortythree pagi. Gundi. is the hind part.” says Hor-Apollo. . or Dove. Mpagi and Mpadyi. So primitive. for a reward. signified the division as a Share. in Kanyop. foot. Abeka. “was an Egyptian image of the mother suckling her child. Chinese. Pie-bald is pick-bald. and have no other reckoning of time. to be dual or divide.

which is 1 Poko. Pinalero. s0 that there is a meeting-point between Bar and Pair. the little one is the Bach. Next. the Pickaninny in North Tasmanian. in Basque. This is the Bacchus or eternal Boy. In England twins of both sexes are called a Pigeon-Pair. Pagbe. in Nertshinsk. in Vayu. equally with Bar. The child is the Pagarai in Tasmanian.e. the Child which may be of either sex. Lipoko. Bess. Welsh. Pesh. Pet’h (a piece).) denotes the two hands. Bala. cleave. Bara. in Yakutsk. Keltic. Paysche. the fœtus. A type-word like this may be followed in languages under numerous co-types. Gaelic. is the Second of two. Bak. Faga. is The Frog is the divider. named Bheki in Sanskrit. in N’gola. for the young child of either sex. the little boy. The Boy. whence Pekh. Beag. is the umbilicus. which is dual in its lunation. as the divider.) is one half. denotes the dual. the place of dividing. in Gbe. Bok. the Second. Bhurij (Sans. in Vei. in Cunacuna. Pes. In the Tinneh (American) group of languages this applies to the name of the knife. as . Pesh. show the root Bag or Pekh. denotes the child of either sex up to the age of puberty. Bekh. by duplication. as Shears. As Bacchus represented the Bach. or little one that was of either sex. or Bach. two halves of heaven and earth. in Sanskrit. then. Navajo. Biga. as the little one. Also the Moon. Begel. and the New Forest Bugle for the Bûll.) one half of the double house. Bil. Dogrib. in Darien. the Hebrew Bâal the son of Typhon. The child being what is still termed a Pigeon-pair (i. or Scissors. Paru (Eg. Chipewan. Sanskrit. The Bill. is to be born.1 To Bag in English is to become pregnant. This is the Xosa Baxa. Abela. This was Bala-Rama. Vocua. in Kasanda. and from Bach or Bog comes the name of the Boy. a pair. hence the biune being. to duplicate in being with child. Kaffir. Apache. and so was divinized as the type of both. Poquah. in Breton. Bagu. in Kisama. as did the Child in Boy and Girl. and thus becomes a type-name for Number 2. Baru (Ass. The human being divided as the mother and child. and of a dual nature. divide in two. also the fork in the branch of a tree. In sex the Bar or Bâal was twin. In Tasmanian the feet are named Perre. Coppermine. so did Bar (Sut). in Savara. Mescalero. in Kra. in Lamat. as— Biga. because of either sex. and the boy in two phases. is the divider. It is an inner African name for the knife. in Persian. to divide and become twain. And. means to split. in various languages. Poko. is to divide. Bega. as weapon. The Hebrew form of the name as Bagal (lgb).202 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Pesh. Purre-purra is Number 4 in Catawba. a Pickle in provincial English. Paas. Poko. Boy and Girl) or Twin. Beg. in Lubalo.—Berre in some Australian dialects.

the Axe or Hatchet. Hundreds. which is the second stage. and the Counties that became the final divisions of the land. and the Palleg. Bulo in Kankanka. 1 Chron. for the divided body. Bal (Akk. in Sarar. the dividing Month. for Piliku (or Piriku) is an ancient name of the tribal divisions of the Kaffirs. for the division or dividing. in Kanyop. such as the Swedish Bolag. and English Borow. or Totemic family. and the flag (banner) is the sign of the division. Porene in Pinegorine. Pal in Korean. Pelek is the Axe in Greek. 0r body. companies. Bera in Udso. Belarai in Kisekise. and this type of Number 2. 1 Brech in Cornish. One name of the Korân is al Forkan. Bulo in Bambara. Poro in Mayoruna. Berre in Australian. Da-para in Cherente. Bhale in Gurung. Peleg.1 It certainly was under that name the mass or horde was discreted to distinguish the one from the other. Buro in Vei. Pulak. Braich in Welsh. and the Veil of the Jewish Temple was the Dividing Veil named Parakah (hkrp) because it divided in twain like the Circle of the Year. in Hebrew. Tribe. Turkish Buluk. Assyrian. from faraka. the Irish Fir-Bolg. The Hebrew Peleg is the Akkadian Pulugu. the base of our Cantreds. in which the division was by Ten.). So the Hebrews employ the word Perak or Pirka for a section or division of Scripture. . promiscuity being the first. Balankeke in New Ireland. The Avesta Fargard is a division. The name had crossed the world. or to discriminate them at all. partnerships.” an Australian (Ja-jow-er-ong) name for the tribe. it reappears as the “Bulluk. signifies the first division of Mankind into the Gens. We are told it was in the days of Peleg that the earth was divided. Fulagu. in Bola. Palak. Ibarana in Ombay. The first instrument used for dividing was the Stone. Pulak. is named Belare in Tene. Gaelic Burach. The Flag-stone is the divided one. Bhori in Kooch. to divide. It-pari in Tocantios. This primary division was Inner African. Fiyolu in Maldive. which has survived from the earliest division of the race into communties. Palû. i. and the Assyrian Bulugu. is named Pilge in Modrvin. an instrument for dividing. Sclavonic Pulk. Brech in Breton. is world-wide under the same name. The Belgæ and Bulgars likewise continued the name. Bale in Murmi. Pali in Newar. Balarai in Soso. The Foot being dual. It was also brought into the British Isles as the Bolg. Perre in Tasmanian. Icelandic Felag. in Pepel. Bulo in Mandenga. The Arm being dual. and this in the African languages is the Pulag.TYPOLOGY OF NUMBERS. The Month Nisan is called purakku in Assyrian.. 19. Bulo in Dsalunka. 203 Bêl (Cornish) is the Navel. in Bulanda. in Lap. These are identical with our word fork.

Beli. in Mandenga. Slavonic. Greek. . Braggled is brindled. Ntere. Kamilaroi. is speckled. Bella.. Bela-kuro. Burla. Aburo. Matalan... as— Bulla. Gio. Brat. Buol. Fura in Yula. Irish. Guresa. Pika. Belu. Sanskrit. From this rootname of the Boy came that of the brother as one of two. In the African languages Two is— Bar. Pulla. Legba. a Boy. . Fele. Puluk in Malay. Hebrew and Assyrian. Dsebu. . or son. Borow (a tenth) in English. Queensland. Kabunga. in Yula. Landoro. Fer in Dselana. Dselana. Toronka. and Shen denotes the brother and sister. in Irish is the boy. Brathair. Biri or Bili. Kaure. Peru in Akkadian. in Egyptian. Mobba Birr. Morton Bay. Pere. Meto. Lachlan. Bulia. Kiriman. . the Number 10 accordingly is— Bela bu in Gbe. Gadsaga. Pulu in Atshin. Dalla. is an Inner African name for the boy who became the Vir. the child.. Fila. following the naming from the limb.204 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Bularr. Aku.. Bhratar.. Aburo. Aboru. Idsesa. N’kele. Windurei. Bullait. Fila. Shen is also the double . Eki. Paltr or Paôtr is the Breton name for the Boy. In Persian Pur is the boy. in Mose. Mandenga. Bara. Bula. Toma. This root supplied a type-name for Number 2. the sister being the other. Karekare. Fele. In the African and other languages the brother is— Eburo. the Brogue (shoe) is double. Mbamba. Bale. Brai. Puli. Ife. Fura in Kasm. Fele. Zaza.) denotes the male manifestor. The Breech is divided. Bear . Nalu. a Boy. Bila . Witouro. Phratar. Mende. Bele. These are Inner African. Pir in Kambodia. Fela. Kono. Wollondilly River. The ballok is twin. it is a mixture. Buleara. Darrunga. Pere. Fillo. Biele. A Bracket is a two-year-old stag. Fulu in Batta. Fila. Latin. Efilera .. Number Two is also— Bar in Khonh. The type-name for Number 2 in Egyptian is Shen. Bolo. Dsumu. Mutsaya. Biele. Pura . The Brat is a child of either sex. Lake Macquarie. Ham. Gbese. Fila. a Boy. Dsalunka. Bular. And as 2 and 10 are equivalent in the two hands. Bali. Fele. Brach. Bar. Per (Eg. Belin is the Young One. Aburo. Bur in Ka. as speech. Dselana. Gabandi. Frater. Fali. Bragged (English) is to be pregnant or in foal. Breeks are the divided garment. Bira. Yoruba. Bel. Peli. Aburo. two in sex. Barria in Sonthal. Ballach. Kankanka. Bor in Suffolk . Swahili. Baloara. Aburo. Karaula.. Wellington. Mano. Fila. Vere and Pfere. and this is the type-name for Number 2 in the Australian dialects. Fulu in Malagasi. Babuma.

.. .. Kandin. Yakutsk. Song. In the African Agaw dialects the Number 2 is Lin-ga. Doai. Bauro.. In English we have the Runt for the little one. Thus we find— Rererua. . The Renn as child is cquivalent to Number 2. . No. Rinmer is the child in the Australian languages. Tamul. a fool or simpleton. 9 is Me-Dzhuon on this foundation.. .. Mangasela. Tshapodzhir. Sang. Luete . Bode. The duplicate was first because the number two depended on repetition.. Irandu . Figi. is No. Shama. wich Islands.. Roe-roe. Polynesian.” the winged mammal. Song. Ahom.. for the child. .. feet. SandLua . { . . Dzhan. Dzin Sani Seneni No.. a second course.. { As the two are also two hands... R and L are interchangeable. is Silia Erndu Rendu Two. It applies to the child or children. ... Rua . corresponding to the Shen-ring which is dual by name. The impubescent child of early times furnished a type-name for the grown-up simpleton of later language. Silia. 2. Mami.. 2. 10. 10. in Gadsaga. Mantshu.. Maori. We likewise have the rere as a dual in the “rere-mouse. but this was modified when it passed out of the phase of reckoning.Dzhoun . Mille. . . Mid-Amoor. is No. Siamese. No... In the Moor dialect.. 6 is Dildzheno. Len Yahare is the daughter..... Lolia . In Inner Africa. 205 or mummy-type of the second life.. Yerukali. Pelew Isles. . Sina . The Loon. Mandara. In the last-quoted language (Mille. . Rua.. is No. Tarawan group) Dzhoun is the base of all their reckoning.. Kanaka. Lua . Tonareg. . New Caledonia.. Rendu.. Rua . Tenbe. This also is a dual applied to companions. Number 2 is Roeroe still and answers to Ruru. . Znauh. Dzhan.. in Baga. Laos. . Obispo. This furnishes another name for the Number 2... 2. Shan. The nursling and effeminate child of either sex is the Renn in Egyptian. or the double horizon.. the rere-supper. Roe .TYPOLOGY OF NUMBERS. the dwarf.. and for the castrated ox.. Magarei. is a form of the Renn or Lenn. Manototo. Uea. and is the sign of duplicating. Khamri. N’godsin.. their 1 as well as 10. New Guinea. in Malayalim. . Ero Annatom. and to the horizon as the place of the two lions. 2. Irular. Lo . Cornish Lin.. . Hebrew. the knee-joint and elbow. Assyrian. Oroo . 10. Erua . In others— Paren. Wa-roo . this name will account for the Number 10 in some other groups of language. No. and the Rear for the hinder part or following after.. is Two. Shena. the children. No.. Thus— Dzhun. 2. . Lonufi in Anfue... Kisekise. . Rua . Arua .. . Coptic. Loua . Telegu.. the seal-ring (and circle) of Reproduction. in .. Luchu. Another Egyptian name of the nursling chi1d is Rer or Ru-ru. . . Polynesia. Rendu . Loa . Saparus. Berber. Cocos Island... the rere-tail. Wadai . Tsong. Rua .. Rendu . steps. .. . Mille. Maori. Moor. Fonofono. Solima. the Two Arms. San-dah . Rua ... Sen . . Dzhan . Gadaba. Timur. Lifu. Dzhan. Firin Firin Firin Selin is Two. Dzhan . Twins.. Shen. Lelou. Rua . San Louis Eshin . and in the Fonofono dialect of New Caledonia Lelou is Number 2. Sinee. . Malagasi. Ru-ru is two by repetition. and Lolai in Mangarei. .. Nertshinsk.... Song. Essin .. . Salawatti. Beran.. . 7 is Adzheno....

Assir in Yangaro.) for the Adult. and the kindred name for Number 2 is— Shiri. 24. The Mother was first recognised as the Producer. Amur. Mother. 1 Moor’s Hindu Pantheon. This was the Cult of the Mother and Child. and the later. and the third or root-finger. So excessively simple in Nature was the origin of this great Theological Mystery. but only the Child of the Mother who becomes pubescent to reproduced Himself in the celestial Couvade. also agrees with and accounts for the names of Number 10 as— Ashiri in Kaffa. Ashar in Arabic. more orthodox Egyptian Trinity of Father.206 THE NATURAL GENESIS. therefore the Child is number 2. and Son. Papuan Dsur. Tshapodzhir. This same sign of the trinity in unity is made by the Hindu Compound Being Arddha-Nārī.” The Mother was the one that duplicated in the child. Ashur in Tigré. This too is a twin title for the child in two characters. Tshiri. the Male in his second phase. as it was on earth so is it in Heaven. Number 3 is the pubescent Male. the youth. Mingrelian. From her the Children traced the earliest descent. because the Mother. and the Child was the second as the one reproduced. Dzyur. the Child. Coroata.1 Arddha-Nārī is a biune being as male and female. the son. in accordance with the doctrine of the “Two Truths. Another Egyptian name for the child of either sex is the Sherau. pl. Hence it follows that in the oldest Cult. Assur in Arkiko. Assur in Hurur. Lazic. Dzhur. Sher (Eg. Yakutsk. the other two digits being held down. in which the Child included both sexes. and the Boy at puberty becomes the Consort of the Mother to reproduce the Babe. the typical number 1 under several names. because the system was founded before the Begetter could have been recognised as the individual Father of the Child. This was the order of Nature which passed into the primitive Sociology and Mythology. Dzur. Sher in Egyptian. The contention between this Triadic-Dyad. The begetter was last. All Beginning in language and typology is bound up with the one becoming twain. therefore she was the Primus. for. and yet of a triadic nature. which was the twin or two-one because of either sex. Dzhur. because she was the Bringer-forth. the fore-finger. is also found in language with regard to the names of the Boy and Man. Dzhur. Serou. Lamut. Yenesei. there is no Father in Heaven. or daughter. because it could be Boy or Girl. with the band that holds the Trisula. Tungus. Dzhur. and the Virile one were represented as the totality of being that was triune in nature and biune in sex. Asar in Hebrew. . When the Otomacs signify the number 3 they unite the thumb. and where three were distinctly recognised he was third person in the series.

Ishtar. Ife. 3. Dsebu. No. Toto. Oudo. Yoruba. Tutu. and Tatu. as Goddess 15). Tat is the generative organ. the Welsh Tat. Naturally enough the Boy and Man meet under the one name of Bar. and was. as he was in the reckoning of the Mother (number 1). Atate . and Tatu. No. ° the young one of two. as Toto. Phallos in Greek. Idesa. Pangela. according to one custom.. 3. Beye in Lamut. Boya in Yenesei. and Tet (Tutu) is afterwards depicted by one T. Tata . considered to be the Mother of the Child. or Virile Male. and Tet. Tut or Tat could be. The young Moon is Tutu. Dsumu. and the Adult Male (number 3). Dsebu. Tata . No. Tata . Scottish Dod. Tata is father. Titu. it also means to engender. Boye. on account of the Male principle and the Boy’s Second Character. 207 Tutu (or Tet) in Egyptian is the Child. Tutu. Boyo in Mangasela. and just as the father took his name from the child. and Tatu. is expressed by repetition and duplication of the T-sound. So that the name of the young one. 3. Bash in Tshulim. Yakutsk. so he continued the Boy-name tor the man or Head as Boie in Nertshinsk. English Dad. Tito. Egba. The name is applied to the young. Tat. Bash in Uzbek. or Tahuti. No. Teto. literally. Bash in Teleut. O Tutu. the child. Pash in Tobolsk. Bash in Baraba. Basunde. Boro in Sena is the Membrum Virile. and the Begetter is the Third by namc. Dsekiri. father to the Man. Beron in . Tuto. Tata . and Kaffir Doda. 3.. In forty different dialects of Inner Africa. is a dual form answering to two or the second of two. Tata . Teto. Eki.. the Child (number 2). Oworo. Ife. with the sign of duplicating as a terminal. or Tahuti. Taht. which was reproduced by the old Moon (Cf. Boya in Tunguska. Tet. Ti written ´ shows the duplication of the T. 3. the Son of the Mother. and the inner African Tutu is just the sound of double T. and Tatu. to establish. 3. Bas in Kirghiz. Tito. Bumbete. This is an Inner African type-name for the young one. this name of the new Moon was continued in Tet. and Mitatu. Tuty. the radical Tat furnishes the same name for the Father as for the number 3. No. No.. In like manner the Boy-name as Bach becomes a later type-name for the man. Dsekiri.. 3. and Tatu. and denotes the Begetter. In Egypt. Beye in Mantshu.. No. Because it was the sign of the one reproduced as the Child. Yagba. In Egyptian. the God who carries the young Moon on his head. The Boy was. Tutu. Kasands. Ota Tutu. the second of two. extended to become the name of the Reproducer as the individualised Father in later times. the repeater. Omaha Dadai.TYPOLOGY OF NUMBERS. Oworo. Nyombe. Ota. O Tito. renewed Moon. Babuma. Tutu. the full Moon representing the Genitrix who was the one alone. Marawi.

Vols. in Quithuai is to create. Abalo in Legba. Oma-Kuri. with the Damaras. the Adult and Virile Horus. fulcrum and stand-point. who is Omakuri in Fulup. Chinese. Vir in Latin. Sclavonic. Comoun (Eng. Varvara (hairy). Broda. being the complete man. Folt. accounts for Gamru to be complete in Assyrian. Pampango. in Egba. Kiamat in Bolang-Hitam is the father’s title. Oma-Kure in Yoruba. Bulu. Mbal in Koama. Tagala. Bolo. Irish. Ghagar. supplied the later name of love . Here the name is the exact equivalent of Khem-Har.) for desire. signifies the Manifestor. are the masculine Source. Khem. English. in the Mandenga dialects. In Inner Africa the Male also attained the Status of Man (Vir) under the name of Bar (the Boy) as Baro in Yura. Ebala in Kiambu. Oma-Kurei in Ondo. Khem signifies the male potency of the Homme fait. Barnda. authority. then. Various tides like the Emir or Amir were derived from the KHEM-AR (Eg. Kum-Kani (Xosa Kaffir) denotes kingship. produce. Beard. Feru in Magyar. Kama (Eg. and Bura in Fiji.) denotes intercourse. form. This is imaged by the Creator Khem. Bara. Vale in Kambali. In Hebrew the male ass is a Chamor. Khcm is the master. the Man-Child of the Mythos. And in Egyptian Khemt is the name of number 3. had two characters. Baro in Yula. or pubescent Child. Chem. the Virle type of divinity. enjoy sexually. Abalo in Kaure. Comanch. Latin. and this God bears the type-name of the Boy. the pubes or beard. Bissayain. Bol-bol. The Kumara (Sans. Bul-bul. Scotch. Barba (beard). to go. Omo-Kuri.) is the prince. Dyak.) is to create. Lithuanic. The Hair or Pubes is Bal. signifies pubescence. In the Second of these it was Khemt. Veres in Zirianian. Tasmanian. who became the Begetter. The male child.208 THE NATURAL GENESIS.and in Irish. Fela in Guara. and the Khem-Horus was the later Solar type. Bala in Sanskrit. Sanskrit. the prevailer in the sexual sense. in Zulu. which is Viri in Kusi-Kumnk. Bulu.). Khem (Eg. Bala in Bagbalan. Thus Ômakuru or Ômakuri is the Khem-Horus. Bar-Typhon was the great Stellar type of the double Child of the Mother. Fir in Irish. In several African languages the male elephant is Kama. as is the Egyptian Khem-Ar (or Har). denotes the male parts. Balga in Babuma. their Father in Heaven. Folt. in Dsuma. This is a type-name for the male as Vir. and Camac is the Creator. and became the Khem-Horus or Virile One (the Sun as Generator). Kaumatua in Maori is the adult. Camo. Malay. the Homo. Folt. the heir-apparent. Coimhdhe means the being master. Camani. rule. as Consort of the Mother. The God Khem shows the primordial type of the Begetter. Scotch. Balera in Bumbete. Parpee. Malagasi.

Kuim in Ostiak. Omoi in Egbele. the Sanskrit manu originally meaning the Thinker and then Man. and Voice. Kum in Mid-Ostiak. Thus. Komi in Burmese.1 The lndian Wife makes the sign of Husband by imitating the male emblem with the right fist denoting “Man I have. and the oldest language prove him to have been designated the Homo. Thaksya.) is to be pubescent. Kume in Punpokolsk. who stands like Men. Magar. iv.. including Hair. to found. Kem in Vogul. Changlo. Hemi in Maring. Whereas the typology. not of the forehead. The North-American Indian signs for Man include one made with the typical forefinger extended and denoting him. and the types of his virlity. Kamere in Darrunga. in Tigré. hair. Gose in Boko. Kamakh (Shoshone). Kmari in Georgian. Kamshan in Kamkatkan of the Tigil. Hamoi . and the name of Horus the pubescent or hairy one. desire. Cam (Eng..TYPOLOGY OF NUMBERS. Khem is one name for the Man. Egyptian Men from his attributes of pubescence. Man is— Kame and Hame in Soso. . Men is the Bull.. Beard. Kum in Obi.) means to erect. that Man signifies to think. Tooth. It has been confidently asserted by the Aryanists that Man was self-distinguished by naming himself from his Mind. and the word originally signified Hairs. Nubian. Kumi in Kumi. is the earlier form of the Homme or Homo. Dakota. to love. To be Khemt (Eg. Kim (Comanche). Gom in English. Gipsy). the ideographs. will be found under the pubescent names. Kuayuma in Tagwi. Chham. 52. Here it may be remarked that in Tahitian Huru is number 10. and the hair or pubes is:— Tchame. Couimake in Apiaca. Kymshan in Koriak of the Tigil. . Kamolan in Andaman. Umo in Itonama. Khem in Egyptian. Heme in Kisekise. or Khem.”2 The Man dated from puberty as third in the Triad. Brambu.. Huru and hairy agree with the second of two characters just as ten includes the second of two hands. Mobba. Sameyga . Kommo . Woratta. Mentu. Cham . Khoim in Khoi-Khoi. and in Chemuhuevi Mashu in the number 10. to fecundate. In gesture language tne sign for Man is made in front of the crotch.. Amme in Sibagur Miri. Chamhami. in Biafada. 1 Gambosi. Men (Eg. to love. Homo in Latin. Chamai in Koreng. Gansur . Guma in Gothic. or Khem and the Man. p. Stone.. Comolgy in Peba. Khem. the typical male. Koombai in Nyamnam. Gesnsenen in Bode. Gemseg in N’godsin. beard. Amha in Irish. the virile Male. So in Egyptian Har is number 10. 209 as in Kama (Sanskrit). Niami in Esitaka. the Khem-Horus who was Second of the Two. Ib.. Syam . Homme. N’gosne in Mare. Bishari. Comai in Oregones. 2 Mallery. Kaimeer in Erroob. attain the Second character of the Male Child and become the Creator. Kami in Kami.. Vir. Chham . to love. In like manner the name of the Two Truths and the Twins is Ma-shi in Egyptian.

. Kuemme in Estonian. African. . 10 in Goma . and the Linch-pin of the stag.. beard in Garo. Muntu. Mimboma.. Sam . Khamti.210 THE NATURAL GENESIS.. Gemi. when he was Khemt as number 3. Momenya. Rund . and other groups Oreng. Hence the Man is the Ranuka in Tamena. Kadsim. Tagla.. or beard. Eg.. Although there were three in series and development there were but two in sex... speech.. Sampalu in Bina. Kapwi. Quichua. In the Batta. Kum is No. Kumi .. hair. Hence the name of Khem.. Achom. Sanskrit. Langai . Sabipoconi. Goma . like hair and beard.. Agema in Motorian. Khem-Horus was the adult Horus who could open his mouth and had got his virile voice. Sak. hair. Marawi. Gumi . Nyamban. Kumi . a reed.. Malay.. The Renn. Kum . Serawulli. Kum-Kum. Cumme in Vod. Kambi in the Agau dialect. Oranga . Kum. Reanci .. Basunde.) whose Virile or True Voice came with puberty. Songo. Madura.) being the pubes. Amar in the Fist. Bode. Gum . at puberty. in Rotuma. Kumi Kumi. Kampu . Bumbere. the God whose symbol is a Tongue. Kumi . Samfor in Papuan.... Parigi. Kymmen in Karelian Kummene in Olonets. is also identical with the second hand and number 10 in the African languages. signifies the Adult. in Lepcha... Mbamba. the Man. Kumi . Marguesas... hair. or Lungu. Ntere.. New Ireland. { Hamishin Palaik.. Umi-umi . New Guinea. Kamen in Mordvin. beard in Hansu. 10 in Nyombe.. The Horus-Child was represented as silent or dumb (Kart. Patos. Kaman.. Maori. Kame denotes voice. Kumi . Maya.. as there are only two hands.. and Kamatl in Huasteca.. Bagba. Kiriman. became the Renka. hair or beard. hair in Tumbuktu. the . Camablee .. mouth. the Man. Such interchange was necessitated by the unity of the types and early limits of language. Dosi. beard. { These names of the Man are one with the Sanskrit Linga. Hamber. Sham . Kumi is No. In the Australian. beard. Lango. Kumi .. Lonco (Man and Pubes).. Kambe . Guma is No. Sam . Kaim.. in Tubi. . Gum . Amu . So the name of Hu. each a synonym of puberty. Virile Male. Gum . Kumi . Sumenap. Bamom. Songpu. the Pubescent Knight. Unde. Eg. Loonkquee Oneida. and Mexican languages. Kumi . the pubescent male. and tooth. in Middle and Upper Obi. Babuma. Musentandu. beard. Tshim. Ten is likewise. Gume is tooth in Kajunah. or nursling Child. Bayon.. Gemi is the mouth in Wolof. Gum . Zapara. utterance. Myfoor..English. Kabenda. Kunsi .. Renka (Eg. and mouth. .. Kumi .. Koam.. Sam . In Van Diemen’s Land Kamy signifies tongue. Langai .. Oreng . Basque (cf. Goma . Gum . Kumi . beard under the chin. Kanaka.. 10 in Mutsaya. Renk. Auraucanan. Samfor in Mefur. Kambissek. the Zulu Hlanga. Komi . Kumi-Kumi . Kymmemen in Fin. Hausa. Am.

Child. Regent’s Lake. .. as Kheb. Asam.. But the Second of the Two in Sex was Third in the Series of Mother. Abor. N. Tasmanian. Aymora. inKakhyen. Yerreng. Masum. Miri. Shemt. Lunggau . Mamoke. Dskumi. Yankton. the Male Member. Murmi. Tanguhti. In the Australian and other languages Lung. Gyarung. Sum. . Lazic. Egyptian. Irang. Jill. Nowgong. . Lepcha.. ... The Nail of the finger or toe is Kentoli in Bumbete. Sak.. . Lenyala in Babuma.. Mihjhu. it is visibly demonstrated in the shape of our figures 1. . Dacotah. Twin. Wellington. 2. Aleph is called the Steer in Phœnicianm. Tibetan. in Yarra. Chami. Som. . This origin of the Three is not only shown by names. Sum. Hence Khem or Khemt signifies number 3. Cochetimi... Zirianian. Lake Macquarrie. Walang .1 The first three letters of this. Long. Cayuvava. are types of our numbers. Morton Island. Serene in Gadsaga. Mohave. Sumsho. Hamcha. Tsheremis. Uran. Shan. Mitham.. Sum. is Stone. Tsam.. Limbu. Canaan.. and 3.. Singpho. Joboca. Khoibu. Luhuppa. .. Elungi or Eluni. Sami. Kimsa. Syumsh. Georgian. Singpho. Sam.. Khari. Angom... Thaksya.. . Sam. . Among the Australian names for the Beard and Hair types of Virility are Tearnka. Milchan. a type of potency answering by name to the Third. is Hair. which is numeral... Sam. is Tooth. Wellington. Asam. Homka. Lunsoana in Lubalo. Sumya.. Som. is Horn. 211 typical Reed from which the human race originated. Sami. Yameenee. Sam. Talong . Orunyara in Pangela. . Hamuk.. Karata. Sidney. Tuscarora. who was Cow-headed. Kami. in Basunde. as Ahti (Typhon). . Kuin. who js Khemt (3) in Egyptian. is Stone. Khemt. . Sumcha. T’hullung . Suanic. in Bathurst. an image of the Primordial One. 2 and 3. Siamese. Zam. Yarra.TYPOLOGY OF NUMBERS. Ooran. Leenag . Ngalung . Calf-headed. is Hair. Sam. Hum. Abom. Semi. Kasami. Canton. and Vir.. Chepang. Orungay . . Kacham... In Inner Africa Nlenge.. Kimisa. Theburskud. . Sium. Cocomaricopa. is Bone. and Gimel.. Two.. Nlung . Aleph. Wiradurei. Asum. Kulanapo. Mingrelian. Menero Downs. in Oworo. the Calf' in the hieroglyphics. Coptic. Tengsa. . Hamuk. 1. Irang . Wiradurei. Arung. . and the Water-Cow. Khlung . Irang . Changlo.. Other primitive emblems of virility can be traced under the same type-name. Cuchan. Asaw. as Hathor. in Abor. Longu . Swem. Sam. Lenyal in Mutsaya. Kumot. Sumi. Leeangy. p. Tunkhul. in Borsiper. 190. Yakmani. Basnage says the World was formed by analogy to the Hebrew alphabet. Dieguno. Ka-lun . Sum.. The same law governs our 1 History of the Jews. Lung . . Maring. Khamti. Wurung.. Takpa. in Sak. Thoung-Ihu.. Beth. Lhops. Asam. Laos. The Beth is Both. the NUMBER 3 being third in series and dual in form. is Teeth. Yarren. Ta-lon . Brambu. Along. Gimel is the Camel. Along. Sum.

p. Three is the first and Nine is the full Egyptian plural. The Third was the Adult Male. is called by the Mangaians the Nono tree. three first Notes of punctuation—the comma (. 30 is the numeral value of “Khemt” expressed in Tens. and its numeral value is 3 in the series of hundreds. who. Erona in Okam. the highest number on the right. Child (number 2. is a universal type-name. . as Sila. 1 2 3 Introduction. Akurakura. The masculine Hand. the Tree was the Mother. p. “By Three am I overthrown. 327. The Ren. Kabunga.) is to engender. Lingi in Tumbuktu. .).212 THE NATURAL GENESIS... or the R00t of the Tree.. The Root likewise agrees in name with the Sheru (Eg. The author of the Book of God gives the sign of 30~ for the mysticat Ao as the Hindu Aum. Lun-ganzi in Kabenda. This was masculine. Tsuni-Goam. the Child was the Branch. or a throw. 14. Nzoran . Osire . as Producer.2 The third digit counted either way. and No.). Suro.1 Tree and Three are also synonymous. the Root.” Three is likewisc identical with Throw. the Alpha and Omega of the Beginning. Aron in Anan. derived from this origin.) is a type of Adultship. and Ter (Eg.3 The genealogy of the first family Tree was the Mother (number 1 as Stem). as Root). This may explain why the Egyptians wrote their first plural with the sign of 3 instead of 2. Vei. Adult (No. The Shin is a Double Tooth. Hahn. .. Ren in Wolof.. and a Throw is Three in number with tho Letts.Mandega. Hu (Eg. in which the colon is likewise third in series and an ideographic two in shape. which has the most “wonderfully tenacious” root. in its various forms. and Nonas. The Tooth. the Two~One.. Suru.) is also the Trident. resolves once more into the Twin-total. the Root. another figure of the triune being. The number 3 and the Tree are identical in the Hottentot Nona. or typical expression. The word Three (as well as Tree). as Ten. the word METTENS meaning Three. Lun-Kandzi in Nymobe. in counting crabs. Suluo . Suro. the Root. Khemt (Eg. semi-colon (. and why the Greeks used the oath. Zori. and with the Tser Rock or Stone. Pika. Three. as Branch). the symbol of the triune one.). The duadic-triad is also figured in the Hebrew letter Shin c. the Root. Kra. In Inner Africa the Root is Ran in Nso. Krabo. First. Dsarawa. its fangs made it a figure of the trinity in unity.) for the Adult or pubescent Youth. as Renpu (Eg. But number 3 implies the notion of Cause. Here it may be noticed that the Morindo Citrifolia Tree. 3. Koso. is the root-finger. throw three at a time. Gill. the radix of the tree. Turreti. and the name signifies the Adult. Sulu . and colon (:). This sign is a Tooth. is the male root or plant of renewal.

Tria in Greek. 3 in the African languages. Toluke in Kennay. In Inner Africa. Turrun. No. Tor and Adarif in Beran. Tellu in Rotti. The first mortals. in Khurbat. in Tatalui. This type-word for No. This the God Tiri split in two. Etellu in Manatoto. Tilu in Mille. and appeared in the bole of a tree. Turana in Soso. Taro in Matatan. Saran . who represents the distinction of the sexes at puberty. English Tolly (and Dil). Toru in Polynesia. Outside of Africa we have Tullu in Savu. Tri in Irish. Telu in Ende. Kabunga. Tolu in Fiji.. Tere in Okuloma. Saran is No. Tolu in Mayorga. Talu in Cayagan. the root of the Tree. Tolou in Cocos Island. 3 in Assyrian. Tulo in Bissayan. The Yurecares also have the God Tiri. Tula-ba in San Raphael. when the child becomes the Khemt Horus. Itar in Mbarike. Tre in Gadi. Dre in West Pushtu. Tres in Latin. Also the African name of the Bull is Tura in Tura in Tura in Tura in Tura in Biafada. who is said to have divided the human being into male and female. Soso.TYPOLOGY OF NUMBERS. Try in Sclavonic. Teli-ko. the Vayu Tholu. the Lord. Tri in Scotch. 3 is Tere in Koama. Tri in Welsh. Tore in Bagbalan. In Egypt Khepr-Ter was the Erector or re-erector of the dead.. the Homme fâit. 3 in Tene. Tur in Arabic. Try in Cornish. Wadsi. Tura in Bambara. Tal in Gura. Tolo in Timur. they affirm. Telu in Malagasi. Selaste .) and the Second phase of the male child. Trui in Kashkari. were one at root. Ter (Eg. and Sara is No. and Maori Tara. the Horus as Third. Tulu-bahi in San Miguel. Three in English. Trys in Lithuaniac. who followed the Mother and Child and became a begetting God. Thaloth in Arabic. These correspond to Salas for No. Tolou in Mami.). Dsalunka. Teraro in Nyamban. Taru in Meto. and the man and woman emerged. Tolu in Batta dialects. Taru in Udso. Toroe in Dasen. the Fijian Droi. Tarani in Garura. or Teru (Eg. Tura in Landoma.. 213 in Lithuanic. Toru in Marquesas. Trak in Kashmir. Tigré. The-well-known Phallic Ters of Antwerp was an impersonation of Ter. Tree in Manx. Tri in Sanskrit. Toro in Pome. Salasa is No. Terewaid in Jaol. Ter in Paipah. Tor in Adirar. 3 is identical with the name of the Two Times. is the Phallus. . Tar in Nso. Telu in Sasak. Tra in Tirhai. Triu in Arniya. Tri in Breton. Bo-toro in Seroel. Tre in Siah Posh. The Negro God Til (Tir) who created the first human pair out of the knee-caps of the Hermaphrodite Mother was likewise a form of the God Three as the Virile Male. Turu in Kiriman. Trin in Gipsy of Norway. Dalo in Bornu. Tholth in Syriac. Tiri is a form of the God Three. Kankanka. Trin in Tater. Toro in Wandamia. Mandenga. as agent. Tra in Tirhai. Tare in Tiwi. 3 in Kisekise. 3 in Beran. Silasa . Turu in Maori. Taurus in Latin. Tar and Sur or Sar are interchangeable for No. who became the “Bull of the Mother” at puberty as Ter the engenderer. Tallo in Iloco.

are the Mother. and the Triad of Mother. Our own popular “Punch” is likewie a Pan. and number 3. The Egyptian Sher. This agrees with the Sheru (Eg. Hebrew ryC. the Sar. is a form of this triune total or collective All. English. and with the name for hair and other types of virility in various languages. the virile Male. In English the Buncus is a Donkey. hence the winning and wearing of “the feather” by the virile Indian. and pubescent Male was completed in the Sar. Hindi. the virile male. the Phœnix. Bangi in Zulu. and Sar. The Hairy one and the Hero are synonymous because the first hero was the pubescent male.). Sheru. beyond the Two hands as the means of signalling numbers. The Benn or Aan was the hairy Ape. Tsar. Sire. and Three. Pan is the hairy. Two. We are now able to affirm that.214 THE NATURAL GENESIS. or Phœnix. Pan or Benn. is applied to barley and to the adult male. Hair and horn are his types of pubescence. Sir. the virile member. is a reduced form of Fan. Puns in Sanskrit dcnotes the same typical male. Persian. the pubes of the male. who are all founded on the pubescent male. the bearded and hairy one. these three being the typical trinity in unity. and the Bingo a Dog. which show the second phase of the male child. and the drama of “Punch and Judy” is the celebration of his coming to power. the pubescent Son and Consort of Kedy (who possibly . Gaelic for the Hero. to be hairy and wanton. a kind of feather of the Two Truths. a personification of puberty in the character of the All. the masculine attributes. Child. Ân (Eg. and there was a popular Roman belief that Julius Cæsar was long-haired when born! The name identifies the male ruler with hair.) for the Bull or adult male. running through many groups of languages. the Child (twin) Two. The divinity Pan or Phanes. One. Sur. the archetypes of One. Sar. Phanes was the Phœnix that transformed at the time of puberty. and the double feather of the Phœnix is still worn by the Kaffirs who don the feather of the Blue Crane. Sarru. the hairy. The Phœnix (Nycticorax) wore the double plume. The Cæsar represented the Sheru (Eg. who takes a scalp to become a Brave. Pan’s animal type is the Goat. Hence also the Mexican myth of the feather which caused conception in the Virgin Mother. This is the sign of the hero. The root reappears in the latin Cæsaries for the hair. horned one of a mystical compound nature. Three.) for hair. Russian. who acts as if he were everybody. It is by the nature of the types alone that anything final can be determined about the names. Hair and feather are interchangeable types. but it is related to puberty. In English Share is hair. Assyrian. In Welsh the Baingu is a Bull. for example. the Supreme Being. Akkadian. This is the natural root of the Sire. under various names. or Cæsar. the Kaiser and Cæser. this was the Bull of Hu.

1 But if Fid were derivable from Chat there would be an end to all foothold in language. five. Salawatti (New Guinea). or pode is identical with Fut for number 4. It is Inner African. Tr. Iloco. in Welsh. and he tries to explain them by the prcnominal roots. Puet. The word foot. Kano. as Punch he is the bully. Apat. Bode. Fudu. in English (BettyBodkin. Bissayan. Yengen. as in Pi-leure for five). Mallicollo (New Hebrides). the 4th finger). Effat. to begin with. Fepther. Fudu. Fetu and Aft (Eg. or Ta-vats. It is possible of course for these to become equivalents in later language because both may be derived from an earlier word that will account for them. in Guebé (Papuan). Fodu. the virile male became the Bull of the Mother. Mpat. Batta.) are variants for the number 4. 427. vol. Erbaht. New Caledonia. Fudu. Toba Batta. E-vatz. Fedu. We have the same figure of 4 by name in English as the Eft. (Pi is a prefix. Boat. Futu and Aftu. as— Fudu. Aybatta. The four-legged crocodile was one type of Aft or Apt (as goddess). one of the words of the world. Karekare. Arbat. in Cornish. Mandara. Opat. Ufade. . As Khem. in Coptic. in Arabic. Bima. pat. Aft is the hinder part or quarter of the four-legged animal. Kadzina. Eppat. is one form or the type-name for number 4 to be found in the most ancient and diverse languages. Amberbaki (New Guinea). the four quarters or the four-legged thing. Fat. Atshin Opat. Pidwar. The hippopotamus is another type of Aft (Apt). Patzar. Tagala. and this four-legged animal has four toes on each foot. This type-name for number 4 is one of the primaries or the present work. in Egyptian. Bishari. Being limited to the Aryan group he is compelled to derive the Gothic Fidvor for number 4 from the Sanskrit Chatwar for number 4. Hausa. The types that lead to the one proto-type of the numbcr 4 are preserved in the hieroglyphics. In his explanation of the cardinal numbers Bopp says “he does not think that any language has produced especial original words for the particular designations of such compound and peculiar ideas as three. Po-bitz. Eng. Fidvar. Fat. Sasak. i. 215 survives as Judy) the Great Mother. p. Apat. Fadyg. etc.TYPOLOGY OF NUMBERS. Comparative Grammar. Fudu. in Gothic. Ch (or K) and F being the twin phonetic deposits of an original ideographic Kf. in Gafat. The Gothic Fid. Thasit. in Malagasy. in Fidvor.” He admits that the appellations of numbers resist all comparison with the verbal roots. Doai. It was continued as— Feto. one of the radicals of language. in Tigré. N’godsin. and thus points to the origin of the 1 Bopp. four. Fethera and Phedair. Pi-ffat.

Manyak. by name and nature. Aft is an abraded form of Kheft (Variant Khept) for the hind quarter which was the north in the heaven of the two halves. obr applied to the couch. It may be the four-footcd fyl-fot Cross of Thor is names from the four as Fut.. Fambe is the 1 Ps. equally with Chat and Fid. Thus. Cattle. Greek.. Cornish. as the animal on all fours. Gothic. By return to the earlier Khaft or Khept we reach an orignal for Chât as well as Fid.1 and to the lying down of fourfooted things. Welsh. also to squat or go down. Victoria. Æloic Greek. In this case the quadrupedal typt is pourtrayed by the two hands and two feet. and thus furnishes two different words with one meaning to later language. one of the Aino group. So the Kati in Sanskrit is the seat or buttocks. Kadair and quadrangular Caer. Chepanga. and the Irish Ceathar and Manx Kiare for number 4 agree with the Chair. And that in the Yesso dialect.. the Mother of Beginnings. agrees with the Egyptian Rep. Both are contained in the word Khaft. or the heaven of four quarters. Pump . Also.nd Aft (or Fet). No. Fimf . 5 in Marquesan. Wolot. the couch with four legs. and the Quadra. 5 in Breton. Every primitive word has to be determined and differentiated by the type intended. is usually derived from Rab. and would make us believc. Rabu. Bear. and therefore with Khept the hinder thigh of the beast. Laboi. Pemp is No. Chatwar. . In English we have the Fud for the tail.. The Assyrian Arbata. When the type is human the heaven above is represented by a woman arching over and resting on the earth with her hands and feet. Khaft modifies into both Khat a. and west in the heaven of four quarters. the type of number 4 is Quadrupedal. 4. and Ceathar preserve the fact in their names. One form of the seat is the chair. and with Aft the seat. The prototypal idea of number 4 then is quadrupedal. and Fet (or Aft) is number 4 and the four quarters. Rabe. for number 4. But the Rep (Eg. p™nte . And the reason why the type-name of number 2 and the two feet is also a name for number 4 is because in the latter case the type was four-footed. Pumazho . There is no such chance or coincidence as the Aryanists have unwittingly assumed. Coptic. Aft or fut may be the chair. The Khât (Khept) as the hinder thigh is the seat nearest to nature. the seat-type of the four. type-name in that of the four-footed animal the Aft or Fut or Egypt. Lup. 3. Rabi. But the great type of number 4 was the ancient Typhon. lrbitti or lrbit.. Pymp . The Khept is the hind quarter of the Quadruped.) is the typical quadruped. Sheep. hinder part. to be great. cxxxix. Pemajala is No. the abode with four corners. Lion.216 THE NATURAL GENESIS. when we find that:— Fima is No. 5 in Eslen. Quadruped.

Beran. Fumbata is to close the hand in the form of a fist. one name of the finger is Teb. Tumbuktu. Wadai. Gubida.. fambles.. Dsowi.. to grasp in the closed hand and hold fast what it contains.. Under the name of Tat (Eg. Kobo-bui . No. In English Pimp is applied to coupling together. and the Divine Father. The African.. Dsowi. or fam are variants of one original word. Ghala Sara is the finger in Pika. Fima in Soso. 5 in Batta . To five or to fim. Limba Dsowi. Pem in Yula. Saba . . . Egbele. is to make the fist. 5 in Biafada. Breton.. Khuba .. . Fema in Tene. or Sutem-Mah. Asi Pome in Adampe.TYPOLOGY OF NUMBERS. Femao in Tumu. In Inner Africa— Tubo is the Mo Topo Gbehi Igbe finger in Kam. Param.. Adirar. Ihewe.) the hand is the type of offering and giving. Bulanda. Cornish. ... . These are explained by the hand itself.. The radical is Inner African. Welsh and other names for “five” as the handful of digits. and the Botocudo tmpo for the hand. the Egyptian dm (or fam). The hand is called a bunch of five. No. the hand as a type of giving is related by name to the Inner African words for giving. the Star. here. Absné . Bini. and as dm is the fist as well as to eat. Kobeda . Ozubo is the finger in Opanda. Goburu. the clustering and handle. and seven palms (twenty-eight fingers) make the Royal Cubit. N’ki. 217 name for Number 10. and five.. the fingers are Tebu. this is the equivalent of the Gothic. as in making the fist. So in Xosa Kaffir Famba means to heap. or one fist. Poma is the hand in Mende. Saba . Greek. hence the pimp as a go-between and as a faggot of sticks.. Kpira-bo .. also of the number 5. fimf. are all related by name to the hand and there is as surely a unity of origin for the word and types as there is for the numbers in the digits. Also four Tebu make one Palm. fim. . and Tep being equivalent for the fist and the fingers in Egyptian. In Egyptian. Padsade. The Egyptian demf (or famf) is a handful of food. Tef (Tua) is a name of Seb. and Tebu is the name of the number 10 in the series of Thousands. 5 in Pula. Tch. So. Fiumo in Momenya.. pemp£zein. Dsif Kif Tsaf Ksof } } No. In Xosa Kaffir the Pambo is the handle or handles of a pot or other vessel.. In old English one name for the hands is fambles. Kafo-Gabone . .. the fist. Osba . These interchange in the names of numbers 5 and 10. Kano. . cluster together. pile. Fima in Kise-Kise. Here the Numbers 5 and 10. Wema in Baseke. with its variant sounds (explained later on) will account for Kep.. . as Tuf. This agrees with the Egyptian dm or fam for the fist.

Juri. Other African variants for Number 5 corresponding to the Hebrew Qams. Nu-Capi. This is a type-name for both hand and foot in the African languages. Shan. the toes. Sapula in Lubu. Sib in E. each one. Toverah in Moor.” to which the t was added. the one on the other hand. No.. Tsofats in Baga of Kalum. Sepulu in Ula.. foot-fingers). Krebo. 5 in Gbe. This last is founded on the fingers. Sapulu in Malay. fingers. Igbe in Egbele. are found in Gumen. Sabuali in Ende. the toes. Sip in Siamese. Dsob in Akurakura. In the Baniwa and Coretu dialects Kap. Baree. Hm. Tsamat . Tchouoti is the foot in Juri.. Tchoupei. the Arm or Hand. Tovo in Japanese. And as the group of five the foot is found under the same name in Hebrew. for number 5. the hand. Semmes . Sapula in Batta. 5 in Basa. Juri. Dsob in Okam. . Kob and Kowa in Ham. Kepu in Landoro.. every one. Tchonpumau. Juri. Hm. this Sha is repeated in a type-name for number 6. Shap in Cantonese. the first . Sapulu in Timur. hand. as Arm or One Hand. The Number 10 is— Zabe Osaba and Otabe in Koro. Sip in Khamti. Maipur. as in the case of the other numerals. Shâ is a reduced form of Shef and Kep. is the base of Nucopi. Baga. Kip in Kirata. Uaenambeu. Em-Kiape . Dewoi. Professor Sayce takes the Assyrian name of number 1. Sapulu in Susak. Mhm . No. No. Berber. Gfad in Bulanda. to be derived from the root “es. that is. Sapulu in Sumbawa. Nucabi. a hand of five. Sha-Sha in the duplicative stage of sounds denotes the second or other hand. Kippio in Chemmesyan. on the bunch of five. Tofat in Timne. Giapa-muetshu (literally. Coretu. Assyrian Hamsu. Tubban in Danskil. Tuap in Cochin China. Ukob in Yasgua. Bertin compares it with the Hebrew “Aish. Sip in Laos.. Sapulu in Manatoto. the same word being applied to to branches. hand. Dap in Kambojia. Sha being the first. Igbe in Bini.218 THE NATURAL GENESIS. fingers. Igbe in Ihewe.. Isanna. Uaenambeu. Kof in Limba. Sapulu in Rotti. In Sanskrit the 5 appears as Capata for the fifth note in music. Giapa . Kep in Angami.. Istin or Estin. and this is also the Arm. Nucapi . Also... Moreover. Hmu . where the hand and foot are both named Kaph. hand. Tchoupomoru. Kep in Mikir.” for the personal one. M. The Egyptian Kep is a fist. Kyep in Mijhu. But Shâ is the first One in the hieroglyphics. These are Inner African. Coretu. Sip in Ahom. 5 inBanyun. a fist. Number 10 (to carry out the illustration) is— Tap in Tonkin.

Eses in Sobo.. In answering the question. as Pythagoras says. Zimbede in Nyambau. and the Seven Stars were the primordial Pointers. Khurbat.). Subhat in Amharic. too. Tsamboadi in Musentandu. Sambodia in Mimboma. “U Kombile. Shash . Esa in Egbele. Shesh . there were seven of them. Sanskrit.TYPOLOGY OF NUMBERS. . 6 in Egyptian.. pointing with the forefinger of the right hand is synonymous with number 7. appears in the Inner African languages as Samboat in N’goala. Shebata in Kaffa..” he gave me seven. “How much did your master give you?” they will say. Aise in Hwida. 6 in Duman. Szeszi . Brahui. an image of plenty. the Two Bears were the Two Hands of the Great Mother. or a lot that revolved together. Seven was often called the perfect number. The Seven were the great heap.. Sisu . Kashmir. Aise in Mahi. Latin. as Hept (Eg. Here also the root-word is Inner African. Shash.. 2 Burton. The Hottentot Hongu the grouped or confederated ones for the number 7. Szesc. In fact. Shash . which is Sibitti in Assyrian. Its name. Assyrian. Basque. “the horses have pointed” (amahashi akombile) that is. literally he pointed with his forefinger. 219 digit on which was the figure of six. And in describing seven horses they will say. and Shash represents Sas. Soos in Arkiki. and good luck. is Teb (Eg. No. Shash . No. Size . Persian. The name of Number 7. or cluster of stars. points to the Great Bear as the celestial figure. to point..1 Such a mode of expression is based on fingercounting. which denotes the forefinger as the pointer. Sibatta in Gafat.. Tsambodia in Nyombe. is founded on the name of the number seven. . Old English.) is also the name for Plenty... Now with the Kaffirs. that when the North American Indians make the sign of Good2 with the thumb and forefinger of the right hand in front of the mouth the other fingers being closed. the finger or pointer. and who as Teb bears the name of the Finger. Number 6 being Eseses in Oloma. It is quite possible. who was Kep (the hand) or Kheb in Egypt.. 6 in Sclavonic.. Irish. Cochetimi. Chisa . The verb Komba. it is as the 1 Tylor. so that the forefinger becomes a figure of seven. Sises in Kandin. Dubhe. No. Seb-ti (5-2) in Egyptian. Se . Biluch. Smabat in Runda. Shash . Tsambodia in Basunde. a heap of food. The Bear also supplied the pointer hand to the Horologe of time in heaven. Sabata in Gonga.. Shesh.. The Zulu begins his reckoning with the little finger of his left hand and continues with the thumb on the second hand. Sex . Lithanic. The first star of this constellation. Samboade in Kisama. Aise in Dahome. Sei . The Constellation of the Seven Great Stars (Ursa Major) was probably the primordial figure of Seven. Sha-sha is expressed by the Hebrew ``.

The Bear constellation is Kep. Zend. the duplicate. from khi. Runda. Hepti. or twice 5. is the name for number Ten. Haft. Subhat. sign of number 7. and she was the Mother of all time. plenty. Duman. the fela denotes Two. A perfect parallel to Kepti (or Seb-ti) for either 7 or 10. Malagasy. Sambag. Wo-fela. the second or two. Hem. . Witshita. or the second digit on the right hand. 5. To make the ten out of Brai-a-redoe. Amharic. Chappo(t). Sate. Kaffa. Greek. for the number 7. or two hands. Gonga. The Egyptian number 7 as “Sefekh. Shebata. Latin. The Two Hands turned round and Sebti (Sothis) struck the hour of the year. From Kepti we derive Hepti and Sebti. seven being the second digit on the second hand. or 5—2. Septem. number 7. and Seven was indicated by one hand and two digits. Sanskrit. Hem-leso in Krebo is number 7 as 5 + 2. Saptan. Hapta. &c. Vitu. Hapt. and the two are Kepti. Egyptian. Heft. lots of food. Persian. two fists. but. 2. whence Hepti and Sebti for number 7. or it may duplicate the hand. Epta. Sumfela. Brahni. In the Vei. may be found in the lower dialect of the Papuan group in which Rebe is number 1. and Dsowe for 5 are identical with the Egyptian Seb (5) and Assyrian Hamsu. because the ti adds 2. Brai-a-rebe. Minetari. Efta.220 THE NATURAL GENESIS. as goddess of the Seven Stars. Menda. Half. or Kepti—may be traced the type-name for number 7 as:— Keopits. the figure of good. as hand (Kep) and ti for two. or twice one hand. the 2 must duplicate the 5 or the hand just as the ti in Kepti would have to duplicate the hand to make the value of the number 10 out of a word otherwise signifying 5—2 or number 7.. The Two Hands of Heaven were the Two Bears. Sebti becomes Sothis the Manifestor of Time. Fitu. There is nothing more common than the interchange of the numbers 7 and 10 under the one root-name in the African and other groups of languages. To this origin in the hand—2. for 7 in Matatan. Kep-ti may be read 5—2. and kh. or f1ve-and-one make the number 6. Avita. Here the Sum. luck. Kep or Keb is the earliest form of Seb (Time. actually 5 and 2. Koro. These were distinguisbed by the different gestures. Ngofela. Sabata. in the hieroglyphics. Tater. Dsowe-didi. This is on account of the digital origin of numbers and the naming in the stage of gesture-sign. Brai-a-redoe. Khurbat Heft. Xaip in the Namaqua Hottentot).” is found to be written by 5 + 2 in the style of the goddess Sefekh with the seven rays or horns. Hurrur. Kepti or Kabti in Egyptian denotes two arms. Fiji. Both hands held up were the first sign of ten. Biluch. named from th etwo hands of time Kep-ti. and this can only be read as Sef. Gbandi. and Tanu-na-Beli in Kiriman. Redoe is number 2. The general Kamite or Inner African mode of compounding the 7 is by 5 + 2.

Bissayan. for number 10 is fixed for ever in the number and the name of the Digits.TYPOLOGY OF NUMBERS. Petu. her son. the sign being the third and longest finger (known in Nusery language as “Long Gracious. But Typhon (i. or Kefa) was the earlier form of the Genitrix. These are dual in the two Bears.” Eight (Manx Hoght) and height are thus synonymous. Maori. As Tcp (Eg. Pitu. The type-name of Tek or Dek. In Egyptian Tek is to add. These were the two heads of Rhea. as in the Aponegicran Itawûnna (from Itawana). The height was here attained in the Octave. The two hands are femInine and masculine as left and right. Fiet. or Pedu. Bima 221 Here it should be borne in mind that numbers 2 and 7 frequently have one name and were determined by the two hands. These two were the two hands of the earliest Horologe. the She-Bear. Pito. was was a mystical formula. Kep. the Genitrix. Teb. Tep.). In Hottentot. Fitu. Pito. in Kep and Khebekh (or Kebti. was the earlier form of Seb. reads 6 + 2. From Kepti we derive Hepti (number 7).”) on the fight. Malay. Batta. Mayorga. The Egyptian Ses-sen for number 8. the later Sebti. The British Druids also had a number 7 called Mor Seisor. the other her son or progeny. Kheb. Fito. that made their circuit once a year.e. Iloco. meaning number 6 drawn out. Sasak. Pidu. Seven is sometimes reckoned as six extended. lower and upper. Savu. the Great Six. Ceram. She is the figure of number 4. The seven Stars identify her name with number 7. The origin and naming of numbers are bound up with the Seven Stars of the Bear. the masculine hand. the same as the first in the scale. This was the height of attainment as the repeating number. Kep is the hand and ti is tvo or twin. and both were represented by the longest finger on the right hand. who became Sut). Salawatti. Wahitaho. Fitu. Khaisi for number 8 signifies the “turning number. the goddcss with four aspects representative of the four corners. and Kep the hand with number 5. The Coptic Sasif for seven. Magarei. and Sebti. and as Apt (variant Fut). as the Quadruped. Cayagan. Another Egyptian name of the finger is Tekar. Fetto. Number 2 is the same as number 10 in the Two Hands. the first. Tagala. and Kep-ti is both hands or the number 7. Rhea is identified with Nupe the Lady of Heaven and Consort of Seb-Kronus. Fitu. and as Teb. join. is from Sas number 6. Pitu. The sign of this is . she also has the name of the finger. and Sevekh or Khebekh. she is one. in nature or in numbers. The two hands of Kep are a form of number 10 in language. Whitu. Pito. the original fingers used in reckoning. one of which represents the Mother. and multiply. Pitu. or Suti. as Kep the Mother and Kheb (ekh) the Child (or the Seven Companions). by name.

The Number 10 is— Atuk. Tukui. Tacha in Gonga. Deka in Greek. Togaserama in Bishari. the reckoning is Digital. Three. Tkshleio. Duguchi. Hatigor. a Cross. Dec in Breton. is the Digitus. Eight. Theike. Tekha.) is to multiply in reckoning. One Tkhlasale. Tegaun in Tarawan. &c. 10. Nowgong. the name . In the Maori language Toko is the prefix to numerals from one (Tahi) to nine (Iwa) and Tekau or Tokau is No. Tuklo in Chocktaw. Ten Hides. Tegotha. Dukuni. 10 is the pair of hands joined together and cut off—one meaning of Tek being to amputate or dock. Tech in Kolush of Sitka. Tek is the Cross-sign and a figure of Ten. Eskimo. Nine. Dikui in Kisama. Taklima. and the Roman figure of Dec-em or ten.). Tsue in Dsuku. Jeik in Manks. Songo. Six. the Tek Cross. Namsang. Duguchu. Tuka-bera. in Mende. Dak. The Hand is Takobero. Dicker. Dek. Numbers 2 and 10 have the same root-name in the following languages. Ten. One. is the Digitus. Deich in Irish. Tugr. Nine. Eight. Takau in Tongan. Takakkh in Ugalents. One hieroglyphic of No. Dugumua. derives his name of Tekh. Six. Tukatshi. 5. From this root. and the Goddess of the Months hers of Tekai. In the Deoria Chutia languagc (one of the Naga tongues of India) the numerals are all named with this root as prefix to the word. No. Duguchuba. and the digit is the Tekar (Eg. Seven.) to cross and clasp applies equally to the two hand and the ten fingers. Toko-jiuv. Decem in Latin. Atek in Unalaska. in Frisian. Five. Erroob. Tkhlaukantshs. In following this Kamite type-name we find that Tekar. Dek in Cornish. Tekinu in Onondago. Tzukkus. Aino of Kamkatka. Duke in Bagwan. Dohemy in Begharmi. Tokke in Lap. in Gbandi. Dszimtis in Lithuanian. Tkhaus in Piskawa. The two fingers stand for two hands. Four. Tshanat. Two. The Number 2 is Tagi in Jaoi. Dekanee in Nottaway. Teghia in Oneida. Thus Tek (Eg. Deig in Scotch. 5. Dekue in Alege. Deg in Welsh. Tenth.222 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Tegi.) as means of reckoning. in Gothic. Set of Ten. Gbandi. Degere. Degbo in N’ki. Mobba. Disi in Hottentot. Dugsha. Dziesiec in Slavonic. Taraksi. make the sign of Tek or 10 (x). is the Digitus. Dugda. Thatz in Cochetimi. Dugshe. Tekkinih in Mohawk. Five. and these. Tkhlawos. Tekau in Maori. Dekunda. when crossed. Aduk in Sekumne. Tsulukhatshi. Duguche. Baga of Kalum. Takha. Teka (Eg. Tutshoos. The Numerals of the Nsietshawus or Killamuk language of the Atna group point to the same digital origin by name. the Polynesian Teka. Two. Seven. Tag. Eregba. Gadsaga. Doheme in Bagrmi. in Egyptian. in English. Duguchi. Taht as the Reckoner. Tichnee in Seneca. Iteke. Teksi in Cayuga. Ten. No. Four. Three. Tekh (Eg.

” because. or Infinite. Jah is the Hebrew form of the Twin IU. as two had once been in Neb (Eg. rings. He says “Seven letters included within two fingers—™n dusˆ daktÚloij symbolize a song.) signifies to make fixed. the Tat. or within a ring. The Hebrew Rabbins speak of the “primitive existence contained in the letter Jad. for Teku (Eg. as the sign of totality. has the value of two hands. Another cross.TYPOLOGY OF NUMBERS. and the Two-one and Ten are identical in the Kabalist scheme. called a hand. Tat is also the hand-type. or the World of Emanations which contained the Ten Siphiroth. it is related to the most primitive beginnings. and to establish for ever. The Ten or both hands. The Jad is the hand. unapproachable.” It has been suggested by De Pauw that he meant daktulioij. may be traced to the act of digital reckoning. and the most archaic Phœnician or Etruscan form of the letter Jad Í is evidently the hieroglyphic Ten. . founded on the Crossed Tat (or hand) which first signified Ten as the extreme limit. the utter simplicity of which supplied the later ineffable mysteries of the mental twilight. or of two hands. Í. and was therefore made a type of the biune one. But the reference is to the sign of the two curved hands which were determined by the two 1 Book ii. also means the full. 10. 223 of the Moon-God and the Calculator. The two hands (Kepti) ctasped together and cut off at the wrists make the: hieroglyphlc sign of No. just as they are in the two hands. and therefore the symbol of utter beseeching. incomprehensible. hence the Jad. or IAU. Hor-Apollo makes an uninterpretcd allusion1 to the ten-sign of the clasped fingers. 29. as de Brosses thought. and it has the numeral value 0f 10. the sign would be one of tenfold and total submission to the superior power.) for the All. whilst Teta is the Eternal.” which is “unspeakable. 10. When the Zulus count a hundred the open fingers of both bands are crossed and clasped together at the completion of each 10. It is probable that the origin of the gesture made by clasping the hands in the postute of prayer or beseeching. According to Menasseh Ben Israel the name of Jah is not only that of the dual divine essence itself but it also designated the Atziluthic World. or No. applied to Deity. Etago in Bidsogo. that is the total. thus indicated the All. The Tek Cross X is one figure of 10. AO. and in Inner Africa the Full Moon is Etako in Wun. Hence the power of the Mystical Jad-sign of the Two Hands. The two crossed hands or fingers depict the cross sign of Tek that became the Tau and the letter T which was not. the Infinite or Impassable. unconsciously used to designate fixity. So in the clasp or hands in prayer or propitiation. Ten was synonymous with the All. in reality. is a sign of fixity. the Infinte or Impassable.

the Sphinx deity. pl. and Hyyu in the Aht language. or Jad. The O was evolved from the unified Iu.1 the R. or the IU and AO. as Boece avers. is a Snake. or D. p.” and Cotoxo “hiehie.” This.” for Many or Infinite. of Ireland. the figure of Infinity. The seven of the song belong to the musical scale. Hence the Iu in Egyptian is number 10 (or io) in common figures. The Egyptian U was inherent in the I. Tylor points out. Dabhoith. or Hehu. agrees with the Camé “II. Number 10 is Hyo by name in Nutka.224 THE NATURAL GENESIS.” “Euhiahia. and the ten digits is the number of the earliest signs known to the British Barddas as the Ten Ystorrinau. It can be proved to the eye. The Welsh sign of Ng is !. Among the British signs copied by Ledwick. for the Infinite. 328. which was worshipped as the god “O” in the Greek Mysteries. as Dr. who was of a dual nature. the God who in Israel was the Deity of the Ten Tribes and seventy divisions which preceded the twelve signs and the seventy-two duo-decans of the zodiac. Great mysteries lurk in simple signs like these which are the figures of very natural facts. the . a female breast. named Rat. Also the numeral value of the Hebrew Ayin is 70. the sign of the Infinite. and the oldest form of this letter is O. an Egyptian hieroglyphic Welsh dd sign D is the squared form of T. The Camacan Indians express many.) is twofold. and saying “Hi. Uwa. Antiq. The round loop of the Egyptian is squared in the Welsh. with the Infinite at the numeral value of Seventy instead of Ten. by holding out the ten fingers. IU (Eg. The Bobeloth letter. Also. or Tet. the English Teat. and thus we come back to the Hebrew I. reckoned by the seven notes as the All in music. The two fingers denote the 10 of the two hands. whose name is still expressed by the vocative O ! of religious aspiration. the type of Wisdom. . or Titty. is a Serpent. These also agree with the Egyptian Hihi. The Coptic letter-sign for number 70 is O. even if the mind refuses to take in and utilise the fact that the Kamite hieroglyphics were extant in these islands. Also. as the figure of the Infinite. Reckoning and making figures with (and of) the hands of course preceded letters. Seventy then was a sign of the Infinite. or Tet. is ÍÍÍÍ ° 1 Ledwick. The sign of 70 is common on the funeral tablets. and the 2 and 10 both meet in the two hands and ten digits. in the primitive sense. the Egyptians sang their lamentation. Heh or Hhu. a hermaphrodite. Tebu or fingers ÍÍÍ ´´. and one hieroglyphic T. and the Egyptian Ankh is { or „. as Hu. and is said to indicate the 70 Days of Mourning. The fingers are seven in number and ten times seven in value. signifying Wisdom. signifies an animal uniting both sexes. and by the ten of the Two Hands as the Total in reckoning. D. or infinite. in Xosa Kaffir.

). making the number sixteen.1 This origin of Ten Letters in the divine name which constitutes the number 10.. The ten originated in the three Shouts of Cyfriu sign. as IO. was the Ever-coming One. which.. or an IO. when traced back to its phenomenal origin. and Gimmel. now penetrated by a bard of the present. the trinity of characters and bi-unity of sexes. they tell us. is the two rays—the ray of Eilir. the Number 10 in figures. Iu or Iau.” and this Secret of the Barddas of the past. who were triadic in manifestation. Hence they are placed at the head of the thirty letters. a form of the ten letters. and the ray of Elved—which represent the Two Truths of Iu or Iau. The Ten are digital. or the Manifestor.TYPOLOGY OF NUMBERS. who was also the Three-fold One.” and the “Three Shouts. and the Ogham is based on numerical rcckoning of the strokes or digits. 1 . Now the Kabalist Ten Sephiroth. the Mother (Ked). 1853. Manx IE. This was the youthful manifestor of a Dual Being. as the word shows. comprise the whole world. the Dyad in sex. Now the Ogham characters consist of the Stroke and Circle. by analogy. as the Iu (Eg. Their symbol was the Cyrfiu sign # called the “Sacred Symbol of the Unutterable name of God.e. the Triadic form of the bi-une One. or. i. The Ten Sephiroth are also traced to a Triad dominating over all. was the profound “Secret from the Age of Ages among the Barddas of the Isle of Britain for the preservation of memorials of country and nation. the tri-unity. called the Younger. which are arranged in rows of ten letters each. which are derived from the creative name of Jah are likewise. and added six more. Also. p. These ten cuttings remained a secret with the Barddas when Beli the Great converted or transliterated the ten into letters for all. just as it is in the British Abcedilros of ten letters. which became the ‘ Epistle of Abulafia in Jellinek’s Duswahl kabbalistischer Mystik.. Child (Prydhain or Aeddon). The Ten Letters were represented by ten cuttings of wood. that were all derIved from the tri-une I A U.” i.e. dwy rain.” corresponding to the Hebrew Yad. the British O is called Or. 225 a squared reverse form of a hieroglyphic R called Ret. part i. looked straight before him along the line of the East. the Deity) is the name of the Umbilical Cord. 13. and Hu. So the Maori Iho (Mangaian IO. and by ten cuttings in the wood of the Gwyddon. ten Branches to the Tree of Knowledge. The origin is desribed as being in the “Two Rays. in one compound being called Jah. corresponding to the letters Aleph. the pubescent Male. The Barddas tell us that their Abcedilros. as we have seen. or Alphabet of Ten Letters was derived from the creative name of Iau (later IO). “Dwyrain. and the name of Jah.” The Gwyddon. Iau is also known as the Yoke. Beth. who. is identical with the most hidden wisdom of the Kabalah. the Yoke fo the Mother and Child. which is tenfold in the Kabalistic scheme of the Ten Sephiroth. Leipzig. and hieroglyphic ER is an oval .

Kabdo is a pair in Galla. 2 in Mordvin. through which the Barddas were able to compose.226 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Irish. 5 in Bulanda. Kepu in No. The group of five is the aieme. or Cyfriu sign # is identical at last with the Egyptian Au (a calf of either sex) the AO of the Mexicans and Greeks. The worshippers of Iau (or Hu) were the Iaus or Jews by name. two hands and ten digits. the two named IU in Egyptian. not vice versâ. the Cornish Dek. Guaim. Breton Dec. Acap is A (one) in Irish. broad arrow. 10 in Landoro. and the modernisers of the Kabalah are in a great measure wrong. This will show that the Kabalists and Athanasius Kircher. four strokes. or Wisdom. or Mangaia. Achup in No. It is from this concrete base that the more abstract Ghuaim. As numbers and their names originated in the phase of gesturelanguage it was by gesture-signs that the different values of the same word were determined. Egypt. according to Chinese etymologists. The Chinese “Three Lights” are likewise identical in origin and significance with the “Three Shouts” of the British. for reasons already explained. the IO of the Mangaians and Maori. who claimed a most ancient origin for these figures and types of the Kabalah were right. 40—52. whether in Cornwall. broad arrow of A 1 at Lloyd’s. Kif in No. or in letters. and how the 1 and 5. the digital sign of the Deity. was derived. which as two hands are the hieroglyphic 10. the son and the masculine soul. may have the same name. or qv in Welsh. China. double stroke. The Barddas. Finally. Palestine. three strokes. IU signifies origin. and this figure includes the Triadic form of the biune one. as before said. in the Amoy dialect. repeat the hieroglyphic Tek. . and Welsh Deg. Moreover. the figure of 10 or ten (Tekari) fingers represented by the double stroke. Kabti is two arms in Egyptian. the sign of which is x. The Ogham is based on hand-reckoning and on the straight and oblique strokes which turn to either hand. as was the Cyfrui sign of the Barddas. and five strokes. The Ogham marks are in sets of five—the single stroke. The following summaries will show at a glance the relationship of the hand to numbers and naming. the earliest form of that by which time is still reckoned on the face of the clock. 1 in Panos. Both Kef and Aem in Egyptian denote the hand as a fist of five. the one that becomes twain in the two rays or two hands. They must have gone out of Africa when the Number 10 was reckoned on two hands.1 Thus our A 1. for Number 10. pp. the 2 and 10. 1 Kip is the Hand in Egyptian. twin rays. Thus the Ogham is the circle of hand-reckoning. Kafto is No. which were the first forms of the two and the ten in figures. the one being. and with the I. It is also employed to indicate the supernatural or revelation. The radical ”Ki” or “Shi” is the sign of the Three Lights.

2 in Japanese. The Finger is Kobi-bui in Tumbuktu. Tumbuktu. 2 in Taraki. Rem (Variant) is No. Korana. Kaf . Egyptian. The Shoulder is— Kape in Padsade. Table is a hand in Sunwar. Bhit is hand in Bramhu. Tit is No. 5 in Kalka. Tith or Tythe is a 10th in English. 1 in Manyak.. 5 in Bagwan. 1 in Japanese. Tabi is No. Gubu in Boritsu. in Joboka. Kafada in Kadin. Gaben in Fulup.TYPOLOGY OF NUMBERS.. Taf is No. and one limb or part of it may bear the typename in one group of languages. Itabu is a hand in Yala. ——————————————————— Rem. and Alevi is one finger in Hwida. That is because the limb or branch of the body was named first. . Lime is No. in Polynesia. 1 in Burmese. 5. Fitak is No.. Tuta is No. Adirar. . Remn is the Arm in Egyptian. Suba in Adira Saba in Beran. 1. Gaba in Mandara.. 10 in Cocos Island. Komba in Pika. ——————————————————— ——————————————————— Lima is the Finger in Port Praslin. Gibo in Bayon. and Lef are interchangeable. 5 in Malagasi. Gapta in N’godsin. The African languages prove the paucity and the persistence of primitive words. 227 Onka is Hand in Mandan. not the particular limb. Gema in Mu-u. Nge is No. 10 in Dsarawa.. Kova in Koro. Kobeda. Irme is No. Number 2. 10 in Telugu. But is No. One radical does duty for several parts of the body. . Padi is No. Osba in Wadai. in Momenya. And these types are correlative under one name because of the digital origin in the limb. Number 5. also a pair of ears. Kambo in Param. Rima is No. Kaban in Filham.. . 1 in Yabu. Kafe in Gadsaga. Fito is No. Papiah. 1 in Nyamban. Tovo is No. This base of beginning is well shown in the Celebes Ternati dialect where Rimoi is Number 1. T’koam . Igabo in Sobo. Lof is one hand in Cornish. Kamba . 5 in Egyptian. Pati is Two Handfuls in Egyptian.. Kaffun . 10 in Japanese. Teb is a finger. Gumen is the hand in Banyun. Goba in Mano. Tabu is No. Gema in Gio. in Egyptian. 1 in Kakheyen. Dlem is No. and a different limb in another. Ankh is to duplicate. Roma-Toha. ——————————————————— Tut or Tû is No. Sabu. N’Gamana in N’gura. Gubuda in Biafada. Lafa is No. . Romo-didi. Tut is Hand in Egyptian. Lum is No. Gibar in Boritsu... Rima is the Hand in Polynesia. Onge-foula is No. Thus— Keba is the hand in Kra. Tup is No. Kamba in Momenya. . Kambo in Bayon. N’Gamana in Munio. 5 in Polynesia.. Lem. Tep is the first in Egyptian. N’gibo in Ekamtulufu. Gbo in Gura. 1 in Agawmidr. N’Kepa . Ozubo in Opanda. in Padsade. This principle of dispersion can be followed under the type name of the limb. 10 in Salawatti. The Arm is Gobo in Oloma. N’Gamana in Kanem.

because Liman is the hand in Macassar. Manx. Nlembo in Nyombe. Baba. or the fingers and toes. The Bohemian Rameno for the shoulder. Olemi in Bumbete. . . from which the arm is the branch. Lima . Dutch. . . or Limb is various. and the oar is the Remi. Sida. This radical of language had not only passed into the British Isles.. but is also found as Ramo.. Lima in Sandwich Islands. . Remmu in the Galla languges is the type-name for number 2. Sclor. the arm. . In the Anfue (African) dialect the arm is the Alome. Lima . Liman . Rem.... This is an Inner African type-name for the limb. This name was also applied to the paddle or oar. Liman . . Nlembo in Mimboma. is Chounoucaboraim. Riem. Moa-lembo in Undaza. a span. . and for 20. Lima . Sunda. Lema in Savu. Lima in Batta dialects. Ende. or the fingers of both hands. the finger. Lima . The Carib name for 10. . .. Buton. Lima in Ende. Lema in Tiomur. Betoi.. arm.. Cornish. . . Lima in Sumbawa.. Baram is number 2 in Wolof. in Takpa the Lem is the foot.. Port Praslin. Malay. Rima ... The English arm (earm) and limb represent the general type.. Favorlang. Fakaofo. a measure. Bugis. Nlembo in Nusentandu.. the finger. The Egyptian Remen is an arm.... French Romance. as far as the limit... the Latin Ramus the branch or arm. . Bima. The hand leads us to the limb. Mulembu in Kisama.. Liman .. Rumeni .. The Rim. Lima in Bima. Gaelic. Limak. Mulempu in Songo. THE NATURAL GENESIS. which shows the Remn or arm in relation to measure by the limb. The Russian Ramo is the shoulder. Oulima. Lema in Manatoto... Leamnh. as arm or shoulder. Dumagat. Ramh. Lima. New Ireland. Satawal.. Mandahar. Armeus (Lat.. Molem in Mutsaya. answering to the two arms or Rems... . . . . .. Lam in Tonquin. Mulembo in Kanyika.. .. Lima inMangarei.. and branch retains the full form of Ermennu (Eg. it is Chounougouci-raim. The hands of Horus are designated his paddles. the shoulder. Alemade . Lima in Fiji. Lamh . to touch the shoulder. Lave . Bati. Elansbue in Alege.. Lof . Keh Doulan.. Rima . Lamh is the hand in Irish. . Rimani . Lima . Lima in Ceram.. an extent. Bauro. Liman . . Rima in Maori. particularly of the animal. Lima . Lima in Sasak.. Lemi in N’tere.) is the shoulder-joint. . Saparua. Scotch. Lim. Leima .228 The number 5 is Lime in Malagasi. New Ireland. as finger. Rima . Liman . Rima .. Gaelic. Kiesa.. an early mode of determining the limit.... .. Wokan.. Latin. Lima in Cocos Island.. Rima . Lima in Rotuma. . Following the paddle we have the helm from the same origin..) which signifies the shoulder as well as the arm..

229 The African Remen or Lemen deposits both Rem and Ren (or Len) hence the interchange. is the type-name for branches. the branch. And the Tree itself as the African Cotton-Tree. Kaf and Kab are the hand and arm. at time with an added illustration of the mother bringing forth or branching in parturition. Limi in Housa. Limi in Bornu. Ghara in Landoro. is Limi in Bagrmi. the mother of the Renn or child. the Khepsh type of the genitrix Khep or Kheb. Ranka in Lithuanic. and in the Inner African languages the thigh as type of her who divides and doubles is named— Gba in Mano. and the twin-type in each case determines the name. Ghari in Gbandi. Riomh or Riamh. the tree being a primal figure of the mother. Limi in Munio.TYPOLOGY OF NUMBERS. When the ear is called Duas in lrish and Scotch. In the North American sign-language the idea of offspring or human branches is pourtrayed by a peculiar gesture which is made by the two hands drawn downward from the loins or reins. Lastly the Rima or five branches of the hand. Eram in Papiah. whether these are reckoned as arms or legs. as the Tree of Life. which points to the genitrix.) is the child. Limi in N’guru. Lingan in Menadu. . Lan in Chinese Amoy. Renga in Kupuas. and five branches to each limb. The child is the human branch of the mother (whose type was the tree) and in provincial English is often called a limb. that is from its twinship. and the Ream in English is a reckoning of twenty quires of paper. That also is a dual type. is numeration. Limi in Kandi. reckoning. and the hand is Aranine in Mare. one body with two limbs. Rongo in Murung. This naming of the one that becomes twin is at the very bifurcation of all beginning. Lang. In Egyptian the ear is named Ankh (as it is in many other languages). 5. Lango in Serpa. in Cochin China. The chief hieroglyphic of the one who divided to produce the Two is the hinder (feminine) thigh. The Renn (Eg. Gba in Mende.) signifies double. Aram in Param. in Kaffir. Here the prototype was the Tree and its limbs.) for the brach. as in Renpu (Eg. and Kab (Eg. The knee-pan is a Kap in Egyptian and Cap English. to part in two. Kabel. With the Kamilaroi people the limbs of a tree include the arm. Kebele in Mbamba. and Ankh also means a pair. in old English is to number. Lengye in Biajuk. and the Limb and its branches. Lango in Tibetan. Kufa in Bode. in Irish. Kebei in Nao. but the thick branch is a thigh. Kebele in Ntere. why Riman. So in the African Gadsaga the Lemine is the boy. the calendar. together with the reckoning of five thereon will explain why Rim in Icelandic is a computation. a reckoning. Kebel in Mutsaya. Limi in Kadzina. and the branch or shoot of the tree. No. In Egypt she was Rennut by name. Gbara in Toma. The mouth as the Gab or Chaps is another.

In the Hebrew the allusions to the oppressing sword2 serve to recall the Assyrian emblem of the sword and dove. 3 Jer. 7 a Sanskrit Kubja (Greek Xiphos). 2 . that is cut off and reckoned as a total. and the too-knowing will be sure to denounce me as over simple.” i. have one name and are equivalent as types. The hinder thigh is also a type called “Ur Heka. One of the ancient weapons of the Stone Age is called the stone knife of the green dragon.” the great magic power. a scimetar—and this has the same name as the hinder thigh.1 Such language is extant in other sacred writings. a crooked sword. The Egpytian Ten to cut off. or ten is another of the type-words of numbers. Next. We read in the Ritual. The Gba or Khepsh thigh was the Divider in parturition. which is represented by the : hind leg of the hippopotamus. because of the origin in the great magic power or Yoni. 40. Ten (Eg.” as a weaopon of power. Nimrod. The Khepsh sabre as the weapon used for cutting and dividing was named from the Khepsh thigh because that was the primordial Divider in the body and in giving birth. “I come forth as his child from his sword. the sword ending in the bird’s tail. 16. separate in two halves—ten being then half-moon—shows the reckoning by division. is the equivalent of our ten for the 1 Ch. the genitrix of the Typhonians. and has never been inter-preted. which were figured in one image. Ten also signifies the amount. But this is the important point. The sword or Khepsh being named from the hinder thigh. the Arabic name of the star Alpha in the dove (Columba) is Fakhz. accompanied by the Eye of Horus. and both are blended in one image under one name. the thigh. The root Tan. these equate. Thus the hinder part is synonymous with the weapon as it is in the Egyptian Khepsh. because the conventional green dragon has a sword at the end of its tails. 16. But the same tale is told by every other type-name of this beginning. each and every. the one Khepsh being copied from the other. The same symbolism is found in Japan. and l. tin. But how can a child be born from a sword? In Egyptian the sabre or scimetar is a Khepsh. This identifies the female sexual part as the great magic power of the primitive mind.e. the typical Power before a sword was manufactured to be called a “Khepsh. the feminine mirror. the sword is identical with the dove (the Yoneh).. divide. In accordance with this interchange. i.3 Hence the: sword with the divided tail of a bird that was continued in the Greek celidèn. xlvi. p. And here we quote a specimen of the beginnings which are so simple as to make the explanation appear incredible.230 THE NATURAL GENESIS. with the human body and its two arms as chief illustrators in gesture-language. Numbers and their names are based on a oneness or a one that divides and duplicates. 13. vol.) as 10 Kat.

. Shan. Tano . Timbora. Tanaraga ... Tan is the type-name for the number 5 in at least forty of the Inner African languages. Ahom. Toronka. is No. Ten. The whole Moon was Tent cut in two (English tined) to make the fortnight. Bambarra. Tan in Zend and Tena (Eg. Tango .. the Hand. Tanumi. Kabunga. Donga . Krepee. Siamese. which is— Tona.. Dinang. Tonsa . Malo. Their one is twin1 as it was in the bifurcation of the beginning. in which the people could count thus far. Adin. 5 in the African Makua.) denote the extent. Taintu . Annatom. Suntah. Dina. Kano. Hale. Tangan . Furian. Jervis Bay. Kamkatkan. Thigh.. Tin. the Hand. . The Tennu (Eg. Exploring Expedition. Tonga . Shan. Tinna. Bathurst. Otun . . Swahili. Sow. Lake Macquarie. is No. Gulf St. Borro. Atton . Fan. Cherente. Don and Ndon are 10 in Afudu.” Tin is “they” or “them” in the Motor language. Tin. Dangala . Laos. Dtun. Thigh. Tungus.. Kamilaroi. . This extent may be one hand—five. Chutia. Malagasi.. Tina. or Tian. Tin. W. English twain. Thigh.. Atheng . Aiawong. Danicra . It is the type-name also for knee and thigh as— Toon. Tini in Fiji is number 10 and the end or finis. Tianna-mook. Dango . Diegunos. . Musentandu.S.. Witouro. Vincent. or it may be two hands—ten. Tani . Tangan . Ten. and in several of these Tan is the full extent of the reckoning. Kono. Tangan . Batta. Bulanda. Tenna. Tanke . to be double. Tong . . Ternati. Muruya.. In the Batta dialects Tangan is the arm. { Hand or foot as an equivalent of number 5 and Thanu. Itena . Gúndi.. and other of the Inner African dialects. Dongo. King George’s Dien. Mangarei.) are the Lunar Eclipses which measured time by cutting off the light... Wolof. Adelaide. Mandenga.. Yakutsk. Meidji. Parnkalla. Tanga.. Javanese. Tangan . E.. Knees. Tangan. 5 in Mru. Ombay. 1 Wilkes. Ethnology and Philology. Juru Samang. Fulah. Dinna.. Tungei . Tangan. . The Marquesans reckon their fruit and fish by the Tauna. Tangan . Ten. Tanga. Tangbo . Idna. in Egyptian. Malagasi. Dengalau. Tungru. Maori. 231 half score.. In Languedac Tanca means to stop. Liverpool. vol.. the Hand.. Zulu Kaffir. Tinna. Peel River. Rejang. they take one in each hand and count by the pair instead of the unit. is to cut in two. U. Malay. Khamti... Tangan . Chinese... Tongotra. vi. Tan is number 10 in Vei. Ulu. Knee. Mandara. This is the most common name for the foot in the Australian dialects..” and “your. Tina. Buduma. Dana. Thus twain and ten are identifiable with the aid of the two hands or two legs. Port Phillip. Tin.. Tangan . Dina. Karuala.. or two-one. Tenna. is a plural for “ye. Guaham..TYPOLOGY OF NUMBERS... Sound. Tono. Kankanka. } This is also found as— Tin. Eduon. Dana. to double. Wirsdurei.

in Kano. whence Tser or Sila. the foundry. . That which divides is fundamental. a beam or joist. in Tene. in Afudu. tooth. with its variants. signifies foundation. Son. in Dsalunka. Sin. The heart offers an important ideographic type. is Stone. in Kadrina. Dseni. is Stone. One is a stone Statue. is universal as Nouna and Verb for that which divides. and duplicates. The Teeth. This radical Dsen Or Tsen (whene Sen and Ten). in Mandenga. Kaffir. in Bambarra. beginning. out of 44. Hebrew. Tsino. the Womb. has an earlier African form in Tsen or Dsen. under which namc we have the Thigh as Dsinya. Assin . in Baseke. The types of Foundation are many. is Sin. and in Chinese. Dsino. Sauki. and Ideographs as the earlier stratum of language. which divised in two breasts. It was a figure of basis. Dsina. Ashenee. may be followed throughout language in relation to the stone. and the radical Tes (Eg.” says the Osirian in the Ritual. with various types and modes of founding. Sin. Edsion. the cutter. French Romance. in Tumu. Sundso. the Weapon (Aitz. Old Algonkin.232 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Sanaa. in Kabunga.) for the Stone and Stone Knife. are named Dsin. Mantshu Tartar. Assyrian. Other forms of foundation are seen in Sende. Tsen. in Kandia. Types. with variants. Assin. Knistinaux. Thus the Heart may be an ideograph worth 1097 words.500 words. Sinu. opener and opening. Sinn. Son. Sin. and cutting. in Ntere. or . The same word was continued in the Old Algonkin. in Niete. and other Indian languages of North America as their type-name for Stone. 1. a bank raised against the water. The female bosom. abode of life. a wall. ivory. Sen and Ten. or fulcrum.nd the Name one. one type of which is the Heart.097 are founded on this radical Sin. “My Heart is my Mother. in Mutsaya. Basque). Dsinys. Sunu (Gael). that also divide in a double sense. a water-dam. This type-name. In Chinese. Latin. Sunu (Eg. Dsuna. the rafters of the roof. Sunn. another type of Sin is the heart. Seshatapoosh. Ashenes .. Chinese. Shin. in Babuma. Arabic.. In Egyptian the heart as Mat and Hat is identical with another habitation. in Kankanka. Ojibwa. In the Imperial Dictionary of Kang-hi. another an endless cord twisted into loops without any tie. Ten. Tsunis. a road. the Prototype being one. a testicle. foundation. This lands us in the domain of Thing. that accounts for both Ten and Sen as variants of one word. is Stone. Tseen. a tooth. The dividing river may he the Ticino in ltaly or the Teign in England. Sen.. Dison. Tsinia. founder and founding. Assene. cuts open. The founder as the Bee is Soni in Pika (African).) is to found. supplies a typename that runs through all language for things fundamental and foundational. Skoffi. however. Asenneh . in Marawi. in Murundo. French Sein. in Skwali (Atna). Disonga.

that opencd her.. Sengo. The earlier name of Nottingham is Snotingham. The one that first opened was the Mother. is sense.TYPOLOGY OF NUMBERS. his feelings and thoughts. and of whom they. Now the ancient British name for Nottingham was Tyogfawy.1 the house of the Cave-dwellers. Aborigines of Victoria. the natives. vol. the passage for the breath. in the way and ways described. at the time of puberty. also the Snout. also that these should be universal. 424. is to come into being. or the Men who made Holes in the ground. thighs.. The latter is the abstract of Sunt (Eg. Also the Snood (Caul) for the hair of the Woman. I am. This enables us to establish a principle of naming. The origin of digital reckoning shows us a Way to Words by means of things. who divided in producing the Child. these were his primary means of putting or posing his sense of need. or primarily we can commence with. say he has a knife and a Ber-rang. 233 furnace. Sunt. Chrysoros tÕn anoigša in Phœnicia. . in visible and imitable attitudes. comes under this name in Inner Africa. is Iron. mind. or the God Pundjel of the Australian Blacks. Sunn is to pass. there could have been but few sounds that were combined 1 Asser. p. is Iron. means to found or establish by opening the ground. Sono. and gestures. Mimboma.2 The body divides into arms. Gesture-signs preceded speech. to be founded. As aforeshown. That which is founded. which perfectly describes the beginnings of the Troglodytes. These were continued in the representation of Numbers and Verb. the Sut-Horus or Ptah in Egypt. whose name denotes the Opener. legs. Samas the Assyrian Heaven-opener.). when language first began. Syn. Rhretian. understanding. Sin. For. limbs. and it is natural that the most primitive types and typenames should commence with the human body. whence Sunn.). in Egyptian. and becomes twain. where Isen. was a sign of this foundation by opening. and was then personified as the opener in Mytholoy. breasts. members. in Nyombe. Seng Chinese. i. to be founded. Zengua . Basunde. Welsh. in Engilsh the Sea-Sound. Italian. the passage.t (Eg.t. understanding. the word Sunn. with which he can open anything in such a way that no one can tell how or where the opening was made. The first foundation depended on opening and dividing for the One to become twain. as Iron. the things in this case being mainly limited to the limbs of the human body. in Eafen. 2 Smyth. and Snot or Sunt. and “understanding” shows the passage from the physical to the metaphysical. and Sum in Latin. denotes the making of a foundation by opening the ground. and prove how a very few words could name many thing. Finally we get back to. and as primitive man began with the body. Chinese. signifies I am. is the Shin. the foundation of all in the opening of the Beginning. Zengo .

which constitutes a link between gesture-signs and the words of later language. and it has been demonstrated that Number was a prime factor in Naming.234 THE NATURAL GENESIS. The Evolutionist alone can comprehend the economy of nature in the commencement. The Typology of the Two Truths has now been applied to Numbers. and the process evolved a larger number of homotypes. . to form a few words which became the archetypes of human speech. or variants in things which are found to be interchangeable equivalents under the same name. These few Archetypes were of neccessity applied to various things.

. 349. . in order to give rise to such a noun as Asu. not to mere philologists limited to the Aryan area. and next to that the “Namer. in Nupe Zuzu . Esitako.. it would have been impossible to guess the original material meaning of the root As. ethnologists.).. is to breathe.. Also that the help to be derived from mere theorisers on the subject is chiefly negative. The Aryanists have laboured to set the great pyramid of language on its apex in Asia. In Egyptian Ses is to breathe. Kupa Zo . Max Müller has said that in the word Asu (Sansk.”1 Here the African languages show the Asu. then to exist. Unless this one derivative.. as non-evolutionists. .. Param. vol. .. p. ii. NATURAL GENESIS AND TYPOLOGY OF PRIMORDIAL ONOMATOPŒIA AND ABORIGINAL AFRICAN SOUNDS. For example. no vowel is primary in the earliest formation of words. which denotes the vital breath. to be. and its ORIGINS have been discussed. Hitherto the “science of language” has been founded.. is not a primary of speech. where we have now to seek for the veriest beginnings. The Inner African languages prove that words had earlier forms than those which have become the “roots” of the Aryanists. Yisie .. Zuezui . instead of its base in Africa. 1 Zuzu. Lectures.SECTION V.”) CONCERNING the origin of language it may be briefly affirmed that very little is known. Asu. My appeal is made to anthropologists. . and nothing absolutely established. Zuzu . Ebe. (Pythagoras taught that “Number” was the wisest of all things. without the ideographic symbols and the gesture-signs being ever taken into account. to breathe. . must have meant to breathe. is to breathe. in Basa. have laid fast hold at the wrong end of things. “As. and it must have passed through all these stages before it could have been used as the abstract auxiliary verb which we find not only in Sanskrit. but in all the Aryan languages. had been preserved in Sanskrit. who. Gugu. and in Africa beyond— Zuzu. then to live. . and evolutionists. the original meaning of the root “As” has been preserved. life..

The Latin Esse. in fact. a gnostic form of Tesas (Neith or Isis) is also the Mother of Breath. the Hand. to the child. and it belongs to the stage of mere duplicated sounds and gesture-signs. Sosa. in Dahome. Titia. Tata. Soasi. Welsh. and Hebrew Dad. the primordial giver of food. or in the act of offering. and to drop. or T. It is the Egyptian Tâ. has preserved both the s’s found in Ses. a condition of Miopoeia answering to their insanity of Mythopœia. How did Dā (Sanskrit) come to mean giving? Professor Noiré holds that primitive man accentially said “Dā. gesture-signs. And in Inner Africa the mare is named— Sosa. is not the only Tat. the Tat was presented in gesture-language with the offering. also a gift. the English Teat and Titty. the Hebrew. corresponding to the Egyptian Tâ. in Hwida. This is further corroborated by Zis (or Zi) in Assyrian. p. to give and take. also a name of food. Moreover the Dā personified in Sanskrit is the wife. in Gbese.) also denotes the brood or breathing mare. the Inner African— Ntata. because. is responsible for the false inference (one amongst many) that until recent times. language originated in the conscious duplication and repetition of sounds. Language certainly did not originate with the “roots” of the Aryanists. The full hieroglyphic word is Tat. 1871. and involuntary sounds. “Tat-tat” is a sound that may have originated with the child in sucking. Another hieroglyph. the Avesta. The duplicated sound was first. Long before the abstract idea of giving was conveyed by Dā or Tâ. Ses (Eg.236 THE NATURAL GENESIS. English Daddle for the fist. Basque. Tut. for the teat or breast.” And there we have a “root” of language! But Dā is only a worn-down form of wod found in Sanskrit. It is written with the hand. in Toma. 43. and Homeric writings—men were deficient in the perception of colour. The mammæ sign is the Egyptian feminine article The. Malayan. later than those of the Veda. Ta (or Tu).” nor with dictionary words at all. however. Seses. Verträge zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der Menschheit. that there was. Matatan. divorced from things. Greek. Dada.1 Max Müller 1 Geiger. which is the Tat ideograph. as will be maintained. for the inherent life or soul. °. These forms of the name retain the ideographic sound of T T. the Hand. but with things. the Hand. Did and Teth. Titthe. which are the worn-down forms of earlier words. Igu. as Ses-Mut. objects. to breathe. in Mahi. is the female Mamma. The hand. Meto. Sousi. Comparative philology. It is still made by the nurse when offering the mamma. and by Zuza in Zulu Kaffir. a type of the gestator and mother of life. applied to the breathing life of the unborn child. Ntata. . It has been asked. It did not begin with “abstract root. Geiger has even asserted than the language-maker must have been blue-blind. to be. Sosi. working with words in their latter phase.

Red (Ava) is the blood-colour. it may for a blue stone. and certainly will for water. Tsuni Goam. In Pazand the word Açma denotes both stone and heaven.e. Zulura. that is.” for blue. and how the more abstract forms of phenomena took names in language by means of the concrete. 110. signifying form. The Egyptian name for blue is Khesbet. It is true that language did not commence by naming those mere appearances of things in which the comparative mythologists take such inordinate delight. as The Blue.1 Samu (Ass. Yellow (Hūni) means the ground-colour. In Maori and Mangaian there may be no name for blue as hue and tint. deep water is called Zulu. for the blue thing. or appearances. because it likewise springs forth spontaneously. 26. 2 Ritual. and appearance. Am for green. Grey (Khan) is the colour of the Bos Elaphus. Such a word includes various qualities and properties of things under one name. White is egg-coloured. likeness. i. the blue tempertinted steel. true that colours are among those appearances and qualities. heaven was identical with precious stone. or the blue sea overhead. the sandy soil. lapis-lazuli. Goddess of the Northern Heaven. originally meant springing up and shooting forth like the verdure. xxiv. 1 Ex. Brown (Gamab) is the vley-colour. the bottom of a dried-up pond. Spotted (Garu) means the Leopard. The “Zulu” name signifies heaven. 10. The Egyptian Heaven was either the Blue Stone. and yet blue as a thing may be found in them. just as white is of wheat—when ground into flour.—the unknown being expressed in typology by means of the known. as shown by the Minokhird. 3 Hahn. A lesson in the primitive system of colour-naming may be learned from the Hottentot language in which the word for colour itself is īsib. Many early languages have no word for blue as a colour. Hence. but this does not show that the people did not know the blue heaven from the white or red heaven when they saw it. The water above is the blue heaven.3 Hence when the rainbow is also called Am the sense is not limited to the green-colour. . 237 has affirmed that the blue heaven does not appear in the Veda.TYPOLOGY OF P RIMORDIAL O NOMAOTPŒIA . literally means skyishness.) is both sky and blue.2 If a language does not possess a word for blue as a colour. or the Old Testament. The Hebrew heaven is the paved work of sapphire stone beneath the feet of the eternal. The Ja-jow-er-ong dialect of Australia uses the sky itself. Ch. how things first suggested the ideas that were afterwards conveyed by words. This serves to show how the primitive thinkers thought in things when distinguishing properties. and. the Avesta. That was the thing. “woorerwoorer. shape. and in the Ritual the blue called the “Upper Waters” is identified with the blue Woof of Heaven in the worship of Uat. p. qualities.

That which is carved may become the “Kam-hu” (Eg. not merely as the Black land! The sculptor forms and creates the image by carving. for blue and green water. Kam also interchanges with Kan. hence “Kam.” But the “nature of things. The dark was the Mother as reproducer of light. &c.). Power of perceiving qualities and distinguishing things did not depend on the possession of words to express shades of difference. plants. To reproduce is to begin. and gesture-signs. images. or a carving. The Egyptian “Kam” may be quoted to indicate the relationship of words to things.) for water does duty for several colours. or think we think. Mere philology can never reach the origins for lack of determinatives.” a carven image. the root for which word has never been found. to carve. and stones. The Biblion from Bib (Eg.) to roll or be round. the other by spitting with the accompaniment of an interjection of repugnance. Kam signifies black. ideographs. The Of Isis and Osiris. various paints. and Plutarch tells us the Egyptians applied the word to the dark of the eye.) a joint of meat. There is no way of attaining the early standpoint and getting back to an origin for words excpt by learning once more to think in things. there being various means of forming and creating. Kamut (Eg. and a smack of gustativeness. and named Kam. the Mirror. “They that have not learned the true sense of words will mistake also in the nature of things. Lepsius. hieroglyphics. So far from “conscious perception being impossible” without a word for each colour. Plutarch says.” also meant to form. Here the word branches out in the region of things and modes of action.2 The Word at first was but a wavering. Denkmäler. The early men thought in things and images where we think in words. Indeed the oldest words can only tell the most important part of their history when re-related to things. and “Kam” also signifies to carve.” tells us the Book was the tablet of beech-bark in Britain and the palm (Buka) of Taht in Egypt. or in the “Cameo. the one word Uat (Eg. Sweet could only be distinguished from bitter when the one was only expressed by the mouth watering. to create. had been the roll of papyrus before it was the book. for carving in ivory. Egypt was literally created by the Nile. Cf. Perception of different colours did not depend on divers words. 48. wandering shadow of things which are the determinatives of its meanings that only become finally definite in the ideographical phase which the Aryanists have entirely ignored.238 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Professor Sayce holds that there is “no reason in the nature of things why the word Book should represent the volume which might just as well be denoted by Biblion. 1 2 . A. one served with several determinatives in things.”1 So we may say that those who have not learned the true nature of things will mistake the sense of words. The pupil of the eye reproduces the image.

” “repeatedly. and Goiing pourtrayed in several forms preceded any abstract word for to Go.” “no go.” “by turns. 519-520. the sexes crossed.” “it is so thick. moon and stars were observed to cross before there was a verb signifying to Cross.1 Also the reduction of the noun to 1 Mallery.” “starting.” “together. A pair of feet Going is the sign of the transitive verb to God. Gesture language shows that verbs as words were the least wanted.” “hatchet” (to cut). Where should we begin? With which. and one word or sound had to serve at first for various uses.” “twisted three cords. the verbs may have been first.” “threw it out. The earliest forms can only be found in the primary stratum of language. which were like the actions of an orator only they took the place of the words and made the unnecessary.” “many. the same word at different times assumes the functions of several parts of speech. The clicks. From the present stand-point it would be idle to discuss whether the roots of language were at first verbal or nominal. and in aboriginal sounds. the original types of expression. the same word did duty as noun and verb or other parts of speech. in gesture-signs. So far as gesture-language was primary. spread over vast spaces of country.” “drifted out.” “tied three together.” “quickly. In Africa only shall we find the most rudimentary articulation of human sounds. that is. must be allowed to have been evolved in Africa until it can be shown how they came there otherwise. in Ojibwa.” The analysis shows that the speaker who had words for his Verbs and Numbers naturally preferred to indicate these by gesture-signs. 239 primary modes of expression have now to be sought in their birthplace. pp.” “ice moving off. A Cross is the hieroglyphic sign of verbs in general. We also find that in languages like the old Egyptian and Chinese. There is of course a kind of grammatical sequence in the order of gesture-signs.” “to a distance.” “number two. and therefore the last named. .TYPOLOGY OF P RIMORDIAL O NOMAOTPŒIA . the sun. although further connecting links of construction may be established.” “we two. Verbs would be enacted before they were uttered in what we could recognise as speech. told orally and with gesture-signs shows that Gestures only were used to indicate the “old man. The African dialects. which accompanies gesture-signs and preceded verbal speech. “going.” “happening. but their signification was chiefley conveyed by the action. A Na-wa-gi-jig’s story. the formation of words by the duplication of sounds. the primitive modes of articulation. whether these are called the names of things and actions in one respect. because they had existed prior to such an application of words. or what language? In Maori.” “cutting the ice. Sign Language. point to an original unity in a language which may not be extant for the grammarian. and certainly will not now be discovered intact by the traveller.” “nearly sundown. and the hands were crossed in reckoning.” “tired. or “parts of speech” in another.” “wind blowing.

). in Kaffir. this also shows the Verb is a form of the Noun reduced. So Paf or Bab (Eg. the snake also sloughed its skin. Hence “Hef” becomes a type-word for things that slough. T or D is the feminine Article (Eg. 142. Thus the dd (British) and TT or T (Eg. to slough. gives a good account of the Name and its object.) are signs derived from the female mamma °. and guide. and the door is another feminine symbol. make the verb might be amply shown as in Tat for the Hand and Tâ to give. This became our letter D. whence hefu. ch.1 Time was when the “Name” was the “Word” and so it remained embalmed in the religious origines when the “Word” (Logos) was the “Name” personified. which is merely hinted at. It may be that the beginning of verbal languages with a few simple names for things. Ra has 75 names. English. with the snake. Names. D is also the Door. sensations and actions is indicated by the mystical value attached in later times to Names. to cause motion or heaving. the mouth of utterance. as the viper. and Tr. the Ru is likewise a female type. . or shed. to repeat. Also certain types of Things equate on account of the unity of origin in the thing itself. or heft (Eg. Dl or Dr furnish the name of the daleth and door. and because things preceded signs. If we start from Africa. this may tell us how the noun was extended in the verb stage. These were named in one aspect from their movement. Nor need we marvel that words should retain their identity and likeness in languages the most remote from each other in time and 1 Rit. Possibly there is a mode of proving how things were named first.) denotes the Being as the Breath. then. In Egyptian. and Havel. direct.240 THE NATURAL GENESIS. the door of life. The word Nam (Eg. Osiris. when we commence with the most primitive data in the birthplace of words. and caterpillar. to be a breathing soul. by means of the actions of the snake. potentially contained all the other parts of speech. But. for the slough. 153. These have been continued from the earliest time to the present and remain more or less identifiable according to the principles of naming. their primitive preciousness being reflected in their religious sacredness. Hef represents an African typename for the reptile or instect that crawls with the heave-motion. The passage of the Osiris through the underworld is effected by his preserving all the mystical Names in memory. as Daleth in Hebrew. and which might be followed illimitably. to crawl by heaving. èfa. Breast and Door. as well as heave. will prove the priority of sounds and names for things. in Welsh. or substantives. hence êbu. hence Avel for the awn of barley.). As breathing was observed and breath was named earlier than soul or abstract being.). This process. say. the actions of which were indicated by gesture-signs. become one in letters because both are interchangeable images of the female sex. worm. and Bâ is the abstract verb to be.

” Grimm having pointed out a law of diversity which governs the interchange of certain phonetics his followers have further assumed the non-existence of a law of uniformity in an earlier stratum of language. . “Never change barbarous names. chartless. although they might not know from whence these had been derived. For 1 Cory. The followers of Grimm have led men to believe that beyond the little Aryan oasis there is a desert world. limitless.” said the Chaldean oracle. The gestures must have been simple. appear to speak as if the origin of language itself depended on “Grimm’s Law. self-defining. and the proto-Aryan is unknown to them.TYPOLOGY OF P RIMORDIAL O NOMAOTPŒIA . 271. But we have to go beyond words to make a beginning at the stage where the act of Sucking might have produced its own selfnaming sound in the “Tt-Tt” of the suckling. the racial or the dialect differences that may be tabulated under that Law. Ancient Fragments. [2nd ed. the true moral. customs. And such was the spirit in which the primitive races preserved their knowledge. one shallow reviewer of the previous volumes of this work thought it sufficient to condemn them if he put forth the foolish falsehood that the author had expressed supreme contempt for “Grimm’s Law.” Indeed. But words did not have their beginning in any known form of the Aryan languages. the cry of the Greek writers was for the people to treasure up the “barbarous” or foreign words in their language. Further research and a wider application of the comparative process might have taught them that it does nothing of the kind. The earliest races preserved them of necessity. to be derived from Grimm’s Law is that words do persist and retain the same signification in spite of. nor what was their exact import. Indeed. Grimm’s Law forbids. excepting that which has been created by the Evolutionists of the inner consciousness. Some non-evolutionary writers on language. the first Substantive by the sound accompanying the gesture or action. and words. trackless.1 Also. the workable and profitable deduction. The earliest Verb would be indicated by the action. 241 space. as the Egyptian priest said of the Greeks. towards which they have not yet advanced the second step. wear the down of juvenility in their souls. and the sounds accompanying them would have a natural accord. When pleading before the tribunal of eternal justice the Osirified deceased declares that among other saving virtues he has never altered a story in the telling of it. 1832]. who. and that none but they could lead in the work of showing the way. when we find how few they were at first and how faithfully they were preserved. p. Whilst limiting their comparative diagnosis to this restricted area they confidently affirm that when two words are spelt alike in two different historic languages they cannot be the same. and not in consequence of. traditions.

whereas in the earliest stages both were one. this being one of the “first principles” of “Comparative Philology. and hitherto these have been left outside the range of discussion by Grimm. But it is only by the aid of what is here designated as “Comparative Typology” that we could ever reach the stages of language in which the unity of origin can be recoverable. Thus stated the theory exposes its own exceeding futility. Words coined when we have but ten letters or yet fewer sounds. Bopp.242 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Addition did not always involve transliteration or supercession. . but there is no Grimm’s Law which will allow us to prove this. The latest forms of these have to be traced back to the first before we can know anything of the Origines. Fick. We are unable to get to the roots of all that has been pictured. Pictet. Schleicher. Müller. but the unity beyond it is unknown and denied. and now the fundamental sense can only be found in that phase of unity. any more with words than with races. In Grimm’s Law—to use a very homely metaphor—philologists have found a fork and laid hold of it at the prong-end. On the same kind of authority it would be unscientific and absurd to compare the gesturesigns of the North American Indians with those which survive in the Egyptian hieroglyphics until we have first demonstrated the grammatical affinity of the Algonkin and Egyptian languages. Gesture-signs and ideographic symbols alone preserve the early language is visible figures. For Semitic let us substitute Kamitic. The prongs are known to them. and a comparative vocabulary in these volumes will then show that the word-stock of Egyptian and Sanskrit must have been essentially the same in the proto-Aryan stage. or written. printed. Grimm’s law has been to them the obliterator of landmarks throughout the range of the pre-historic past. except by deciphering the signs made primally by the early man. it is not only unsound and non-scientific but positively pitiful for any one to compare the words and myths of two different languages which they have not previously proved to be grammatically allied. and the rest of the Aryan school.” They hve come to the conclusion that hardly any relation exists in language between the sound and the sense of words. He therefore assumes that connection and relationship can only be demonstrated by unlikeness. these are the true radicals of languages. According to the prevailing delusion and the preposterous pretensions of its advocates. One writer says the Aryan and Semitic languages may have been originally connected. without which the philologist has no final or adequate determinatives. Pre-historic and pre-Aryan words have remained the same independently of later grammar or phonetic systems. Whitney. whereas continual re-beginnings in language and in mythology are assumed by the non-evolutionist interpreters of the past. survive in their primitive forms even when we have twenty-six. because they have not reached the handle.

He asserts and reiterates at every letter that the Hebrew alphabet is not ideographic. or stereotyped in the hieroglyphics. so that Zeus in Greek represents Deus in Latin. Beyond Egypt. the syllabic Mu is later. In these the Ntu of the same group also implies the form in Muntu. and are equivalents. but the doctrine is prevalent in current philology. Grimm’s Law is just as applicable to certain Inner African groups of languages as to the Aryan. In fact. so to say. the letter M is last. the farther we go back the nearer is our approach towards some central unity. just as we find it in gesture-language. These show the Ideographic phase of language which preceded the Alphabetic. The origin of Grimm’s Law is made manfiest in the earliest mode of speech. which modified into all three. They only affirm that it is so. Mutu (in Kanyika and others) and out (in Mbamba). Man is Muntu in Wakamba. The unity was first even as the diversity is final. Neither can any of Grimm’s followers. In English the f and gh interchange. M and N are constantly permutable in language. and these could not have proceeded from the circumference towards a centre of unity. In the Bantu class the dialect differences and variations in phonology are manifested by the Mb of . but the sign of the Ida. the builders-up of language backwards. who are able to start from a vowel as a “root” (they do so with “i” to go). Grimm’s law does not tell us why certain letters are interchangeable in different languages and dialects. which has ignored the earliest sign-language altogether. or Person depicted by the “Men” ideograph is first. and Dyaus in Sanskrit. The hieroglyphics show that Mand and Mad (Mat) are identical because an ideographic Men preceded and deposited the consonant M. 243 Fuerst is another example of the men of “Letters” as opposed to Ideographs. Finally the most primitive customs. without knowing the diÒti. In Hebrew and Chaldee the T and S are interchangeable. assume that the word Mand in Sanskrit is what they term a mere strengthening of a root Mad. to such an extent is this carried that the gh is also sounded as f in laugh and cough. and in the neighbouring Wanika he is Muta.TYPOLOGY OF P RIMORDIAL O NOMAOTPŒIA . and the facts are patended. So in the languages of the Gabun the names for the head run through Muntue (in Kisama and Lubalo). Ntu (in Nyombe and Musentandu). rites and ceremonies are the most universal. From circumference to centre diversity diminishes and dwindles. and the sign is readable as a Men (ideographic and early) or a later phonetic M. and that each name is only employed or intended to represent the initial letter! This is an entire reversal of the fact. Wherever the ideographic signs of the oldest civilised nations can be compared evidence of the original unity becomes apparent. For example. Here the Egyptian hieroglyphics constitute the connecting link between language in Inner Africa and the Aryan phase or status out of it. Action.

1 Names were first given with and to ideographic signs.) denotes the figure. and these are signficantly like our own figure of four. and delta has the numeral value of 4. and the f by K. An ideographic RET will further account for the same figure or letter being Ro in Coptic or Greek and D in the Gothic ). and S in Swahili. the Phœnician letters daleth and resh are two slightly varied shapes of the Ret. tech or Tek being variants) this deposits both a T and S in the hieroglyphic p and henceforth the T and S go their several ways in forming future words. An “original Aryan D” may be represented by L in Greek or Latin simply because there was an ideographic Proto-Aryan Del (its name remains in Delta and Daleth. and Dr. which the Ret loop explains. our English door. which describe an ideographic D) or Ter. Beth. The T (Swahili) is represented by R (in Makua). or for similar interchanges of H and F. 4 to show that it also is a form of the same original hieroglyphic. and one sign of the word is the foot-stool with four steps. The Hebrew letters Aleph. as in Egyptian. Phœnician (or Hebraic) and Syriac letters as the Teth $. as. Thus a Tat. Ch. If we take the Tes sign (Tesh. & or (. in common with the Hebrew Daleth. Ret (Eg. Thus the ideographic Ret becomes an R in Egyptian and Irish. An ideographic Hef will deposit both a phonetic H and F. The hieroglyphic Ret 3 a cord used for tethering cattle when grazing. So the Coptic delta d and lauda l. . are represented by Sh in Makua. In the hieroglyphics the snake is Hef in an ideographic phase. hard. In the inscription exhumed by Davis at Carthage. passed into the Hieratic. Various signs of Men are reducible to one phonetic M. Daleth continued that ideographic phase in their names as those of things which are yet identifiable. and a letter T in Phœnician and in other alphabets. another figure of 4. or Tek deposits a phonetic T. The same sign appears as the R called Rat in an Irish alphabet. Now the sign 1 B Chauncy Maples. the Ng (Swahili) into K (Makua). and all meet to mingle at last in one letter T which may take the place of a dozen ideographs. whilst the T of neighbouring tongues is th in Makua. according to De Roquefort. In Egyptian this Ret deposited a phonetic R. In the phonetic stage the snake supplies the sign of F. Bleek. Here is an illustration. %. Gimel. which is R is Bashmuric. In Hebrew “Teth” signifies something twisted or tied.244 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Ter. The hieroglyphic Mes will account for the Greek S being continued as a kind of M = S. are two other variants of the Ret. it was by the ancient Romans. The Hef only will account for the Latin fœmina being pronounced hœmina. Swahili modifying into P in Makua.

If we take the variant Tech this will account for the equivalent terminals t and ch in the English Pit and Pick. Beyond Egypt the Inner African languages are yet in possession 1 Copied and compared by Dr. we can prove the proto-Aryan origins to be hieroglyphical and Kamite. and the Zend Us applied to upholding. H. or Bat and Bak. an ideographic Tek. Athenaum. which becomes the Ter (or Tel) and Ser. bear aloft. That must be sought in their ideographic values. and so on through all the ideographic signs that passed into separate letters. Hyde Clarke. whether at the beginning or end of a word. 1882. Damana in Wadai. Set and Tet are then interchangeable in the later languages. as in our Tut Hill. the Lioness. support. the bare fact will neither disprove nor determine their unity of origin. and Asmanye in Adirar.) to bite. where it becomes both Set and Tet. as variants of one word. 245 in the letter stage would determine nothing respecting the origins.1 which are alike to the eye and yet may be different in phonetic value. . an ideographic Men deposits both M and N. Just as the ideographic Pesh or Peh. An ideographic Kaf will account for the interchange of k and f in Swahili and Makua as well as in English. One form of the ideographic Uts (Eg. and then added six others. It is the same with the equivalent terminals as in Bit. both T and c as two different crosses in the phase of letters. We have a record of this process preserved in the traditions of the British Barddas. upwards. and other instances in which the t or d of one language is represented by s or z in the other. 9 became the letter Shin in Syriac. It is the same with the Tser (rx) Hill. and Bis (O. who tell us they began with ten original Ystorrinau. But the original unity of various letters in the ideographic phase is afterwards shown by their being equivalent and permutable in later languages. Thus Tset. Sanksrit. an ideographic Kef both K and F. In the process of reduction and distribution an ideographic Del deposits both D and L and phonetics. is continued as Tset in Egyptian. G. up. The word Uts signfies to suspend. the Inner African type-name of the Hill. This is an Ideographic original which will account for the Sanskrit Ut. making sixteen in all. In the Arabic group the number 8 is both Temen and Seme in Beran. which is a Cross. The primary form of the sign (as well as of the word) is ideographic. or ideographic signs. the rump of Pasht.) is a palanquin. Sept. we must trace it back to the ideographic Ret before we can discuss the origin or unity. and there the Phœnician letter is an Egyptian hieroglyphic which was continued in the ideographic phase as the Irish “Rat” or letter R. which Beli reduced to the vaule of letters. By this process of deriving the consonants singly from the ideographic phase in which they were dual or duplicated. This shows that when certain symbols are found in the Vei and Lolo hieroglyphs.TYPOLOGY OF P RIMORDIAL O NOMAOTPŒIA .

In Fiji the letter Q is sounded Ng. Dlw. Lr is represented by L in one language. He can learn to make some of them singly. p. The nasal Ng bifurcates into N and G. unless we except the “Ng” and Tesh. a G and a GB. and other North American languages are described by Haldeman. Govar. i. Nothing short of Inner Africa is of primary importance in the origins of Language. 36. when the “gh” of “Laugh” is sounded by an “f. Kaffirs. in Cornish. Th. and R in another. . in Welsh. Such an original is still implied. of certain complex sounds that the European finds impossible or very difficult to reproduce. Ai-Bushman. as the Bushmen. Whitmee distinguished clicks in some dialects spoken by the Negritos of Melanesia. It is represented by the Hebrew Ayin o. and difficult to articulate without long practice. Egyptian NK. Biri. Cobhar. There is no distinction between R and L in the Hieroglyphic ‘. Clicks have been detected out of Africa. Mhl. Khoi-Khoi. Gafr. The Goat is: Kopros. Two are found in the language of Guetemala. even in English. 1 Biri-i. Gbarie. A Mission to Gelele. Mni and Tsh with its variants Tch. Kf. Rl or Lr. Khoi-Khoi. in Peguna. Ng also modifies into Nh and N. The “Ng” persists in the Australian. In addition to the clicks we find such sounds as Ng. in Latin. Caper. Now the names of the God and Cow can be traced back to the Inner African stage of pronunciation. Dzh. in Scotch.”1 This Gb with is variants. Epuri. But Africa is the true land of the Clickers. the latter at first inaudible to our ears. Mb or Mf. Abr (or Kabr). Meto. Oboli. and the M or V are confused in the cuneiform language. Maori. and the Hieroglyphic Ng of the British Coelbren staves. Tkhavi. Captain Burton sometimes renders the same sound by the R that others render by the L. or Dahoman. Hence the necessity of going back to the birthplace of human sounds to reach the radicals of speech. The accent in âbr denotes an abraded form. like the Egba or Abeokutan language. Kaffir. King of Dahome. This we recover in the Inner African name of the Goat. It might have been the first word formed of two different consonants. according to Bleek. heard in the Chinook. such as Kf is one of the radicals of all languages. Matatan. Okuloma. a dialect of the great Yoruba family has. Captain Burton. and others. Bora.246 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Eburi. Gallas. Captain Burton has remarked that “The Eafen. Udso. and other langages as an Initial Sound. vol. but cannot talk in clicks. Mose. Pika. Obori. Three clicks. Klaproth affirms that clicks occur in Circassian. Gobhar. etc. in Irish. in Egyptian. and this is the only known country of the Clicking Cynocephalus who was the predecessor of Man. Gb. Khapu. it is so primitive and prevalent.” The Mb (or Mfu) is likewise extant when the ancient Welsh M is sounded V. in Greek. and with us as a terminal. in Georgian. Texan.

in Kasanda. in Musentandu. Enope. Ngom. in Kabenda. in Kabenda. in Runda. Ngombe. Kebma (Water-cow). in Kassands. N and G. Noiré. in Egyptian. Kombo. in Pahlavi. in N’gola. Gbami. in Karekare. Nkombo. Nomba. in Lubalo. in Kiriman. in Mano. And the Cow is called Kom. Komo. Gbua. and in an earlier stage of articulation the Goat is Nkombo. in Soso. in Nyombe. Nombe. Geûsh. K and F. Nompa. in Mutsaya. in Songo. in Mutsaya. The Sanskrit Gaus is said to be from a root Gam. Kombo. in Marawi. The Cow is Gova. in Mimboma. in Indo-Chinese. Enobe. Nompe. in Nyombe. in English. in Gbandi. in Muntu. Gavi.TYPOLOGY OF P RIMORDIAL O NOMAOTPŒIA . in Gothic. in Egyptian. Ngombe. in Kanyika. Ngbe. made out. The “origin of language” itself is not a problem to be attacked and solved by philosophical speculations like that of Dr. in Pika. first uttered by one effort. This is either Goab. Nombe. when what we now know as consonants were sounded double as in “NG” for the later N or G. along a track that only the evolutionist is free to pursue and explore. in Lettish. Gows. and other African dialects. in Landoro. Ngumbi. Nombe. Govyado. and “Mb” for the later M or b. a Herd of Cows. To know anything with certitude we must go back the way we came. The process here indicated is that of Nature herself elsewhere. and specializing on lines of variation from an original form of embroyonic unity. in Hottentot. 247 Gb and Km interchange. Kaûi. in Nyamban. T and S (or K). . in Meto. in Matatan. Ngombe. Cow. So it is with the name of the Knee. However happy the guess or ingenious the generalisation. Kembi. before they had been fully evolved. in Sanskrit. which were afterwards evolved. it can only be one of the many may-have-beens to which there is no end. Chuo (plural Chuowi) in High German. The original African form that includes and accounts for the whole of these Variants is found as Ngompe. or Govjado. in Kisama. one of dividing. Ngombe. in Basunde.. Nkombe. and we shall find it is because they are twin from the birth as aboriginal sounds. or Goam. Nkombe. Kombo. in Gbese. Khaboi-kumi. divided. Ngombe. But the natives are not trying to talk Aryan! These things were named in the stage of primitive prounciation. discreting. It is at this depth of rootage we have to seek for the reason why M and B. in Musentandu. and distinguished as two distinct phonetics or letters in later language. &c. Kombo. in Sclavonic. in Basunde. Ngombe. became interchangeable in later language. Ngobmi. in Kaffir. Nombe. and discreted into our single sounds. or Khepsh.

may be claimed to be self-conferred. There have been development and extension. in accordance with the laws of evolution. January. The name of the Cock. philosophers. that was at the commencement.” or “without language no thought. Speculations without the primary data can establish nothing.248 THE NATURAL GENESIS. 1 . Samuel Porter (of the National Deaf Mute College). mythology. and that there was but one beginning for language. like mere circles in the water or the air. But this might be. and symbolism. The type of warfare that was founded when the monkeys first threw stones at each other has been continued ever since. It still dominates when the hundred-ton cannons hurl their ponderous shells. without choice in the matter or desire to differ. this choice in the matter.” is equal to saying “without clothes no man. and Colonel Mallery’s Contributions on the Sign-Languages of the North American Indians. Darwin’s work on the Expression of the Emotions in Animals and Men. however numerous the missing intermediate forms of widely scattered the nearest links. was so given and might be given at any time in any language or land. There was but one stage at which the principle could have wrought in the creation of language. So it has been with other types. Princeton Review. as did the savages before the cereals were cultivated for corn. There could be no consensus of agreement if all mankind set up as conscious languagemakers according to the principle of imitation or onomatopœia. 1880. in gesture-language. Unity of origin in language was only possible when the human intelligence was too limited to disagree and diverge. The formula—“No reason without speech. are of more value here than all that has been written on the origin of language by philologists. no speech without reason. and.” We know now that the dumb think. The Red Indian and Black African still pound and eat the seeds of grasses for their bread. The beginnings were not. and these have never been collected and correlated by those who were evolutionists. Nothing is entirely lost or altogether effaced. In various ways we are still the contemporaries of primitive man. which give their “Is Thought Possible without Language?” By Prof. and the race was a mental herd making the same signs and sounds for ages on ages. in totemic customs. if extendend. or metaphysicians. In truth she seems to stereotype. in verbal speech and aboriginal sounds. for example. according to the onomatopœist. We are now able to affirm on evidence that there have been continuity and development from the first. religious rites and primæval laws.1 and that man had a gesture-language when he was otherwise dumb. Fortunately Nature is very careful of the type when it is once evolved. as some writers on the subject would have us believe. but no one can point to entire re-beginnings. would let in a deluge of individual differences which was not possible to a common origin.

the monkey’s chatter. the dog’s bark. We may be sure there was no such chasm in nature as is perceptible between them now. the bark of the dog. Revue de Linguistique. for it is the misfortune of my work that the thesis could not be substantiated or presented without a burdensome mass of verbal details. That being so the cries are typical. the neighing of the horse. and the first step toward the formulation of language was made when the natural interjections were consciously repeated on purpose to arrest attention.TYPOLOGY OF P RIMORDIAL O NOMAOTPŒIA . instinctive. Man’s earliest expression of gesture and sound was equally involuntary. Fresh points of departure were then so fine a to be imperceptible now. of want (or desire) and warning. the bleat of the lamb. . Considering that the human form was evolved out of or thrown off from antecedent forms. or as we say. are a current coinage of ascertained value. In fact they are recognised by the animals as phonetic types by which passions are expressed in sounds that evoke a kindred or responsive feeling. when we can once start from their centre. and that the means and modes of expression previously extant. On looking back we see a great gap or gulf. or even what is consciousness. when he utters the signal of danger to his fellows. 1875. The cries of animals and birds constitute a limited language. We can explain certain evolutionary processes without being able to tell how or why consciousness unfolded.1 At least Man’s predecessors uttered a languae of warning and want. and therefore on their way to becoming recognised as phonetic types. to be leaped. at the time. The cry of warning is well known in the rook’s caw. and this through a considerable range of manifestation. and that Man commenced as one link of the chain of being prolonged invisibly into the past. as the expression of protecting power and the need of protection—the voices of Nurse and Child—in sounds of physical sense that could be transmitted or imitated. it may be assumed that for a vast period of time he was but slightly growing in advance of his immediate predecessors. 249 impulsion and pass away. They are registered for us palpably as the rings in the oak. the low of the cow. These are understood and answered as the language of invitation and defiance. were shared by him and continued in his primary stock of sounds. 1 Faldherbe. The call of the partridge. Conscious repetition of the same sound is the first visible phase in the morphology of Words. Many illustrations of this fact will be given. The Cebus Azara of Paraguay is credited with uttering six different sounds. which are said to be capable of exciting corresponding emotions in its fellows of the same species. quotable for ever in their intercourse. and are apt to ask where is the bridge? or how did man suddenly leap the gulf? Whereas there was no sudden large leap any more than there was a vast chasm.

or the Pyrosoma in unfathomed seas. however. and assume a slight increase of imitative power as a result of growth in man. like the miner in the caverns of earth. of which Man himself becomes conscious. Personally the present writer holds that the main difference betwixt Man and Monkey consists in the growing rapport of a more inner relationship of life with the conscious cause and source of life. is not the side of phenomena of experience with which we are here concerned. that their hair will stand erect. and becoming large. The Snake distended and “fu-fu’d. But. Dogs. This. and other animals are known to be so affected by fear and terror. dilating. 1 Felix Holt. and thus turn their own terrors inside out to impose them on the enemy by means of representative noises. he might utter his Sign of Warning in an imitative manner.) denotes puffing. the yell of the Gorilla.” and thus made the sound that constituted its name. which have been more or less continued by the savage races and are still employed by them in battle. swelling. As already said. This sound would be repeated as the human note of warning. more or less. . but with the resulting growth of the arrectores pili or involuntary muscles. our Puff. Fu (Eg. the nascent race having command of sounds would try to imitate the puffing and hissing of Snakes. also by cold. however. by George Eliot.1 Naturally also when in conflict with each other or with their foes. and fu-fu-ed or blew at the Snake. It would commence when the Ape thrust out its mouth. That. or pourtraying the likeness of the thing signified by the sound. in the upward or inward course of his growth. jut as Harold Transome recognised the likeness of his own face to that of his unknown father reflected sidewise in the mirror. the language consisted in the Man’s becoming the living Ideograph of the Snake. This action was involuntary at first. together with an imitative gesture enacting the Verb. the Cerastes Snake or Puff-Adder became the letter F. for example. the roar of the Lion. and carries its own abysmal light in the depths of its darkness. as the child does of its mother. or the voice of Thunder. applies to the pre-human consciousness as well as to that of Man. as it does. horses.250 THE NATURAL GENESIS. to see how in presence of his deadly enemy the Snake. and that each form of animal life has its own particular relationship to life itelf. we have only to start from the mimesis and clicks of the Cynocephalus. and when Man imitated this action with intent. and here we may take a furtive glance and catch a glimpse of Man’s likeness to the monkey. and extended with breath. which was a Syllabic Fu and an Ideographic Fuf. Nor would it avail those who do not postulate such a consciousness before or beyond (or becoming) the human. vast. and such a representation made to eye and ear would belong to the very genesis of gesture-language. Of course terror will turn to cold.—for this is the fundamental principle of gesture-language.

is in supposing the primitive radicals of language to be words. or the puff-adder’s “fuf” into “fuf-fuf-fuf” as a sound of warning would be the first creative act in the morphology of words. in order that the mental link of connection between Eye and Ear might be established. it can speak. Intentional reduplication which turned the “tut” of the child’s smack into “tut-tut-tut” as a sign of the want that created the intent. as his sign in sound for food. But such simple sounds as “tt-tt” “fuf-fuf” “rur-rur” “mam-mam” may have existed and sufficed as means of audible expression for other thousands of years before two different consonantal sounds were consciously combined to form one word. and the onomatopœic duplication of sounds would correspond audibly to the objective representation of ideas with gesture-signs. . as a need of nature might have served the child of larger growth for thousands of years. when anger and heat took the place of fear and cold. Onomatopœtists like Canon Farrar and Hensleigh Wedgewood include words containing three different consonants. The earliest natural manifestations that were produced independently of the will were afterwards turned to account and reproduced at will. eating. hunger. raven. But one fundamental mistake made in applying the onomatopœtic theory to language. then language in the modern sense was founded. 251 came the means of erecting the hair. or they are not consciously combined. When the sound of ka-ka was added to fu-fu and the resulting word kkf or kâf was evolved. among those held to be copied on this principle. and these were the only sounds that preceded human speech. At this stage the sound of “Tt-tt” produced involuntarily by the nursling child. bristles or spines at will. When the magie. with the intention of striking terror. The earliest vocal igns ever made intentionally mut have had a likeness in sound to the thing visibly imaged. This shows no gauge of the problem. We get the necessary glimpse of this earliest phase in the prevalence of the principle of duplication still manifest in the simplest and oldest of known languages and words. which is yet made by the nurse to her nursling in its own language. or as the invitation to eat. with the reduplicated lingual-dental click. Conscious repetition of the same sound by imitation would constitute the earliest application of mind (or even the sense of want) to the primary matter of language. and leaves no room for the human evolution of sounds.TYPOLOGY OF P RIMORDIAL O NOMAOTPŒIA . or parrot has had its tongue cut. So would it be with the voluntary production and development of the sounds that were at first involuntary. Voluntary reproduction of the sound first made instinctively and involuntarily would constitute the earliest phase of language. But the natural and involuntary sounds are single. without which their value could not have been sufficiently identified. and been taught to utter two different consonants in one sound.

and means to cross as does the pendulum in the tick of time. When it was first attempted to teach the Mohawks to pronounce works with P and B in them. F is the Inner African prototype of P and B. Kisekise. Thus the word tick is not the mere expression of the sound. Solima. and the shooting “ter” that pierced through of itself was earlier than shooting with the arrows that were named from the shoot. the tick or touch of the pulse does not. that would be simple. and if a non-evolutionist he would not question the capacity of the human being to utter the sound “ba!” at any stage or time. N’godsin. p. the Knife. Yula... Sounds like fu-fu. Vei. says Koelle. Doro .. vi. other cutters through being— Dira. and not an onomatopœtic sound. Aturo. the Axe.1 Fuf-fut and fu-fu would thus 1 Polyglotta Africana. and are only employed in a few languages which possess no real f. But this tick is a word containing two different consonants. The Shah of Persia laughed at the Tatar arrows that went “ter-ter. Landoma. Tiele. the arrow would not have said “ter. Direndi. Pepui. But if the T and R had not already been combined in a word. Doro . The touch may make a sound or it may not. Darba. are sounded like F. they protested that it was too ridiculous to expect people to shut their mouths to speak. the Spear. and when these were at length evolved. We say the clock ticks each time the pendulum crosses. during which man was getting his lungs inflated and his “tongue cut” for talking.252 THE NATURAL GENESIS. and had been so named in Inner Africa. and ru-ru were common to man and animal. and language points back to the time when man himself could only produce and duplicate the same sound to form his few words. the Sword.. Kasm. Murundo. Tek in Egyptian is a measure of time. Mandenga. in Anfue. the Knife. Preface. Æons of terrible toil must have been spent in the evolution of the earliest human sounds into a vocal coinage. the Axe. Oeslo.” and the onomatopœist would derive the sound of Ba. B and P. Deramai . they had to be consciously combined and re-combined to form words before language could exist according to the present acceptation of the term. But no earlier animal than man ever consciously combined two different consonants. But this could not be until man had evolved his labials or was able to bring his lips together.” The arrow is a ter by name. directly from the animal Ba.” Here the seem to make the sound of ter or through as they tear through the air. ka-ka. and it has been assumed that the word tick might be directly derived from the sound. Biafada. for the tick tick. the Sword. where the arrow is called— Ntere. in Matalan. Adere. Deremana . . Terang. In the hieroglyphic the Ram and the Goat are both named “Ba. Daruma. like the nursery gick-gack. in Ashanti. Tick is one with touch. The hieroglyphic ter is a shoot or tree.

the name of the hippopotamus. The wide-open mouth of the beast is the ideograph of the sound.TYPOLOGY OF P RIMORDIAL O NOMAOTPŒIA . Momfu. in Koama. and this may be the Cat. in Kum. in Dsarawa. Mfut. in Ntere. Mbê. in Tumu. Pebea. Mbo. The mouth opens and divides in the two jaws when uttering the voice. in Kasm. in Isuwu. The Goat is named— Febi. Pieba. and the Ram (Ba). in Nalu. which is named Mifiou Eregba. hence the well known “Mfa” and “Mba. Mbea. 172. the original Mau is Maf or Mmafu (Eg. . The hieroglyphics show us the Fa passing visibly into the Ba. in Bayon. a variant of Mfa. Mfa. in Murundo. Mvi. in Bumbete. in Mende. or Lynx. in Kano. in N’goala. for the dog. Mvuo. is a type of the Breath which is Paba or Pefu. as the Divided One. Mvo in Param. Yet Miau is not limited to the Cat nor is that the earliest form of the word.). in Pati.1 In the Mohawk stage of development homo could not have imitated the “Ba. Membi. in Bamom. in Goburu. in Pati. as it is in Rur (Eg. or Spokesman. But the Ram is called— Mba-hina. Mampi and Mpi. the Miau being so evidently onomatopœic. Mboa.” It has also been said the the Egyptians and Chinese called the Cat Miau. Pabea. Mombo. Mmâu (Eg. in Bagba. in the same language.). Mbi. a name that obviously would never have been applied to the Dog. which also means to round out.” Nor is Ba the earliest form of the name. in Balu. (whence Maft) and in Inner Africa the name of the Dog is— Mfu. as did the open mouth of the monster. Mfo. and these are interchangeable with Mba and Mfu.”2 and in English the “Muff” is originally the bad speaker. This will 1 2 Champollion. in Yula. and numbers more. Mfo. no dog ever yet uttered the labial “B. Fôb. in Murundo. in Limba. Lion. in Eafen. in Babuma. by the Ram it would be Neb. this would be Nef. On the Gold Coast the King’s Mouth. 253 precede the p and b of later languages. is called his “Mouf. Mfo. is a type name for the Beast. Nef or Neb is represented by the snake (Fa). Mbea.). in Balu.” ba being a final deposit. The word relates primarily to opening the mouth. Mpfa. It is commonly asserted that the dog says “Bow-wow. Ba is common as a worn down Inner African word. or Twain.). in Banyun Bafui. one sign combines both in a snake with a Ram’s head! Read by the Cerastes. Mefi. The Ba (Eg. Captain Burton. in Melon. Mpua. Dictionnaire. and this same word is an Inner African type-name for Two. It seems evident that the Ba or “fa” was only uttered at first by aid of a purchase or leverage on the nasal M or Um.” but that is a fallacy.

Translators in trying to catch the exact expression of the “Oji” (Ashanti) name. N’kele. evil. has really been lost in the process of artificial development. Mofa. Th. the mocking-bird being almost alone. but it belongs primarily to a primitive mode of articulating sounds. Mbwayi. No natural s0und. Ds. two of the most important sonds. Portuguese. but man alone could combine his nasal and guttural in one sound. Mayub. fierce. Dz. and it is applied to any new word that may be introduced into the Kaffir dialects. Ib. Mapoya. bad. Dsh. Miffy. Mve. We have to derive the earliest words from the primitive mode of producing sounds. such as the Clicks. The earliest utterance here belongs to the primitive mode of articulating. Hindi. a thief. and Mupio.. The original African articulation here involved may be shown to indude the Ts. Bambara. of the Inner African languages. Tch. and these sounds were the prefixes in the sense or precursors to all later speech. Mbe. we may now say words. evil. Mfa . these aboriginal sounds contained the germs of all the vocabularies extant. Swahili. Mfu. Swahili. as “NG. Zulu. ferocious.. bloody. . French Romance. Mauves. Koelle gives the sound of this Ds as that of . It is quite probable that no philologist nowadays would be able to make anything verbal out of the earliest articulated sounds that accompanied the gesture-signs of primitive man.” the thunder could Crack-Crack (or “kak-kak.” This Um is designated a prefix. death.” or turn his “Um” and “Fuff” into Mfu. and yet. for example. Mwwi. in Afudu signify the greedy. which is more or less extant. demons. Imitation of each other’s voices or sounds is very rare in the animal world. or a schoolboy.” as it must have been before the combination of K with Ru. for this aboriginal Mfu or Mpu still survives in our interjectional “Umph” as well as in the name of the Dog itself. and devouring one. Maufez. open-mouthed. Carib. evil. and is so in the Maori Ngaeke). Dk. the type-word includes the Mau and Ba in one. a devil. Mbi. Babuma. bad. It is unnecessary then to think of the pre-man as listening round like a modern onomatopœist.English. Dj. explain why Mbo in Bute. as the acorn potentially incloses the future forest. the devil. imitating all he could. French Romance. which they call “Umpu. and they were deposited as two scparate names for the Cat and Ram in a later and more distinct stage of utterance. vicious. Tsh. Koro. The puff-adder could “fu-fu. mocking grimace.. have rendered it by nineteen different variants. which is Amp in Ostiac and Emp in Vogul. . The Amakosas applied the same type-name to the gun. and other sounds of some remote original that has descended and been modified on lines of variation. Ts.” the birds and frogs could “ka-ka. Tk. Mbe. however.254 THE NATURAL GENESIS.

in N’gola. in Mayoruna. in Saldanha Bay. Yash. Atusaa. The radical Tes (or Tsh) is employed in the Xosa Kaffir language to express the sound of whispering.TYPOLOGY OF P RIMORDIAL O NOMAOTPŒIA . Esisiana. Tisou. in Kadzina. and the variants of Cha and T’ak are Dso at Shanghai. in Landoma. in N’gola. in Dsekiri. Tiso. the Sneeze. or Teshu. in N’ki. in Undaza. in Buduma. in Timne. Dsui. in Kambali. the Sneeze and for whispering may be detected in the name of the nose in the North American and other languages. 24. in Akurakura. in Pati. Esun. as in change). in Attakapa. Param. Introd. in Malali. which answer to the racial or other variations of the African phonology. in Hucco.1 The American Indians represent the Sneeze by their “Haitsku. Tiso. in Ebe. in Tumu. Dsesse. Dsolu. in Mandenga. and Tso. Wutch. K. in Upper Sacramento. Dsedsie. Tchaje. in Nupe. in Kisama. Tiseou. in Egbale. Tisewo. in Kankanka. Dictionary of Etymology. Canton. Dsidsi. Wuschginqual. Disolu. Aseie. This continues the relationship of sound to breath exposed by the Sneeze. Dsoti. J. etc. in Bambara. Tusina. in Shawni. in Yala. Tesh. in Kasanda. Chifu. Now the sound of a sneeze. Sisa. in Wolof. and in the Inner African languages. Adsi. Tiso. Tsa. Dsedsi. in Gio. Sase. The same variants are to a considerable extent found in Chinese. in N’kele. p. Tsomo.. as:— Tisk.. Diodsu. Uchichun. in Mano. Many of the nineteen variants are extant in European phonetics. in Chimanos. S. in Potowatami. in Goali. in Songo. The same radical that is Inner African for the Nose. the old sounds of Cha are Tsa and Dak. 255 Ch in Church. the Nose. in Nao. Dsia. in Alege. in Apatsh. in Bagba. such as T. Atse. Dsuna. in Toronoka. Disunu. Ottschasse. Zakui. Intchu. Tisou. Tiso. Disolu. in Balu. takes shape in some such utterance as Techu (ch. the organ of sneezing. Dsisu. A child known to Hensleigh Wedgewood called his sister by the name of “Atchoo. Dizulu. or to sneeze. in Gbese. in Landoma. in Opanda. in Momenya. Ochali. Isuo. Tsesm. Zezi. in Ottawa. Aesi. but there are many racial nuances in the expression of it. in Mbe.” on account of her sneezing. in Nyombe.” Atckiau. in N’ki. in Soso. Tiso. in Oloma. 1 Ohtch-yuhsay. Idsiou. Dizolu. Dshou. in Tuscarora. Idst. in Tumbuktu. Iso. in Minsi. in Bulom. in Old Algonkin. when consciously copied. Tsee. just as it is in the Inner African dialects. Tiselu. in Jakon. Dsoase. Tasut. in Aro. Cuzhush. Ntiso. in Micmac. in Momenya. Tisam. in Bagrmi. Sani. In Egyptian it is represented by Tek. . in Timne. in Vei. Nidsui. in Bayon. Disan. Tasot. A variant of Chi is Tszi or Dszi. For instance. in Baga. Intshin-ongeu. Siani in Krebo. Dzisle. tsu is to whisper softly. Atri. Tise. in Mende. Tsatsiso. in Bute. in Okam. or Tes. Suana. is denoted by Tise. Ch. Dsenegu. Further. in Massachusetts. in Igala. Tisoa. Sh.” etc. Asot. in Afudu. in Kisekise. Edsu. in Tekeenika. and Djak is a variant of Choh. is named. Tiso. Tiso. “Atchiui. Etsoci. in Dsarawa. Dsi. in Pepel. Dsizin. in Gbe. Disa. in Dsalukna. Ndson. in Babuma. in Guinau. G. in Ntere.

Sound or Voice was self-revealed in sneezing. The Sneeze translated by a compound Tenuis-spiritus-lenis of sound (although the description may be far too fine) would deposit this Ds. These are all related. Zis. and Tsee or Tse is the Self and the likeness of the Self. to flutter. Sus (Arabic). Moreover in Chinese Tsai is a particle of exclamation. as the name of that which opens of itself. or. This prolific primate was continued in the Egyptian Ses and Ssen i. SEN (Eg. Tsh. and the Breath takes voice of itself in the Sneeze. Tz. The Hebrew Daleth was sounded ”Ds” or “DZ. Tes is the very self. But the word being already extant in the language of the Kymry. Zis (Unakwa). a look. or was self-conferred and continued by the self-articulating sound. it would not have to be evolved onomatopœtically in Welsh. to breathe. is one of the Two Truths of Existence. or a single sound. such as can be conveyed by a gesture. Tch. which. Sisa. for breathing. Sen. Ashanti.) means to open. signifies beginning.e. the Rabbinical Bird of Breath or Soul.” The Hebrew letter x is likewise a Ts pronounced ”Tza. but it was a sentence full of meaning not of syllables. The sound of . to the Soul of Breath. to open of itself. the Nose. supplied the Substantive to the involuntary Verb. that Senesh (Eg. or Ch according to the variants of Sneezing and Prounouncing. as it were. Zis (Heb. selfrevealing. the Soul. Tzh. Professor Sayce has suggested that language began from the Sentence rather than the Word. Ses is breath. If the principle of Onomatopœia be admitted at all in the formation of language we may claim that it applies to the natural genesis now suggested for this radical of sound by which the Sneeze named the Nose. there is nothing incredible in the suggestion that the Sneeze was one of the primæval factors of language. Tses and Tssen. like the Sneeze. when they came.256 THE NATURAL GENESIS. It opened its passage by means of the Breath (Sen). and Senesh is the Sneeze in English. The Sneeze is expressed by the radical Tch or Dsh. discloses and makes apparent in Sound.). discover. and there is a sense in which this is true. Thus the Sneeze was onc of the openers. that which is self-manifesting. and that the charactcr of a discoverer or revealer was assigned to it. to sneeze. The Spirit (or Breath) spoke in the Voice of a Sneeze. as natural interjection to which the nasal terminal was added for determinative in forming the word Tchen or Dshen. that the Sneeze is an involuntary emission of Breath in the form of Sound. whilst the rites and customs of sternutation prove that the Sneeze had a peculiar significance for the primitive Man. on the way to becoming both T and S as does the Tes sign in the hieroglyphics. origin. is identical with the Inner African. Ziz (Assyrian) is inherent motion. The Welsh Tisio or Tisho. as a word.). If we bear in mind the facts that the Breath.” The same sound survives in the Welsh Dzh for J.

and is sounded by pressing the tip of the tongne. We describe the four clicks which are heard in the Namaqua Hottentot by the characters c. or the Click. the “Tut-tut. but as soon as it is combined with any other sound it is strongly emitted. These three may be paralleled by three of the Hottcntot clicks out of the four employed by the Namaquas. The Clickers. the “H” aspirate of the English and the aspirated “P” (peh) of the Gael. that is. The Breath is prepensely drawn for the Click to be articulated. against the termination of the palate at the gums and removing it in the same manner as for C.” the puffing or hissing contained a sentence of words in one act. a case of words. x. Conscious manipulation of the Breath lies at the origin of the Hottentot Clicks. or so many words tied up. the Clicks are produced on the opposite principle. Kaffir Folk-Lore. and hence their articulation is harsh and foreign to the native ear. . a guttural “ch” as in the Scotch Loch. which are produccd by a reversal of the proccss. and the X by drawing the breath in a peculiar way between the tongue and the side teeth. A Namaqua almost invarialby aritculates this click as a cerebral. k. we have three Aspirates. v. The Consonants which can be combined with these clicks are h. they express it by the aid of inhalation.TYPOLOGY OF P RIMORDIAL O NOMAOTPŒIA . the C being sounded by withdrawing the tongue sharply from the front teeth. In pronouncing the click simply by itself without any supplementary vowel or conconsant sound. European learners almost invariably sound it as a lateral. the Q by doing the same from the roof of the mouth. is checked or drawn inwaard. Q is a cerebral click according to the alphabetical system of Lepsius. kh. Namaqua Grammar. Q. and X.”4 1 Tyndal. V is a palatal click. it is sounded by pressing the tip of the tongue against the front teeth of the upper jaw and then suddenly and forcibly withdrawing it. do not simply exhale their meaning in sound. the breath instead of being thrown out as is usual with other articulations of the voice. q. and one self-naming sound. X is either a lateral or a cerebral click. and withdrawing it in the same manner as during the articulation of the other clicks. and the self-revealing. quà Clickers. it may be sounded either by placing the tongue against the side teeth or by covering it with the whole of the palate and producing the sound as far back in the palate as possible. Coptic Djas) and this word denotes a whole sentence. It is difficult to speak the Namaqua fluently or intelligibly until the art has been acquired of clicking and aspirating without any perceptibel interception of the breath. C is a dental click. In attempting to trace (or suggest) the development of pre-human sounds into verbal language it appears to me that one line of variation may be found in the growth of a conscious manipulation of the Breath. either at what Lepsius calls the faucal or the guttural point of the palate. self-defining. 257 the Sneeze is rendered by the word Tes (Eg. It is sounded by curling up the tip of the tongue against the roof of the palate. self-naming Sneeze. Whereas the ordinary sounds of language are now made by the expulsion of the breath. While the anterior part of the tongue is engaged in articulating the Click the throat opens itself to pronounce any letter that may be sounded in combination with the click. They are Inspirates instead of Aspirates. n.1 The Amaxosa Kaffirs employ three clicks which are “represented in writing by our letters C. 2 Theal. they first lay hold of the air and suck it in to turn it into articulated sound. g. For instance. with as flat a surface as is possible.

” In the formation of syllables the pupils practise by repeating the same sounds. these would be numerically equal to the singular M and plural B of the numbers in language. etc. for the utterance of sounds. M and N are universally interchangeable. which combines a nasal and aspirate in the one case. of specially inhaling air when angry to inflate and dilate the body and express their feeling in a rushing volume of sound. and shows us the Inhalers of Air and Expellers of Sound as intentionally at work in shaping the result as is the man who in whistling formulates a tune out of Breath. Moreover. 1 “Ephphatha. 276. such as Pappa. if possible. as in some of the African dialects. We see the experiment of the Dumb acquiring the faculty of Speech going on in our own day. The lungs have the double office of supplying oxygen to the blood and of furnishing breath—the material of the Voice. and others. the eariy involuntary action being continued and repeated intentionally.258 THE NATURAL GENESIS. in view of the object. No. In Maori. He was in a condition akin to but probably worse than that of the congenital Deaf-Mute. and a nasal and guttural in the other. Padre Marchio says: “The breathing of deaf mutes is as a rule short and panting.”1 The Hottentot’s inhalation of air to produce the clicks may be compared with the habit of the toad. as a continuation of the mode by which he produced his clicks. Now. The first lesson is that of blowing or expiration in order that the lungs may be fully expanded. The word is formed. which the Padre calls “Language in presence of the Real. the puff-adder. Hence their disposition to pulmonary disease. the M. these words may possibly show us Homo in the position of making a nasal sound whilst drawing in his breath and combining it with a guttural aspirate in the expulsion of his breath. Also the nasal is equivalent to in and the aspirate to out the Two Truths of the beginning. and as such sounds as “Mfu” and “Nga” are produced by this double process. 447. this would yield compound sounds like Nga and Mfu. or the playcr who produces the Vowel-sounds from the Jew’s harp. are imperfectly developed. to be afterwards distinguished by the separate sounds of M and B. The lungs of the Deaf-Mute being used for only one of these purposes. and their functions performed in an abnormal manner. and are shown the processes by which they are taught to articulate. . by constant inflation. and the child instructed to breathe properly. poppo. p. This mode of making the Clicks implies a more consicous manipulation of the Breath for the express purpose of utterance.” Macmillan’s Magazine. suppooing this Mfu (or Mfa) to have been consciously continued as a sound produced by a double action of inhalation and expulsion of the breath. But as nothing else in nature is known to produce one consonantal sound by inhalation and another by expulsion of the breath. The first thing that the future speaker had to do was to get his lungs properly developed.

Breath. Bof is a name of quicklime. both as the rush and the rush candle. Anoko-ba. or in Nakh the Testis. In Egypdan Nuba signifies the “All. to puff and breathe. characters. in this sense. Febe. are. Edofofo in Yoruba denotes effervescence or irritability to such an extent that it means literally a Liver of Foam. The Welsh Pabyr is the light thing.) or puff. to fly. the Bap a light cake. palpitating leaves. This root enters into the names of fluttering wing-like motion as in the Bavarian Poppeln. chaff. Zulu. Nako-ba. which are very light. and to duplicate. Papapa in Maori is the calabash. Babble is light speech. Nan. In certain Inner African languages the Bull is named from and second to the Cow. in Koama. is a puff or mushroom. to move to and fro. in Nupe. will account for the naming of the thin fluttering tremulous flower. or. Latin Populus and German Pappel. Cow.) to run fast. pef (Eg. qualities. and for the Poplar-tree. Anoko. Zulu. This also is one or the prototypes in primordial onomatopœia. Breath the second. Bull. 2 as Befe (Nki). gasping. the tree of light. elements. and in Ankh the pair of Ears. as the Zulus say. and N are interchangeable. Pupphula. poff (Eng.” which was combined in Sut-Nub. Brescian. the one that duplicates. it may also be called fabling. Bebesa in Xosa is fibbing. Papa in Russian is bread. The Ba is male and secondary. a harlot. Naba. the duplicated.” . The Bubu. In Sanskrit Phuppu denotes panting. we find the numerical value was continued in Ankh for the Duplicator. the Poppy. Countless light things may be found under this name. the light person. Paf (Eg. the shell of an egg. wind or flatulency. Nâko. In the chapter on the Two Truths it was shown that Water was the first. What we term light and lightness being primarily called puff or pef from the Breath. and Pap is light food. and Pupphusa is a name for the lungs. 259 N. Boffy (Eng. also the down-feathers of birds. Cow. moss. Bull. Yeast dumplings. popple to bubble. bran. Ank. The Abebe Yoruba is a fan. actions. and if we take the nasal N and guttural Ga in Nga or Ankh. Pef will serve as a type-name for all breath-like and light things. Bofa. fluttering. Bull. as Nan. and Ng interchange.) for wind and breath. Cow. this becomes an archetypal word with several variants in the spelling and many applications of the name. and Pfopfern to palpitate. French Papou or pabeau. puffing. in Basa. The Puff is a light tart. and modes of manifestation in language generally.TYPOLOGY OF P RIMORDIAL O NOMAOTPŒIA . and they especially denote the feminine first. “talking Wind”. to be the conscious result of the double action. termed “Popabouts. corresponds by name to No. be light and puffy. In puffing we have another of the selfnaming sounds like the Sneeze.) to swell and puff.

a spirit or sprite. Fufai.. Smoking the pipe is accompanied by puffing.. Emi fofta . wind. The Butterfly was an early type of the Soul of Breath. Makua. Mi fofi . Xosa. In Zulu Pupama is to boil and bubble. Kano. Mu fûtu . Phepo (Inner African). to swell and flutter in feeling. Me pfulu . Mi fofi. in Timbo. Salum. as in Pepe (Eg.. is the tornado or hurricaine of wind.) is a soul. Malay. Beba. The Toad is the Bufo in Latin and Bufa in Magyar.). Bubi. Magyar. and the winged things were named after it. Pape or Ppat (Eg. Magyar. Swahili. Pabo. as puffer and blower. . Kaffir.. in Xosa Kaffir.) is to exhale. the Paba (Eg. Quiché. puput. a gust of air. Mutsaya. Malay. to inspire the soul. Bobaw. to blow. Me fûisafuike. Bode. Bubach. to blow. is a spirit or ghost. is to flutter as a bird. Tupî. Popo. is I breathe. Welsh. in Scotch.. Esthonian. in Vei. The fife. Afufa. Pupu is the name of the hairy caterpillar. . pibroch. is I breathe. The pap. the feathers. A light leaf called a Pepe in Maori is blown to attract birds by imitating their sounds. in Bute. Pefumto. Beb (Eg. and Pupa is a dream and to dream. Pupu. In English Fob is froth. Bubi. this was the first flyer. whence Babama.. in Vei. . This brings us to the human puffer or inspirer of the breath of life. and puba. Bub. to boil up... a ghost. bubby and the bubbly-jock (turkey-cock) are so named from their swelling-up. pipe. Also Vovo denotes the lungs or lights as one of the blowers. Eg.) means to fly. In Kanuri (Inner African) bellows are the Bubute. Maori. Maori. to blow. which is supposed to wander away when he is sick.) to engender. and the Algonkin Pib are blown with the breath. the soul. the means of flight. . is the wing. Pep or Pef being the breath. pubes denotes the human feather or hair. which is significant in relation to the soul. soul and breath being synonymous. the Bobo. as the parent. The Ppat or Pât are the flyers as fowls. Pepo. a blow-tube. Ni-pupa. Pabo (Eg. Welsh. . To bauffe is to belch. Bube is breath or wind in Galla. Vivi.260 THE NATURAL GENESIS... fuf is to blow. The Buffie is a vent-hole in a cask. Piphi is wind in Bantik. Limousin. is a gust of wind. Bebe in Fiji.). Me fotah . as in the bubble. The Pub is a blow-tube used by the Indian bird-hunters of Yucatan. Galla. The act of piping is also called pepe. Fuf (fâ. Pupu. The Karens of Burmah call a man's soul his “Leip-pya” (Leip-pfa) or his butterfly. The blown bladder was a kind of Bauble. the Papa and Baba of various languages already quoted. In Xosa Kaffir. Pepe in Maori is the Moth. is to puff or swell in pregnancy. pupa. Zulu. Bubus. to eructate. and in Ife smoke is named Efifi. . or to puff and swell the sail. and to need catching or hunting back into his body again. to boil up and bubble. the Papilio in Latin is the butterfly. Pefu (Xosa) to take breath. Baba.

for the Lights or Lungs. New Moon. Fôti. 261 Out of Africa the Mouth is— Baba. or Navel-type of Breath. Bube. Bebe. Fubum. Ipepe. in Okuloma. identify other of the puffers or breathers by name. Pfuru. Epùla. Ham. Nafafu . Avievie. in Ebe. Igala. in Suntah. in Gugu. Bibig.. in Sow. Sobo. Pfova. The Nose. Apfok. The Breather or Puffer as the Frog is the— Fabu. in Bola. Efafareg. Sibebe. in Orungu. Biba. Vava in Malagasi.. Oyonipepe . Efifi . in Yasgua. in Carib. Baba in Bissayau. the Bebe in Fiji. Abuadsa. Dopopehe. in N’ki. is to speak. in Salum. Kanyop. Fuba. With several other Inner African variants. in Egbele. Anfue. in Yasgua. in Bulanda. in Basunde. Efifie . the bosom in Zulu. Mpfusin . in Tagala. Papillon in French. Musentandu. Epfoa. Pfumu. in Pangela. Bewe. in Mimboma. in Akurukuru. Ghabaliho. Ofe-ofefa . The Spider is an Inner African type on account of its light suspended filmy web. in Penin... The Mouth as an organ of breathing is the— Bebe. in Nyombe. in Inner Africa is— Efu. Papatane. in Vei. in Kano.. Bubbah. in Nalu. Alan-bebe. Param. in Tumbuktu. Bubuna.. in Malo. in Puka. Kumpapa. Anan. Numpapa. in Kabenda. in Gugu. in Dsuku. Sobo. another organ of Breath. Pop. Ebe. Pipai. in Nyamban. A prominent type of the light aerial thing is the Butterfly. this is the— Bubi. in Puka. Obopal. . Pfuna. Epfurungangu. Nafafu . is the— Opebe. in Sobo. Mbofia. Pepel. in Anan. Flé-biba. in Ebe. Ufo and Uvo . the Inner African languages show— Efifi. in Ibu. This in Inner Africa is the— Pepeli. Pobia. Mafefirin.. for Day. Uba. Timne.) as the rising dilating day.. Efol. Legba. Fafa. in Opanda. Efie and Evie. The “Bubby” or female Breast is a type of swelling and dilating with life. in Yasgua. in Yagba. Afafion . Fufou. Oafob. Fafa. in Filham. Bebe.TYPOLOGY OF P RIMORDIAL O NOMAOTPŒIA . or Pef (Eg. Nyombe. in Yala. Afôdo.. Ofafa. in Basa. Ibubu. and Pepe in Maori. Bebe. Faburu. in Musu. Bute. Pebr. in Matatan. is to speak. in Bute. Yala. Balu. Aph. in Padsade. Buddah. in Wokan. Mbe. in Udso. Applied to Light itself. Napapa in Kupa. in Dosi. Puka. this is named the— Bobei. Mpfuie. in Anfue. Efuranfu.. Bifefeg. in Marquesas. in Hebrew. Ipehe . Baga. in Limba. in Undaza. in Goburu. and Vovo. Mano. Akurakura. Fafahi. Evu. The Belly. in Mbofon. Apfom. in Dalla. Faburu. Papiah. Pfumu. Ofofoni. Pobob. Pfam. in Esitako. Ube.

Tibabu. Fufu . Efifi . Day. White. Wawbishkaw. which correlates with the other types of light and lightness that come under the prototypal name. and why a man’s Soul should be called his Butterfly. In Inner Africa the Calabash is equivalent to our Puff by name. Ufo .. Wind. Tiwi. and shows at the same time why the Butterfly and Moth are called Souls. Epupa .. Wapio.. Fefe. White. Apup Ka-pup . Abadsa Akurakura. Eki. The Mantis. } Yoruba. N’halemoe. in Inner Africa. Mbofia. was a type of the Soul. Nimbabu. White. Apûwa . Popo .e. or some modified form. Micmac. Afu . Idsesa. Dsekiri. Param. in Pepel.. the light. in Kanyop. is a chief type-name for White. Undaza. Igala.. Nambabu. Tubabo. Sounds. Urubabu. Cree. is a reduced form.. Murundo. to fly. It is the Pepe. (Bup-al. Egba. or Soul.. in Dsalunka. Wabeck. Ntane. as one of the winged things of the air. Bubu . Sobo. in Kabunga. The archetype here is the Breath.. also for the fly and beetle. Passamaguoddy. in Bambara. in Baga.. Oworo. La-Bubulie.. Apepe.. Wabi. is Pipe-clay in the Ja-jow-er-ong dialect.1 } It is applied to the White Man as Babo and Obabo. Wakpou.. O fufu . Balu. white. Pepe. Fifu .. Baseke.. Ojibwa. O fifu . and when the African Mother begins to dilate with the forthcoming life she carries a Calabash in her arms as a token of the Pupa (chrysalis).. But pepe or faf is primary. Uvo } Melon N’goten. in Padsade. in Gugu.. With the B sound instead of P we have the full form of Pap. in Mandengu.. wears down to âp and pâ. Ebe. Nababo. in Bola. on account of the system of homtypes and the naming of many things in accordance with the archetypaI idea. Fufuo . 1 . Old Algonkin. Ntanta in Xosa means to float or swim. in Goali (Bubuli being white). i. in Timne. to fly. Australia. in Zulu. Names.262 THE NATURAL GENESIS. This is one of several type-words that will show us why we should go to Inner Africa for the birthplace of Roots. as the light.. Ofu O fufu . Wobee. Ota. whence Ppat. This too. O fufu .. Ofufu . Yagba. in Mampu. Ashanti.. Popo O fufu. Efifie. Also the Bethuck.. Mfut. O fufu . Goali.” for a young bird nearly fledged. Ififi . with the accented vowel as in pâ. in Banyun. Apepe. Puf.) Apowa. Efufaka . which is an earlier fab. } Ife Ondo. Mpupa . In Egyptian Pepe. Efufu . Fufu . Words. and the single consonant. in the Leicestershire “Biblin. and therefore of Speech.. the type-name for white.. or nurses one after her To this rootage the writer could trace the Egyptian word âb. in Bulom. Ifob Afufu . Sheshatapoosh. N’goala. Tibawu. Air. light kind of thing. is literally the Child of Heaven.. The true roots show that the duplication of the consonants was primary. dilating. to fly. Pfu . in Toronka.. Wabisca.. as well as Bird and Butterfly. Epfue. Tibabu. Tibabu. Bubuli . In a large number of other African languages Babu is reduced to Obu. Efifi . as the round.

TYPOLOGY OF P RIMORDIAL O NOMAOTPŒIA . as her puppet. idol. The Butterfly. The Babe. a puppet.1 In Italian the Pupa or Puppa is the child’s baby or puppet. darling. the Pup or Puppy. or Babe. blow. discover. The Tadpole. The Egyptians continued it under two names. The Bete. and the Wool-bode for the hairy caterpillar. In Devon the Black Beetle is called a Bete. is a form of the Grub that transforms into the Boderfly. reveal. But the serpent-type impinges more definitely than these. were Messengers to man of a life beyond the preent tadpole or chrysalis condition.e. the opener. as the Sharn-bode for the Dungbeetle. nine of which were worn in the collar of Isis during gestation. Pode. whence the Butter-fly.). But the hieroglyphic puff-adder is the Cerastes snake. and its fu-fu-ing was perhaps more likely to evoke the consciousness of a connection between the thing and sound of puff. Boded is fated. The words are all correlative according to one type. in Koro. was a type of transformation. and also denotes the puppet.). still made use of by thatchers. and broke wind. The Dutch Pop is the cocoon or case of the caterpillar. and the Lady-bird (i. a Messenger. the type. whence the Puddock or Frog. but the writer is now convinced that the butterfly is a corrupt form of Boder-fly. breath venom. an image fo the Soul. an Omen. or the French Bouter. English Poppet. and Puppet. The Boder is equivalent to Beetle. said to signify the “Bloody Maggot. is a Pode. Iwa. is from a reduced form. Pupa. we hope to get back to the mental region of the Thinkers in Things. the Boder. We have the Pote. In Egypt the Beetle was a type of Putak. The wind itself as puf made the sound of puf as it puffed. 263 chi1d’s death. are three of the homotypes by name. a Boder or foreboder of the future life. Bode) is a form of the living.e. by means of the Types. as a messenger of time. panted. the type of her lost little one. BODE means living. But in Inner Africa the name was generally worn down to Ewa. as the tree does in spring. like the Zulu Fûta. doll. Bode. The Irish divinity called the Crom Cruach. the soul of the earth. explain. The human being at any stage eructated. Also the Chicken is called a Beedy. puth meaning to open. Thus the serpent Bâta. as the snake.) A lowly form of the Bode survives in the Louse called Biddy.) to show. This was an It was suggested at an earlier stage that the name of the butterfly might be derived from Put (Eg. hence the Moths and Butterflies were called Souls. was continued by name in the round Bubu-beads. entire or perfect. and attain a foothold beyond that of the Philosophizers in Words. The African languages show us the stage at which the whole of the Light things and things of Light could be indicated by one word or the sound of the breath expelled in a puff to accompany the ideographic gesture-signs which delineated the things or thoughts intended. to puff. Bode is a name of the Beetle. to bud or put forth. Bûa. and a principle previously identified with the second of Two Truths. Ewo or Uwa. in N’ki. This Bode is the probably original for the Boder-fly. another type of transformation.” was probably connected with this type. and ter. Bebe. and baby. Crom. 1 . pavu in old Canarese. in Biafada Wab. as an instrument for opening. and this Pepe. The serpent or snake in Toda is the Pab. Crobh. a Message. and pre-figuring bode or Put (Eg.. In Wadai it is Debib. Bud or bode is our representative of put (Eg. i. and if one is found on clean linen it is a sure messenger of sickness or death in the family. equivalent to Putar (Eg. from Fufa. Nor can there be any difficulty in connecting an archetypal idea of Pef fuf with its expression in sound. We also have the name in the Puff-adder. and Boder-fly. foretelling. as little one. êfi. Thus.

Yoho. or fufu. Tchika. in Hueco. Basa.. Chik.. Kaka . or Huc. N’godsin. Housa. Tzikai. in Pakhya. Kukuyamketu . Jung-Kikkh. Atta-shhk. Yala.. Yik. Yks. Grandmother. and English letter F. Caca. in Old Algonkin. in Karelian. The last but one contains a type-name (Nana) which permutes in these languages with the Mama. Quen-Chique. in Tater. in Omaha. In the present instance the links are all complete from the first archetypal idea. Kasanda. in Tagal. Kaka . Juksy.. has also the same Inner African type-name as Darkness. Akakilenyi. to the finad phonetic in the snake as the palpable image of the sound and visible sign of “fufu” or puffing.” in the Inner African. in Persian. Kaka . in Deer. Greek. but the old Mother.. in Kuskutshewak. Undaze. Breath or breathing anger was also represented by the Great Ape as one of the Seven Elementary Types in Egypt.. Fenua and Gelaio. Cheos. in Pangela.. Kuc.. Mimboma. in Nyombe. substantive and adjective of later language. Nda Pobia. Quigne. in Hottentot. fuff. Atten-ack. in Bambarra. Koak.. Kadzina. furnishes a type name for No. Chig. in Bulom. Gikk. Pangela. in Esthonian. Babumba. puff. Kabenda.264 THE NATURAL GENESIS. New Caledonia. in Winebago.. in Kamkatkan. and “I speak” is “I puff. 1.. Mutsaya. Yak. Kanyika. Meea-chchee. Okoku . in Isuwu. We have now to make what will look like a wide digression... Kokko. and as an expression beginning with a mere utterance of the wind and of breath Pef (Eg. Mbamba. Chassah. or Q’qui. Kaka . Kaka . the Great or Grandmother. Kandin. Yak. in Canton. in Arucanan. in Timne. which is Q’kui. The Mother and Water have been compared under one name (Momo). Kogo . Karekare. Ebe.. Kaka . in Tanguhti. Yok. She is Koko. . Chas. in Fan. like Tiamat and Typhon. in Arapaho. a syllable Fu and their sole phonetic F which became the Phœnician. Songo. in Mallicollo. The last is equivalent to the Mama Cocha of the Peruvians. in Hor. Kugu . Kaka . in Gipsy of Norway. The snake was a type of speech.. Kaga . Tumbuktu.. Kanuri. Yks. ideographic fuf. Grandmother. Kaka . Nyamban.). Kaka . these parts of speech being really contained in true nature of phenomena and modes of manifestation. through the various Homotypes and correlates. Koku.. in Adampi. who was worshipped as the Mother-Sea or genitrix of the water. Doai. A Fö. Pey-Gik.. Dysyk. Ekamtulufu. I Fof. the verb and adverb. in Quicha. in Bayano. Atuu-chik.. Yak. in Biluch.. Atta-skeh. Jok. Kogwan .. Dschyk. Kaga . in Eskimo. Kambali. we have in this one word or sound the interjection.. in Chemmesyau. N’kaka-Mama . Very probably however the type-names of the Mother as Kaka and Nana were both deposits from the Inner African primitive “Nga-Nag. Pfova.” But Kaka as the old first one. Kaka . Kaka-woi . Kaka . N’kikulu-Nana . in Tshuktshi Nos. in Lifu. in Tibetan. Kaka . in Labrador.

in Lap. Ogy. in Legba. in Bidsogo. Ka.” because they date from the female first. Thus Number 5 is. in Tayung. in Manks. in Kurbat. in Gadi. in Magyar. Coca means “No” in the language of the Tapuya tribe of Brazil. Ai (First). I. in Yangaro. in Buduma. Now that which was first in phenomena became the negative to that which was second. in Kamacintzi. in Lake Macquarie. or those who date from the Mother. in Limba. and she becomes secondary to the Male. in Bagrimi. Cha. Ek. in Ostiak. in Wun. Wakol. Ek. in Kuswar. in Mutsaya. Ikko. Kado. in Kashmir. in Lughman. and their name of the Coca-Tapuya signifies the No-people. Hkagai. The left hand was first reckoned on. Cuig. Ikht. in Soso. in Olonets. in Sekumne. Kega. Ek. in Undaza. the Water. as front. Chickhocat. in Arniya. in Egbele. Juksi. and it is negative in relation to Breath. Ngeya. Akhad. the A 1 the Ego and Ich. in Wiradurei. in Kaffa. Queig. and it is the negation of Light. Ak. Yekui. in Joboka. Ik. Yaguit. in Kaure. Gûdio. in Kooch. no initial vowel being a primary in very ancient language. or following. Kûdem. Yo. Ebe. in Kiamba. in Kaffir. Gôo. Kûdum. Huck. in Khari. Cuig. in Keltic. in Kot. Ogba. in Pwo. Chahgkie. Ek. in Vilela. I. The Mother was first. Guih. in Orungu. I. in Inbark. Ek. Ektoi. Ako. or Nga-Nga. Wuku. Ek. Chak. in Uriya. in Shina. Kêde. Yonbo kake. in Singhalese. The hinder part was first. in Sanskrit. Ka-ka. I. in Arabic. Kekai. Ak. Ogu. Also as the Numbers one and five both meet in the hand. Aoh. in Oloma. for the left. Owe. are deposits from an original Kak. And in the Inner African languages the left. in Scotch. Eking. in Assan. Huba. in Kano. in Western Pushtu. Gag-em. Egy. Kakoa. Huka. as place of birth applied to the Female and to the North. in Duman. This is the French Gauche. Koddy. in Pashai. Water was first. Ek. in Goburo. Kita. in Doai. Eka. in the naming. Eôko. Eko. in Murundo. Kûdom. in Kashkari. in Landoro. The earliest races like the Kamilaroi tribes of Australia.” . in Irish. or Gawk-handed. the Darkness which they came out of. Eko. it follows that the Number 5 will be found to range under a type-name of Number 1. Chhi. which is negative to the South. in Ashanti. in Gonga. in Babuma. in Crow. in Caribisi. in Begharmi. Wakol. in Sandwich Islands. or female hand is Koko. Kaki. in Teruque. and it is the negative hand. in Afudu. in Kirata. Gôo. Geigyam. in Tablung. Gô.) for primal existence means “out of. Ikka. Wikte. in Sunwar. in Watlala. Akhet. in Creek. are the “Noes. in Abor.TYPOLOGY OF P RIMORDIAL O NOMAOTPŒIA . in Gonga. Akt. the Negation. Ek. just as Enti (Eg. in Siamese. in Darahi. in Gyami. Lekaka. 265 The I one. Kadu. inner. Ekaka. An-koko. in Timbo. in Mandan Indian. Gauk-handed. in Hindi. Darkness was the first. in Newar. in Tirhai. In English to be left-handcd is to be Keck-handed.

and Inner Africa is the primæval home of the Kakadæmon who. was the burialplace of the Mum. or Nakak monster.. Gig . Blackfoot. Tahitian. adversary. is Night. Okuku. in England. English. Agiyi. Makua.1 This shows how that which was primary in time became subsidiary. in Bagba. Guresa. opponent.. Nyakok.. Egyptian.. Basque. in Baseke. Abadsa. to initiate into the mysteries. overcame him and rescued the cattle and recovered the rest of the stolen treasure. secondary. Mumu.). Kigi . Further it has to be seen how Darkness was the first devourer. Mum. was the stealer of the cows which he had dragged into his cave. is to darken. Another form of the Devourer is the Alligator (or Crcodile).. Ngko.. to murmur. Koro. Osmanli. is Night. when Hercules forced his way into the monster's den and. or negative in status. Catawba.. is the Kak. Kokuru .. The Scorpion.. Mpongwe. Omumo. in Egbira-Hima. is the Devil.” There is a drink called Mum. .. Kokia. in Mbofia. Akkadian. another type. in Namaqua. Mem. in spite of the flame and smoke which Kakios vomited. } “Mum. Oche . Isoama. Akao. Kogiwu .. the silent dead. Crow Indian. Quichua. Thus the Mama.. recognised. &c. typified as the Akhakh. is the Devil. Kowelitsk. to be dumb. in Kasm. This sense of spritless is also found in the German Memine. Tumbuktu. Kwaiekh . to just move the mouth or lips.. Coucoui ... in Krebo. 1 . to Mumming.. a name of the Black One. Weechawa . in Kiriman. in Yoruba. Gaù . . This is the Egugu. Igue . to be deaf and dumb.. Aksli. Hippopatamus in Aku— and other dialects. Nkûe. in Landoro. or Momo name was applied to negative or inarticulate speech. Gije. . the Mummy. Kak (Eg. Imamu. to be silent. Uchochilo . Mueô. The Mum in Egyptian is the dead. Gig (Akkadian) is Darkness.. or Mum-beer.266 THE NATURAL GENESIS. to mutter. Malen. in Dsarawa. . Jakon. Momo. in Isiele.. Ukhakh Agi . the negative image of life. Agogu. Okski . and Gigilen. Momata. Akeke. Tahitian. Nakale. in Ondo. to be mute. in Kaak . as Kakios. Gigaya. and the Mam. Greek.. Kemay. in Aku. and the Dead. Gurma. Vei. Also Khei-khai. in Ebe. Ngekoa. Kak . to be silent or to make indistinct sounds instead of speaking. Dosi. a nonspiritous liquor. Kache . to Silence. Mumu. the Shadow of the Night. The AKHAKH monster is the Devil of Darkness typified. for a coward.. Gwigwiou . in Mfut. Zulu. or Mamsie (a Scotch tumulus).

Chaki. is Black Current. Makua. Nyeke. in Hwida. Fijian. Mantshu Tarter. is Coal. Igoigo. Akakha. it is— Gagei and Gagiwag. in Languedoc. in Ude. Swahili. Aust. Kugbadyo . Kymric. is Smoke. known to various languages by this name.). Ringworm. Welsh. and Gag. the “fire-brand” was the name of Cetchwayo’s uncle. Turkish. Maori. Kigen. Yarra (Aust. in Papiah. Bad. is also applied to Coal as the Inner African type-name for the Black thing. Gacha. Disease. Dhimal. is to sleep. in French. in Gaelic. Fetor. Egoigo . Fijian. False. Sanskrit. Quichua. Hindi. Chakha-chakhi. East Nepaul. in Egyptian. Maya and many more. Discord. Grim-looking. Ihewe. This teacher became Kak (Eg. Gaga. Nyeke. Irish. Chaka. to abhor. in Wun. in Dahome. Stench. These are all related to the Night and Darness. Finnic. Zulu.) the God of Darkness. Cocis. is Black. To carry off by stealth. is Black Ant. Another form of the Typhonian monster in Africa. Deceit. in English. the under-world. Kakk. Kabaki. Kuku or Ocucu is the Black Spirit of many African tribes. in N’Godsin. to lie. Hindi. bad. Fijian. is Coal. Chouk . Caoch.. Geki. Scab. Cockmun. in Bini. is Blind. Nikuku. is a watch. Kakos. in Kisama. Caigha. Gwigwe . in Kono. Sanskrit. Void.TYPOLOGY OF P RIMORDIAL O NOMAOTPŒIA . Koro. Ihewe. Kaure. in Mahi. in Harari. Kokatera . is Black Poison (Coculus indicus). Kiamba. Ukhakh. Toda. Chuch. is to fear. Greek. Ghyuch. DisFrench. Bayon. Coci. This name far Darkness. is the Raven or Crow. Kak . This was Ukko. opposite or appalling in phenomena may be found under this name. is to feel horror and shrink from the Darkness. Vile. in Victoria (Aust. Kocchu. Itch. Empty. in Nupe. . Poisonous. Gakha.. in Vei.). Fire or lightning is Kako in Kaffa. is Morning. Kaki. Cacaphone cordant Note. as— Cac. Cocgio. dark... Black Hole of Kaka in Fijian. Gygu. Various other co-types of the inimical and opposing condition or thing might be adduced under the one word. Chek. Khika. Uchacha. Kaka . Haikio. in Makua. Chukki. { } All that is inimical. is Black in Legba Kegbado . Ququ. is the moving desert sand. Black Money. Also one of the hells.. is to watch. Khako. and the earliest pupil was Fear. the Shadow and Blackness. in Victoria. Khaco. A-kucha. the Finnic god of fire and darkness. Paioconeca. Fraud. Night and Black are likewise synonymous. or Sentinel. This comes under the same type-name. to starve. The same radical supplies the name for the Gigim (Akkad) the night fiends. Sanskrit. a Wicked Man. or Dsikana. Chakawi. Kikemu . Kikulu. Death. Koko. Cooach. and for the giant as the Gigas. Keke. is Black Fish. Koko. Hindi. Hence that which is bitter is— Gaga.. is to steal. in Veil. the Black Fetish. Legba. Kike. Uraon.. Bodo. Khakha. Kakue. Walach. Chicana. and Kugbeto. Chukia. Magar. is to delude and trick. in Maya. English. Nyieke. Tibetan.. Now the first teacher of the Adult was Terror. Kake. Namaqua Hottentot. in Bode. Evil. a Bad.. 267 { } Kabola. born of the Dark and named from it. Houge. Uchukula. is the Crow. Waugh. Cog. whose voice is the thunder.

Kakoi. imprisoned. a ring. was a Polynesian form of the giant or thunderer. or creak. And in Quichua the lightning spark is Ccachachacha. no. Choke. Xaxa. in English. to grasp. Kek. in Fiji. In the Maori Ngaeke denotes the sound of cracking. Chug. in Xosa. in Fiji. Hoa-Haka-nana-Ia. in Fiji. is negation. is boundary. Cacht. not. and this was one of the Seven types that were divinised as children of the most ancient genitrix. bind round. fierce. is a prison. Coccare. There are various Kak-ers and acts. to enclose. is to choke. Heigh-heigh is a sound of astonishment made with protruded lips by the Negroes on the West Coast of Africa. Khakha.). which applies to thunder. Chhuko. Khakh. and— Cegio. to kick. as was the voice of thunder. Chhek. And as Kak. is a contraction. Cagg. in Zulu. Xaxe. and— Chuch. is a straight. round. an enclosure. in Japanese. the Thunderer. hindered. in Irish. constricted and throttled. in Egyptian. The Serpent of Darkness coiled and contracted round. Ude. is to hold. The Dark was the great first obstruction and visible form of Negation. is to tie. restrained. and rending. in Welsh. just as the Inner Africans called it a Kaka or Kak-Kak by imitating the sound with a very guttural voice. Choc in . constrain. in Eskimo. The Thunderer was personified by the Sioux as the giant. tie a slip-knot. confined place. a collar. signifies greatly. or Ukko. This sound of concussion is represented by Khekh (Eg. return (as in sound). in Amoy. is to put a stop to in English. but thunder was loudest and most impressive. the Thunder. or modes of Kaking or Kâ-ing. furious. hugely monstrous. is a woman’s word for a stopper. is savage.) to repulse. Kakoi. to enclose. The Finns call a thunderstorm an Ukko or Ukkonen. in Irish. the C standing for a click of the tongue. in English Gipsy. Kak as the Darkness and the Devourer is that which obstructs and stops or chokes. That which is struck Khekh’s back again. is to obstruct. whilst CCaniy is thunder. in Xosa. is to bind. Kek. Gike and Chick in English are to click. there would be nothing improbable in suggesting that the earliest formulation of the Onomatopœtic Kak Kak or Kaka may have been in imitation of the voice of darkness (Kak) and lightning. Coko. fasten round. or Gag. in Vayu. that which checks and imedes. Welsh Cicio. Kuku. when it thunders. Gaga. Cuig. splitting. and a CCaccaccahay is a thunderstorm. Gak. crack. the black god of darkness. shut in. Kek (Eg. bind round. Haokah. a circle. is an obstruction. in Italian. in Arabic. Kakulo. The noise of cracking is represented in the Galla language by Cakak. and Cakak Djeda to say Kak is to crack. narrow. in Amoy. It is the noise of striking. in Makua. Zulu. Sanskrit. Ciko. is to constrict. in Welsh. to move with a click of concussion. the vast voice in Heaven (which was also represented by the Chachal or Jackal) is one of the Seven Elementary Powers that were typified and brought on as gods. in Japanese.268 THE NATURAL GENESIS. to break. Kakhya. shut in. prisoner.

has remarked that “The childish form of human languages delights in imitative words. and constitutes a call to come out. Kokulo. Akoko. 76. in Ashanti. in Ife. Kokulosu. Okoko. in N’goala. in Oworo. in Igu. N’kog. in Akua. The monkey and the rabbit strike the earth with the foot and produce a Kick-sound. urge on as is done with the click and whip. but the likelihood is that the 1 Dahome. in Mandara. kicking (or other mode of contact) are self-named by this word or sound.” as did the Cackler. in Isiele. and Kakka. in Udom. N’kog. Akiko. Uko. in Bini. is a gourd. Sheep also stamp on the ground furiously when a fight is going on. Okoko. in Adampe. There are various self-named Kak-ers. in Dahome. This is the Koku. in Mbofa. in Maori. in Yoruba.”1 Because they have retained the primitive childishness. Akiko. in Banyun. shock. is to “Sing early in the morning. Kaguiou. It is the Okoko. a Cackler.TYPOLOGY OF P RIMORDIAL O NOMAOTPŒIA . Akuko. in Ihewe. p. or Khekh of concussion. in Bola. Akiko. Kugoi. Kiki. in Mbofon. Kokunini. Norse. Okokoko. instigate. in Ishama. Gukonje. Akukoro. Kokuro. Costa Rica. Ugog. Kokulo. This applies to both Cock and Hen. Kuku. for striking together. Okoko. in Pepei. Koko. in Mahi. Kokuro. Whaka-Kiki (Maori) to make Kiki. the Egyptian Khi-Khi. in Marawi. 269 French. in Aro. in Yagba. or Cackler. in Abadsa. in Egbira-Hima. in Abadsa. in Anan. the Calabash. So the Inner African natural rattle. in Basa. Koki. in Egyptian. in Dsebu. in Yangua. in Bidsogo. Here the Khekh reaches back to the gesture-language of animals. is named the— Koko. N’kog. Ekuok. Kokulosu. is to incite. Kokulotsu. Ogok. Akiko. Akika. Kagudu. Akiko. in Sarar. in Bribri. Ogoka. in Eafan. as Kugui. in Kiamba. Akiko. in Bini. in Mbofia. Koku. The West Indian negroes make a rattle with seeds placed in a dried bladder. Okoko. This is also the name of the Hen. Chack in Scotch. in Anfue. The acts of chuckling. in Eki. Okoko. giggling. in Xosa. in Opanda. in Kanuri. Kokulo. vol. in Marawi. in Dsumu. in Penin. Okokulo. With the rabbit this is a signal that is understood. Kokulosu. in Ondo. Akiko. in Bola. the voice of the blow. in Buduma. Yika. Nkek. Akiko. Kokulo. in Hwida. in Hwida. It is used both in courting and as a challenge to fight. in Pati. Kocorok. Captain Burton. in Ekamtulufu. Nuan-kog. in Bulanda. in Kanyop. in Gurma. Kika. in Kra. Kogurot. in Nyamban. ii. Náun-kog. undoubtedly named itself in Africa. in Mahi. This is called a Chack-Chack. Kikowa. Kokoro. in Dsekiri. in Idsesa. Ugok. Okokuro. . in Dahome. denote the check. in Mbofon. in Adampe. N’kuku. in which the sound names its producer as the Whip. in Eafen. Kugala. in Anfue. The Cock. or fowl. Okoko. Okoko. N’kok. in Buduma. and the kick and Khekh-sound are synonymous. Kekanda. as Koklo. Kokulo-su. speaking of the African dialects.



Hen was named first, or rather imitated first, because her clucking announced that she had laid the Egg. Hence the Egg has the same name; this is
Koko, in Basque. Coco, in Old French. Cucco, in Italian. Kuko, in Magyar. Kok, in Tablung Naga. Goggy, in Craven, Yorks. Gagkelein, in Bavarian.

The Egg has the same name as the Fowl in Inner Africa, but chiefly in words more reduced.
N’heke, in Bidsogo. N’kege, in Wun. Kogba, in Koro. Ege, in Afudu. Ege, in Igala. Ekua, in Isiele. Ekua, in Mbofia. Eke, in Ibewe. Akua, in Isama. Akua, in Abadsa. Akua, in Aro. Ikôko, in Sobo. Agie, in Igu. Agoci, in N’godsin. Gôai, in Dosi. Eko, in Orungu. Ekie, in N’goten. Eki, in Melon. Aki, in N’halmoe—

and various other abraded forms. Here it is obvious the cry was repeated as the name for the Egg, or Goggy, because the idea of food would be a primary. Kaka (Eg.) means to eat and masticate. The Gege, in Zulu, is a Devourer, a greedy-guts. The “Xoxo,” or Koko, in Xosa Kaffir is a large Frog or toad. The name expresses the croaking of the frog or frogs. “I Xoxa” is a confused, general, or frog-like conversation. Quack is the language of the Duck.
Kao-kao, of the goose, Chinese. Kak, the goose of Seb, Egyptian. Kaka, to cackle, Egyptian. Keke, to quack, Maori. Gagkeneu, to cough, also cluck like a hen, Bavarian. Kuk-ko, to crow, Fin Kukuta ,, Sanskrit. Koklo, to crow, Yoruba. Akoka ,, Ibo. Kuku ,, Zulu, Ku-kuk ,, Malay. Kokoratz, to cluck as a hen, Basque. Kokot, clucking of a hen, Servian. Kakulla, to cackle, Turkish. Kakk£ein, ,, Greek. Kakaloti, to chatter, Lithuanic. Kukhu-Vach, a deer, Sanskrit.

A radical like this Kaka keeps its primitive status in later language, and tells of its lowly origin in various ways. Cach is a primitive form of utterance in provincial EngHsh, as is Kakaista, to vomit or evacuate, in Finnic; Kika, Zulu, a discharge; utterance being manifold. The Maori have a chorus in which they imitate the “Akh-Akh” or “Kak-kak” of the carpenter at work. The Egyptian, Kak-akk; Coptic, keh-keh; Xosa, Ceketa, mean to work as a carpenter. Akah (Eg.) is the Axe or Adze—the first form of which is the Thunder-Axe. Ako-Ako, Maori, is the voice of splitting open. Chacha in the Aino dialect is to saw; Chhak, Chinese, to work with a chisel. The Australian Aborigines have a sort of old women’s chorus or friendly salutation consisting of a “Kaw-kaw-kah-kah-kaw” This is consecrated to those who are the “Kakas,” or old women, as grandmothers, in the Inner African languages. Kiuka, Australian, is to laugh.



Kaka-kaka is to keep on laughing loud, Dayak. Gigiteka, to giggle, Galla. Gigiteka, to shake with laughter, Xosa. Gig, giggle, and giglet are forms of the same onomatopœtic original. Akhekh, in Egyptian, signifies to articulate, and the earliest articulation was expressed by this name. Chacambi, in Mantshu, is to talk in such an obscure way as not to be understood. Gigken, in Bavarian, and Kûj, in Sanskrit, mean to make inarticulate sounds. Gag, in English and other languages, denotes inarticulate noises made in trying to speak. To utter or gabble is
Gagei, in Breton. Gigagen, to bray as an ass, Swedish. Gagack, stuttering, Gaelic. Gaggen, incoherent speech, indistinct articulation, Swiss. Gaggyn, to strain by the throat in guttural utterance, Prom. Parvulorum. Kakkaset, utter and stammer, Lap. Koggalema, stutter, Esthonian. Kikna gasp or choke, Swedish. Chichila, voice of boiling water according to certain Buddhist mysteries. Keku, speech, Maori. Kaka, to say, Akkadian. Kiko, oratory and eloquence, Xosa. Kuoku, to speak, Isiele. Ekuka, to speak, Aro. Ekuoku ,, Abadsa. Ekuoku ,, Mbofia. Chich, voice of grief, lamentation, Irish. Kagh, voice of mourning, Persian. Kokuo, wail and cry, Greek. Keke, be beside oneself with grief, Maori. Kuk, loud lamentation, Hindustani. Kukli, howl and cry, Lithuanic. Gagga, to mock, Icelandic. Goic, scoff and taunt, Irish. Geck, derision, English. Kekas, abuse, Greek. K’ok, to cough, Chinese. Keiche ,, German Khakh, to clear the throat, Amoy.

Now, if the Ape-Man could not chuckle or giggle he was compelled to Cough, i.e., Khekh, and so produce this prototypal sound in the involuntary stage. Moreover, we find the Cough was included with the Sneeze as a. sign of spirit-presence. This may be seen in Sir Thomas Brown’s version of the story about the King of Mono~ motapa, in Vulgar Errors. The Cough is still employed like the “Hem” to call attention without using words. “I coughed to call his attention,” said a Coast-guard in a recent law case. The name of the Cough is identical with that of the Gullet, which is
Khekh, Egyptian. Kobi, throat, Maori. N’kog is the Gullet, Gurgut ,, Goglwe ,, Ekoka ,, Ugogo ,, Kokorawo ,, Bola. Ashanti. Bulanda. Adampe. Ondo. Mese. Cog, throat, Welsh. Goggle, to swallow, English. Geagl (whence gullet), English. Okokuturi, the Gullet, Egbele. Ekogwe ,, Igu. N’gogula ,, Kanuri. N’gaguido ,, Kanem. Okoruo ,, Okam. Khekh, the Gullet, Egyptian. Ugo ,, Dsebu. Kogbe, the Throat, Koro. Kokore ,, Mose. Okuku, the Mouth, Aku.

This is Inner African, where

The Cough itself is Inner African under this name, as the
Kuoka, in Yala. Kuko, in Igala. Kokuara, in Isiele. Kokuara, in Aro. Akukuara, in Mbofia. Kuokusi, in Parani. Kokule, in Kra—

with the worn-down forms, Wuko, (Aku dialects), Ûko, Kut, and others.



The Cough issued from the Throat, and has the same name. It was the spontaneous utterance of obstruction, constriction, and choking. Here we find a natural genesis for the sound that was produced involuntarily, but which is continued in language as the type-word for all forms of obstruction or repulsion and their involuntary voice. In accordance with Kaka being the type-name for that which was first as Darkness, or the Old Mother (Koka, in Maori; Caca, Japanese), and for the Number 1 we may look on this as a primordial word. The language of “Kak,” so to speak—for the time was when a very few sounds constituted the sum-total of human utterance—is yet extant in the guttural Ka-ka-ing of the Australians at the southern side of the world, and at the other in the “Ugh,” or “Ugga” of the north; the Caca of the English nursery; Finnic, ââkka; French, Caca; Mantshu, Kaka; English, Gag. “Kaka” might be still further followed. Kâkâ (Eg.) is to eat, masticate, swallow, or devour (English, Chewchew); and Kak denotes the Devourer in various forms and languages. Ugede describes a Greenland woman as expressing her sense of supreme pleasure by drawing in a very long breath or air and ending at the bottom of her throat with a great guttural smack of satisfaction (cf. the Egyptian Smakhakh, to rejoice), as the primitive Click, or “Kak” of gustative delight. This action and sound correspond to the Quichua Ccochuy for pleasure, and the interjection of pleasure called “Ha-chach-allay;” the Maori Koa-Koa, to be joyful, and the Gippsland Koki, a sound (smack) of pleasure. The language of “Kaka” includes the kiss; Sanskrit Kuch; Gothic, Kukian; German Küssen; English, Kiss. The kiss utters the sound of contact; the Click or Cluck of the Copula.
Cache, to go, English. Kuug, to go together, Chinese. Kokku, copulatio, Tamul. Kika ,, Zulu. Jeka, to strike home, Zulu. Kuc, to connect, mix, go, sound, Sanskrit. Cic, movement in concert, Welsh. Kiss, concussion with sound, English.

It is noticeable that Pkhkha (Eg.), to stretch and divide, has the sign for determinative, which supplies the Khetan, Etruscan, Umbrian, and other forms of the or letter K. The hieroglyphic shows the sign of breaking in two, which the K or KK conveys in sound to the ear. Thus the visible action becomes audible, and the word pkhkh or fekh (Eg.), to break open,—which may apply to various modes—is the vach or voice of the self-naming action. With this we might compare the stories told of Kak or Ukko, the Thunderer, and his mode of Khak-ing.1 Nga is the earlier form of Ka, and Nga-Nga of Ka-Ka. Thus the
Thunder in Finnic is also called Jymj; Jym, Zyranian; Jom, Mordvin; Juma, Tsherimis. This is Jum in English for knocking; and Jumme is Futuere. The Voice of Thunder was a supreme expression of power.



Click and Crack is Ngueke in Maori, and the “Ka-ka,” of the Australian natives is also “Nga-Nga.” With both, “Nga” denotes fetching breath. In Gipps Land “Nga-anga” is breath, and to breathe. Nga-a-a-a-a-h, with the H strongly aspirated, is a cry of the Australian Aborigines, used to arrest attention. “Ng-ng-ng-ng” is a sort of prolonged grunting, expressive of satisfaction and pleasure. Possibly the Goddess Vach would have to be consulted in her mystical Oraculum for the most primitive human phase of the kk, ûk, or k-sound, which became lingual in nga-nga and kaka. In the Kk, or Click, whether sounded with a nasal utterance or not, we find another radical by which some human action first named itself in making the involuntaty sound, whether in eating, coughing, or the click of copula or contact; another utterance of an act of nature, like the “Tut-tut” of sucking; or the “Fuf-fuf” of blowing with the breath, and the “Tishu-tishu” of sneezing. R was called the Dog’s Letter (litera canina) by the Romans, and is referred to as such by the Elizabethan dramatists. The dog makes the sound or R-r-r-r when snarling and showing its teeth or open mouth. Ari, Fin, Hirrio, Latin, is to snarl like a dog. Herr, Hyrr, Welsh, is to lncite a dog in its own language. In the hieroglyphics the mouth ‘ is the Ru or Lu sign, and in the Inner African languages the Mouth, Tongue, and Throat are named from this radical in the duplicative stage. For example,
Luru, the Throat, Legba. Leor ,, Dselana. Ulolo ,, Basa. Olulo, the Gullet, Isoama. Lilon ,, Bayon. Lelon ,, Momenya Torolo, the Gullet, Babuma. Ularua ,, Mandara. Yle


The Ululant type of words found in Irish, Latin, and Greek, the Polynesian Lololoa, Zulu, Halala; Dacotah, Hi-le-li-lah; Allelu, Lullaby, and many others may here be recognized. The Tongue is also named
Liliwi, in Ekamtulufu. Leliwi, in Udom. Lil, or Ilo, in Isoama, Isiele, Abadsa, Aro, Mbofia. Lelim, in Babuma. Lilim, in Mutsaya. Lilime, in Muntu. Lirume, in Marawi. Lelimi, in Undaza. Irale, in Egbira-Himi. Orlala, in Ukuafi. Rale, or Ale, in Igu & Opandi. Halla, in Fazogla. Lillo, in Accrah. Lilla, in Adampe.

In Sanskrit Lal means playing with the tongue, to loll it, move it hither and thither, to dart it forth amorously, fiercely or savagely. Llaana is the Tongue; Lalantika a Lizard or Chameleon; Lelayamana, one of the Seven Tongues of Fire; Lalat is the Dog. Lill, in English, is to loll out the tongue, which is called a Lolliker. Rara, in Maori, is to make a continual sound, to roar; Riro is the Intensive form. Riri denotes anger, to be angry, hence to roar. Rorea is the rearing roaring Bore, or high tide. Ruru is to shake and quake. Ru is the earthquake.
Lila, to lament and moura, Xosa. Lloliaw, prattle to a child, Kymric. Lalle, babble to a child, Danish. Lola, to lull asleep, Udo. Lollen, to tattle, Dutch. Lalein, to speak, German.



Rire, in French is the Laugh, of to laugh, and this is Inner African, as
Rere, Laugh, Gbese. Reri ,, Aku. Reri ,, Egba. Reli ,, Yoruba. Reri, Laugh, Yagba. Lori ,, Eki. Rari ,, Dsumu. Reri ,, Ife. Lela, Laugh, N’gola. Elela ,, Lubalo. Loa ,, Songo.

Many kinds of utterance are called by variants of one name, which, in this case, is extended even to writing in the Assyrian Rilu. Earlier than the verb forms were the names of the organ as Tongue and Gullet in Africa. Also to “Tongue” in gesture-language was prior to verbal speech. Protruding and lolling out the tongue is employed as a universal sign of repulsion, contempt, or hatred. Dr. Tylor says he is not clear why this should be so.1 But it is simply a case of revcrsion to an earlier type of expression. Signs were made with the tongue in gesture-language before the time of verbal speech. The tongue was used according to the feeling which sought expression by that member. The Australian expresses “No” by throwing back the head, and thrusting out the tongue. Negation is one form of repelling, and the earliest mode of repulsing is reverted to as most repellent and effective. That which served to typify when there were no other means of expression still serves as symbol for that which transcends all verbal expression, and when the choke of feeling is too strong for words, the tendency is to take to gesture-language and enact it whether by thrusting out the tongue, the foot, or the fist. The loud-crier, the Roarer, the rapacious beast, is a “Ruru” in Sanskrit. The dog also is a Ruru; and this is a name of one of the Seven Rishis, who correspond to the Seven Taas (Eg.). Seven tongues of speech, Seven notes in music, Seven vowels, and therefore Seven primitive sounds, out of which the vowels were finally evolved. The Sanskrit Ril is to roar, howl, bellow, yelp, bray, shriek, shout, wail. Roruya, to howl or roar very much, and Roroti, to yell and roar and bellow loudly, are intensive forms of what is considered the root. But the intensive was primary at an earlier stage; the earliest words being made by duplication of the same sound. This is shown by Rû, as in the Latin Rû-mour which indicates the full value to be Rru (Rr), as it is in the hieroglyphics. The dog is one of the animals that utter the “Rer-rer,” which deposited the letter r in language. But a far more potent claimant for the r or “Rur” sound is the hippopotamus. This is named “Rur,” or, with the feminine terminal, Rurit. Rur is written ‘ ‘, or double-mouth. The horizon is likewise the Ruru, or dual mouth. The female was a Ruru, or double mouth, as the Lioness-Goddess Pehti, one of the Roarers. If we apply this to the roar of the hippopotamus, she is the double-mouth of sound. Raro, in Maori, is the north, the mouth of the abyss, and Rurit typified that mouth (or

Tylor, Early History.



uterus) as Goddess of the North, the Roarer who came up from the waters. She is usually pourtrayed with the tongue lolling out of her mouth. Her name of Tep is also that of the tongue, and she is designated the “Living Word,” because she was the first Utterer-forth in heaven above and the abyss beneath. And the roar she made with her vast mouth reverberated for ever through all the realms of human speech. The dog (or jackal) was her son, and he too rursout her special letter, the phonetic R, the mystical Sanskrit Lri, which, according to Monier Willians, is one of those things that “have apparently no signification.” But, if they had not, we may be sure they would not have been so faithfully preserved. Tge Maoris attribute the gift of language to the Old Mother, WhaRuri or Whu-Ruruhi, whose name denotes the old woman that revealed or disclosed; and her name also corresponds to that of Ruri(t), or Urt, in Egypt; Lri, in India, and Rî (Ishtar) in Akkad, the Old First Mother of all things, including language. The sounds of “Kak-kak,” “Fuf-fuf,” “Tut-tut,” “Rur-rur,” “TshuTshu,” “Nen-nen,” were rudimentary gutturals, aspirates, linguals, dentals, palatals, and nasals, from the first, produced by the gullet, lips, tongue, teeth, and nose; and these “parts of speech” would be first distinguished by the organ of utterance. This is shown by gesture-language, when the tongue is touched as a sign of taste or distaste, and the nose as the sign of smell. The organs can be more or less identified with their especial sounds. There are Seven, as the gullet (gutturals), tongue (linguals), palate (palatals), teeth (dentals), lips (labials), nose (nasals), and breath (aspirates), the names of which were self-conferred by the nature of their action. Thus the Throat was the Kak-er; the Nose, Smeller; the Mouth, Puffer; the Tongue, Taster, from the first, and the gesture is the visible link between the organ and the name of the particular sound which it produced. The Tooth has the same name in English that language, utterance, tongue, the Utterer, have in the Egyptian Tut. The various members of the human body extant as hieroglyphic signs are so many illustrations of gesture-language which show us how the primitive man drew on and from himself. The human body supplied the following syllables and phonetics to the Egyptian signs:
Api or A, the head. At and Ankh, the ear. Ar and An, the eye. Bak, the phallus. Ba, the soul of breath. Bu, the leg. Her or H, the human face. Hem or H, the mons veneris. Hu, the tooth-sign of the adult. Hat, the heart, abode of life. Kha, vagina sign. Ku, two arms uplifted. Ka, a knee-cap. Kaf, Fa, or A, the single arm. Mut or M, phallus. Ma, an eye. Nen or N, a pair of arms held down. Ru, the mouth. Tobu, a finger. Tet or T, female breast. Tat, phallus.



In the hieroglyphics the Nostrils are named Sherui. Sher is to breathe, and to breathe is synonymous with joy and to rejoice (Sheri). Sher-Sher, or breathe-breathe, is the plural for joys. Fû (fut) signifies dilation and dilatation; Fu being ardour; Fua, life. These are likewise related to the breath. Fu is especially indicative of a bad smell, of ordure and impurity (futi), which therefore may be held to account for one type-name of the Nose. This, in Africa, is-—
Efu, in Yasgua. Pua, in Swahili. Aifoa, in Esitako. Eboa, in Musu. Pahoo, Mandan. Pau, in Osage. Pah-hah, in Winebago. Pah, in Omaha. Apah, in Minetari. Peh, in Tsherkess. Epofa, in Gugu. Ebua, in Puka. Ipula, in Meto. Bibo, in Ebe. Fuiya, in Chanta. Puiya, in Kaikha. Phiya, in Kamas. Puiyas, in Tawgi. Puiyea, in Yurak. Pfuna, in Bulanda. Puno, in Kiriman. Puno, in Marawi.

Out of Africa the Nose is named—
Evi, in Sapibocomi. Pi, in Mandarin. Pi, in Canton. Pi-chi, in Cape York. Pé-chi, in Massied.

The Tongue is the hieroglyphic symbol of Taste. But it is equally the organ of distaste, and in Sanskrit, “Thut,” which corresponds to Tut (Eg.) for the Tongue, means to spit; and the word represents the osund made in spitting. Tutua, in Tahitian, also signifies to spit. Spitting or “Thut”-ing is an involuntary mode of expression that was continued from the pre-human stage, as an intended utterance. Spitting is a universal mode of expressing disgust, repulsion, and repugnance. Leichardt describes the native Australians as interrupting their speeches by spitting and uttering a pooh-poohing sort of noise, apparently denoting disgust. With the Malays of Malacca the expression of disgust “answers to spitting from the mouth.”1 Spitting was a Greek sign of aversion and contempt, and to spit was to condemn.2 In Lincolnshire the people believe in a ghost or sprite known as the “Spittal Hill Tut!” The Muzunga exclaims “TuhTuh,” and spits with disgust on the ground.3 Tuh, like Tut, in Egyptian, signifies to tell; it also denotes an evil or bad kind of speech, and spitting was a mode of telling their disgust. Tutu and Tuh-tuh are in the duplicative stage. In Tuf (Eg.) to spit, the Galla Tufa, English Tuff, Chilian Tuventun, to make Tuv, or to spit, the Tut is worn down and recombined with another consonant. The English exclamation of disgust used for repudiating or rebuking, as “Tut-tut,” answers to the spitting of the less civilized, and it retranslates the act into that verbal sound which was first derived from the act. Tut, or Thut, to spit, then, is a most primitive mode of utterance; the lowly status of which is reflected in later language under the same type-word as Tad, English, excrement; Tutae, Maori, dung. In vulgar Engilsh a more excrementious exclamation takes the
1 2 Scholiast, Sophocles, Antigone, v. 666. Darwin, Emotions, ch. ii. 3 Burton, Lake Regions, vol. ii. p. 246.



place of “tut.” The lowly status of Tut (Eg.) for speech or utterance is continued in—
Titi, to stammer, Egyptian. Teet, and Tatel, to stammer, English. Totario, to stammer, Portuguese. Tottern, to stammer, German. Tot, to mutter, murmer, or whisper, Norse. Totte, to whisper, English. Toot, to whine and cry, Ib. Teet, the least little word or sound, Ib. Titter, suppressed laughter, Ib.

Tetea, in Maori, is to strike the teeth. Tatu, to strike home, reach bottom. Dudu, Asyrian, and Tata, Egyptian, are to go rapidly, as the tongue may be moved in making the round of “Tut-tut-tut.” Tata in Zulu expresses the impatiance of desire. Impatience is also expressed in nursery language by the “tut-tut” of the tongue producing a click.1 The element of negation finally expressed in one form by the letter N, may have originated in repelling a nasty smelt by inhalation with the nasal sound and expulsion with the guttural which formed the primate Nka, that deposited an N or K. The N is a Nun in the hieroglyphics and Nin in Hebrew. These represent an African type-name for the Nose itself, which is
Nini, in Okuloma. Nine, in Udso. Nnui, in Eafen. Nukutu, in Bushman.

This is the name of the Nose in the Lap and Finnic languages, as
Njuone, in Lap. Nyena, in Fin. Ninna, in Esthonian. Nena, in Vod. Nena, in Karelian. Nena, in Olonetz—

and also occurs as
Unan, in Willamet.

Water, however, is a type of Negation, and the first of the “Two Truths” corresponding to the Mother and Night; Nun (Eg.) is the primordial water, also the Inundation; and in Chinese Non means the sound of water among stones, signifying Anger. Here the Nun, or Nnu, our No, is the voice of water; and running water is the ideograph of negation, of No and Not. An Esthonian legend tells how language was derived from the sounds uttered by the boiling and bubbling of water. These primitive radicals or aboriginal sounds are in the ideographic stage which preceded the syllabic and phonetic phases, and which alone reaches the point where the bridge has to be built that will connect the earliest imitation and utterance of sounds with formulated words. If some Seven such can be identified and are found to be universal they will give an intelligible account of the origin of language in the
1 One of the most curious relations to language as Tut (Eg.) is illustrated by the Dæmon Tutivillus who is supposed to collect all the Words that are indistinctly uttered by the priests in the performance of religious services. These abortions of speech he carries of to Hell, which is also the Tut by name in Egyptian.— Townley Mysteries, pp. 310-319; Piers Ploughman, p. 547.



primordial Onomatopœia. The “Kak-kak” is still continued in the click stage of sounds as well as in the cough by the vulgar with occult significance; the fufu-ing or fuffing with the breath, in snake-like inflation and figure of repulsion, survives in the various modes of Pu-pu-ing or Pooh-pooh-ing, including the action whereby the feeling is uttered or evacuated in spitting out the sound. When a child is called the “spit of his father,” it is in the language of evacuation. Spit is a name for spawn. The rer-ring, arre-arre-ing, hullilooing still exists in the frequentative “Ara-arai” of the Maori, or the “Arree-arree” of the Pelew Islanders; Æthiopic “Hur-hur;” the Norse, “Hurrar;” Hebrew “Allelujah;” Red Indian, “Ha-le-lu;” Tibetan “Alala;” Inner African, “Lulliloo;” Coptic “Heloli;” Irish, “Hooro;” English, “Hey-loly,” and “Hurrah.” The “Mum-Mum,” although not among the earliest sounds as a labial may have been as a nasal; this was continued as a Mystery in Mum-ming. The nasal of Negation has become the universal No, Na, Nen, or None; and the name of the Ninny. Like the primitive customs and weapons, the Totemic and mythical types, words and sounds show the same survival of the past in the present, and add their evidence for unity of origin and the truth of the doctrine of Development. Articulate utterance in Man was preceded by the semi-articulate, and non-articulate; by clicks and puffs; guttural and nasal sounds; by mere audible and visible signs, all of which were pre-verbal. Yet such sounds must have been definite enough to express definite ideas before words existed, because they continue to do so after language is perfected. And when later language fails to utter the passion we still revert to our primitives of expression. The full heart that silently overflows in tears; the sigh of love; the moan of misery; the snarl that lifts the lip all a-quiver to show the Canine tooth; the laugh of delight, the click of the wanton,1 are more eloquent and make a profounder appeal even than verbal utterance. These are as intensely concentrative in act as language is widely expansive in words. The impatient one has recourse to his “Tut-tut,” for “don't tell me,” and the nurse to her “tut-tut,” for “so nice,” by which she makes the child’s mouth water. One “pahs,” and another “pooh-poohs,” with disgust; the vulgar thrust out the tongue or tell you something or other is not to be sneezes at; the he at the street corner hems, or makes his guttural click to the she who passes by; or the savage within breaks out still more ignobly and nature is hurled back on a return tide of reversion to the manners of the remotest past.2 These
Cg. Khygge, or Caige, Scotch, to wax wanton. Sign-language still survives amongst us in gestures that correspond to the nature of primitive sounds, as in “Geasoning,” which has persisted from the time when
1 2



show the predecessor and the creator of verbal language in the position of being still independent of words, as he was before they were fashioned. We find that there is a stage even in verbal language, in which doing and saying are one, and both are expressed by the same sound or word. Following this clue to the end or rather to the beginning, we see that certain natural actions include both the act and sound, the later verb and noun in one; the involuntary sound being spontaneously produced in and with or by the action, and this sound it is suggested was repeated voluntarily and duplicated to form the earliest vocal sign preceding words—repetition being the primary mode of consciously employing sounds which had been involuntarily evolved in the natural act, to become the recognized voice of each special sensation and finally of ideas. Man had no need to derive the sounds of sneezing (Tsh), coughing, or clicking in eating and swallowing (gustative Kak-Kak—Kâ-Kâ (Eg.) to chew and masticate) or the click of personal contact; of panting or puffing with the breath (fufu), of sucking or spitting (Tut) from external nature by consciously imitating the animals, as these sounds were uttered in the acts in however rudimenatary a manner, to be evolved into voice, and perfected by intentional and continual repetition. Such sounds would be consciously repeated for use as an accompaniment to the gesture-signs, until the primary elements of language, the mere voice of evacuation, could be applied to the things of external nature, which uttered similar sounds, as their names, such as “Kak-Kak,” for the thunder; “fuff-fuff” for the wind, breath, soul, or snake; “rur-rur,” the roarer; only Seven of which are required for language in general. Primivite onomatopœia would consist in the conscious reproduction of sounds native to man, rather than in imitation of sounds external to
pubescence was synonymous with being open and unprohibited. In one form to Geason is to jut open the lips and show the teeth. This may be with the feeling of anger, scorn, derision, provocation, bantering or attracting. It is a mode of inciting, from whatever motives. The Gaelic Geason also signifies to charm, allure, and enchant. This shows the aim (guess) of the gesture (or gest) that disclosed the mouthful of teeth in which the African woman file their opening; the “Gatteeth” in England. Geasoning, or gestening, once indicated lodging and entertainment for the guest who was thus invited. Geasoning was continued in the dance,—the Cheza in Ksawahili, Khen, Persian, a sort of Can-Can, and a primitive form of feminine Geasoning. In Egyptian Kes-Kes is to dance, incline towards, entreat in an abject or degrading manner—as it came to be considered. The Geasoning dance also survived to a late period in England, as is shown by the old tune “Dargison.”1 This, according to the name, was intended to provoke desire. Geasoning is yet continued by our “noble barbarians” in the “full dress” of the female that advertises the prominent or padded mammæ, which are not always intended for the natural use as they were with the ignoble barbarians. The female still “comes out” to show that she is “open” and free to Geason. Indeed, it looks as though the fashion in feminine dress was one never-ceasing wriggle to get back without going back to the most primitive phases of natural Geasoning.

Book of Beginnings, vol. i. p. 161.



himself; and these involuntary and interjectional sounds are universal; they still preserve their primitive nature or status. Also the duplicated sounds remain to the end as from the first. We can no more wrench language out of the mould of the beginnings than we can jump off our own shadow whilst standing in the sun. Words founded on the mere repetition and duplication of a sound constitute a common universal property in mimetic expression. But these are by no means an inorganic substratum of language. The moment that a sound was consciously repeated to produce the word “fufu” or “Kaka,” etc., it partook of an organic nature and was separated from chaos for ever. The nursery words of our race to-day are surviva1s from the infancy of speech. In them the onomatopœia of the commencement persists, however limited or overlaid by the growths and accretions of later language. They took too long a time, and cost too prolonged an effort to get evolved, for them ever to be let go again or altogether lost. They have not suffered change by reduction into roots for regenesis in later words. They are like the oldest order of fish, which did not become reptilia themselves, and yet were the progenitors of reptiles that finally attained wings. None but the evolutionist can have any approximate idea of the slow processes by which the amazing phenomenon, language, must have wormed its way to the surface from the ungaugeable depth of the past; or of the long procession of series and sequence up to the present time. It seems to me that we only reach the beginnings where we see that it could not have been otherwise, and where the initial phase would be as practicable, on the same visible grounds, if we could begin again to-day, as it was in the remotest bygone age. The solution of the problem demands that it should be explained by conditions which are still present, and universal as the human race. The origins now presented conform to those conditions; and the interjectional sounds yet extant as the involuntary voice of natural acts can be cited as living witnesses. The theory here propounded is that the primary elements of language originated in the involuntary utterance of natural sounds; when the utterance was the mere voice (Vach) of evacuation and sensation. That these sounds were continued by the dawning consciousness now known as human and repeated as signs of want and warning, desire and satisfaction, fear and anger, pain and pleasure, their current value being recognised by force of repetition, accompanied, as they were, by determinative gesture signs; that the first words were coined by repetition of a sound; that the sound-stuff of all speech existed in the embryonic Tch (Dsh or other variants) of the sneeze; the fufu of puffing out the breath; the hiss; the nasal negative; the tut-tut of sucking; the click of contact; the



kak-kak of eating, and rur-rur of the roarers; that we do not reach back to an original “root” of language short of a word the earliest form of which could be sounded by a click, a puff of breath, a sneeze, etc.; which word could be coined to-day (as ever) by reduplication of the first natural sound or its modem equivalent. Thus primitive language is considered to have been evolved by a series of self-naming acts and involuntary sounds; and may be described as the earliest mode of consciously Puffing, Kakking, NoNo-ing, Rur-rur-ing, Tut-tut-ing, Tshu-Tshu-ing, Mam-mam-ing by means of aboriginal sounds belonging to the primordial onomatopœia. The second phase of sounds and of conscious duplication to produce the earliest words is yet traceable by means of the Negro, Maori, and other prehistoric languages. In Chinese the oldest Sounds of Ang and Ong were Ngang and Ngong, as they are in the Australian and African dialects. In Egyptian Mâ-Mâ, to bear, as the Mother, implies the form of Mam-mam, and pâ-pâ, to produce (as the Mother), implies a prior Paf Paf, which becomes pâ-pâ, which becomes Pepe, to engender, as the Male, and passes into Pâ and Bât for the Father. The process of development is made visible in the hieroglyphics. For example, from Puf to blow, the Blowers were named, first by direct representation of the sound, and afterwards by the reduction and combination of the sound. Puff being reduced to the syllable Pu, the article Tu (Eg.) for The is prefixed and the word Tupu is formed. Tupu (Eg.) means to breathe and blow, and it is the name of the buffalo and others of the blowers. But the original puffer remains in the name of the Buffalo, and the Bufo. The letter V that turns into U, illustrates the process by which Pf was modified into Pû. When the reduced Puf is combined with the sign or letter T, as a suffix, the result is the word (with variants) Put, Fut, or But, the type-name in Egyptian, Chinese, Akkadian, English, Sanskrit, and many other languages, for that which opens, duplicates and becomes “Both.” Thus Puth (Eg.) is to open the mouth; the Hebrew Puth or opening also applied to the female genitals. The Mouth is opened by the Breath, Pef in Egyptian; Puff in English. The opening of the Mouth divides into duality. The Male likewise is opened, to enter his second phase at the time of Puberty; and papoi in Coptic denotes duplication. He becomes the Papa (Pepe, Eg., to engender) the Pubescent male. “Papa” reduced and reconstructed with the T terminal passes into the word Pat; Sanskrit, Pati, the Husband;1 Greek, Phator, the Engenderer; Australian, Pyte and Bait, the Father; Malay, Butu, the Virile one; Irish, Bud, the Virile member; English, Fude, the Man; Egyptian Bat, the Father.
Pati. The Sanskritists would render Pati as the Strong. But that is in the abstract and vague stage of the word. The original meaning is male potency, or pudency. The root Pâ, an earlier Ppa in Egyptian, denotes the masculine species,



The second and dual stage is denoted by the T being a plural sign which in the Hieroglyphics is the hand or a female breast, one of two in either case; and therefore a duplicative type that figures duality to the Eye instead of representing it to the Ear, as was done in the stage of Papa and Mama. It appears to me that this process might be applied until the later words in general were traced back to the primary duplicated sounds. The results of this reduction and recombination may be formulated or illustrated thus:—Fuff-fuff—Fufu—Fu—F—Fut; Kak-kak— Kaka—Ka—K—Kat; Mum-mum—Muma—Mu—M—Mut; Na-na or Neh-neh—Na—N—Nat; Rur-rur—Ruru—Ru—R—Rut. The vowel sounds together with the prefixes and suffixes of course may vary indefinitely. The Syllabics Fu, Ka, Mu, Nu, Ru, and lastly the Phonetics F, K, M, N, R, become the bases for many future combinations of letter sounds in the morphology of later words. The hieroglyphics show the visbile sign of duplication in the act or superseding that of audible repetition in such words as—
Mama, or Mat, Mother. Papa, or Bat, Father. Peh-Peh, or Pehti, the double force. Pepe, or Pat, to fly. Seb-Seb, or Sebti, encase or enclose. Khi-Khi, or Khet, to go. Mum, or Mut, the dead.

Here, then, to recur to our image of evolution, the primitive fish that wriggled blindly as a simple Sandworm, took to its legs as a Reptile and walked off along the ways of manifold transformation, until it became a winged word; winged, bird-like, for unfollowable flight—that is, unfollowable here—although it seems to me that all words might be followed from their natura1 genesis. For just as the interjections survives, so do the original words formed by duplication of the same sound still exist after the reduction and re-application in later forms. Thus Shash, No. 6, becomes Shat in Sanskrit; pap, or fap, in Old Chinese becomcs fât in Cantonese. So Kak precedes Kât (from Kakt)1 just as Pat (Eg.) comes from Ppat and both from Papa in Egyptian; so that Papa and Father, Bat (Eg.), are identical at root. The number Four is Fut in Egyptian; Fudu in Bode, Hausa, and other African languages; but it is
Piffat, in Guebe (Port Dory). Effat, in Malagasi. Pobitz, in Yengun. Mpat, in Sasak.

Fûdu was originaly ffdu, from Fuf; and the double consonant explains why Pip-ing is number Four in Cayus; Pev-ar in Breton; and
article or member. The Pat, or Bat, is simply the progenitor, as the inspirer of the Ba (Breath or Soul), with the Bahu. So the Male as “Sesmu” (Eg.) is the breather of the Mother. Also Paini, for the Mistress, is the property and possesion, the one “belonging to,” as the Egyptian “Patni.” 1 Williams, Syllabic Dictionary, intro. p. 29; also Edkins.

Mfu becomes Mâu and the terminal T is added. . and continued even in the double-looped . a hairy shoe or glove. or Z.. in Gurma. Gaelic. Furthermore the duality once signified by repetition of the sound. and double Dd of the Welshl and the Lri of the Sanskrit signs. Tasmanian. Motte . and other languages. catskin or fur. Râ. The principle is carried out to the dotting of the i. . is the Tongue. is the Tongue. of the Hieroglyphics. and this continues the duplicate Ff or Pp. (Norse. Mamadthun . Mutau. a kind of anklet worn by the Egyptians. double Ll. and it is a blabbing folly to talk of the sterility of these radicals. as well as the fur-skin. Fu-Fu. French. it is a figure of Two in Coptic. and by the T being a plural terminal. in New Hebrides. in Mandara. is the Mouth. Mot. Kaka. Tutu. i. Mudel. also. after all language has been developed from them.. Also the original duplicate is continued in the Pp. the Lynx or other Beast. Ruru. . But the word Muff or Muffet survives in the stage of Mfu and Maft (Eg. Also the Inner African Mfu or Mpu remained the dog’s name in the Vogul Emp and Ostiac Amp. Murundo. visible in the V and Y. . Muda).. Lap. in French. So Meme. This was the principle of our Letter formation. a cloak of reindeer skin. in Dsuka. is the Tongue. Mut (Eg. is the Tongue.). the cat. which is . Mme. in Egyptian. In these the duplicative phase of sound has survived.. and Tû were re-combined as roots in the Aryan stage. and the Twy-formed . in Andi. Medsa-ku. Mudda. a cover of reindeer skin. or T which is equivalent to Tta. Thus in Inner Africa the Cat is named Muti. in Tshetsh. Pahlavi. was also continued to the eye in the figures of certainletters which represent the duplicated sounds. in Grebo. 283 why fob-ble in the English means quadruple. Papa.e. Tshari.. Bavarian.TYPOLOGY OF P RIMORDIAL O NOMAOTPŒIA . the Nn. Memiae. S. Mombo . the skin in Egyptian.. Such words then as Mama. as Mû with the feminine terminal. Kâ. is the Mouth. the Khkh. is the Word. Mme . In this form it passed into Europe as Muti. Mitts.. . a muff. Dido. in Yasgua. which were formed in the duplicative phase of sounds. whilst Mut.. Fin. a thick glove of skin. This duality is figured in the Cross Q Tau.. Pâ... The T is double in the Hieroglyphic ¼ in the hand and the female breast. Bethuck.. and the rest of these primordial duplicates did not pass away because the reduced Mâ. the cat. the double Ff. Theta in Greek. The letter B is a double P. . the Tt. the Rr. . Mot.. The Inner African Mfu for the Dog or typical Beast is represented by Mâft. Mamana . Moats . Mamolo. Hebrew. It is the same with the c or K. Papuan.). Ingush. Omati. Miton. is fromed from Mumu.

the name for sorcery. black. i. Cuffey. Theal also says the Kaffirs cannot even pronounce the name because the sound of R is wanting in their language. and the Arabic Káfir for the lnfidel is not a primary meaning of the word. when Kâ and Kaf. vol. Not even in Arabic. There is no chancc whatever of these having derived their type-name for the Black from the Arabic Káfir. Guafili. black.” “Ma. The Inner African Kaf for the black rernains. This is the far likelier origina1 of the Muhammedan Káfir applied to the sorcerers with the r instead of the l terminal. or darkness. according to the Koran. and IU signifies the dual or Twin One. and language shows that “Ham” and “Kaf” are identical at root. Salum. dual in the Hieroglyphics as . 29. Gbe. pp.284 THE NATURAL GENESIS. night. the Káfirs are to come out of the earth all black in the face. 28. 27. says Hor-Apollo2 “the Egyptians depict a 1 “Kaffir. black magic. also Hapi. which means black in Egyptian and other languages. Kupirira. The clicking Kaf or cynocephalus of Inner Africa preceded the clicking Kaffir. Mr. the black man. Bidsogo. in the Xosa Kaffir. the black rhinoceros. the. as a tyrpe of Taht-Aan in the Lunar Mythos. and from this I derived the name of the Kaffirs and of the Au-ruti (Af-ruti or Kaf-ruti) who went down into the valley of the Nile. Dewoi. and points to the root Kak. because it covers with darkness. Boko. who represents the breathing quarter in the East. “To symbolise speech. The written a is an IO united in one letter. later âf. and that it had the prior signification of the Coverer. The physical complexion was first. black. Gbei. who was the mouth that emaned the Word at first. âp. For us. Koelle says the Phula people call the Hams Kaffiri. words do not begin where we first meet wjth then. and âu. The accented á indicates an earlier consonant. or enchantment. In Bambarra Akafi is the Negro. Akafi. and the word for Beginning is Kafulo. Gbalwi. Old poets call night the Káfir. So. in the Natal Zulu. If man and speech began with the black race. and this is applied from that of the black man. Further. Kabilo. ëë . aod Bushman.1 Hottentot. the voice. On turning to the African languages we find that Kaf is the black ape (Egyptian). the sign of the genitrix. language will be sure to show it. Dr. and final in the dual forms of letters. Black is synonymous with first as Kak. Kamuka. the black man (cf. the nought in one sense but the true Alpha and Omega. So in the Resurrection. Nigger). and with the 0 itself duality attains unity at last in the primordial figure originally imaged by the Ru ‘ of the beginning. Thus the letter still remains an ideograph of that duality which was previously expressed by the duplication of the sound. Ckhip.” and called my attention to the Arabic Káfir. howsoever it may be at the starting point in Sanskrit. the black man. the word. The early Arabian etymologists knew the word had only aquired that meaning through Islamism. duplication was first in language. also to come and go. Namaqua. where the u is inherent in the I. But this is not merely a question of R or L. Gberi. black. charms. Ogabu. is Kafula. Bambara. Muntu.” Captain Burton has questioned my derivation of the “Kaffir” name from “Kaf. as one of Four of the Seven Elementaries.—Book of Beginnings. Isi Kafulo denotes a charm or sorcery.” and “Ta” as the roots of language and consider duplication the later stage. So much for the Arabic. On the monuments this animal images speech. I had previously tested my conclusion and rejected the Arabic Káfir. and Shu the God of Breath in the stellar phase. without man having first or directly dubbed himself the black. This is the final answer to the Aryanists who start with “Pa. and is the Black. 2 Book I.

.. Af . as— Gab.. .” These in the later stage were made human. Kooch.. earlier Chavel. . From Kaf. Palaik. he is also the Bard. is to chatter. Kababon. To Caw is to cry or call as Daws. Adaiel. Jivha . and Keffen means to yelp. Chaffinch.. as well as to say.. and these take their names from the Kaf-type. the Kaf as singer is earlier than the speaker as Taht-Aan.. the Tongue. or have the same name. Rooks. to chirp and chatter. Gujerati. Accaway. Aof . Codeach .. and the Kaf name continued in the Cheep-cheep of the finch. Arkiko. Zuvar . In the Walloon Chawer is to cheep and Chaweter.. the Mouth. the utterer. Gaffle. to say. Affan .. Jubh . Jibho Zuba . Gobble. the Gibe of the face-maker.. which still testify in their status to the lowly beginning with the Kaf (Ape) as a primordial speaker. Kâ is to sing. the cheeper or chatterer. Jhibh . Gibber. came the names of Jaw and Jole or Chowl. the mouth. Assyrian Egbira.. Hindustan. hailer or howler of the gods whom it salutes with up-raised hands because it hailed the New Moon and howled in the darkness at the absence of light.. Ggbe . to cavil. Tongue and Mouth are synonymous. the Gabble of the foolish. In Low Dutch Kiffe is the jaw..TYPOLOGY OF P RIMORDIAL O NOMAOTPŒIA . The ape was brought on as the singer. Af .. Kiffe. The first hand and tongue was the Kaf-Monkey. Sanskrit. the Mouth. the Gobble-gobble of the turkey. Also. the ape in the monuments is not only a personification of “hand conversation. Jivha . This has been shown by the names of the hand. Gugu. Dutch. Danakil. mouth or speech of the gods. later Gab.” and of speech. Chafty. Pushtu. Gaelic.. opposed to the singer. Cubha. whose name is yet followable through universal language as the type-name for both tongue and hand. Yefiri . Welsh Ogbe . Opanda Qaboh .. Egbe .. Siraiki. who still imitates the ape and makes his jape (cf. Sclavonic.. chatterer. the Jaw.. Chava. Basque. Irish Aboa . Gibe. Oyaf . the Mouth... N’ki. Guebé. Darwin inferred . Tshuash. or clicker among animals in such words as Chaff. Thus the status of the earliest type of language is still preserved. Faslaha. Gipa. a Beak. Tshampa. Korean. confused chattering of birds.. talkative. the Mouth. Gob. Mano. 285 tongue and a hand beneath. Pl. Chabui . to wry the mouth and make a grimace). Gabble. Goba. a word.. the Gibbering of the monkey.Chwed Ap . Af .. the tongue.. the Throat. the wide-mouthed bay of old Chowler. Chaf modifies into Jaw and Caw—the Jack-daw being a Caw-daw. Gaowe is to jaw or chide. Uriya. { } The Kaf was continued in Britain as a type of this primitive talker.. and Jays. the Singer of the gods. Yubotarri . Amharic. Kapiour. Irish the Throat Gefe Oloma Yip . Afa . Swed. Puka. { Hima. or Kibe. the Caw-caw of the chuff. Pianoghotto.. and the singer as the first proclaimer is in keeping with the order of the facts suggested by Darwin. Galla Jibh . Chavish. Bishari. Jib . Caffe. Gabber.. Egbe. poet. Evidently the singing ape had not escaped the attention of the Kamites. Talarui. Gbe. English.. Hebrew and Gullet Hube . Pali. Jivha . Moreover. Mahratta.

or Omega.) that signified Was. It produced. . produced by the Mother nature. but not in tones only.1 It is historically certain that tones were most important if not absolutely primary in language. stands for number 7. In the Memoria Technica of the Hindu sages. These “delicacies of intonation are inherent in monosyllabic tongues. in the end. The tones conveyed the Seven forms of breathen utterance. Is and To Be. ch. Lower than the ape as the evolver of the octave and admirer of the moon. Seven may be accepted as the total number of primary sounds in the alphabet. The Gibbon’s scale contains the system that was established in music. These. 566. The Seven Sages also appear in Greece. that the nearer progenitors of man probably uttered musical tones before they had acquired the power of articulate speech. Savery. or in modern music. then. Seven personified forces of utterance.”2 They are inherent in the most primitive pronunciation. The number of tones in the musical scale is Seven. is Seven. according to the intonation. The Hottentot has three tones that give three meanings to one word. the Sage. Dahome.) or Ao of the beginning. The number of forces. And here is the connecting link in tone-language. the latest product of language. the follower of the ape could not have begun in music. and the Chinese show one form of an elaborate system. note. or Vowel. and the Chinese Tze for the Teacher. which language was afterwards used as a vehicle of words whether in the Inner African tones. The Taas are thus the Seven Sages. 1 2 Expression of the Emotions. This is shown by the mere vowel-change which is sufficient to distinguish the two sexes. The Egyptians have the Seven Taas called Gods of the Word or Speech. which is analogous to the Coptic jas or gis. 76.3 says that in the Temple of Abydos the priest repeated the Seven Vowels in the form of hymns. Brugsch has attributed the meaning of Sage to the word Taas (or Djas). like the Chinese. vol. Like the Gibbon they were practising their scales. the eighth being a repetition of the first. and the O. the AU (Eg. known to us as the Seven Vowels. These had been rudely rendered by the ape. p. 4. and may therefore be claimed as the originator of that which was perfected by man. gods. ii. All the remainder were evolved from these. or in the Chinese tonic system.286 THE NATURAL GENESIS. are related to the vowel that takes Seven forms of utterance. there being Seven Sages and Seven Vowels. 3 P. in his Letters. powers. depend on accents and tonevariations to differentiate the meanings of the same words. The utterance of the Seven Vowels was one of the mysteries in Egypt as in India. Burton. and that musicians were not allowed to enter the building during the performance. Captain Burton points out that the Yoruban languages. The Seven Vowels were known and are acknowledged to be a sevenfold form of a dual one with was the Iu (Eg.

Sut-Nub was continued by the Gnostics. .” by the Hindus. The Abipones expressed the name of some deity by their interrogation “WHO?” The Hebrew name of the Very One God Alhu. Sevekh (Eg. and Sut (Seb-ti) is number 7. and this was the Good Spirit with Seven rays or emanations.). Nub signifies the All. “Who. Among their funeral rites and ceremonies the Todas perform a circular dance. is a form of the Who. whose 1 2 King’s Gnostic Gems p. Spirits were breaths at first. which are found on the rays of the lion’s crown of an Agathodæmon or Chnuphis serpent. This mystical name is resolved by Max Müller into a mere interrogative pronoun. 287 When personfied this Biune One with the Triune character became the God of the Seven Spirits. 74. So ancient is it as to be no longer intelligible. and probably sung to scale by the Seven forms of the same vowel. that is the plural expressed by Three. whose name reads number 7. which represented the Seven Spirits whose physical origin has yet to be traced. Thus the Seven forms of breathen utterance.2 The North American Indians heard by Adair were probably calling on the name of the Triune Iao. This likewise presents a form of the divine triad. but its refrain consists of a wail expressed by a series of vowels rendered by Lang as O I A O O E. represent the Seven Spirits of the Triune Nature. the interrogative pronoun. who intone a solemn dirge at the funeral of their chiefs. hla. as unknown subject) of the Kabalah. was another divinity of the same time. These Seven agree with other forms of the type brought on from the beginnings of the Kamite typology. This is the Egyptian deity. But there is nothing more certain or more pathetic than that God was sought for under this name of “Who. the Who (hla. and the vowels are breaths. which was more fully expressed by the Seven Vowels. or Huh. in which the men by three and three perambulate round and round like spokes in a wheel. which were Seven Breaths. and these made up the ten-total as in the Ten Sephiroth of the Kabalah and the ten letters of the British IAU.” the Unknown. as ΑΕHΙΟΥΩ. Iao-Sabaoth was a form of this combination of the Threefold One with the Sevenfold manifestation. Hhu. the Seven Vowels. and called the “Whoish” hymns.TYPOLOGY OF P RIMORDIAL O NOMAOTPŒIA . was kabalistically expressed. Sut-Nub-ti was likewise a form of this compound nature. and his name of Iu or Iao. all exclaiming “A U!” “AU!!” in time with their steps. Land.1 Nef (or Nub) signifies the breath or spirit. Hymns were addressed to a god. The Chant of the Seven Vowels was apparently practices by the natives of the Friendly Isles. Origin and Migration of the Polynesians.

as we have it. connects the Child-Christ.. but it also denotes duality. was finally the God of the Seven Planets. and that Kaf became Kau and Au for Cow and Calf. and the British their ten primordial letters. is a hand that has the numeral value of 10. as Iao-Sabaoth. .. One mode of seeking and inquiriy was by singing the name with Seven Vowel-sounds. were all contained potentially in the A I U. The one vowel. Sun. to woo. or U. and the Egpytian deity is pourtrayed as the Calf-headed Au. Now the hand as Kaf or Kab signifies to be double and to duplicate. The a is a kind of Io in our written letter. Iu signfies to come and go. Venus. or the Iau. Mercury. There was a teacher of boys 1 2 Dupuis. from whose name we derive the seven vowels. with the letter Aleph. This compound deity. the Nose of the Calf is the ideograph of Breath. when he was about twelve years of age. .. The Arabic and Syriac Alif is likewise figured double. The hieroglyphic Calf. Egypt’s Place. was a dual image. and the fu (or bu) into U. Tom.. . the A. though not a perfect form. and from which the Hebrew Kabalists derived their ten sephiroth and ten vowels. Saturn— in making the music of the spheres. as male. Fa .. the Steer. Finally. and Au or Iu are the dual source of the seven vowels. a. or. or I. Each of these was represented by a Vowel and each Vowel dedicated to one particular day of the week. Ei. who cites authorities. which became the Phœnician and Hebrew Aleph. triplicated at puberty. as representative of the sounds that were the last evolved in language. Jupiter. or an I with the U inherent. was a diphthong that bifurcated and became sevenfold by the vowel sounds. Mars. . Moreover. .. and the triad of I A U.. vol. to be twin or two. and the orbit lines of the planets— Si was assigned to the Moon. La . whilst the letter B (with the leg-sign) remains the sign of the duplicated one. Sol .288 THE NATURAL GENESIS. The Hebrew Jad... p.. i. p. So. Mi . I. therefore. is now for ever first as the letter-sign of the one that duplicated (who was the Mother). A story told in the Arabic Gospel of the Infancy. to take them as they are printed by Bunsen2 A E Ê I O Ô U. in the Seven notes of the scale. v. name signifies to seek and search after. These the translators of the Hebrew Scriptures have contrived to make permanent in the name of I E H O V A H. . y. . but in the A it is triadic. as does the calf in its two sexes. was symbolized by this one letter. which in Egyptian and Coptic resolve into Iu. as is the Hebrew Aleph. which.. whether represented by A.1 The seven vowels. the child of either sex. 747. Ut . because a calf is of either sex. Re .. then. The Ka visibly modifies into âa. 75.

or of the number 10. Iu-em-hept in Egypt. the latest form of the Lady enthroned on the Seven Hills. then. an image of the Virgin. expounded His own nature as the mythical IU who. was the Iusu (or Jesus). understand the first letter. therefore the Child made known to him the gnosis of the letter Alpha. Nones. and triadic in its shape. Baronius.” and thus is a figure of the Trinity in bi-unity. to whom the Child was sent for the purpose of learning his letters. and it is a fact that its tongue can be made to utter the seven variations of the vowel. p. Tierce. as 1 2 Arabic Gospel. They carried with them. when Rome was afflicted with pestilence. the God of the Jews. who had been the Mother of the Seven when these were but Seven Elementaries in Chaos. which might be breathen or intoned. and also in blowing the Seven-fold pipe of Pan. In the year 590. The Egyptian chant of the Seven Vowels of the ineffable name. Iao.” and when he had done so. and stations. Text. as the Child. the master ordered him to say “Beth. [Infancy] Gospel of Thomas. ch. according as the player consciously shapes his mouth.” Whereupon the Child demanded to know the nature and meaning of the Aleph first. in which the sum of all seeking and request is supposed to be divinely expressd by an invocation comprising seven petitions in one prayer. without the aid of the human voice. Annales. The master wrote out the alphabet. 289 at Jerusalem named Zacchæus. doctor. and Complines. the Son of Iu-sû-as. The correct way of playing this instrument is by producing various vowel sounds. that the Jew’s harp should retain the name of the Iu. 6.1 The Child. and the people were commanded to assemble at day-break in Seven different companies. which answers to the trinity of Iao. dual as the Io of the male and female. 8. by express command of Gregory. sexes. Io. It is no marvel. or Jah. The master could not tell him. tom. In the Gospel of Thomas the Child says. as it was in playing the flute. vi. as expounded by the Kabalah.TYPOLOGY OF P RIMORDIAL O NOMAOTPŒIA . arranged according to their ages. “Hear me. xlviii. ch. Vespers. It is one as a total figure. The Typical Prayer uttered in the Seven Vowel Sounds may have been the model of the Prayer on the Mount. Thus breath is turned into seven sounds by the tongue of the Iao. Gregory ordered a public supplication to God. . Prime. although it must not be spoken as a word. and walk in Seven different processions reciting the Seven-fold Litany and other forms of prayer intoned.2 The typical Seven were further continued by the mediæval Church in its Matins. was the probable origin of the Seven-fold Litany. and bade the Boy say “Aleph. or Litania Septemplex associated with the name of Pope Gregory the Great. no doubt. and the rest of the alphabet. and the god Tum.” And He points out that the one letter is “three-fold and doubly mingling. 590. which has the name of Sebti (7) or Sut. The Jew’s harp remains a symbol of the divinity whose name it bears.

testis. preceded the black Kaffir (or Akafi) as clicker and master of a scale of sounds. the air being indrawn with a nasal noise and expelled in a guttural click. who was the original author and inspirer of breath. Shu. Thus we have the Ape in the beginning evolving his scale of Seven Tones. the Seven times for daily praise. The hieroglyphics likewise show the process whereby the ideographic signs and gestures that accompanied sounds in the ideographic phase were divided and reduced to the letter-values. hand. however. The Ape. which was represented by a dual sound. is the hieroglyphic type of speech. 8. The clickers inhaled the air to articulate their sounds. i. is the Agathodæmon or Chnuphis. or mouth. the ear. The Gnostic Marcus held that Seven Elements composed.” the duality becomes audible in a word that signifies duplication as the name for the twinmember. and thus extend their range indefinitely. The Egyptian hieroglyphics exhibit the process by which the mimetic duplicates of sound were reduced for re-combination with others to form words from two different consonants. the Ô or A O of the Greek Iconography. nose. xiv. . in the oldest languages.290 THE NATURAL GENESIS. eye. the “Word. Here the Ogdoad was complete in the O as a final vowel sound. This shows the one act of a dual nature. and thus account for that equivalence and interchange which are found in all later language. These languages also show the priority of words that were formed of merely duplicated sounds as the basis of speech. The black Kaf Ape. the Two Trutyhs or one and two of all beginning. the Kaf-headed. and represented the value of No. These seven canonical hours. the IAO who has the Seven-Vowelled name which was intoned by the priests of Abydos when they employed the Seven breathen Sounds or Vowels in their worship of the god of breath.” which could be uttered in an “O!”1 Lastly. ch. the No and Yes. being a god of breath. as Nef. and a sign of the God who was worshipped as the Ô in the Mysteries. This god of breath. and the utterers of the Sevne-Vowelled chant exhaled their soul or breath toward heaven. to singing the praise of the Virgin Mother. singing. And in the end the Seven-fold Litany was treasured up amongst the relics of the past in the religious Ritual of Rome. The living clickers prove that the breath was inhaled to articulate the sound. the Coptic w or Ô summed up the power of the seven vowels. the height being scaled and the summit of religious aspiration very literally attained by the ascent of the Seven Vowels. and Seven Powers expressed.” or “Nga. and breath. or Kaf. Represented by the sound “Nkakh. The double action and dual sound contain the negative and affirmative. worship. B. 1 Irenæus. 8 in hundred. had been devoted by decree of Pope Urban II.

and Seven Days of the Week. Seven Rishis. the Seven Stars of the Greater and Lesser Bears. that the origin of language resolves itself into the produc-tion of some Seven primary sounds in an early phase of articulation. The Alphabet is still reducible to some Seven original types. Seven Elementary Powers or Spirits. Seven Notes in Music. and this Seven corresponds to all the other typical Sevens. and deposited from Seven Consonants. Seven Taas. and that the fundamental facts are registered in language and typology where they have been stereotyped by man with no more choice in the matter than the mirror has in its faithful reflection of forms. the Seven Planets. my conclusion on the whole matter is. except in the conscious care with which he repeated and tried to preserve the primæval tradition in ever-living memory. the syllabic being a previous deposit from words formed by repetition of the same sound in the ideographic stage of expression. Seven Sciences. the Seven Tongues of Fire. Thus the Seven Vowels were consciously evolved.TYPOLOGY OF P RIMORDIAL O NOMAOTPŒIA . Seven Elements. . Seven Senses. or Gods of the Word. As the result of the foregoing research. 291 and the breathen utterance of the letters composing the ineffable Name that was noted on the Planetary orbit-lines of the celestial scale. discreted. in which the Vowels had been inherent in the syllabic form. these words having been created by the conscious utterance and duplication of natural and involuntary sounds.

The Serpent-type has been venerated in lands where the Serpent itself does not exist. from the most known to the remotest parts of the earth. “The object of our inquiry is no trivial thing. The symbol has literally realized that Serpent in the mythologies which is depicted as circling about the world and clasping the whole wide round in one embrace. . and in grandeur the temples of Greece and Rome. and the old English penny-pieces. George on our own public-house signboards. There are still no less than 700 Serpent Temples in Cashmere alone. and it is yet a symbol of eternity in the bracelet on an Englishwoman’s arm. but to explain the origin and development of this universal type. It was primordial. and coils about the walking-stick as it did around the tree of mythology. as an ideograph that guides us round the world. the Dragon of St. It was the representative of renewed life or immortality in the Rites of Sabazios and on the doors of the Chambers of the Dead in the Egyptian and Chaldean tombs. and it is universal. one not to be caught.”—Plato.SECTION VI. It is only a few years since that buildings dedicated and devoted to its rites were found in Cambodia. with the left hand. surpassing in size the cathedrals of York or Amiens. It is the great Dragon of the Celestial Empire. NATURAL GENESIS AND TYPOLOGY OF THE MYTHICAL SERPENT OR DRAGON AND OTHER ELEMENTARIES. It is represented in the finger-ring. the Lambton Worm. which may be compared with that of the earth-worms throwing up the first castings of vegetable mould for the use of the farthest future. THE Serpent is one of those few great primitive types that constitute the earliest objective castings of human thought when it groped in the underground condition of its far-off past. This is a various and most questionable animal.1 It is not my province however to expiate on the “Worship” of the Serpent. The dominion of the Serpent has been wide-spread as that of night. 1 Mohout. the Long Serpent of the old Norse Sea-Kings. as it were. it is a diversified and complicated one.

Now the primal monster was the Shadow of Darkness. Nyoka. &c. the Crocodile-Dragon. are among the most amazing in all nature.). be false. in Baseke.) also denotes the Curse. has the Dragon or Apap Monster. This name is pre-eminently Inner African. Naka. and both are found united in the African original. Thus Nyoke is Ngoke. Nioka. vol. In Egyptian 1 Ritual. which the springing reptile snatches out of its own element. to delude. the young. Nyoka. The Serpent is the Nyok. Hak. in Kabenda. and obviously continues the African Nk or Ng sound.TYPOLOGY OF THE MYTHICAL SERPENT. Death is in its coil even for the bird on the wing. to consume him. Nyoka. or Renewal coming of Itself. of “Time. Nkaka then abrades into Naka (Eg. or Accursed. Nyoka. and into Kak. and Hag on the other. in English. Nyoka. In the Hymn to Amen-Ra the Sun-God is said to send his arrows against the Evil Serpent Naka. in Mimboma. p. 2 Records. . in Nyombe. The first type of this is the Nâka. Nyowe. in Swahili. 293 The “Way of a Serpent. Nyoka. in Maori. in Legba. but can outswim the fish. The Y in these names is not primary. in Kassands.”1 The Serpent has the same name at root in several groups of languages. in Kisama.2 Here the typical Serpent or devouring Monster is the Naka or Nâga by name. Nyoga. Nakak (Eg. With modifications such as Nyush. no legs. repristinated. in Nyamban. in Lubalo. The serpent in the pangs of sloughing is a phenomenon once witnessed never to be forgotten. Nâga. on the one hand. Nyoka. Neke. in Arabic. Nachash. with the Typhonian Devourer. larger life issuing of itself from the mask of its old dead self like a spiritual body coming forth from the natural body. and this form has been preserved in the hieroglyphics where Nkaka interchanges with Kaka. the unparalleled type of self-emanation. for its Determinative. but represents an earlier sound. Noga. or Akhekh. in Sanskrit. There is a startling fascination in the sight of that image of self-emanation proceeding from itself. and lift it to the deadly mouth. and yet can climb trees to catch the agile monkey. yet the human foot cannot match it in fleetness. the piercing Serpent of Evil. Nâga. The Serpent slays with a dexterity that human destroyers might look upon as divine. One of the most arresting sights is to see this limbless creature turn its coils into a hand to grasp its prey. in Songo. Nakak. in Guresa. in N’gola. Nyoka. Snake. of a resurrection to new life. Nyos. Nyoka. Sanskrit. the Kamite N being Ng. It has no hands. and Nakihi. in Musentandu. for determinative. It has no fins.” and the workmansip. ii. in Hebrew. Naya. in Basuto. in Kanyika. 131. Nyoke. in Basunde. of transformation.

is called Kak. The Assyrian Vampire is called the Akhkh-aru. in Kol. Yagba. Hence the Monster in mythology. The Fijian Kaka is the Mouth of Hades. in N’goten. Akea.. in Sclavonic. the type of evil being primarily identical with Darkness. Nakak. Aka. or Night. Dr McLeod says that in Dahome the Python has been found from thirty to thirty-six feet long. in Mbofon. Gogu. are names then of the mythical Monster the Dark. The Yaksha. in Irish. is a form of the Akhekh (Eg.. The Yaga Baba of the Russian folk tales is identical with the Typhon of Darkness. In the Makua dialect Ikuka is the great Python. Jugah Penu is the Khond Goddess of Small-Pox. Yungo . and our Cock-roach is the night-walking Beetle. is Black. and Ukhâ. Kochamocha. the Devourer.294 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Kok-lok. the devouring Dragon. Kyoke. Kok. the English Dragon-fly. is Night. as O kako in Idsesa. The name of Night. the Darkness. Nyaka. in Lithunic. The Cockatrice is a mythical Serpent. is likewise Inner African. Enokou. Wogu. Melon. Nox. called a Coach-horse. Nochd. Nak. and other forms of the adversary. in Russian. Nocyi. Agoyeis the Black God of Hwida. Nacht. Nokti-s. in Irular. or Jaksha (Sans. and of proportionate girth. Nkô . or Nakta. in Garo. This old Serpent is depicted as the Crooked Akhekh. and Kak. Kakroi. Eyak is the Koniaga Evil Spirit.. in Dhimal. in Serpa. the first ruler of Hawaii (Savaiki) now rules over the land of Darkness and the Dead. Kok is the name of the Dragon in Amoy. and deluded the eyesight of the primitive Man. Kokhi. in Newar. A Gege in Zulu is a Devourer. Many more deities or Devils of Darkness may be traced under the variants of this type-name for Blackness. a Japanese Evil Spirit. Kikymora is the Sclavonic God of Night. O kako. the devourer. the Blackness. or Winged Dragon. This name of the Crooked One is African. Jaca is the Devil in Singhalese mythology. Enukon . or Gryphon. are synonymous. in Latin. Kiamba.). in Burman. The Dragon-Constellation is called KokSing. &c. The Ogre is a mythical monster. is the Night in Sanskrit. the Shadow of Night. under the Naga-name. Crookedness. Also. and the Mythical Monster has the same name in the Akhekh Serpent. in Badaga.) is the Devourer. Hence also the Night and the Naga or Nakak. Mose. by name. Mbofon. . and Nkô is Night. in Ekamtulufu. Akhekh. in the shape of which the Dead are supposed to rise up and attack the living. destroyed the foothold. Akhekh. The Akhekh Serpent is Inner African by name. The Kamkadai Evil Spirit is a Water-Dragon called Mit-gak. Darkness was the Shadow that stole his Substance. in German. Noshti. the Swallowing Throat of the Underworld. and in some of the non-Aryan languages of India the word supplied a type-name for the Crooked things as Gokhe.

the unknown.3 which is identical with th eEgyptian Smi. who bears the name of Typhon. “I pass from earth to heaven. and devouring Monster. vol. as King of Hell. Ralston. Sami. using an image drawn from the sudden and huge up-rising of the Gloom as the Devourer. the local “St. But the primæval Darkness was not that of Orpheus and the Platonists which was dark with excess of light. I grow like Akheku. Demon. the ghost of each dead warrior must fight with Samu and his company. The Sami are also extant as the “Cemis” of the West Indians. 2 4 Robertson’s America. 649. 124. throttling. or Devil. They came in the course of time to say there were two kinds of darkness. just as it is in the Ritual. a name of the Monster who is the “Enemy of the Gods. total darkness.2 The Monster YagaBaba of the Russian folk-tales. for one of her types. or “Baba the Beast. from which the Light was emaned. is a Ghost. as did the Darkness in its most appalling shape. the Akhekh of Darkness lies in wait to swallow or pierce the god as he goes along. Summani.” The Apap is apparently the Inner African Rock-Snake.”4 The Apap (Greek Apophis) is another form of the Serpent of Darkness. not a native of Egypt itself. but if beaten he will be devoured by the terrible Samu and his brethren. the Conspirator. The Saman. The Apap reappears in the Assyrian âbu. or it rises up and tries to overturn the solar boat. and a great deal of the error extant is the result of thus surreptitiously 1 3 Ritual. vast. ch. p. In Sanskrit Samani-Shada is a Demon of the Dark. the Black.”1 says the Osirified. George. gigantic. the deluding and devouring Monster. The Esoteric is the latest and not the primary interpretation of phenomena. Smi says Plutarch is Typhon. and the Basuto Sami is Kamm-appa. the wide-mouthed. who regard them as the evil authors of every calamity that afflicts the human race. in Latin. In passing through the underworld. . In the Fijian mythology we find the same opponent of the soul and the light who was at first the actual darkness. so large as to be like the Boa. has an earlier form (or variant) in Kami. Caribs. If he is brave enough to conquer he will cross into Paradise. Book of the Beginnings. is a name of Pluto. in Fanti (African).” has. the one being below and the other beyond the light. b. Its name signifies that which rises up tall. incomprehensible. the Hebrew pythonic bywa. p. the Dark Deluder. The assistants and co-conspirators of this deluding Monster of the Dark are called the Sami. and other tribes. iv.TYPOLOGY OF THE MYTHICAL SERPENT. The Platonist Damascius reports that the Egyptians began with Darkness as the first principle of all things. That was afterthought. 98. inconceivable Darkness. Here again Sami in Egyptian is the name of total Darkness. 295 Here then is the natural type of the Akhekh (or Nakak) of Darkness in the shape of an enormous serpent. ii. the snake Zmei. In the solar stage of the mythos. or Sami. when the sun passes down through the underworld. who was conquered by Litaolane.

” In the beginning of time say the New Zealanders was Te-po. but as marvelling over the alternation of phenomena. She who is Darkness. Ideas make all the difference. the Darkness. and the very animals that the savage most fears are dreaded most in a ghostly form. In the last of the Izdubar Legends the Mother of all as Ishtar is “She who is Darkness. Traditions. These take a spiritual shake. 55. the Mother. and above all the order of the stars. the first that arrested attention and lifted the look upward when he was going mentally on all-fours.296 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Shortland. The first conditions of existence observed by the primitive men were precisely those that were first observable. the birthplace. Darkness was the first Revealer of Light in the stars. Grey. She is Darkness. where it is not inherited. imposing the later thought upon the aboriginal imagery. A Maori tradition describes the first children of Earth as “ever thinking what might be the difference between Light and Darkness. Primitive man came out of the night with his mind as deeply impressed and indelibly dyed as was his body with its natural blackness. came Te-ao. “Darkness is older than Light. the Mother (Mut) who is called Mistress of Darkness and the Bringer-forth of Light. We see what plucky little pigmies they were in the valley of the Thames at the time of the Palæolithic Age. The “Wisdom” of Solomon1 is a personified phase of primordial Darkness.” The Mexican genitrix. and is the mother of the Twins. Light and Darkness. xvii. or Hade. . These were the Dark and the Day. vii. p. Fear of the dark with children is frequently cultivated. the emaner of the Dawn. Also it does not represent them as dreading the dark or cowering from it in caves.” We read in the Ritual2 “the Æon or age (Heh) is the day. The ancient races that survive to-day and are mortally afraid of the gloom are not likely to represent the earliest man who had not yet peopled the darkness with his Terrors. 29. The universal exclamation of mythology as its first word is “There was Darkness. Cihuacohuatl is the female Serpent who gave birth to Light. After Te-po. Night. The same PO as the point of beginning with Darkness is the Mangaian night. 2 4 Ch.3 Te is the. Po being the equivalent of Avakai or Savakai.” All was Darkness at first and the All was the Darkness. Polynesian Mythology. because the influence of night was the first to be consciously reflected. “She is more beautiful than the sun. and PO is Darkness. who with their rude weapons attacked and triumphed 1 3 Ch. and therefore a form of the genitrix. Ao (Maori) is to become Light. which followed each other in ceaseless alteration.”4 That contains a true record of what must have been a primal subject of thought. Eternity is the Night. In the beginning was the impenetrable obscurity of primæval Darkness. It would be a mistake to picture the primitive man as the prone coward of subjectivity. Being compared with Light she is found before it”—the anology of Plutarch’s saying.

swiftly. like the tiny cock-boats of English ships swarming round and conquering the large galleons of the Spanish Armada. because it presented the primordial form of obstruction. whether to the light or the human being. Darkness. however. In the Akkadian legend the Seven Devils.” The serpent is all mouth. There. or the “Raw-head-and-bloodybones. or Adversary discovered. Moreover. the “Old Nick. through the mythological maze is the zig-zag of the lightning. Darkness. Nakak. Darkness was the earliest monster personified in the image of ugliness. is on record. In the Inner African languages the Mouth and the Serpent are frequently synonymous. who bring blackness from the abyss are said to be born in the Mountains of Sunset. or bad spirits. The Serpent. The starting-point is on the night side of phenomena. or rather zig-zagging.” our English Red Typhon. The Dark presented the barrier that was tangible to the nascent consciousness. and Nick. So many Darks were counted rather than so many Dawns. “because the Serpent is powerful in no other of its members except the mouth alone. It brought death into the world. This. They close upon you as if to devour their prey. 297 over the mightiest monsters of the animal kingdom.TYPOLOGY OF THE MYTHICAL SERPENT. but there they are in reality. made the first appeal to consciousness in feeling. The primitive myths all date from the Darkness. including sheep. Nocka. Hence the earliest reckoning of time was by nights not by days. was one of the first external figures taken by death. If the dark cloud lightened with death it was the Serpent. which in hill-countries show an instinct for taking to the higher grounds after sunset. The Going of the light preceded the sense of its Coming.” You watch the sun drop down. and both as the “Ru” and the “Tet” it has the name of Mouth in Egyptian. The coming of darkness is felt by certain gregarious animals. it may be inferred. silently. The Jaws of Darkness are thus an equivalent for the Serpent or Dragon. One form of the Serpent running.” the evil being. They replied that it was an immense serpent that the . The “Jaws of Darkness” have supplied a figure of speech for us. Nickur or Nekiru (a devil in the African Yula language). if anywhere. because the light was pleasant. Akhekh. as if conscious that the deluge of the dark is rising round them. “at one stride comes the dark. and darkness is behind you. Naga. not Light. was the first Devil. and the Coming of Darkness was the shape in which the going of light was earliest apprehended. subtly. What but the serpent with its gliding stealth and instantaneous spring could be adopted as a first fit type of the Darkness of night? Hor-Apollo says the Egyptians represent the Mouth by a serpent. If the water drowned it was the Serpent or Dragon that lay lurking there to put out the light of life as the Apophis. The Algonkins were asked by Father Buteux who was among them in 1637 as a Missionary what they thought of the nature of lightning. In Africa the advance of night is sudden. too. Satan. and perception in thought.

The serpent having made its mark on the mind of man by the exercise of its fatal force became an ideograph of Death. which is sometimes called a thunderbolt. and on the mountains.”2 In these we see the Serpent type applied to the wind. and the lightning-flash is depicted as the Spit-fire with the head of a serpent in some figures found on the walls of an Estufa in Pueblo de Jemez. Sign Language. in the waters. Here the lightnings are identified with serpents because the serpent in the earliest coinage of human expression was a type of the Lightning. was vomiting forth. p. for what the flash revealed besides itself was the thunder-stone. Kaffir Folk-lore. In a Kaffir folk-tale when the Chief comes home the sound of a great wind is heard. the Aztec God of Thunder. In man’s state of mental darkness the serpent-image of the destroyer and of the darkness of death had made its mark on the human being 1 Mallery. a Miztec mythical name. This idea. the voice and sting of the unknown by the hiss and sting of the known. 2 Theal. The Shawnees called the Thunder the hissing of the great Snake. and he was a big Snake with five heads. fig. this sound would serve to express Lightning and its fatal flash. The serpent’s hiss supplied a definite sound that was for ever connected with a distinct idea. in accordance with the mode of interpreting the unknown by means of the known. 188.1 The Lightning-dark of the darkness is the forked tongue and sting of the Serpent. and underneath such we have often found snakes. “That wind was his coming. “You can see the twists and folds that he leaves on the trees where he strikes. apparently that of sunstroke. Manitu. their great spirit. The Caribs speak of the god of the Thunder storm as a great Serpent or Dragon dwelling in the fruit-forests. 51. or the sting-bearer of heaven. The Chinese believe in an elemental Dragon of enormous strength and sovereign power which is in Heaven. . We have this postulate more directly illustrated by the Lightning as unknown object with the Thunder-stone of Aerolith as a Fetish image of the power that flashed and fled. and thus both Lightning and Serpent came under one type and could be expressed by the same noise.298 THE NATURAL GENESIS. The Hiss of the Serpent or the Puff of the Adder is but magnified in such a title as the “Wind of nine Snakes”. The Thunder is said in an American myth to be the hissing of a fiery flying serpent. The first of the Seven Akkadian evil powers is the Scorpion. so do the Lightnings. The Serpent utters a hiss. The Lightning as unknown subject could be represented by the Serpent as object. New Mexico.” When lightning enters sand it will fuse and convert it into a solid tube of serpentine shape. in the air. And Totlec. Thus we watch the unknown taking shape in images of the known. and therefore representative of an elemental force. was represented with a Golden Serpent in his Hand.

299 and its deadly folds had imprinted on the race the figure of the darkness coiling round by night with death lurking in its embrace. speaks of the evil serpents as the subtle enchanters who have enchanted him beyond the power of his own self-preservation. lines 3. (the Earthly Paradise) then the Serpent (Anra-Mainyus) looked at (that is opposed) me. Book of the Hades. Fargard 2. In the “Avesta” the “look” of the mythical serpent is synonymous with dealiest opposition. cl. 9th division. The good god Ahura-Mazda says. 5. The disk of the Mesmerist and the look of the human eyes have no such power in inducing the comatose and trance conditions as the gaze of the Serpent! The Africans tell of women being “possessed. who evoked the earliest idea of magic power. and 24. admirable abode. The serpent drew its own symbol in the mind like its own circle on the body of man. “Oh! Impious Apap! Thou art charmed by us through the means of what is in our hands!” The first star in Ophiuchus is known in Arabic as Ras-al-Hawwa the head of the “Serpent-Charmer” not merely the Serpent-Holder.”2 “Charming” was the great mode of exhibiting power. They say. ch. The influence of the Serpent over the mind of primitive man can never be understood apart from the abnormal conditions of what are termed Mesmerism and Mediumship. as manifested by one of the most marvellous Sensitives ever known. “Go back Ruhak! fascinating or stiking cold with the eyes.”3 Those who are in this scene walk before Ra. The Serpent is the Mesmerist and Magician of the animal world. so that he needs to be sustained against them. “These are the gods who charm for Har-Khuti in Amenti.TYPOLOGY OF THE MYTHICAL SERPENT. the Masters of their Nets. “when I created this beautiful. and who. charm those who are in the Nets. when angry. and what form so fit as to image this appalling power whose habitation was Blackness and whose voice was Thunder.” seized 1 Ritual. As man was a dweller in caves and trees his most mortal foe was the serpent. 2 . The present writer has had a personal and profound experience of the abnormal in nature. 4. A deluding snake in the Ritual is called the Ru-hak. Ra the sun-god. the reptile which makes use of this magic power (hak) to draw the victim towards his mouth. they Charm Apap for him.”1 exclaims the contending spirit. and this is what man tells us when he in turn had learnt to draw the serpent-symbol. This face to face familiarity with the mysteries of its phenomena enabled him to apprehend the part played by the Serpent as the Mesmerizer (Charmer) in the mysteries of the past. brilliant. 3 Vedidad. in his old age or decaying force. They. would look out with eyes of lightning and shoot forth the forked blue flashes that could lick up forests with their tongues of fire and the lives of men like leaves? The fearful fascination and appalling magnetic power of certain snakes over man. the forked tongue of the Darkness that darted death. bird and beast has often been described.

It is said that no one ever came out of the cave smiling. vol. Bulenger. and the Serpent chose its own human oracle. however. and to receive The lambent homage of his arrowy tongue.4 The statement.2 In many parts of Africa. de Orac. and likewise by the dart of its tongue. and prepared to become the oracles of the Serpent-wisdom. The earliest Medicine was a Mental influence. and who gave forth the answers when her oracle was consulted. the Medium of Spirit communication. p. A snake called Ganin-Gub by the Hottentots is also said to have genitals and to seek to have connection with women while they are sleeping.” which was at times made use of to produce ecstasy and trance. This was exerted by the Serpent over Man and imitated by him according to the laws of Animal Magnetism.. the contest was conDes Marchais. may be typical of the Coma that COULD BE induced by the Serpent’s look. To stroke his azure neck. Dahome. 81. and talked eloquently. or was divinely inspired by the Serpent. as on the Guinea coast. the Serpent oracle was a common institution. ii. This was employed in the Mesmeric Mysteries like those of Samothrace in which Olympia was such an inspired Ophite. The feminine origin of the Priesthood is also indicated by the Danhgbwe-No or Fetish Priests of Hwida. . That is. Tsuni-Goam. and elsewhere. The stupor caused by the Serpent’s sorcery inspired a primary form of religious awe. produced the abnormal phase. the dark birth-place of that Obeah Cult which survives wherever the black race migrated.1 This was in Africa. p. Those who were found to be greatly affected by the Serpent were selected to become Fetish Women. the Serpent by the fear of its touch and fascination of its look. Voyages (1725). because of the stupor occasioned by the Serpents.3 The tongue of the serpent is known to be a very peculiar organ of touch. 282. 17. In a trial of power between two rival Medicine Men belonging to two tribes of Red Indians. 135. in which the Medium raved. Pythonesses. or Priestesses. In this way the Sensitives were put to the test. 4 Hahn.300 THE NATURAL GENESIS. one that loved “To dally with the crested worm. and mouth-pieces of Supernatural utterance. whose names signify the Mothers of the Serpent. and made insane by contact with the Serpent. 44. as the phenomena were interpreted. 1 2 Salverte. Des Sciences Occultes. p. The reptile was kept in a small hut by an old woman who fed it. 3 Burton. apud Gronovius. and the abnormal effects produced upon the Sensitives were attributed to supernatural power possessed by the Serpent. We see that Serpents were employed in the cave of Trophonius for that purpose. They were secluded in training hospitals. with hysteria. She was the Pythoness.

” or any other nostrum. from the non-naturalistic treatment that it has received. when angry. Also. But it has become a type. 3 YATE. where it was identified with the occult potency of the Serpent’s sorcery. and potent charms.”3 Hence the need of appeasing the Atua and giving it what it likes. according to Huc. The Africans and Australians share the same belief.TYPOLOGY OF THE MYTHICAL SERPENT. 83. and develops it into the Dark Mind who produces the Serpent and all kinds of disease prepensely. p. as twin with the Light. this type of a 1 2 . this devil working darkly? Both Wallace and Stevenson testify that in South America one or more diviners are consulted on the death of an individual. New Zealand. 4 An eminent naturalist has confessed to the present writer that he takes no interest in mythology.1 Belief in such a power furnished one important element of the “Medicine. where the natives assert that sickness is “brought on by the Atua who. and preys upon their vitals till they die.2 Belief is a medicine that does work wonders whether for good or evil. To Charm became a supreme manipulation of mental or spiritual power when this was exercised over the Serpent and all that it represented. all curative medicine being resolved into that! Hence. The idea of death has not yet passed out of the first stage. because it had been exercised over Man by the Serpent. and yet the root is not poisonous at all. and Serpent-charmers. Whereupon he died on the spot. this may explain that persistent notion of the primitive races that death is not the result of various “natural causes. And no wonder. and witchcraft. It is pounded and put into milk. The root of the Abus shrub is used by the Hottentots as a deadly charm. enters their inside. p. Hahn. when it is supposed to cause the death of the person who drinks it.” and commanded his opponent to die. incantations. July.” but is the effect of magic.” just as does a belief in the sanative virtue of vaccine. “tar-water and the Trinity. until one of them concentrated his force. certain Buddhists attribute all diseases to evil spirits. 1866. This is the doctrine of the Avesta which begins with the Elemental Darkness. 301 ducted on “principles of Animal Magnetism. 141. or “gathered his Medicine. magic. The only question being who is this son or daughter of the Snake. The Lizard takes the place of the Serpent-type in New Zealand. and meeting abnormal effects with the abnormal powers of the primitive Medicine-men.” It lasted a long while. Atlantic Monthly. Yet mythology is a most ancient record of natural facts. also the necessity of opposing sorcery with sorcery. Thus when death is imaged as the Serpent with the magical influence. Tsuni-Goam.4 John Mason Browne. comes in the form of a Lizard. and these generally name the Enchanter who is as generally sacrificed. and grope mentally in the same shadow of the ancient darkness. sorcery. The Enchanter as the Serpent-type of death is now represented by an Enchanter who is assumed to have bewitched the victims to their death.

Muindo in Diwala. some try to rise but fall down again. the dust of the Myndie. then Pund-jel makes Myndie give them diseases or kill them. 75. I was able to identify the threatened agent as small-pox. very long.2 The Chinese have a sort of serpent known as the Min. he can hold on to a branch like a ring-tailed opossum. were in the Abyss which lay between the lizard that is poisonous and deadly. contains a curious statement respecting the “Myndie. and when he is known to be in any place the blacks run for their lives—they don’t stop to take their weapons.” the Meh of the North. The Myndie was to come! At the time I did not much regard the prediction. But it had been preserved as one of the mythical types. having a large head. on the Aborigines of Australia. The effects were graphically described as producing dreadful sores. According to the present derivation from the Kamite origines the Myndie serpent of the Australian Blacks is identical with the Mehnti serpent of the Egyptian Ritual. are afflicted by Myndie. Two died on the spot and several sickly people.” He says. from fright. Relation des Hurons. vol.1 In the Inner African languages. Mr. He knows all tribes and they all know him. even those who were friendly. eventually. which he sends out to carry diseases and affliction among those tribes who have not acted well in war or peace. Myndie will destroy black people old or young. p. Myndie has several little creatures of his own kind. Death and disease are given to any blacks who venture near this ground. but afterwards ascertaining that the scars of the small-pox were termed ‘lillipook Myndie’ (the scales of the Myndie). Myndie isn’t quite snakelike. and becoming sick lie down and die. and must first receive orders from Pund-jel. and it is covered with hard substances. i. p. and he drinks from only one creek named Neel-cun-nun. and the plague itself. S. The existence of such a lizard was denied. It is thought to be in the power of the large serpent Myndie to send forth this plague in answer to the appeal of those who seek the destruction of a foe (that is the sorcerers and charmers). E. Myndie can extend or contract his dimensions when ordered by Pund-jel. as it was known that secret incantations were being practised with this object. thick and powerful. Blackness is Mindi in Kiniamwezi. He can do nothing of himself. because unknown to science. the name of which signifies “the Snake form what is in the Abyss. Moindo in Isuwu. and when a tribe is very wicked. . Death. Maundi in Gindo. of Melbourne. 1 SMYTH. these creatures are troublesome. like the serpent. but not so dreaded as a visit from Myndie himself—from whom no one can escape. being one.302 THE NATURAL GENESIS. about the ravages of which there are traditions among the natives of the interior. The natives of Melbourne say the Myndie is a great snake. and in Egyptian Menat is death. and death. and the other day the venemous creature was re-discovered.— “In the latter end of the year 1840 the Aborigines of all the neighboruing districts were in a fearful state of excitement owing to the capture and imprisonment of some hundreds of their number. Some of the natives told me confidentially that destruction was coming upon the white population. to the N. Aborigines of Victoria. and when commanded by him. and when he hisses or ejects poison his tongue appears. The ground round about this spot is very hard—no rain can penetrate it. He lives in a country called Lill-go-ner. but those who can run swiftly and escape are always quite well and never suffer from sickness. under the dominion of Pund-jel. near a mountain names Bu-ker-bun-nel. Parker’s pamphlet. small and white like hail. which was to come in the dust. dysentery. Disease. 444. All plauges are caused by Myndie or his little ones. Darkness. as they run. which has three points. or bags. and stretch his body across a great forest so as to reach any tribe. blindness. or when a tribe fails to overtake and kill wild black fellows.W. 2 RAGUENEAU. as Monola Myndie. but set the bush on fire and run as fast as they can. Some. or rugs— not even to bury their dead. The Hurons likewise held that disease and death were caused by a monstrous serpent that lived under the earth.

and a member of the same tribe as Min-nie Brum-brum.TYPOLOGY OF THE MYTHICAL SERPENT. the God of Physicians. magic being the earliest Medicine and the first healing. and in the Ritual the Mehnti draws the Boat of the Sun. is the Charmer of the Serpent of evil or disease. and the reply is. from the north north-west. . 303 West and East. Finding I would not they urged me and all the settlers to leave the districts and go to Van Dieman’s Land or Syndey. some months after. Mr Thomas says. Some hundreds of blacks were in Melbourne when the old man was imprisoned. Messengers from seven tribes were sent to my blacks. and lastly by drugs. and his medicine is magic. they believe. The Healer. but none know his secret. magic incantation against disease. In Irish. The Medicine-man. The root of this name is widespread. Mantra. as the Manitu. Magician or Manitu was a charmer of the Serpent. “He that goes with the Serpent. Medicine-man.”1 In Egypt. The same power is assigned to Horus the healer or saviour of souls. any power over disease was described as influence over the Serpent. of the late William Thomas.” that was the conqueror who could charm the Serpent into subjection. It denotes the primary form of Mind. Disease being typified by the Serpent of Evil. they did not return until the prisoner was set free. no one can arrest Myndie but Min-nie Brum-brum. incantation. and we learn that all evils that have ever affliected the blacks of the southern and south-eastern tribes of Australia have come. Moniti. from MS. celebrated as a man possessing great power. a very old black. “Who is the Manitu?” is asked in an Algonkin Chant. Doctor. Vedic for magic incantation. a mental operation supplemented by fetish images. to which its tail is securely attached. Mantra. The Blacks of Australia have their Manitu in Min-nie Brumbrum. Lithuanian. Pahlavi. Maori. incantation. when he is depicted in the act of 1 SMYTH. who they believed would spare no one—and what is more. The Stele of Metternich informs us that Taht has magical words to bewitch poison and prevent it from doing serious injury. and by his words he betwitched the Apap Serpent and all the evil enemies that for ever fight against Ra. Mana. Telegraph fires were lighted. The news of his arrest was carried to tribes far and near even to 200 miles off. “A sorcerer. was a prisoner in the Melbourne gaol many years ago for having committed some depredations on the flocks of the settlers. Manadh is magic. who importuned me to set free the black stranger. is magic influence and power. Taht was the divine doctor. who is able to arrest and pull back the Myndie with a wave of his hand or a movement of his finger. A family named Min-nie Brum-brum was the only one that ever set foot on Myndie’s territory. and they all fled in terror fearing he would move Pund-jel to let Myndie loose. The Myndie was dominated by the power of the God Pund-jel. Aborigines of Victoria.

I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven. according to the Prose Edda is Thought in person. The Hippopotamus and Crocodile were wider-mouthed. 3 Ibid.”—Luke x. Russian Hexe. It is likewise the name for intoxicating drinks in which the enchanter lurked.304 THE NATURAL GENESIS. in Egypt. Hekau is Beer. 19. in Europe. Knowledge. These three are one by name. 108. that Thought. and the awe-stricken tribe were so fearful of witchcraft. or the Mage. it became the one universal symbol of the Gods. 4 Ibid. snares. the DassiesAdder. the Manes as well as the Ages one.1 Here we can further see how AGE itself became identified with sorcery. and were persecuted accordingly. The Amazulus generally regard the grandfathers as the dead. and the serpent is the ensnarer as the magnetiser and lier-in-wait. Moreover the Akhekh becomes our Hag for the snake and the old witch. 74. and in Chinese. because the Aged and the Wise were synonymous. and Magic were named after it. The “Serpent-charmer” who was primally the Serpent itself. helpless and harmless through the power of his charming. can detect the criminal among hundreds of people and kill him unerringly. 18. Hence the Hottentot tribes used to leave their old people behind to die the “devil’s death” and be devoured by vultures. but manifested no such commanding cunning as the Serpent with its secret sorcery. containing the alcoholic Spirits. Aak the Aged Man. p. 1 . The same word signifies a net. and over all the power of the enemy. p. synonymous with the Wise Woman or Wise Man. The Hottentots still believe that a particular Snake. without turning its avenging ire on the innocent. Behold. on account of its deluding and eluding subtlety. holding the Serpent. Hekau for Magic is a name of Thought. yet it was the first Thinker or Magician to the primitive sense. Though not particularly profound. occult influence. because being aged they were all the greater sorcerers. This also was a mode of magic. the Serpent naturally rose to supremacy as very crest of crests on account of its subtle craft and glozing guile.4 Amongst the types of the “Elementaries” perceived as active forces of the material universe. and this will help to explain why the Serpent became a type of Wisdom. and other Typhonian types of evil. or Khekh. the sorceress or fiend. Scorpion. the Wise Hag. Mind.2 So. wizards. Hak is a name for distilling spirits. Polish Yega. So Hugi. I give unto you power to tread on Serpents and Scorpions. made so early an appeal to thought by means of its magic power. 2 Hahn. This beginning with the Darkness. old women were naturally considered to be witches. that friends dared not keep their own relations alive. Tsuni-Goam. In Egyptian. Yaga. Hence. and witches. 86. The Aged were the wiseacres. The Egyptian form of the word as Hekau means magic and to charm. and Aak the Mage or Magician are identical.3 and in Egyptian the Akh is the Dead. symbolised as the deluding and “And he said unto them. p.

Amoy Kek. Egyptian Khekht. whether as the Serpent. like that of the Khekh. is the Serpent. but with the inimical in external nature. as is the type. Dem . Alligator. . in Kiamba.. the Monster of the Mythos or the Dragon of Eclipse. Visit to the Indian Archipelago. and this mould continued to shape their later thought. Tan signfies to rise up in revolt and to cut off. The Serpent of Earth is first.TYPOLOGY OF THE MYTHICAL SERPENT. or other Turner-back. and showers wealth on men. vol. 1 2 3 Dom. p. in strict keeping with the dual Serpent and the Twin Truths of Egypt. One form of it is the Dragon of the deep. . like the Egyptian Dragon in the bend of the great Void. who seize and swallow people in deep waters. The Hebrew Levia-than is the Mythical Monster of the Waters.. Koama.2 The Beginning was not with the Spirits of the Dead.. Lunar Eclipses are named Tennu or Tannu.3 Duno. . 351. and in Hebrew the Tannin may be the Crocodile. Burton. Dom . That was where the starry procession dipped down below the horizon. Kaure. Danawe . This is the Rainbow.. as the Serpent of Earth. ii. and the Serpent of Heaven. Tan is an Egyptian name for the Water-Worm (Tannu) the Destroyer in the Waters. Crocodile. They lurk in the bend of the river. the Danh-Gbwe. Udso. repulsed. the DEN-dayan of the Book of Enoch. vol. like the bad spirit of the Eclipse. Legba... of reptile or dragon-shape. ii. and turned back. In the recurring phenomena of the Lunar Eclipse. The Tan of the Eclipse rose up in revolt and cut off the light. Danh makes the Popo Beads. Yula. In Arabic the Tannin is the Serpent. in Kasm. Dahome. The type of this was that which did the same. Keppel. the Dragon of the dark took form in space as a visible opponent of the Lunar Light. The Tan is Inner African also as the Danh Serpent of Dahome the Great Divinity of the Pantehon. who mischievously intercepts the light intended to be shed on the earth and its inhabitants.. is world-wide.. a Sea-snake.. repelled.1 This is particularly shown by the North Australian Aborigines. vol. Dunu . Scorpion. p. In Egyptian. The first Monster was the Darkness solidified (so to say) as that which checked. This Serpent or Snake takes two forms. i. The Serpent of Heaven is simply called the Danh. is the Serpent. He is represented as a Horned Snake made of clay and coiled up in a Calabash. The Tan is a well-known typical Monster in the Hebrew writings. . p. The Taniwha of the Maori are huge Mythical Monsters. 305 devouring reptile. This name. Americana. who will not go near to human graves by night.. Tum . 182. 148. The Darkness as the enemy of Light was naturally represented by the greatest enemy of man. . . but when compelled to pass them they always carry a fire-stick to keep off the Spirit of Darkness. that Spirits or Divinities are Demons in the bad Sense. and naturally evil. Archæol. will likewise account for the common notion of primitive races.

and who dwells in darkness where he does nothing but crouch in his cave and devour his food. pinched. Ndengei is a Fijian Serpent-deity. who were images of the Akhekh. at others. 1 Hahn. The Caribs held that the demon Mabaya. 89. In an allegorical dance the Mexican priests represented the Sun as being devoured by the Moon. throttle). . pinched and strangled. to pinch. The German Satan was at one time represented by the red-bearded Thunder.2 The Moon in the dragon’s mouth was likewise an emblem of eclipse in the old British calenders. The Finns and Laps say the Moon is being eaten. and this one of the two proper hues was retained in the beard of Thunder and of the Giants. Tsuni-Goam. constrict. When an eclipse of the Moon occurs. the Wolf of Darkness.” “God guard the Moon from the Wolves. that is. showing the idea of the serpent or dragon. who is pourtrayed with a serpent’s head and body. Our our Thunder when personified is a form of the Tan. The Scorpion is named Yatan in Mampa. Indeed. the enemy of Light was devouring the Moon or the Sun. Knowing the Monster’s mealtime was the Siamese equivalent for knowing how large an eclipse was about to occur. the swallower during an eclipse. “We are overpowered by Gauna. Sut Typhon was of a red complexion. and the primitive conception was preserved by the Mexicans when they spoke of the Sun or Moon being eaten or swallowed. the Ahi or throttling serpent. One primitive and universal idea was that in its period of eclipse the orb of the moon or sun was being seized.” became a French proverb. The Tahitians say of the Moon under an eclipse she it Natua (Maori Nati. the gigantic. 2 Humboldt. and when the giant tried to cross he fell. the Hottentots who are out on an expedition of war or hunting will return home saying.306 THE NATURAL GENESIS. “My God! how she suffers!” exclaimed a crowd of French country-folk during an eclipse of the Moon. although they had attained exact knowledge of the cause of eclipses. Sometimes the Swallower was the Jaguar. choked or swallowed by the monster of darkness. In English heraldry Tenny denotes the dragon’s head. who cut the ropes that suspended the drawbridge. Thunder was one of the giants slain by Jack the Giant-Killer. that they once more submitted to the rule of Egpyt. To all appearances it was a lunar eclipse that so terrified the Lybians in the time of Neb-Ka the first king of the Third Dynasty. the monster. the Dog. In a later phase the Thunder was represented by the Thunderer as Don-ner. p. We shall find the Serpent and Rainbow are equivalents elsewhere. The Chinese of Kiatka said that eclipses were caused by the Evil Spirit placing its dark hand on the face of the Moon. 56. believing that she was falling a prey to the monster who sought to devour her. pl. When the Sun was eclipsed the Tupis said the “Jaguar has eaten the Sun. Vues.”1 the dark and evil opponent. against which they had risen in revolt. at others. gripped.

Gargant . Strom. an Alligator. the soaring Bird of Light. Epigenes of Sikyôn. Barba. said the Theologer called the Moon Gorgonian because of the face in it. ch. with so many other mythical types. He also intimates that evil spirits were daunted and driven away from the lunar paradise by the awful face seen within the orb. N’godsin. The Gorgeo or Gorge was personified in the Gorgô. Clem. These types did not originate in any such child’s play with phenomena as the Aryanists have assumed.2 When the shadow of the black Aharman was cast over the world. . The struggle of Indra and Vritra. is the Gullet. the Devil or Dragon is depicted as endeavouring to swallow the Bible. 307 This. And— N’gorgu. in Mbarike. Wolof. Gorokuò. . In the Church of Our Lady of Halle. Kurguli. 5—8.. . Plutarch’s Moralia.. the Swallower or Devourer. the Gorgon. N’guigulsio . in voc. The Greek Gorgô. in Koleko. .. in Korimo . Dsebu Idessa. on Etruscan temple-tombs. or the devouring dark of death. The Gorgon as Swallower is the— Karku. both of which were pourtrayed with the wide-open Mouth. The blacker the cloud the more certain it is not to withhold the rain.. imaged with the Mouth wide open was a continuation of the Akhekh dragon. it is said.. Thespis. . Kanem. the Lion.1 Plutarch quotes Homer as saying that in eclipses the faces of men were seized upon by Darkness. the constant theme of the Vedic poets. and the Nakak crocodile.TYPOLOGY OF THE MYTHICAL SERPENT. “Many dark forms with the face and curls of Azi Dahaka (the Serpent of Evil) suffered punishment. Kurgoali . Lunar. Goire . that looked and lightened. or was turned to stone. and some victim fell stone-dead.. survived in the Christian Iconography. is identical with that of the Sun and Apophis. no matter whether the light be Stellar.” Zad-Sparam. in Kanuri. Gorgeo Negro or Black Throat was an epithet of the Monster hurled at the Huguenot by the French Catholic. the Lion. Buduma.. Kurguli . ii.. “The face appearing in the orb of the Moon. is the Gullet. the most ancient writer of tragedy.”3 The Dragon or Devil of Darkness did not originate in the mere form and look of a “Cloud that is Dragonish.. Banyun. the throttler with its throat. and was beaten back again by the good Spirit of Light.. . or Solar. which is upbourne on the back of an Eagle. The Vedic Vritra is the old Dragon-type of physical phenomena.. in his lost work on the poetry of Orpheus. the Coiler round the Light. The face of Darkness in the orb of the Moon was a projected shadow of the monster of eclipse. Indra 1 2 3 Suidas. .” nor in a cloud that is supposed to imprison the rain. or in the later rendering of Horus and Typhon. 10. in the Ritual. in Buduma. The Gorgon’s head was a common type of the grave... The first Gorgon would be the Darkness when the livid gleams with petrifying stare made visible a face of ghastly gloom. Param. . Alex. the Devil of darkness.. N’koriyon .

This was cut open. and the earlier Dragon Slayer was Lunar. “Lo. 2 Mason. my Son. in eclipse. Society. the light of the Sky. 1 . who fear not. In this the Day-light is treated as a child of the Sun. as did their human imitators in all lands. to unfold. is a form of the Solar God. and whenever he moves there is an earthquake. Then he was swallowed up by a great snake.) to turn in a reverse way. He went forth and travelled over all the earth. Shieoo corresponds to the Egyptian Shu. when Typhon tore the body of Osiris into 14 parts. and.) and Varto (Lat. from heaven is vanishing.) to come out. Vri. and said. is especially personified as the Giant-killer. In the Moon-Myth we find Khunsu the youthful god of the Moon. Hea called his son Merodach. The Gods do all they can to help the Moon in eclipse. But the Lunar Mythos was extant long before the Moon was known to derive its light from the Sun. but the Solar God. With terror the gods behold their lamp going out in Heaven. 3 Sayce.” were waging war on the Moon. implies the latest form of the Myth. laid the dark hand upon her face or covered earth with the drear dun hues of the solar eclipse. or the Sun was pourtrayed as descending into the underworld. The Sun blew him up until his head reached the sky. as rushing on the Lunar orb with intent to destroy its light. as conquerer of the Evil power. to fight the Devouring Dragon of Darkness.308 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Bab. whose birthplace is the spot where Vritra lies dead. Bengal. In a Karen myth Ta Ywa was born as a very little child who went to the Sun to be made to grow. or the Seven Evil Spirits. represents Pri (Eg. Thus. Those Seven wicked gods. Prt answers to Vrit (Sans. 35. and clenched their fists.1 The Myth evidently relates to the Light of day being swallowed up by the dark typified as the Akhekh serpent. even the MoonGod is griveously darkened in heaven. like the Hottentot Gama-Gorib. threw stones or shot their poisoned arrows at the gruesome shadow of danger that turned the Moon to blood. to wrap round. The Moon that shone by night was an earlier opponent of the Darkness than the Sun. and therefore the contender with the Apap by night as the Visible Luni-Solar Hercules. who howled and threatened. In this representation the Dragon-Slayer is the Solar Hero. Ta Ywa places the god Shieoo under the earth to support it. 1865. Vritra is the Coiler round who envelopes and hides the light. the Serpents of Death.2 When an eclipse of the Moon occurs the Akkadian Legends describe the Dragon with the Seven heads. Lit.3 Merodach overthrows the Seven Powers of Darkness. typified by the Serpent. Bel saw the eclipse of the Moon-God and sent Nebo (Nusku) his messenger to Hea for advice. whereupon Ta Ywa issued forth to new life. who is the supporter of the nocturnal heaven. Journal of the As. but Vritra is also a form of the “Crooked” Serpent of Lightning that never goes straight. the zig-zagger.

the reflector of the Solar light. but who was mighty powerful and performed marvellous feats. “What is that floating on the water?” asked the monster. during the waning half of the Moon. but said nothing till the fish was fairly caught. who is placed in command over the Apap Dragon by night. whose phenomenal origin was the Sun. Early History of Mankind. One day he waded into the lake and shouted. p. i. who grew no bigger with years. the “obscure half. Nar-gun cannot be killed. A native woman once fought Nar-gun at this cave.” Oh! Sancta Simplicitas! 1 2 . i. vol. so she made a hole. Typhonian fish. Hence the type of a feminine Dragon-slayer. the spear returns to the thrower and wounds him. appears in the Egyptian Magic Papyrus. 343. This is a form of the Mythical Jonah. and by the thought that one might as well doubt all other miracles in Scripture as doubt these. “You of the red fins come and swallow me. he called to her. and then he took hold of the line and hauled himself to shore. The Australian blacks tell of a mysterious creature. and he crept through. When the sister began to cut the fish open she heard her brother’s voice from inside the fish. 145. He has many caves. that was carried across the Waters by the Fish. 309 the conflict was between the dark power and the lunar light. especially the Valley of the Mitchell in Gippsland.e. One character of Osiris is that of the Lord of Light in the Moon. the end of the cord or Smyth.” Here is may be remarked that red fins. In various versions it is the Woman. and when he is seen fettered and fast bound. and swallow it as fast as you can.2 The fish came and swallowed him. probably Piscis Australis. a cave-dweller that inhabits certain places in the bush. which marked the passage of the sunken Sun. or Fire. but nobody knows how the battle ended. x. Records of the Past. The boy said to the fish.TYPOLOGY OF THE MYTHICAL SERPENT. p. the boy-man laughed to himself. The fourteen parts are the fourteen days or nights from Full to New Moon. p. and she tied an old moccasin to one end of a string. But seeing his sister standing in despair on the shore. If a spear is thrown at Nar-gun.” The fish darted towards the old shoe.” during which the Dragon of Darkness was dominant. “Go take hold of it. for it would last them a long while for food. 456.1 In the Chippewa tale of the “Little Monedo” it is related that there was a tiny boy. Aborigines of Victoria. calling to her to let him out.3 On the monuments it is the genitrix herself in the character of Isis-Serk. and told her to cut up the fish and dry it. that crushes the Serpent’s head. He dwells in a cave at Lake Tyers. Jonah) remarks with much simplicity—“We feel ourselves precluded from any doubt of the reality of the transactions recorded in this book (Jonah) by the simplicity of the language itself. 3 Tylor. the Nar-gun. vol. and swallowed it. or the red. and if any one should incautiously approach too near one of these. he is dragged in by Nar-gun and seen no more. A writer in the Dictionary of the Bible (Article. the other to a tree and threw the shoe into the water. and not her Son.

Kirm. Karam in N’guru. Karam in Kanem. and then she leisurely returned home. The genitrix also triumphed over the Darkness. or Nine Solar Months. her son and seed. Forfar. Rit.2 The Prince of Yueh on hearing of her exploit. 1 2 . ch. Hindustanti. i. Kî and her dog answer to Isis and her dog in the under-world. 3 Brand. 4 The “Worm” was the Dragon in Britain. Cruimh. which correspon to the Nine Maidens or Moons. volunteered to go to the monster’s cave.”1 In a Chinese Myth the Dragon devours Nine Maidens consecutively. and in Inner Africa the Alligator is the Karam in Kanuri. p. Lithuanic. who had gone out on a Sunday evening one after the other to fetch water from the well or spring. with an Inundation (which was the Child of Isis).” She boasts that the Twin Lion-gods are in her belly. There was a stone in the north end of the Parish of Strathmartin. 148. and in relation to the Dragon of Eclipse. Birch. as the “Woman” of the Moon who “guards the forepart of the orb at the paths of total darkness. an orb of light in the darkness. and says she has deprived the darkness of its power. It is noticeable that the Marquesans had a Year which was reckoned as Ten Moons. called Martin’s stone. or the Nine Months reckoned from the Harvest Moon of the Autmn Equinox to Mesore (Egyptian). Karam in Munio. the Tenth the genitrix. Midsummer Eve. Kî then entered the cave and recovered the skeletons of the Nine Maidens whose fate she bewailed. it is changed into light. I have brought my orb to the darkness.3 At Lambton Hall the Worm4 was reputed to drink the Milk of Nine Cows. the animal being a real Dragon of the waters. vol. Kirmele. The mess attracted it. I have prepared Taht (the young Moon-god) at the gate of the Moon. chain is held in her hands. and placed rice and honey at the mouth of the monster’s den. She took a sword and a dog that would bite snakes. two feet acrss. and this time conquered for the year. The Worm is the Krimi in Sanskrit. the Nine Maidens may possibly represent the Nine previous Moons. as the bringer-forth of the young Sun-god at the time of the Spring Equinox (Nine Months from the Summer Solstice). instead of Horus. the Month of re-birth at the Summer Solstice.310 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Notes and Queries. Irish. and its eyes like mirrors. raised her to become his queen. Tradition affirmed that this was erected on the spot where a Dragon had devoured Nine Maidens. that flowed during Three Months. Then Kî. and that in Egypt the Year consisted of Ten Moons. At nightfall out came the Dragon with its head as big as a rice-rick. lxxx. I overthrow the extinguishers of flame! I have stood! The Fiends have hidden their faces. when the Moon in her travail wrestled with the Dragon of Eclipse. The Dragon was said to have been killed by Martin. This is a Lunar form of the Mythos in which the Woman spears the Serpent’s head. the daughter of Li Tau. “I am the Woman. A Chinese Story. the dog attacked it in front and Kî hacked at it behind until it was mortally wounded.

feathers. vi. relates that when the Mother was travailing sorely in the pangs of labour. the pupil of the eye. The “Woman” in the Ritual boasts that she has “made the Eye of Horus. Michabo. and the Midwives grew fearful lest the Child should be born dead. 311 In one Myth the Light is rescued by the Sun-god. N. Alexander Henry in his travels among the North American Indians.1 Here the origin of the Serpent-type alone will enable us to interpret the custom. and is still to be read in the signs of heaven. he destroys the reptile with his dazzling dart. and clothes himself in the skin of his fallen foe. to the Woman and Child in Revelation. which became the Serpent of Life and Healing as a type of sacrifice when Travels. The Solar conquerer. when it was not coming at the fifteenth of the Month. The Dragon of Darkness had to be cut in two at the crossing for the orb to pass through or the light to be re-born. The imagery pourtrayed in the planisphere shows the Woman as the bruiser of the Serpent. and in the other it is re-born of the genitrix.” for the Day dawns. 116.3 The Serpent that was slain was the Dragon of darkness. p. pp. and the “blood of the mystic eye. So in the Algonkin Myth. or Mithras was born. the Solar god. they hastened to catch and kill a Serpent and gave the Woman its blood to drink. signifies the Day has cut through. like the Woman in Revelation. “Dinia fatsar kamtsi. 119-120. Brinton. such as Tef-nut who is named from Tef. 1 2 . or the Mother-Moon in Eclipse. and the Full Moon was an Eye of Sight that reflected the Sun.” The latter denotes what is known amongst certain of our peasantry as “Dragon’s Blood. The symbolism was applied to Isis and Horus in Egypt. This was in connection with the origin of the so-called “Eye-goddesses” in Egpyt. vol.” the hood of a serpent. A. as Horus the cutter-through. the constellation of the Virgin arose upon the horizon. to Mary and Jesus in Rome. the birth-day of the Sun in the Winter Solstice.” The Eye was the Mirror or Reflector. is represented in conflict with the Prince of Serpents who dwells in a deep lake.TYPOLOGY OF THE MYTHICAL SERPENT.2 It was at one time common in England for people to believe that the skin of a snake bound round a woman in travail would ease her labour pains. the serpent’s skin.” (not the chemical compound used as a kind of size) which is employed as a potent love-charm or philtre according to instructions still or lately given by the Wise Woman. and the “blood of the mystic eye” were used as charms of protecting or destroying power. the Buddha. On Christmas Day when the Christ.— Records of the Past. she was represented as holding the new-born child in her arms. 117. where it is old enough to prove a unity of origin for the several myths. “Shu takes the shape of an Eagle’s wing. is pourtrayed as the wearer of the Serpent’s skin for the trophy of his triumph.” “A lock of hair is made to strangle the soul” of an enemy. M. to Maya and Buddha in India and China. p. Shu prevails by carrying the “hair of a cow. 3 The Egyptian Magical Texts show that hair. and being pursued by the Serpent which opened its mouth just beneath her in the position of being trodden under-foot. In Kanuri.

” “Gods.” He assumes some “primæval revelation” vouchsafed to a chosen people from the truth of which men lapsed into error. Ruskin speaks of the “True Worship. a Lioness. how the first gods grew. . and Mythology retains the means of tracing the progress from the vague darkness through the Stellar. or making gods. and it was the fetishism of the dark because it was primæval. The powers were super-human. the Serpent that was severed at the Crossing was “offered up” on the Cross. De Civ. in short.”1 his statement is made according to the later thought and mode of expression. when the Mother Nature. p. Eusebius. Lunar.3 are only the types. We see the Beast transfiguring into the Beauty. a Serpent. “This is what he calls making gods. and Solar phases of thought into the later light of Day. the earliest mode of representing things. a Milch-Cow. and to show how they were represented by natural types. 10.312 THE NATURAL GENESIS. “Consecration. and with the human advance the types were humanized. that he affirms the visible and tangible images to be as it were the “bodies of gods. The Egyptian divinities. Augustine has remarked of Hermes Trismegistus.—furies of force in whose presence man was by an image of helplessness altogether inadequate to express them. their likenesses are pre-human. the fetish-images of powers considered to be superior to man. changes into 1 3 2 Augustinus. 8—23. But if so. the Draconian was the first as the Dragon at the Polar centre still bears witness. By a “certain art” these invisible spirits are made visible in a vesture of corporeal matter. and worshipped the things upon which they themselves lived. 140. It has been assumed that the early Man projected his own spirit upon external nature as the mirror which returned the shadow of himself. There has been a mental evolution corresponding to the physical. who was once a Dragon. Præp. vol. the supposed Inventor of Types. or which there is a figure of 8. Evang. a Hippopotamus.” because there are within them various invited spirits. and of Typology. the earliest personifications of natural forces ought to have been in his own likeness. and judged them gods. ii. Powers beyond human were recognized in external nature. whereas the Devil or Divinity in the human form does not belong to the primary Mythical formation.” “Worship. When Sanchoniathon says the First Men “consecrated the Plants of the Earth. and to which they made libations and sacrifices.” which “may have taken a dark form when associated with the Draconian one. but the Dragon is part and parcel of all the primæval revelation there ever was. i. Dei. as the Nenu. Mr. Book of the Beginnings. We are now in a position to prove that the earliest “gods” were “elementary powers” which were directly apprehended at first.” must have been very remote from the minds of the First Men. or representatives.”2 Hermes was the great Hieroglyphist of Tradition.

But he realized the less definite Swallower in the most definite form of the Dragon. which was Pekht in Egyptian. and called it the Cat. but the image still served for typifying. Patu. Primitve men were forced to typify in order that they might know by name these Elemental Energies and non-intellectual Powers. and named themselves by means of the animals. or the Water devoured the life.” For instance. Hence. Wind. The Serpent was that which darted death. The process of representation was that which the logician terms in another application of the words. His process was mainly that of objective comparison. He did not know how the Earth gulped down the tars. N’godsin. the fire was the flaming Yellow Lion or the Golden Bird that soared aloft fearlessly in the flames of the Sun. According to the laws of evolution.1 The primitive man did not animate the darkness or the water with any abstract spirit of destruction. but he adopted the Crocodile and Hippopotamus as forms most palpable. as his mode of representation. Poti. Shetland—also brought on the name of the Lioness. or Rennut. the earlier form of the word. Hathor. having no name for th emoon. when it was known that the Moon was only a reflector of the solar light. because he was compelled to think in things. This mode of expressing phenomena was the origin of the primordial types which were continued as mythical. as the Goddess who wears the shape of Woman. cognition of the unapparent power as cause of phenomena must have belonged to the latest perception. or Lioness-headed Goddess. Footie. The first so-called deities of primitive man may be named Weather-gods. The Hippopotamus was the power of the Deluge broken out of bounds. Australian. or Water. and. and thus we are enabled to see that typology and mythology are twin from the birth and one in their fundamental rootage. so to say. became the Eye of the Sun. he saw it as the eye of the dark. entifying the elements by conceiving the eidolon of Fire. Maori. It is another mistake to imagine that primitive Man began personifying. and therefore it was represented by the Crocodile that swallowed the lights as they went down into the darkness. 313 Uati. Typology proves that he did not personify. and it is an axiom of the present work that religious feeling originated in awe and admiration of powers superior to those possessed by the human being. the Lunar Cat-headed. 1 . the The Cat—as Peht or Buto in Egyptian. Neith. even as they represented their own Totems. Mandura. Budi in Mimboma. but that the nearest and most apparent were the earliest. not the primary. Bede. Earth was the visible cause of darkness. so was the Lightning. Pâtu. the howling wind was the Great Ape in its wrath. the invisible force by a corresponding type of power. because the eye is a mirror. He represented one thing by another. The god and the weather. whose golden eyes were luminous by night. the “substitution of similars. This was in the natural phase. Totemic.TYPOLOGY OF THE MYTHICAL SERPENT. divine. earlier Lynx or Lioness.

or “male they are not. Tu-Matauenga. the custom reaches back to this beginning. The savage may have advanced somewhat beyond the elemental stage. p. male they are not” (Akkadian). are synonymous among the Makuas. or primordial gods. 1 Haumia-Tikitiki. but the elements made the primary appeal. however. ii. afford one of the test-types for the unity of origin in mythology. is a result of this indefinite and impersonal beginning with the neuter type which could and did become both male and female in mythology and language. and the eight who were represented by the Eight Great Pillars in the Temple on the Island of Fortuna. the elementary and elemental. and the seven Shinto Gods also form an Ogdoad. The Maori mythology likewise commences with Eight Elementary Powers. and the Cloud. 43. Book ii. wind and the rain. The Sun or Moon considered as the masculine in one language and feminine in another.314 THE NATURAL GENESIS. According to Herodotus the Eight gods were extant for 17. Tangaroa. neither were the elementary types. The seven “Elementaries” in Akkad are so far impersonal powers that they are sexless. not the original Eight Elementaries. called the Father. neither were they of any sex. “female they are not. Father of fish and reptiles. Father of wild-growing food. The primary gods of Egypt are eight in number. The producer as female is the only one whose sex is determined. Rongo-ma-tane. They are found also as the Eight Great Gods of Gaul. . They are found in the British Arthur and his Seven Companions in the Ark. As before said. who existed when Taht had superseded Sut. Thunder. and their representatives became the earliest types of the particular powers. the Mother who is the foundation of all. When among th eblacks of Australia men are named Wind. 2 Book of the Beginnings. Certain forces of nature were represented. who consist of the Great Mother and her Seven Children. or failed to rule it. Tawhiri-ma-tea. Quanwon. personified as— Papa (Earth. The Elements are of no sex. pourtrayed under that name by the Quichés. and she is the Dragon-horse. the Eight gods of the beginning. because it was neither in itself at first. Father of fierce men. The Divinity. They were gods in space who ruled over Chaos. the Heaven. The most perplexing elements of mythology and language originate in this the primary stage of typology. Father of winds and storms.1 These were the eight. They were not personified in the human likeness.000 years before the reign of Amasis. Rain-Giver is a common African name for the Power above. they are sometimes represented by an eight-headed figure. The “Yongmaa” of the Akra people is either the Rain or the God. Fire. female they are not” (Assyrian). 560.2 The Japanese Great Mother. Father of cultivated food. before the cycles of Time commenced. Air was the god Hurakan. are often synonymous among the African races. vol. Rangi (Heaven). Hail. Father of Forests. but not personated. Tane-Makuto.

Foucaux. 64. fomenting trouble and discord. and Mahôrgas. Asuras. which tell of the struggles between the rulers of the upper and nether realms. p. but they correspond fundamentally to the Eight Elementaries of Egypt. also relate that in Xibalba. as in Akkad and Egypt. The Eight —the genitrix and her seven-fold progreny—when compared with the Egyptian Eight. Indian Miscellany. The Vedic Aditi is a form of the primordial genitrix. 21. These are the Nagas. Mete. who were born as her Seven Sons. She has seven sons called the Seven Adityas. Sans. they were the annoyers and opposers of men. and in the Divinity of the Templars. the primal power (or powers) rises from the waters eight-rayed. Gandharvas. These. v. Or. 76. The infinite Aditi is really the non-established.5 The Asuras were primarily the product of an earlier phase of thought. 315 These are the Genitrix and the Seven Pitris. cited by Brinton.” The One and the Seven. p. because in them the earliest types are retained. Ximenes. The Mahābhārata4 says that in the battle which they fought with each other. the realm of disappearing.”2 It was in the old times. She also preceded Time and the established order of things that followed Chaos. or undivided. 4 S’Antip. Texts. that the Eight had all power. W. or Fathers.1 The number likewise agrees with the Quiché creative powers. The Elementaries of Egypt are likewise represented by the Asuras in India. p. This precedes and does not represent the Sun. and can be recovered by the comparative process. In the Latita-Vistara3 eight heavenly beings are enumerated as the Gods or Devas. 1184. however. and were afterwards considered non-spiritual on account of their physical and 1 2 3 W. Yakshas. things of darkness. and only in later times were they relegated to their native hell as the Devils of Theology.TYPOLOGY OF THE MYTHICAL SERPENT. just as we find them in the Dragon and her Seven-fold progeny. will be found like them to be the gods of chaos. who existed as Elementaries before the creation of Time. 250. whose “root is One and Seven. who are described as eight in number. p. Beach. but from a footing of equality they became superior to them. 15. Garudas. in Sut Typhon (or the Eight Gods). The Quiché legends. which are submerged like the ruins of Yucatan beneath whole forests of aftergrowth. the rulers or lords are “One Death and the Seven Deaths. Kinnaras. The gods were of the same parentage as the Asuras. But when they appeared it was terrible. however. et passim.” Ximenes says of these eight reduced deities who had been superseded. 5 Muir. the Asuras were the elder brothers and the gods the younger. the unopened. . the INFINITE. They were of evil. and in truth they were not regarded as gods. “In the old times they did not have much power. called in the vague stage of thought the boundless. they were owls. In the account of creation inscribed on the Bark Record of the Lenape Indians. are called half male and half female. de los Indios de Guatemala.

Fire. Ether. the crescent. 258. and in the typology. the pyramid or triangle. and from these sprang the Maruts of the Vedas. Ether is represented by the Cone as the fifth sign in the diagram. But in this Elemental stage the unapparent is not God. such as Matter.1 In India the Seven were developed into the Seven Troops of the Maruts. they are the destroying Tempests.316 THE NATURAL GENESIS. which is the vehicle of sound. who are Seven at first. A-Kāsa is called the Fifth Element. A-Kāsa is the invisible or unapparent. Fluxion. Air. Then it becomes the Creator (Brahma or other god) identical with Ether. Fire. the Embroyotic Seven were born of Diti. The full number of these is Seven in India. Station. Water. Accumulation. They are likewise particularly associated with the Seven Rishis of the Great Bear. Air. 1 Muir. and the Seven-headed Serpent. which as fifth was once the quintessence of the elements.) is the becoming visible or apparent. corresponding to the Seven in Akkad. cone. Seven Elements were identified with these Seven Elementaries or later spirits. Britain. 147. They are described as the “Seven with spears. Cohesion. as Earth. 28. and the. the subtle ethereal fluid. 8. they who “divided and held the Two Worlds apart. It was they who “stretched out all the terrestrial regions and the luminaries of the sky”. p. and the peculiar vehicle of life. it is only atmospherical. 5. and other countries. v. For example. Ether (or Vapour). iv. Coagulation. are also the Seven-fold Storm-wind as one of the Tempest-types of fatal force. vol. and Division. vol. the circle. A sixth element was identified by the Hindus with Bala-rama the representative of Sanaya on Rig Veda. . Blossom (the Seminal principle) and the Wind of Purposes (or the Ghost). As Kāsa (Sans. the Divider. Water (heaven as the water above). Sanskrit Texts. It is the same with the inferior and superior Hebdomads of the Gnostics. in which the square signifies earth. As the story is told by Sāyana.” The Maruts have the same development form the status of evil destroyers who became supporters of the good god. also Seven Properties in Nature. he is satisfied that a mass of mysticism in Buddhism is the result of this beginning with the Elementaries. they swoop down like a violent tempest in heaven and earth. Egypt. They are said to rush from the four cardinal points.” The embroyo of the genitrix Aditi was divided into seven parts. material origin. The Seven who are the Evil Progeny of Tiamat in Akkad. the Seven-headed Thunderbolt. They fight on the side of Indra just as the Seven Spirit of the Great Bear become the supporters of Osiris. And although the present writer is unable to fathom or follow the subject in India. are identified by the British Barddas. but they have the same sole origin in nature. The Seven Elements from which came the Seven Spirits of mythology. the fiends of stom on their way to becoming the Maruts of the Indian mythology.

of the Seven primary or “Fountain Spirits. . The primæval progeny of the genitrix also survived as the Seven Governors in the Divine Pymander where they are said4 to be both male and female in one. 317 masculine virility. And this Pleroma of Eight is acknowledged by the Kabalists as constituting the totality of hyha. 5. the semen virile. cause of all sensibillty. God. The illuminatist. This is the sixth element. in accordance with the later thought. and they are symbols of the elements which were typified. Javeh. 2. Crown. He says. Astanpheus. Ialdabaoth. Adoneus. cause of all motion. 4. Light.”5 Which proves the survival and continuation 1 3 5 Ex. 3. or the Phœnician Illus and his auxiliaries. “These are the seven forms of the Mother of all Beings. fire. 5.1 the Existent. “We find seven especial properties in nature whereby this only Mother works all things” (to wit. . 10. 14. xiv. 2 4 Ginsburg. as it was with Ptah and his Seven Assistant Gods. xv. ch. The Kabalah p. It was argued in a preceding volume that the Jehovah-Elohim of Genesis comprised the same pleroma of Eight gods. whereas the Akkadian Seven are neither male nor female. Sabaoth. There are Seven Spirits called Archangels in the Parsee Scriptures. light. Jacob Böhme. metal. bitterness. 14. and substantiality). consisting of Sophia the genitrix and her Seven sons.2 also termed Chiveth (twyj). “whatever the six forms are spiritually that the seventh is essentially” . 6. from whence all that is in this world is generatcd. Oreus.] . Elementary types (or gods) were founded on the Elements. ch. 7. xiii. sound. which may be rendered by Circle or Pleroma. ch.” and the feminine producer. as Sydik and the Seven Kabiri. animals. Hermes Trismegistus. angusih. the Elohim. who are named— 1. Iao. This is corroborated by the Gnostic Pleroma of the Eight. fire. 4. Bala denotes force considered as a sixth form or mode of manifestation. will show us how the ancient genitrix and her seven elementaries were continued in the teachings of the mysteries with a more abstract rendering of the Gnosis or Kabalah. who have severally the charge over man. pars. iii. Elaeus. ii. Shayast La-Shayast. water and plants.3 But the Amshaspands are the primary form of the Persian Seven.TYPOLOGY OF THE MYTHICAL SERPENT. Hosts. Signatura Rerum. 11. 15. earth. It is the innate strength of the male. The seventh was the soul and summit of the rest. although the father (Sydik) has been elevated to the place of the genitrix. the fructifying principle of the Druids named blossom. b. [=CH I. desire which is astringent. Lord God of the Fathers (Pitris). Lord. The Eight are likewise Phœnician. because the types had not then bifurcated into sexes.

The followers of Böhme look on such matter as the divine revelation of his inspired Seership. 39. ch.”2 “But that there are so many stars. par.” and primary powers. according to the Divine manifestation.”3 and “man’s property lieth in sundry degrees.318 THE NATURAL GENESIS. ch. in order that we may explode their false pretensions to supernatural origin or superhuman knowledge. and we can. 28. xxiv. “The Creator hath. generated himself as it were creaturely in his qualifying or Fountain Spirits. and the whole body of this world consisteth in the seven qualifying or fountain spjrits. treated as seven properties of Nature in the alchemistic and astrological phase of the mediæval mysteries. these Seven. is extant in the fragments of Hermes Trismegistus.5 and their wrestle for supremacy is the working of generation or creation. Ibid. Gnostic. par.” beneath their modem metaphysical or alchemist mask. They know nothing of the natural genesis. or Christian. It is useless for us to read our later thought into the earliest types of expression and then say the ancients meant that! Subtilized interpretations which have become doctrines and dogmas in theosophy have now to be tested by their genesis in physical phenomena.. Mysterium Magnum. When the male creator takes the place of the Mother in Egypt the Seven are described as the Seven souls of the God Ra or Osiris. When the prophets or visionary showmen of cloudland come to us claiming original inspiration and utter something new. Aurora. So in Böhme’s theosophy. ch. xxiv. ch. par. and are unable to recognise the physical features of the ancient “Seven Spirits. “therefore man’s life hath such a beginning and rising up as was that of the planets and stars. it is natural that we should judge it by the primary significations rather than the latest pretensions.”4 The student of Böhme's books finds much in them concerning these Seven “Fountain Spirits. A second connecting link between the theosophy of Böhme and the physical origines of Egyptian thought. in the body of this world. These Seven revolve wheel-like in their workings with fire (that is the Har-Sun or Solar Soul) in the centre of all. through the seven properties of Nature. the history and persistence of the “Wisdom” of the past (or of the broken links). and all the stars are nothing else but God’s powers. Masonic. according to the inward and outward heavens. xvi. of the primitive thought and typology in the theosophy of European mystics. which generate themselves infinitely. No matter whether these teachings are called Illuminatist. 2 4 Ibid.. we judge of its value by what it is in itself. ch. p. 15. is from the infiniteness that is in the efficiency of the Seven Spirits of God in one another. or in accordance with. xxiv. . of so manifold different effects and operations. xxvi. the elemental types can only be truly known in their beginnings. viz.”1 Man was created by. 27. Buddhist. 48. 49. But if we find they bring us the ancient matter which they cannot account for. As 1 3 5 Aurora. Kabalist..

Tepht modifies into Tet (Eg. or bleed. Dûdu. These are Inner African names for the abyss of darkness. and the Tavthe.. Mbe. And the darkness brought forth its brood of baleful beings. the source of all things. serpent or dragon.. Otitan.Eki. the hole of the dragon. Cornish Defyth. is the Tepht. is likewise the typical snake of the abyss. Têto . 79. Dsekiri. Mother of seven wicked spirits.” Primitive Man did not begin with concepts of cause beyond the visible phenomena. Dîdu . an existence for ever self-emaning and self-renewing which the Egyptians termed “Renewal.. Dr. the night. . or Typhon. who were the born children of the darkness. Welsh Dyved. p. Dsumu. The Egyptian Tepht is one with the Tavthe of the Babylonian cosmogony.. It was a dragon from the deep that first taught Fo-hi the distinction of sexes. Night. explains that in Khoi-Khoi.. The Serpent emaning itself from its own mouth images no personality but a condition of being. and death. the leopard or lion. Yagba. destruction. The types themselves suffice to demonstrate the fact that they do not represent any personal beings conceived behind phenomena. Dûdu. Didi . the scorpion. Tiamat and Tavthe are the same name by interchange of m and v. Tétan.1 This FLOW-ER forth identified with 1 Hahn. Then the Khoi-Khoi forgot this original signification and “Mythology got hold of Aub and Aus. Black. Ife. and the Toyt. Yoruba. Doai. a Fountain. inimical to him. The motion of the Serpent made it a type of that which flows—water flows.Egba. the Snake. This is the Müllerite interpretation of Mythology as a disease of language. Dûdu . or the one which lives in a hole.TYPOLOGY OF THE MYTHICAL SERPENT. This was the Egyptian Tep. Koama. Dûdu ...). and made sure that in every fountain lived a snake. the lightning. Eight) were not Intelligencers to men. Au. is a root. Itoafiu . the dragon of the deep. Sevekh. N’godsin. Dûdu . as it is stated in the Chinese sacred books. Night. and if it be killed the fountain will dry up. As the female was the obvious bringer to birth it followcd that nature or space or the abyss of night should be first represented as the genitrix. external and internal... Tavthe personified is the Mother of the Gods. Dûdu . perceived by man. meaning to flow. Ebe. as the Shetlanders call their mystical sea. 77. diseases. and Aus. and a misapprehension of the meaning of their own words made by all the people of the past. Darkness from the depth was the Devil. Kum. 319 Elementals the Seven (with the Mother.” p. deluges. . the hurricane and their kindred agents of violence. also called the hole of the snake. wilderness.. as place is the abyss or source. Black. Tiamat personified is the dragon. for a desert. Dafid. He did not postulate a Devil that made the darkness. It is the snake supposed to dwell in every fountain of the land. overwhelming forces recognized in the dragon. Mbarike. In Egypt this abyss.. and causing the on-goings amid which man found himself to be going on. Hahn. Defid. the English Depth. from which he derives Aub. Teb. one of whose types was the crocodile.. they were seven overpowering. . Bagbalan. with the same meaning. The Hottentot snake called the Gâbeb. coming of itself. Têtan . &c.

where they were intended to strike terror as they had done on earth. Lev. Shetland.1 At the spot in Syria where Typhon went underground the river Orontes had its origin.”2 Amt. when Winkleried kills the dragon. the dragon is described as emaning a flood from its mouth. When the swollen torrents rush down from the Swiss mountains after a thunderstorm. 7. This is according to a mode of typology. the fore part of the lioness. a rivulet issues out of its hole. In German folk-tales. This dragon combined the bird. that swallowed the setting stars. the hind quarters of the hippopotamus. and Hippopotamus (pachyderm). or Typhon. which represented the Four elements and Four quarters. and is said to be found in the fountain dead. China. Ch. and could fly. It is very curious for these Four are a form of the Hawk (bird). In Revelation. The serpent and dragon became interchangeable as type. Cf. the \ymd rwqm or fountain of blood for the feminine pudenda. the issuing water of source is one with the dragon Tiamat. the sign of the inundation in Egypt. will also blood flows—here we shall find the flowing Serpent in a mystical sense—and the Serpent flows along the ground. crawl. however. correcting the wicked by creation of reptiles.) which is the “Hole of the Snake. but they can be distinguished from each other. was preserved in the eschatological phase as the devourer of the souls of the damned. Professor Fraas of Stuttgart has reconstructed the Swabian Lindwurm for the Natural History Museum of that capital. 1 Pierret. the Tepht (Eg.320 THE NATURAL GENESIS. 2 Rit. In Egyptian. the beb is the hole of the abyss and Kobeb signifies the source. kangaroo. The crocodile is the dragon of the waters. leap. the crocodile or dragon of the west. and swim. The Monster of the abyss in the beginning. This identification of the dragon with the water shows the beginning with the water-flood as the destroyer! The water comes out of the abyss. cxlvi. but it has not yet passed out of the serpent phase into that of the genetrix of the abyss. which is likewise the Tepht of the snake. is a crocodile in front and a serpent behind. the Sesh-Sesh dragon. that is equivalent to the end of a period called the deluge. lizard. Here the primitive types of destroying power served as imagery in the eschatological stage. not a disease of language. Egypt and Inner Africa. xii. (14th Pylon) . Vocab. coming from the night. “Greatest of spirits. The Egyptians had their museum of monsters in the underworld of the dead. The ancient genitrix of the abyss was thus turned into the evil Typhon of the Egyptian hell. This may be gathered from the following text. and the four (with variants) were compounded in Typhon the mythical dragon. when the young solar god is born. Another compounded monster. Ape (kangaroo). and pachyderm.” Thus the beginning with the dragon or serpent of source in the abyss is common to Akkad. the devourer in the Hades is depicted with the head of the crocodile. the people say the dragon has come out. Crocodile (lizard). red-haired Monster. Hydra. When the fount dries up the typical Serpent ceases to flow.

so that he sees without himself being seen by others.” and the crocodile is the fish and dragon under one type.” faute de mieux. Sevekh. The symbolical dragon is somewhat of a crocodile with wings. 2 Of Isis and Osiris. From these we shall derive the Dragon with Seven Heads. the place of Preparation or of Chaos. was founded on the crocodile. These were reckoned as Seven in number. the Genitrix herself being either the First or the Eighth. who bore her image as the Crocodile. the crocodile. Egyptologists term them “Elementaries. the waters of source. There was a great fish which the Greeks called a “Dracon. And if there be a first god in Egyptian mythology it is Sevekh. which is a sign for black. the genitrix of the Seven Stars. if not on the geological dragon. The Egyptian mythology begins with the Eight Gods that ruled in Am-Smen. her son. Images of the dragon are carried in procession. This image of the genitrix was continued in Sevekh. In times of drought the Chinese beseech the dragon of rain for wet weather. We find another reason why the crocodile should have been the natural prototype of the mythical dragon with the lidless eyes. Cult. Their domain was the timeless Night which preceded the reign of Order and the dawn of day. . Also the red dragon of fire or lightning will account for the alternative type of ending in a conflagration. silent. her son. Plutarch tells us one of the Egyptian reports was that the crocodile “is the sole animal living in water that hath his eyesight covered over with a thin transparent film which descends from his forehad.”2 The crocodiIe was a type of the first goddess. and waiting to devour. 321 explain why the serpent or dragon is the symbol of the flood. The crocodile was a type of darkness. even to the tip of its tail. could have been adopted than this figure of the tongueless Croccdile to form a basis for the mythical Dragon.TYPOLOGY OF THE MYTHICAL SERPENT. the Typhonian. is the capturer. and if no rain follows the dragon is smashed1 into small pieces. as Sevekh Kronus the earlier form of Seb Kronus. Assuredly no apter image of the jaws of darkness. and the carliest modes of phenomena that most impinged on primitive man being inimical and opposed to him and therefore Evil. They are looked upon as elementary forces of nature personified as 1 Huc and Gabet. Typhon. They affix to the houses pieces of paper containing prayers and also the likeness of the dragon of rain. Darkncss being the first producer personified as the Dragon or the Genitrix. wide open. and the crocodile was a type of Typhon. Therefore it is feasible that the mythical dragon of the abyss. in which he agrees with the First God. whence Kek) was the one of the Seven (the Eight with the Mother indudcd) who was elevated to the primacy in the oldest. the first Adversary as the Dragon of Darkncss was accredited with a progeny of adversaries. That is Sevekh (or Khebek. as the earth or grave.

the sixth a rebellious Giant who submits neither to god nor king. 6. or. serpent.” The same place of birth and rebirth in the Ritual is called Smen. They are denounced as the Betsh. the fourth a Serpent. look on these primordial figures as mere types that were adapted by the Egyptians to express the various attributes of the one God. 4. And of such were the seven-fold progeny of the Dragon of Darkness. were among the simplest. most fundamental facts in nature. 3. The Bull (or Beast) who never made smoke to dwell in his flame. A Leopard or Hyena. The Bull. 6. A raging Lion A rebellious Giant. . 2. Hissing to come forth and turn back. 7. Going eating his hour. thus: AKKADIAN SEVEN. The Messenger of the fatal Wind. The Thunder-bolt. the Children of' Revelt and of Inertness. Chabas. 1. seeing at night and bringing by day. rather. they were primary. the seventh the Messenger of the fatal Wind. The first is a Scorpion. that the Thunderbolt carried death in its stroke. 5. 4. Lenormant. That the Serpent was his mortal enemy—whence he became a supreme type of his immortal enemy—that the Scorpion stung. 1. 7. These re-appear in Akkad and Assyria as the Dragon Tiamat and the Seven Children of Revolt. Follower of the House of Ans. and Annu (Heliopolis) in the Solar Myth.322 THE NATURAL GENESIS. 3. In one they are called. The Scorpion or sting-bearer of heaven. 2. and they were Typhonian. or the Stingray of the sun. the fifth a raging Lion. in the Stellar phase. Ket-Ket. thunderbolt and typhoon are sufficient to prove the representation of those powers that were adverse to man. corresponding in the latter phase to what Taliesin terms the “Sluggish Animals of Satan. 5. The Eight then are composed of the genitrix Typhon and her brood of Seven. whether called the scorpion of the dark or of fire. EGYPTIAN SEVEN. the second is the Thunderbolt. the place of the Eight. in accordance with the order of development from the Elementary stage.2 These may be paralleled with the Akkadian Seven. The scorpion. Ket-Ket. ch. the third a Leopard or Hyena. The Seven appear in the Egyptian Ritual. or the Sting-bearer of Heaven. and others. 1 2 Champollion-Figeac. Gods. some French Egyptologists. or the Devouring Dark. the Seven Wicked Spirits that constitute the Seven Heads of the Dragon of Eclipse. and the burning breath of the Typhoon or Simoom was fatal. Ritual. Hermopolis or Sesennu in the Lunar. Red eyes.1 who are not Evolutionists. but they were the birth of Chaos. xvii. where two lists of their different names are given. A Serpent. Het-Het. Follower of the House of Ans. Going eating his hour. Het-Het. The allusions to these “Gods” of the Beginning are obscure and obscured. Hissing to come forth and turn back. Pierret. seeing by night and bringing by day. leopard. who never made smoke to dwell in his flames. Red Eyes.

ii. 184. if we take the so-called “Four Elancnts” of Fire. b. the hell of fire. b.TYPOLOGY OF THE MYTHICAL SERPENT. x. Herod. and try to realise the earliest percption and configuration of these as governing powers. or Shu. This beginning in physical phenomena was continued in the eschatological phase by the Egyptians who held that all evil proceeded from the place of sunrise. The Lion. 1 sqq. 687. Water. 323 The first is Het-het and Hetet is the Scorpion. 20. another symbol of fire and one of the Elementaries. a centraI African tribe. and we have the Solar Serpent or Stinger in its elemental phase. Kheti is the Serpent of fire. and all good.4 1 2 Hor-Apollo. i. Kutu. healing and life came from the land of the setting sun. xii. In the Inner African languages the Scorpion is Hudu. p. as does the Thunder. p. we must not think of the Har Sun typified by the Solar Hawk.. the devouring fire. in Musentandu. On the contrary. they refused to allow the goodness. b. When a Christian missionary was expatiating on the attributes and the goodness of his God to the Liryas. 2. the Egyptians make use of the lion because this animal. 79 sqq. 3 Sepp. [Records. “Going eating his hour”1 is the Serpent which became the type of Time eating its own body. who regularly “Cursed the Sun at his rising. 216. See also the Book of Hades. Now. “Red-Eyes” renders the rage of the Lion. p. Ket (Eg. Earth and Air. the consuming element. Sir Samuel Baker affirms that the rising of the sun is always dreaded in Central Africa and the “Sun is regarded as the common enemy.. in Nyombe. in Biafada. HET means to afflict and injure.”3 All who attempt to interpret the ancient thought without the doctrine of development have now to reckon with evolution and go back to begin again. one with Kapi. being most powerful. The rebellious Giant is likewise a perfect parallel to Hapi.” Even by night the air is often like a heated ovcn. iv. terrifies all who behold it. in Mimboma. Nkutu. Kutu. the Egyptian Nimrod. the glorious God of later times—but the Har Fire. “Scarcely is one sun dead in the west in the evening than there grows up out of the earth next morning another which is no better.”2 This corroborates the statement of Herodotus respecting the Atlantes of interior Africa.) signifies to shake or quake. and the duplicate Ket-Ket wouId be to shake very much. Jerusalem und des Heilige Land. says Hor-Apollo. 4 B. To signify the Terrible. The sun in inner Africa was looked upon as a source of torment. 144. Kutu.] Albert Nyanza. vol. which are inseparable from four of these Seven Elementary Types that became the Gods of the four quarters. 2. iv. in Basunde. and abused him with shameful epiphets for afflicting them and their land with his blazing heat. i. . was a type of terror. they said He must be very angry and wicked for He sends death and the sun that scorches up our crops. the Giant Ape.

in Yoruba. the name of the Scorpion. or cow. If the early men had commenced with a Concept of Cause behind phenomena. the blast. Heat or fire was expressed by means of types. which further shows the hard form of Serf (Eg. they would never have personified it as female at all. in Yagba.” and Heavcn was often looked on as a Hell of fire. The Sun was the physical fount of theological Hell-fire. but is an utter reversal of the actual process. a burrning breath. Primitive men were not carvers and scultpors. Primitive men commenced with phenomena themselves. They did not begin with a goddess behind phenomena who made use of a Serpent to bite. in Wadai. in thirty-six African languages the name for Hell is the same as for fire. the earliest form of a religious feeling before man had any idea of A God. Trees. as did the zig-zag lightning and the deadly sting-ray of the Sun. and the word Har (Eg. was only posible because they began with the simplest observation of natural phenomena. Thus Har (Horus) the later Solar God. Mu. That may be the non-evolutionist view. This is provable. and Har. or rather of Evolution. But the serpent itself was recognised before a goddess of fire or heat was personified. in Yagba. And just as the shapeless stone preceded the statue. Hor. will show us how and where the Solar Horus began as one of the Elementals who were considered to be the foremost enemies of man. and the early temples were without statues. stocks. and stones preceded the human-shaped images of the divinities. The Sun is Horu. identifies itself with Serk (Eg. was one of the Seven Elementaries as the terror of fire. signifies the “Heaven of Ashes. so did these elementary powers evoke recognition and fear. Oru.). Oru. She is called the Maker of Invisible Existence Apparent. water-horse.324 THE NATURAL GENESIS. But it was the Serpent itself that first revealed and made manifest in pain and death the fiery power that existed invisibly. the very breath of fire. to terrify. and fire is frequently synonymous with the Sun. as in the type names furo. This Mould of Creation. Har then was a primary power born of the . Physical and mental evolution corroborate each other according to the doctrine of development. and not with the postulate of powers beyond their powers. in Idsesa. The fury of the Solar fire suggested the Fang and the Sting.) signifies terror. whether typified by the dragon. The name of Hell.). That African furnace of fiery heat did not offer much incentivc to the so-called “Solar Worship!” On the contrary. The name of the Sirocco. ôro or Ala. If they had conceived a God it would assuredly have been in their own image. serpent. This being a synonym for fire and Hell. and thus revealed her invisible presence. not that of womankind. The serpent-goddess Heh especially represents the Element of Fire that was first signified by the lightning of the serpent’s sting.

personated by Hurakan. As Hapi he is one of the Four Genii. catch. fire and dust. . 80. This was the air in motion. The crocodile is Sevekh. On the contrary. the simoom or typhoon. known as the terrific Kamsin. the Capturer. the Swallower. who became the Sun-God Har. and Wind. ii. the Kaf. Shu. when it was not known that the earth was a rotating globe. This was the Crocodile of Earth. not the light but the lightnings. One of the Elementaries is the Monkey-God. Hence the hippopotamus that couId crush a canoe in its ponderous jaws was the typical terror of the Waters. not the gentle breeze and genial warmth. The Egyptians denote eating. not the voice of birds and murmuring of rippling waters. The great Ape is such a howler that it was continued as a Voice of the Unknown. The burning blast. not the fertile fruitful earth and fostering dews of heaven. and another of our Elementaries. in its fury. or Horus. overwhelming storm of sand. is the Typhonian tempest. and yet a form of the Bringer-forth from the Waters. and Hapi is the earlier Kafi. the place of execution. a type of Shu. What was the Earth to the primitive perception? Another form of the Devourer and Swallower of the light and the lights as they went down from heaven. is a representative of Wind (later Breath and Soul). Sevekh was the Terror of Earth. first made itself felt and acknowledged. and the Kafau are the Typhonian Desolators by name. in such forms as the African hurricane. Water was that which broke forth wide-mouthed as the Dragon of the Deluge. sets its surface moving in a vast suffocating. The rudest awakeners appealed to the dawning consciousness of man. The indefinite beginnings of Mythology are defined enough in physical phenomena like those in which the working types originated as representations of the seven primary forces of the Mother Nature. says Hor-Apollo. 325 Hell of Inner African Heat. as a god. which stirs the desert to its depths. the Giant-Ape. by pourtraying a crocodile with his mouth open. the Mother of the Seven. and the roar of devouring beasts. or Kânt. Sevekh signifies to noose. which chattered or howled 1 B. and swallowed up life like the hippopotamus. This type of the Kaf-Monkey is the personification of anger or fury in the hieroglyphics.1 The Stars are represented as being swallowed by the Crocodile of the West. The Element of Air was potential death before it could be recognised as the breath of life. a speaker for the gods of later times. the Quiché deity. So that the Image of Anger. Water was not first appreciated as one of the two Elements of life. the voice of tempests. the Dragon of the Abyss. in the Egyptian Mythology. but thunders. it was that which devoured in drowning. and mixes up the elements of wlnd and water.TYPOLOGY OF THE MYTHICAL SERPENT. We can also perceive how some of these Elementaries found a representative Voice for their power. in a chaos of confusion that blots out heaven for the time being and seems to blind the sun.

too. or serpents of the air. 156). Chabas (Records of the Past. 29. The Zebub is described by the Rabbins as a fly that stings to madness. ungaugeable. which is a frightful scourge.” That is. a voice of darkness.” So thought the early men who made the Jackal a typical announcer. Hor-Apollo says. Jackal.”1 In the Magic Papyrus the “Bad Dog” is addressed thus: “Up. The Kaf-Ape was the animal type of the Breathing Power when it was a fiend of the storm. that settle on man and beast like showers of fire.e. that foretold the coming night and the inundation in the distance. He is called “God of Flies. The Lion is another of the Four chief elementary types. he says. or Dog. The natives are B. the eattIe forsake their food and fly. It is one of the chief plagues of the stinging things produced by nature when in heat at the time of her midsummer madness.” But the Zebub Fly makes the name more special. thence the need of the Ape and Lion as sensible equivalents. they pourtray the voice. “When the Egyptians would symbolize a voice from a distance. The Jackal. whick is called by them Ouaie. inexpressible. Thunder. as Kafi-Shu. and shows the Inner African origin. Rendered “tremendous” by M. 1 2 . the Element that was the origin of the God of Breath or Soul. bad dog! be thy face the gaping sky! Usaf-Hu thy howling. and their buzzing is heard. or Wolf of howling Darkness. i. One of the first voices of Darkness. Wind and heat were ungraspable.2 The Thunder would be the Dog. vol. The fire of the sun in Inner Africa found fitting voice in the Lion. Captain Beechy describes the “sudden burst of the answering long-protracted scream” of a pack of jackals “succeeding immediately the opening note” and being “scarcely less impressing than the roll of the Thunder-clap immediately after the flash of lightning. or the Unknown. p. and the solar furnace was heard to roar. which were continued when the Elementaries had passed in to the Star-Gods of Time. that arrested attention and awakened terror would be Thunder. of prophecy in heaven. furiously. As soon as the Zimb appear. who did not compare Hor-Apollo’s explanation. i. the voice afar off. Undoubtedly it was the voice of one of the earliest Elementaries or powers recognized in external nature. called the Zimb. than which nothing utters a greater or more powerful voice. awful as if the sky had gaped audibly. be thy howling Thundrous. x.326 THE NATURAL GENESIS.. a devil in physical phenomena before he became the Satan in a later sense. the origin of that typology which preceded verbal speech. A divinity like Baa1-zebub was a devil from the first. It has been said that Thunder was the primordial divinity. represented in visible form the passion. hence. dwelling in the throat of destroying Power and the howling of the Hurricane. or darts of death. Bruce gives us a striking account of the Æthiopian and Abyssinian Fly. with its yell of rage. is also one of the seven types. until they drop at last and die of fright and fatigue.

Ozokim is Hell in Igu. rather. Monumental Egypt can tell comparatively little of the vague period. who yet utter the fears of the human chiidhood. as a race of long-haired people. x. the Demons of Revolt. as the genitrix and her Seven-fold brood of nature-powers were superseded as the Children of Inertness. 2 6 3 Eccl. it is said.TYPOLOGY OF THE MYTHICAL SERPENT. But outside of Egypt. Job. or. Travels. Castrén. The Hebrew Tsamim are the Devourers. when the sacrifice is offered. and hippopotamus are forced to roll themselves in mud to coat their hides with an armour that will resist the stings. or Zebub. Her Eight Elementaries born of chaos. that the Fins call a thunderstorm “an Ukko. 39. i. their types were transformed into the Vahans of later ideas. This is the Fly mentioned by Isaiah. The prior phases of feeling and thought are only reflected for us in the types with which she speaks to us of the remoter past. 20. v. vol. 327 compelled to quit the “black earth” and take refuge on the sands of Atbara. and not a type to interpret. the old one associated with thunder and lightning. like the Zimb (flies) in the Egyptian Hells. Ch. we find races still under the shadow of the early darkness.. Nsumbi is the Devil In Kasands. Ndsombau is Hell in Bumbete.”6 This god in Egypt was Kak.) are the typhonian Devourers. Simo is Hell in Nalu.” and when it lightens they exclaim “That is Ukko. In which the Zimb. In their translations the Arabs rendered Zebub by the Zimb. is thus cited as the typical Devourer.”2 It is the Zebub of Death. 1. So in Assyrian the word Zumbi appears as a variant of Zebeb. 18. the gods swarmed over the sacrifices like Zumbi. or Khebekh whence 1 4 Bruce. the Devils that swarm and buzz and torture. and in Baal-zebub (or Bar-Typhon) we find the devil-type on its way to divinity. The Sami (Eg. Finn Myth. So closely is Ukko. The elephant. p. or other evil being said to devour men.4 and the Zamsummim are the mythical giants.3 In the Inner African languages the Zimb is synonymous with the Devil and Hell. there he is striking fire. Zume is Hell in Dahome. The Shadow of Darkness and the terror of the physical Typhon had passed away when her monumental record comes into view. all round the world. Ndsumbi is the Devil in Undaza. and there remain until the plague has past. In the Deluge Tablet. The Zimu in Zulu-Kaffir are cannibals believed to live in the far North. The Zimwi in Swahili is an ogre. ii. for whom the Akhekh is a real terror. We see by the old Ukko of the Fins how the Akhekh or Dragon of Darkness would pass into a God of Thunder and Lightning. vii. 9. ghoul. “And it shall come to pass in that day that the Lord shall hiss for the Zebub that is in the uttermost part of the rivers of Egypt. xviii. 5 Deut. the m in one word interchanging with b in the other.1 The Zimb is identical with the Hebrew Zebub. vol. to devour the offerings. The Sami buzz and sting as spiritual beings in the Hells of the Damned because the Zimb first made hell upon earth in Africa. . rhinoceros. 5. 191.

”3 The peculiar smell of it when broken showed that it was lightningborn. in Yasgua. ch. N’kokun. in Songo. who casts the thunder-hatchets down from heaven. bolt. and the Japanese still consider the Celt-stones. Such was the kind of revelation made by external nature to primitive man. he sends the great rain. (Wa) Kuku.328 THE NATURAL GENESIS.4 The huge Akkadian Serpent with Seven heads is the Thunderoolt of Seven Heads in the Hymns.5 When the SerpentLightning darted out of the cloud it buried itself in the earth. whose type is the Fox. (Wa) Kuka.2 Now. which preceded and possibly suggested the manufactured weapon. the Lord of Thunder and Lightning and Hurricanes. Smithsonian Contr. Caraibes. 1 2 . vol. (U) Kug. (U) Akuku. and this came from heaven as lightning born of darkness. Akuku. Bowen. p. the ideographic Nuter that was continued as a type of the primoridal Power which dwelt in darkness and manifested itself by De la Borde. (Wa) Guga. Yoruba Lang. was Sut-Anup. (Wa) Kuka. viii. C. Anup was the Jackal or Fox. iii. “Stone-Head” is the name of the Serpent that guards the sixth of the Seven Halls of Osiris. Keokolo. 128. (Wa) Kuku. whom they call the Stone-thrower (Dzakuta). (O) Gugu. or stone from heaven. a god of the dark. 530. Dahome. p. the first voice with which she spoke to man was thunder. 16. and under the name of Sevekh. and that is lightning. (Dsa) Koka. in Eafen. 3 F. In Egypt it is identified with Sut-Anup. and that weapon was first hurled at him hot and hissing from the thunder-clouds of heaven. he can be recognized in the Carib deity Savacou. i. vol. Savacou was said to have been one of those men who are now stars. p. in Puka. p. cxliv. the Thunderhatchet. vol. 4 Ritual. Burton. The stone-. The Yorubans have a God of Thunder named Shango. in Kupa. in N’goala.” as in Ukko. and the lightning was thought to deposit the thunder-axe. in Nupe. in Igu. For the Celt adze (named Anup) is the Nuter-sign of divinity. in Konguan. which they find. 142. Anup is a name of the Celt-axe. Out of that darkness leaped the lightning.xe gave him supremacy on earth. Sevekh. ii. the Jackal (Fox or Wolf) of Darkness. An instance of a thunder-stone having been found on the spot where the lightning had struck has been given in the “Reliquary. He blows fire through his tube. 208. Okok. this. the very Typhon in a masculine form.1 Darkness and its divinity were forms of the typical “Old One. the Crocodile of Darkness. in Kisama. in Basa. Sut also signifies the fire-stone. in Lubalo. one of the Elementaries. Ekui. to be weapons of an evil spirit. in Esitako. therefore. and in the Inner African languages the “Old One” is Kokohe. and is thus identified with the Dragon of the Waters. This was a form of the Axe which the Great Mother gives birth to in various American Myths as her First Child. as Darkness was the primal producer or parent. in Mbofon. 5 Records. the cloud-cleaver and Celestial Celt. Lukis. in Kasanda. leaving its stone head in the aerolith or smelted sand.

on the Gold Coast. The Thunder-axe being the form in which the lightning quenched itself in the earth. “Cut (or engraved) stones” is the Nicaraguan name for the images of Mixcoatl. 329 death and destruction as one of the Elementaries. and this suggested the well-known winged Dragon. 22. the Serpent.TYPOLOGY OF THE MYTHICAL SERPENT. still call the Lightning-stone. Nat. and a flint arrow-head an Elf Dart. A French Swan-Dragon unites the Bird’s head and Serpent’s 1 2 3 Past in the Present. by the name of Lebonua. 4 Captain Burton. 148. But the Winged Lightning was first. The thunder-bolt. who call the Celt-stones and star-hatchets. Pliny reports that stones which had fallen from heaven were invoked by the Romans for success in war.1 The reason is because they ARE the typical Thunderbolt continued. which means lightning. The Guaranis of Brazil name the Celt or stone-axe Korisko. The Akhekh Gryphon is a Dragon with wings. Wings and feathers furnish a type of fire in the later Solar Bird. Hist.4 Of course one original type of the Lightning-stone is represented by various kinds of stones that may be adopted as charms. 37. This is held by the Sioux Indians. the Divine Thunder-axe repeated by human workmanship. to seee why to nearly all the cultured nations of Western Europe a stone-celt becomes a Thunderbolt. this may possibly account for the superstition against cutting wood with an axe near the fire for fear of cutting off the head of the fire. the chief of whom was the power that lightened and thundered and hurled the bolt from out the black cloud. When the Japanese preserve the Celt-stone or Fox-hatchet in their temples as relics of their divine ancestors. that is of destroying power. Hyde Clarke. the Kami. The shooting star is likewise identified with the aerolith by the modern Greeks. the act identifies these with the elementary gods. In the Inner African languages the Stone and Iron are named Tan like the Dragon. the Axe.3 The Africans about Axim. Arthur Mitchel. the Cutter or Destroyer. The cut or engraved stone becomes the Egyptiaa Kart and British Celt of the Neolithic age. and why these relics of a complete or comparative barbarism sbould be venerated in the midst of civilized and cultivated people. an evident allusion to the products of thunder. . or Bird of Thunder. fetishes.. the Cloud-Serpent. It is difficult. or that which passes for it. Prehistoric Names of Weapons. The Pueblo Indians go out to look for the Celts after a thunder-storm. which may have suggested the Arrow-head. the Tatar and other races. Pliny. which was first of all a stone remained a well-known type of primordial divinity. p. says Dr. p. The Bird-Dragon was a common Chimera of the middle ages.2 Pelekys was a title of Dionysus as Lord of the Thunder-stone-axe. or medicine. ¢stropelškia. The first stone-axe was the head of fire. and the superstition appears to recognize this origin of the Fire-axe.

One form of the Egyptian Akhekh is a grypon with the winged body of a beast. Darkness. tail. This can be traced. fig. 2 Didron. and the Dragon.” He “made darkness in his secret place. a compound monster having the head of a cock. Hurakan (our Hurricane) is the name of the Quiché primordial Philo-Byblius. shows Satan as a survival of the Akhekh Gryphon. and a serpent for his tail.”3 He is called “Lightning sender. c. i. p. The Peacock as a bird of ill-omen in England still suffers for its symbolical character. Præp. took wings of flame when it lightened.330 THE NATURAL GENESIS. This is the Winged Dragon. and Typhon is the Akhekh dragon. Hindu Pantheon. the tail of a serpent and head of a peacock. It was said to be so named because of its origin from the egg of a cock hatched by a serpent. Acoording to Philo-Byblius1 Epeis had translated an Egyptian work into Greek in which it was asserted that the first Divine nature was the Serpent metamorphosed into a Hawk. the universal-monarch-form. from a French minature of the twelfth century. apud Euseb. Tupan is the Thunderer and Lightener which rears its dragon-shape of Darkness. and the tail of a serpent or dragon. That is the hieroglyphic peacockheaded Akhekh or Gryphon of Darkness. He also rode upon a Bird of Thunder. the stone-caster.” It is the same God of Thunder. the aspect of the Elementaries was modified as the face of Nature became less terrible. or dragon.1 This bird-headed and serpent-tailed Akhekh was continued into the Christian iconography. flaps its wings. the male divinity. A picture of the Tempation of Christ. Darkness was under his feet and he hurtled stones and coals of fire. smoke issued from his nostrils and devouring fire out of his mouth. The Tupan of the Tupi Tribes of Brazil is the Typhon of Egypt by name. From this comes the cock’s egg of our Mythology. The Mandans attribute the thunder and lightning to a vast and awful Bird of Heaven. This created Light by opening its eyes and Darkness by shutting them. The bird-headed. the two hind feet being those of the tiger and horse. By degrees. 44. The Dacotahs are said to explain thunder as the sound of the cloudbird flapping its wings.. the wings of a fowl. The Zulus of Natal have been known to buy peacocks’ feathers at a very high price because they identified them as belonging to the Bird of Thunder. flying all abroad on his bird. xviii. x. 70. serpent. 3 Ps. the elephant’s foot for another. 1 2 1 Moor. the Akhekh sign survives as the Cockatrice. The typical Monster on the Scottish stones is sometimes Birdheaded. with the head of a Cockatoo insteaad of the Peacock. and flashes with infernal light. serpent-tails Akhekh appears in India as the figure of Virutarupa.2 The Hebrew Thunder-god. thence into the Solar as the Sun of the Night. is the same Kak or Iach. with a human hand for one fore-foot. It was the egg of the Akhekh. p. thunders. . and allowing for the Peacock instead of the Cock. as that of the Yorubans and Central American Indians. however. He “thundered in the Heavens” and “rode upon a Cherub and did fly. which is either the Manitu himself or his messenger. It took feathers or flame to fly with. 23. which became the mythical Cockatrice. these were added to form the feathered Serpent and fiery dragon to express motion in the air. the same as Hurakan with his bird Voc. who was continued from the Dark into the Stellar phase. Evangel.

In a Hottentot Hymn of Thunder we read “ Son of the Thundercloud ! Thou brave loud-speaking Guru ! Talk softly. Kheru (Eg. “Mixcohuatl” the “Cloud Serpent. the Storm-wind. above. world-shaking voice. In the hieroglyphics (Eg. The Khoi-Khoi and the Damaras are reported to curse the Thunder. Hushtoli. after the festival and rites of their coming of age have been celebrated. a voice. and Khan is water. p.TYPOLOGY OF THE MYTHICAL SERPENT. Guru is Thunder.). becomes a type of tractability in Egypt. and the beneficence of this deadly power was recognised. For I have no guilt ! Leave me alone ! I have become quite weak with terror. to run about quite naked in the first thunder-storm that follows. with its crooked fires. it was observed that Thunder was the especial announcer of Rain. Tsuni-Goam. 1872. 331 power. then we can trace another of the “Elementaries” (if not two—fire and water) passing from the first stage of destroying power into that of the fertilizing and beneficent influences or Gods. p. The Namaquas still shoot their poisoned arrows at the Lightning and bid it begone. Thou. Sevekh the Capturer. Typhon and Typhoon are identical. G ! . Zeit. Here. Hura is Heaven. So the black Tatar tribe of the Urjangkut were in the habit of threatening the Thunder and trying to scare off the Lightning. The Hottentot custom shows the baptism of Fire and Water as a rite of generation and fertilization. was the original Choctaw word for Deity. In accordance with which idea it is the custom for the girls. Khan is the Typhonian Tempest with the determinative of water pouring straight down from Heaven. made its first appeal to fear. The Hottentots think that its downpour of deluging water has a fertilizing effect on the female.” a chief or the chief of the Mexican gods. Bastian. English boys have a game called “Running through Fire and Water” in which the runner is beaten and buffeted as he hurries down their ranks. and is considered the purifier of the sacred 1 2 Hahn. 380. to utter. and to shoot their arrows at the Lightning. dart for dart. A. O Guru ! Son of the Thundercloud !”1 By degrees it was answered with defiance. The Lightning represents the fire that vivifies and the Thunder-Rain—which some Africans call a “He-Rain”—the Water of Life. cf. 59. please. over. Such representation was primal and the later God of Air and Breath was a modification of the demon in his first fierce phase of the terrible tornado.). The Crocodile. Lightning. bears the name of the tropical whirlwind. Hurakan in Quiché means a stream of water that pours straight down. für Ethnologie. and dart of death. This wash of rain over the whole body is held to make them fruitful and to ensure lusty children.2 Lastly.

332 THE NATURAL GENESIS. coming of itself.3 The Serpent called “Going eating his hour” (one of the Elementaries) was a sort of time-symbol. the Star. A great mass of the primitive Mythology remained in the vague and elementary condition in which the principal figures are powers of the Earth and Heaven. or fruitful Summer. The Elementaries.”1 Seb. the prophet of the Dog-star and Inundation. The Ape-image of Ire and Choler serves as a type of Shu. and the Bear is the Soul of Typhon.” when there were no means of measuring its periodic return. but the first perception of time was that of mere lapse and “renewal. “The Magi and the whole Aryan nation (or the Medes) consider. 12. the Ili. Hermes Trismegistus.”4 The Divinities proper. the God of Breath. before these two spirits arose. Prometheus Bound. and the Stars were numbered with all the gods in them. Ali. [= CH III. or without judgement. or brute forces of Nature. Nile. as Plutarch says. Water. 2. The howling Jackal (Sut-Anup) typifies the messenger Mercury. may be said to have obtained their Souls in the Stars. or Elohim. West. the Dog-star is the Soul of Isis. in Africa these became definite in their Egyptian Type. or as others assert. Essays. some SPACE and others TIME as the universal cause out of which the Good God as well as the evil spirit were separated. “They (the human race) had no certain sign for Winter. is the sign of god as well as the Soul or Spirit. Lion and Serpent. then. Fire.] 4 Of Isis and Osiris. of Sunset and Sunrise. Damascius in his “Primitve Principles” says. Plutarch fears that if he unfolded the secrets of certain constellations it would be declaring war against length of time. but did everything hap-hazard. The primary Seven (or Eight) were continued as Types of Power and adapted to convey other ideas until at length they attained the status of Gods in relation to the celestial phenomena in the sphere of Time. with all their signs. Scorpion. p. the Divinities of the later Pantheon. for the flowerly Spring. Orion is the Soul of Horus. But. by means of which we can follow their development from the elementaries of Chaos and Space into Celestial lntelligencers.”2 These “two spirits” being the Ahura-Mazda and Angro-Mainyus of the Avesta. The star is also the symbol of Seba for worship and adoration. were born in the second stage as keepers or tellers of Time and Season. Wind.—Soul and Star being synonymous in theEgyptian word Seb. the tellers and fore-tellers of time and season to men. and Thunder. In this phase the gods (or types) became Kronia. as Eudemos writes. who werc the auxiliaries of Kronus. iii. b. until I showed them the risings of the stars and their settings. Æschylus. 6. In this way the seven 1 3 2 Haug. . Hence. So the idea of god expressed by the Assyrian word Ilu was originally represented by the sign of a star. 454—7. where “The Gods were seen in their ideas of the stars. Light and Darkness.

The Australians make the meeting-point a blow. means a turn. is the Good Spirit generally. “You shall be undone. became intelligent Spirits. and the turn of the serpent round the pole and the return of Hydra. and it was the bringing of certain symbols out of Space into Time that caused them to be transformed from types of Evil into images of Good. But this is not the most recondite form of the Serpent’s Egg. as in Inner Africa and Australia. as tellers of time. monsters. denoted a year. But even with these. according to their risings and settings. a revolution. 333 non-intelligent powers. if time is no longer kept there will be an end to the gods born of cycles. a good and a bad one. the same as if it were reckoned by the Great Bear and the heliacal rising of Sothis. blind adversaries. Hence we meet with both but chielfy with the good dæmon. and intelligencers to men. By bringing the head and tail together the circle-symbol was shaped which denoted endless continuity. The Zulus have two familiar spirits each. This may have partly arisen from the discovery that some snakes are harmless. which are represented by two different snakes. The genesis of the first gods that were endowed with intelligence as the tellers of time. This revolution was represented by the Serpent’s Egg. . because they represented its various cycles. or separated and distinguished as good and bad. The Serpent lays eggs and coils itself round them for incubation. Ferguson. is illustratcd by a magical text in which they are threatened with dissolution if they do not perform what the invoker wishes. therefore the Serpent was made a type of the gestator. The Serpent in Egypt. According to Clot Bey the supreme type the GOOD Serpent in Egypt. The first Serpent or Dragon was altogether Evil. as Seb. Seb. p. 54. 212. you cycle of gods! There shall no longer be any earth. Much of the mythology of the savage races has survived from the first vague stage. one being harmless. the name of time. Chaldea. The god Ptah as the figurer of a cycle of time is said to make the Egg of 1 2 Renouf. and Time. p.” Thus. Therefore the type appears to have passed out of the phase of the terrible at the time of the various migrations. Introd. Tree and Serpent Worship. The Australian Aborigines have traditions of a gigantic Serpent that created the world by a blow with its tail. Hibbert Lectures. America. giants. and Europe. India.TYPOLOGY OF THE MYTHICAL SERPENT. is identical by name with the Serpent. is not poisonous. Time was the foundation of an established order of things. the Agathodæmon. but by degrees it became an emblem of Good.1 The Elementaries had warred and contended in spacc as representatives of the evils found in phenomena before Time existed. the Royal Uræus.2 That is a fading reflection of the serpent with the tail in its mouth. The serpent became pre-eminent as a type of time in many phases. the star-gods are the messengers of periodic time. or Starry Souls. as it coiled about the Egg. there shall no longer be the five supplementary days of the year.

The blind serpent is the sloughing serpent. egg-like figure within the open mouth. Two Phases. published in Alexandria. It is over 1.” For serpents we have to read the Serpent of the Year. ii. the Sun and Moon. The length of time assigned to this phase is exactly three months plus the five black or negative days of the intercalary period of the Epagomenæ. That is by representing the Soli-lunar revolution.. This Serpent of the Year that sees during nine months and is blind during three would. Thus when the Serpent (Draconis) turned once round the Pole-star or revolved on its Eye. The Egg was then the solid figure of a circle of time. or by the serpent seeing during nine months and being blind the other three. or 1878 A. .H. in folk-lore. p. who had a nine-headed Nâga appearing from the back of her neck. One of these may be found in an Egyptian Calendar for the year 1295 A. p. and when her husband cut it off she was blind. Phryne claims to have traced a similar design in an earthwork found in Argyllshire.000 feet in length with an oval. During the change of its skin. Moures.1 Mr. and the three months of the inundation. 2 A. 9. fire coming from water. The month Mesore (the re-birth of the River) is found typified by Horus the Elder with a snake in his hand. which caused her death. A serpent emaning an egg from its mouth was figured by the Mound-Builders as one of their vast Relievos in Adams County. but they are of a strange fashion now and need re-setting. one of whose types is the serpent. the dual symbol of the Two Truths of Periodicity which were representcd by the nine months of gestation. Ohio.” of the London Zoological Society’s Gardens who was so nearly blind in her period of sloughing that she swallowed a blanket. This was the egg emaned from the mouth of the serpent. Also. and this type of a year is extant in the Egg of Easter. English readers will remember the story of the great boa “Bess. it was fabled to have laid an Egg. the Quiché name for lightning is Cak-ul-ka. that is. the serpent may be said to go blind.. take the form of the Serpent-King’s Daughter. the Egg of the primary year in Heaven. and the serpent of both fire and water is one 1 3 Baldwin. as Ptah was said to have been from the mouth of Khnef.3 The Serpent is a type of Two Times. Voyage de Hiouen-Thsang.334 THE NATURAL GENESIS. Two Elements. Ancient America. fig. 24. “Serpents become blind. the mysticaI egg of the Druids which the serpent is said to evolve at a particular moment on one night of the year. The Egg of the Serpent was a year. the Two Truths on account of its sloughing.” and on March 24th. 29. and these negative days are rightly added to the phase of negation. In this the reader is told that on December 19th. they “open their eyes. The inundation was also called the Burial of the Serpent. The sloughing and blindness of the serpent is here represented by the Sun in the Three Water Signs. 141. an Egg and an Age are thus synonymous. Popular belief preserves many of the precious relics of the past.D.

Champollion. vol. Reptile! Live on what comes forth from it. 24. as in the Universe the Annual Period effects a corresponding change. 103. He is borne on twelve forked sticks and twelve stars denote the twelve hours of darkness which the monster typifies. Rise. Records. p. Hor-Apollo tells us that in signifying an Horoscopus the Egyptians delineated a Man “eating the Hours. Book of Hades. Hours! I call you to eat (make) your repast. 2. the Young Solar Hero.”4 The Horoscopus was an image of Kronus eating his Children. The royal Basilisk of Egypt has a reputation for devouring snakes. who was fabled to devour his own children by eating them. and the Snake is the evil devourer. Hor-Apollo says of the serpent. 101. 3 Ibid. i. and becomes renovated. i. And the making use of its own body for food implies that all things. Monts. for that is impossible. Days. “Moreover it every year puts off its old age with its skin. In one of the African versions the God or Being who swallows his Daughter is the divinity of the Planet Jupiter. Here. 1 2 Lepsius. or Horus who wars with the twelve-headed serpent all through the night.TYPOLOGY OF THE MYTHICAL SERPENT. Zulus. The primitive observers must have seen with much satisfaction that serpents and snakes had the habit of eating themselves—or rather each other. The same mode of measuring time survives in England where the Law students still continue to “eat Book i. Your office (that of the Hours) is to eat what the Snake brings forth. The Myth of a Deity who swallows his own children is found amongst the Bushmen. a production of Two Elements. des Todtenbuchs. x. p. and is slain by Ivan the Prince. the Hours.”3 The Serpent of Night with twelve heads for the twelve hours of darkness appears in a Russian Myth as the twelveheaded Snake. and the Blacks of Australia. 42. the fruit of the Sun. undergo a corruption into it again. and Years. which will be identified as that of Seb-Kronus. Time eating his progeny was represented by the Egyptian Observer of the hours. “Usuinya. This Serpent of Night is called “The Serpent that begets twelve little ones to eat by the hours. The Great Serpent called the Devourer with the coils is depicted with twelve human heads on his back. whatsoever that are generated by Divine Providence in the world.”1 The self-eating and self-renewal of the serpent made it the most perfect image of Time (Kronus). and to destroy what comes forth from it. 123. Ra says “Listen. Weeks. 335 in the Serpent of lightning. Aelteste Texts 4 B. Not that a man eats the hours. p. the Golden Apples represent the light. but because food is prepared for men according to the hours. 13.” which steals the golden apples from the King’s garden.”2 And on a limestone tablet in the British Museum there is a bas-relief of a large serpent and twelve small ones which shows the generation or the twelve hours of night. Duemichen. . Tempelin-schriften.. not the good guardian of the Garden or Tree.

and then coiled round the conical pile to hatch them. and there were very few of these figures or types to express the sum-total of ideas or intentions. the Seven of the Bear who. But. the Goddess of gestation. were the Eight Gods of the Beginning and the creators of time. were signified by the Two Serpents. It is a habit of the serpent to roll itelf round and form a spiral heap with its head atop. with their Mother. or the Two Serpents. The Wolf is a type of Seb. She is a Serpent first and a Woman after- . the genitrix. Every Serpent set in heaven represented a different idea. Then they fill his belly with stones and sew him up again. But a type like this of the serpent was made use of to express many various ideas. The Four Elements had each their Serpent. and the Seventh conceals itself in the clock-case. The little Goats are the Seven Days of the Week. The Two Truths of the Motherhood.” In Egypt. Of these the Serpent was the most primal and important. and they are still alive within him. chiefly relating to time and season. It has a second when we use it figuratively. the Double Uræi constituted the Sacred Crown of Maternity. another. their terms. the Wolf swallows six of the family. the type was derived from the Seven Stars of the first time. Some words will do double duty. Thirty-six dinners are eaten by a man who has a degree and seventy-two by him who has not. Heh and Kheti are Serpents of Fire. but scarcely need to be called upon. When we use the word serpent directly. as in Rennut. a Soul. Hence the Serpent was also a type of the gestator. according to the present interpretation. At an earlier stage one word or sound had to express divers ideas. and whilst he is sleeping the mother of the Goats rips open the monster’s hairy coat and lets out her little ones. Language. is. a planetary form of Kronus. One Serpent typified Matter. “May you eat Old Age!” In the story of the Wolf and Seven little Kids. and bears his name in Egyptian. however. “Paint Two Snakes. identified with time by means of the clock-case. and that is still the status of many words found scattered in language generally. that of feminine pubescence and gestation. “the place is then sacred. Bata is the Soul of the Earth.” says Perseus.” The numbers of these is that of the Decans and Duodecans. The dual phase of feminine periodicity was usually signified by the Double-headed Serpent. That was a sight never to be forgotten. found in Grimm’s Tales. who coils in the shape of a serpent about the unborn child. or enjoy long life. Water.336 THE NATURAL GENESIS. But he has swallowed them whole. The serpent built the primal pyramid with its eggs. or the double one. Hydra. The Inner African (Yoruban) formula for may you live long. Nef represents Breath. he is Seb. In the present stage of language we have a separate word for almost every shade of meaning. It was in itself an archetypal polyglot. was all figure at first. it has only one meaning. the Hawk-headed.

” or primæval matter of the Ophites. In some representations she is both. Fire. In this the Snake is the divider. That is. the first thing created in opposition by the Dark Mind was the flowing Serpent (Azkim raoidhitem). 3 Bonwick. 189.2 This Serpent typified the “Moist Substance. one reason for this being that in their annals the first woman whose name was translated by the old Spanish writers. 2 V. who is identified by the Rabbins with the Serpent-Woman. was also called the Serpent-Woman. denoting the Ten Moons of gestation. The Lizard interchanges with the Dragon or Serpent. This was thought by Haug to refer to the ejection of venom. In one Australian myth a Snake is said to sever the Tree of Life. When Ahura-Mazda formed the Garden of Delight. theEden of the Avesta. Spirit. the Goddessparent of primitive man. 337 wards. In her Serpent-shape she coils about the shrine of Breath in ten loops. that which was so often fabled to be eaten in order that spirit might become fleshed and embodied.3 The Australians credit the lizard with being the discoverer of marriage. p. 17. therefore the Mythical Serpent-Woman. or the Head of the Hawk. as a Serpent below with a Woman’s head and bust above. half-human. and is identical with Chavvah or Eve. These form a figure of 10. the Lizard. In the previous volume it was shown that lhvh (Jehovah) was the Egyptian genitrix named Kepu or Kefa. because 1 Hay Collection. Others have turned the Serpent into Rain. This is the Serpent in Paradise which is represented as tempting the Woman to sin. Kefa is also pourtrayed as the Goddess of gestation with the serpent on her head. of Wet. like the Serpent. Tasmanians. This was the Dragon that taught Fohi how the sexes were divided. as the alternating type was the Serpent of Heat.TYPOLOGY OF THE MYTHICAL SERPENT. and the Tasmanians have a legend of a lizard which divided the sexes. “the Woman of our flesh. .” is always represented as accompanied by an enormous male Serpent. who is depicted. Its original nature is shown by that epithet of flowing or runnrng. The Mexicans gave the Serpent-form to the Mother of the human race. as genitrix of the human race.1 The Serpent-Woman. It is the exact equivalent of that menstruation with which the Dark Mind opposes the Good Creation in the same Fargard. The Rabbi Moses affirms that the name of Ihvh has the meaning of halfserpent. she is the Goddess-serpent of goodness. in the occult sense. It was the Serpent of Rain. As such. amongst other forms. the Grandmother of Mankind. and in the Mexican mythology Cihuacoatl. It is related or referred to by the Lubras with much significance and merriment. me suk-kum me go kwa. is to be met with under various names. was represented indifferently by an Old Woman and a Serpent. According to Tanner’s narrative. so that it could walk off in human fashion as the male and female. was the type of feminine pubescence.

says that “Girls from twelve to thirteen years of age are also subjected to a rite. as the lizard was with the Tasmanians. as a sort of petticoat. The Lizard. and at those times wear. is the Moke. Their limbs are then plastered over with white clay. The natives probably find that the rattling of this fantastic costume forms no disagreeable accompaniment to the songs and clapping of hands in which they indulge. in his book on the Basutos. whose duty it is to watch over them for several months. in Maori. inform them that THEY WILL BE VISITED BY A LARGE SERPENT. the slough of the Snake being typically turned into a garment. P. They frequently indulge in grotesque dances. They are committed to the charge of certain matrons. devolve especially on their sex. and its cunning or wisdom is frequently referred to. in that country. and. Thus these poor daughters of Eve have not forgotten the form taken by the arch enemy to deceive their mother. 268. Moke signifies to be separated.338 THE NATURAL GENESIS. the Lizard. in the evening they bring back a small fagot of wood. They then hide them separately in the turns and bends of the river. is also the name of tattoo marks. as emblem of the modesty which must henceforward rule their actions. Hæres. these women first lead them to a neighbouring stream. Casalis. One of the Rabbins relates that when the old Serpent shed his 1 2 Epiphanius. and the lizard is an Egyptian ideograph of multiplying and fertility.1 It was a symbol of that which divided the sexes. it was a type of menstruation. telling them to cover their heads.. Hence the symbolical pctticoat made of rushes. The Serpent is here the type of the period which arrives with feminine puberty. 37.) for the reptile. the individual discreted by the Moke. The Gnostic Ophites knew the reason why they honoured the serpent. long bands composed of a series of rushes artificially strung together. Neither blows nor hard treatment are spared in the vain hope of better fitting them for the accomplishment of the duties of life. The clay and the mask signify the transformation into womanhood. but which more resembles baptism. Vast length of life is attributed to it in the Arab proverbs. they daily follow each other in procession to the fields. Moko. . which divided sex at first. Moku is the first person singular. it has the name of Time. Covered with this veil.2 speaking of their mysteries and the rites performed at the time of young-woman-making. As Seb (Eg. which. in order to become accustomed to the labours of agriculture. and is the teacher still of the human nakedness. set apart (during the period). This co-type of the Serpent is also found among the Semites as the mythical Lizard Tzab. and sprinkle them. Adv. and over the face is put a little straw mask. It was because the primal pair derived from it a knowledge of the mysteries. to which certain tribes give the name of circumcision. and singing melancholy airs. and then into the water.

at others the serpent has five heads. and in ten months (lunar) gave birth to the Conqueror of Carthage. and scoffed at it. if fiveheaded. if nine-headed. This the girl made a mock of. As they came out of the water they saw a snake. vii. Ælian. Theal. would denote the five days’ flow. which was the symbol of the Second Truth of Time. the abyss of 1 3 4 2 Aulus Gellius. i. and the Naga Snake. the hole of the Snake. 64. Ferguson.). she was tempted by her companions to go with them and bathe in a stream. and its tail is in the place of the Two Truths in their most secret significance. . covered with black blotches. 24. lib. and therefore not disqualified to serve as chaste virgins. until she despaired of issue. In one of these pictures the back of the body is turned towards the spectator. the nine solar months of gestation. was that which proved they had not entered the period of gestation or earned the right to wear the double Uræus of the Maternal Crown. if ten-headed. The Serpent type of periodicity in its most hidden mystery and meaning may be seen in the Hindu sculptures. In these the Naga is pourtrayed at the back of the human figures. the ten lunar or menstrual periods that make the nine solar months. with the tail in thehuman tepht (Eg. the Creator made a garment of it to clothe Adam and Eve. from Sanchi. The fountain of milk was the sign of Motherhood. is visibly proceding out of the human body. One night when her husband was absent she found a large serpent in his place. singleheaded. A few days after she showed signs of conception.TYPOLOGY OF THE MYTHICAL SERPENT.3 sixteen miles south of Rome. fig. whereupon it grew angry and would not restore her mantle. they were not pregnant. In short. but bit her and caused her to become of the same hideous colour as itself. p. Tree and Serpent Worship.4 The Serpent thus issuing. with its hooded crest overtopping and overlooking the human head. instead of remaining the customary twelve days in seclusion. ix. a natural prototype of the White Crown. this fact being revealed by the mystical Serpent. pl. cap. In this picture the Serpent is finally unwound to its last hiding-place. Kaffir Folk-tales. Sometimes it is single. She was cured and made beautiful as at first by being washed white with milk. Varia Historia. 339 skin presently after the fall of man. The Serpent’s visit is responsible for various stories like the following: The wife of Publius Scipio was barren for many years. When the girl came of age. near their clothes. and the soothsayers informed her that she would bear a child. as in the Temple of Lanuvium. The serpent's head towers over the human. 16. according to the typology of the Two Truths. The Kaffir story of the girl who disregarded the custom of Ntonjane shows the serpent in relation to the pubescent period. 2.) of life.1 The riddle is easy to read. and of the dual phase of feminine periodicity. the r (Eg.2 The Serpent which determines the chastity of Priestesses.

iii: 173. the Dragon of Darkness had passed out of its primal phase and become the Good Demon. tells how he.2 The Dragon retained its character of Good Demon with the Chinee. v. entered a subterranean passage that ran to the very roots of heaven. Votan. In the Mysteries. commanded them to look for life. This was “un ahugero de colubra. the re-born. It was adopted as a type of ferninine pubesccnce on account of its sloughing and self-renewal.” or Snake’s hole.). which was looked up to in the Temple of the Jews until the image was cast out by Hezekiah. Proclus states that in the most holy mysteries the mystæ were divested of their garments to participate in a divine nature. as related by Brasseur de Bourbourg. 2 Bancroft. The number is ideographic. 143. the Hefa (Eg. and if possible the mystæ were buried in this raiment which they had been divinely invested when their life was serpent-like renewed. Moses-like. leaving the Serpent to bear the curse of the Eschatological change. and it was accounted sacred to the last. and the symbol of re-clothing and re-birth in the Mysteries was its final phase. The sloughing of the serpent was performed in the stripping naked of the devotees to be clothed anew. The Pueblos still hold in reverence the Great Snake to whom Montezuma. source.1 The new robe was the garment of salvation. never to be cast off till worn out. the cord. are bound up for ever. the son of the Snake. The Initiates went through the passage and the process of the sloughing snake.340 THE NATURAL GENESIS. This circle of the transformation of the snake was the period of gestation. . and it makes the cord analogous to the collar with nine beads denoting child-birth. Chinese Genii. there is a picture of the serpent borne by nine gods in a line reaching from head to tail. The serpent was the great emblem of Mystery in the Mysteries. and the Hindu sculpture re-unites the serpent with the human origines. and this picture will show us one reason why. and were called the Hivim. and reproduced by name in the Pueblo Ar-tufa. represented by the coiling snake. when their earthly work is done. which was personified as Tep or Typhon. was the Kuklos anakhes of the Egyptian Mysteries called the Circle of Necessity and the inevitable circle. When the Nachash (or Tannim) was lifted up as the Saviour on the Cross. still 1 Taylor’s Iamblichus. This serpent of nine is Nenuti. and cried Eva. On the sarcophagus of Seti I. p. whether by the Hebrews in the wilderness or the Mexicans in their sacred processions. note. in which the elect souls. the Snake’s hole and circle was the place of transformation. The Snake’s hole or circle. and saved in the fields of heaven.

or the cast-off darkness of winter. 464. men find out the hollowness of their bugbears and bogies. whose coming was looked upon with awe. He had passed through Death typified by the Dragon of Darkness. we may quote the Assyrian Atalu. The Jack-o’-Lent was one form of the old Kak.”2 This change may be traced to two causes: one of these being the modification of ideas concerning pbenomena.TYPOLOGY OF THE MYTHICAL SERPENT. was discovered to be only a shadow after all. fantastic. As an illustration of this change. 341 ride to Heaven on the Dragon’s back. who are made fools of on Old Fool’s Day. the Gec and Gouk. and sending the Gouk on the Fool’s errand. The Khakh in Egyptian is the old man. In Egyptian Atalu denotes something that is unreal. . The deposed potentate was looked upon as the literally “damned Fool. swallowed and ran off with the Moon. the sham. The Akhekh Dragon of Darkness and Eclipse is the determinative. such as Blind-Man’s-Buff. and a sham. under the name of the “Good St.” and the sport was the “Expulsion of Death. We find in the Eireka-Saga (3 and 4) that when Eirek journeyed toward Heaven he came to a bridge of stone that was guarded by a Dragon whose jaws he boldly entered. the Dragon is reverenced as an Agatho-Dæmon. as an Agathodæmon. Brand. 2 Society of the Antiquaries of France. The Deluder of the early time. whether as the Shadow of Night or eclipse. In Franconia the Puppet that was pelted was an jmage called “the Death. and thus men began to see through it. Having passed through them so often with impunity. But the talu or darkness that stole. The Kaka in Sanskrit is a cripple.” It was the humour of the young World in the spring-time of the year to laugh at the old Kak or Age. p. 81. a reduced form of the Akkadian An-talu for heaven-darkness. whereupon he found himself in Paradise. for the fool and coward.” The Good Dragon or worm was worshipped at Poictiers. the blind. We see that when men discovered their fears of the Darkness were vain the old Kak was turned into a laughing-stock. This once typified the devouring Monster of the Dark. as Man himself began to slough off his original darkness.1 With the Japanese likewise. Mid-Lent Sunday. it was made fun of in various pastimes. So was it with the Darkness of Eclipse. This is the Scottish “Chache-blind-man. v. i.”3 1 3 Dennys. p. the unreal. Saturn also was designated the “Dragon of Life. the fool. The Kak (Darkness) being thrown off like a Night Mare. the French cauchemar. which is the name for Eclipse.” who cannot catch anybody in his darkness. The time came when it was known that the same Sun and Moon were reborn of the Darkness. and make mocking grimaces behind its back and dramatize its impotency. is now known to be a delusion. Vermine. At first when the Sun and Moon went down they were swallowed by the devouring Darkness. the Welsh Cachgi. hence Atalu the fantastic.

overcome and fettered fast to the bottom.1 She is identical with Typhon and Tiamat the Dragon. where Time shall be no more. is the Red Dragon. p. the later. ch. Deluders of Cbaos.2 In like manner the earliest nocturnal Sun was black. In a Buddhist account of lndra. the God is represented as pursuing the Monster Râhu with his Thunder-bolt and ripping open his belly so that the heavenly bodies may pass through whenever he swallows 1 3 Waitz. the coiler round and encompasser of the eartht but only just long enough to make ends meet with the touch of head and tail. as Atum. The Akhekh monster was black. vol. The one had the hue of the black race. 12. So in Egypt Typhon was said to be of a red complexion. falsehood. the other of the red Adam. In this the old serpents. who is commanded to see that they DO keep time henceforth as true intelligencers to men. p. 110. . vol. This being the primal form of the Serpent it will naturally come to an end in the final destruction at the last day. Hence the Apophis. It was the Ruddy Dragon of the Pharaon on the British standard. though wounded and maimed. and thus becomes a co-creator or Time in the round of Night and Day.” the Solar North. vi. or chaos. who were the Enchanters. The Red Dragon that was likewise pourtrayed on the Roman standard. the representative of discord.4 as the oppositc of negation. and turned into the primordial type of time above as the “Mother of the revolutions. In the Bundahish the Dark Spirit meets and joins hands with the Bright Spirit in the Twilight.. This is the Midgard Serpent which Thor fished for and nearly broke in two as he lifted one part of it so high aloft. lxxxiv. whIch Ammianus Marcellinus calls the Purpureum Signum Draconis. was transformed into the Goddess of the Great Bear. Records.” actually shows us the Scene of Conversion. The Serpent of Darkness that lies in the “Bend of the Great Void. was Red. Anthropologie. when the deluder and devourer of the dark will not be resuscitated in the world of universal and eternal light. non-existence. and return to the elementary condition of chaos. The Beast with the Seven heads. in Revelation. This old Dragon of Darkness and Mother of the brood of Evil in the Abyss. 2 4 Lib. One of the inscriptions which may be termed the “New Creation by Ra. The Osirian in the other world rejoices that there is Time in his body.” In this process the Dragon changed colour. 16 c. Rit. 183. disorder. could never be destroyed. The Hurons called the Evil Principle the Grand-Mother of the Good.342 THE NATURAL GENESIS. The second cause of the change was in the translation of the elementary types out of mere Space into Time where they became intelligencers to men. was a part of the circle of time in which the dark of night is as necassary as the light of day. “perverted through their Intelligence” are turned into the serpents of Seb (Kronus).3 Time was the antithesis of disorder. iii. and dissolution.

3 This is a form of the Akhekh Dragon of Darkness to whom the best and dearest of human beings were offered up in sacrifice of old. Tangaloa and Maui seized Hikuleo and fastened him down with a strong chain. The Divinity or Demon Hikuleo (Hiku is the tail of a reptile) is said to dwell in the land of Bulotu. v. He was cut in two but could not be destroyed by Indra. by the Sun-God. and the two halves were set as signs in Heaven at the place of the lunar eclipses. Another form of the divided monster is extant in the Chinese “bobtailed Dragon. ii. and the head and tail of the dissevered devourer were then set in Heaven as time-symbols to represent the ascending and descending Nodes of the Moon on which the lunar eclipses depend. Book of the Beginnings. vol. Three months were assigned to the blind Serpent. the eternal conqueror who cut the Dragon of Darkness through and through. This head and tail of the divided Dragon appear in a Tongan Myth. when the Hero of Light was personified as an opposing power. likewise to the Dragon in the Abyss of the Waters. and thus deposited the typical two halves in heaven as Caput and Cauda Draconis. and the fastening down of Hikuleo by Maui and Tangaloa agrees with the chaining of the Akhekh Dragon to the bottom of the Lake of Darkness. or by the Goddess who annually reproduced the light in the Lunar Mythos. When Hikuleo goes away on his journeys he is said to leave his tail behind to watch over Bulotu.”1 The Hindus tell the tale of the Monster Râhu (our Dragon of Darkness and Eclipse). 73. who smuggled himself into the presence of the Gods of Light and drank the Amrit-juice of immortal life. This same Monster of Darkness or Dragon of Eclipse was depicted as being cut in two halves by Indra. and is connected with typhoons and st