ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS WITH ADAPTATIONS

Guide: Prof. A. Vora
LA – 8106 ARJUN SHARMA LA – 9106 SANDIP PATIL

ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS -BOTANY

depending upon the sub-climates. LA – 8106 ARJUN SHARMA LA – 9106 SANDIP PATIL ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS -BOTANY . Formation may have one or more associations. Each association has uniform physiognomy and floristic constitution. and uniform in major physiognomic features. consociation or faciation having one or more sub-dominant species. plant communities are classified into units like: Formation Fully developed plant community in a given climatic zone. For purpose of description & ecological studies. It is said to be a closed formation as plants are very close together.INTRODUCTION Plant Ecology is the study of relationships between plants and their physical environment. Association is a major sub-division of formation. It is a major unit comprising of climax communities of an area. The functional arrangement of plants and surrounding environment with regular interaction and interdependence is ECOSYSTEM. Consociation Faciation is a smaller unit having a single dominant species. •The term ‘Oekologie’ was coined by Ernst Haekel for study of habitat of a species of community of species. Society is a part of association. is a unit having several dominants. Lower storey & ground cover constitute society.

The suffix -phyte is used primarily as a tool in botany to form words used for categorizing plants based on their evolutionary origin. hygrophytes. mesophytes & xerophytes. life-history. The suffix has been used in particular to form names of subdivisions of the plants and algae and to name the life-form groupings of the Raunkiær system. This is known as ecological classification. growth-form or ecological preferences.CLASSIFICATION Plants are usually classified into ecological units based on the characteristics evolved in order to survive in a particular ecosystem. The basic classification is based on water requirement and plants are classified as hydrophytes. LA – 8106 ARJUN SHARMA LA – 9106 SANDIP PATIL ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS -BOTANY .

CLASSIFICATION Shores •An actophyte is a plant found growing on rocky shorelines •An aigiaphyte is a plant found growing on beaches or strandlines Mountains •An acrophyte is an alpine plant •A chasmophyte is a plant tolerant of or adapted to growing on vertical cliff faces •A coniferophyte is a conifer •An orophyte is a plant inhabiting hills and mountains •A lithophyte is a plant growing on rock or on rocky soil LA – 8106 ARJUN SHARMA LA – 9106 SANDIP PATIL ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS -BOTANY .

or adapted to a saline soil or soil influenced by salt water LA – 8106 ARJUN SHARMA LA – 9106 SANDIP PATIL ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS -BOTANY .CLASSIFICATION Sand •An amathophyte is a plant found growing on sand-plains •An ammochthophyte is a plant found growing on sand-banks •An anemophyte is a "blow-out" plant i. a plant found growing in hollows created by wind in sand-dunes •A xerophyte is a plant adapted to survive in very dry situations •A tropophyte is a plant adapted to climatic conditions in which periods of heavy rainfall alternate with periods of drought Salt •A glycophyte is a plant adapted to nonsaline soil •A drimyphyte is a salt-plant •A halophyte is a plant which is tolerant of saline conditions.e.

a plant capable of withstanding a lot of rain Human •An agrophyte is an agricultural plant •An anecophyte is a plant found only in human-created habitats throughout its rangemany arable weeds fall into this category •An apophyte is a native plant that has invaded abandoned fields LA – 8106 ARJUN SHARMA LA – 9106 SANDIP PATIL ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS -BOTANY .CLASSIFICATION Sun •A sciophyte is a plant which thrives in or tolerates shade •A heliophyte is a plant which thrives in or tolerates full sunlight •The term ombrophyte has two meanings: 1. a plant which thrives in or tolerates shade 2.

CLASSIFICATION Minerals •A calciphyte is a plant which thrives in. or is adapted to living in soils rich in calcium carbonate •A cuprophyte is a plant which is adapted to living in. soils with high copper levels •A pseudometallophyte is a plant which can tolerate (but does not require) a substrate with a high metal content •A metallophyte is a plant which is tolerant of substrates with a high metal content •A gypsophyte is a plant adapted to chalk or limestone LA – 8106 ARJUN SHARMA LA – 9106 SANDIP PATIL ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS -BOTANY . or tolerant of.

CLASSIFICATION Raunkier •A chamaephyte is a low-growing perennial plant whose living structures are therefore visible all year round and whose dormant overwintering buds are borne at or just above the surface of the ground •A chamerophyte is a herbaceous or woody plant which has its overwintering buds at or just above the soil surface •A cryptophyte is a plant in which the buds are covered with soil or water (geophytes. helophytes and hydrophytes are all classes of cryptophyte). Cryptophyte also refers to the cryptomonads. a group of single-celled algae •A hemicryptophyte is a herbaceous plant which has its wintering buds at or just above the soil surface •A therophyte is a plant which survives between favourable seasons in the form of a seed LA – 8106 ARJUN SHARMA LA – 9106 SANDIP PATIL ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS -BOTANY .

water lilies) •A plotophyte is a floating plant.g. with stomata on its upper leaf surface only •An oceanophyte is a plant growing in the ocean •A helophyte is a marsh plant •A hydrotherophyte is an aquatic therophyte LA – 8106 ARJUN SHARMA LA – 9106 SANDIP PATIL ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS -BOTANY .Water CLASSIFICATION •The term hydrophyte has two meanings: o a free-floating water plant o •An amphiphyte is an amphibious plant •An ancophyte is a canyon plant a plant adapted to high moisture levels •A benthophyte is a plant living at the bottom of a body of water or in the bed of a river •A benthopheustophyte is any large plant resting freely on the floor of a lake but capable of drifting slowly with the lake's currents •A hydrogeophyte is a geophyte which grows in aquatic environments (e.

CLASSIFICATION Soil •An oxyphyte is a plant growing in soil which lacks oxygen •An oxylophyte is a plant adapted to acid soils •A phreatophyte is a deep-rooted plant that obtains water from a permanent ground supply or from the water table (or soil above it) •A hygrophyte is a plant which thrives in very wet soil and/or is more or less restricted to moist sites •An aerophyte is a plant which obtains all of its nourishment from the air LA – 8106 ARJUN SHARMA LA – 9106 SANDIP PATIL ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS -BOTANY .

but whose roots are mesophytic •A dyssophyte .) LA – 8106 ARJUN SHARMA LA – 9106 SANDIP PATIL ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS -BOTANY . xerophyte) •A mesoxerophyte is a plant whose tolerance to moisture is intermediate between that of a mesophyte (q.is a plant whose shoots are xerophytic (q.CLASSIFICATION Other •A mesohydrophyte is a plant whose tolerance to moisture is intermediate between that of a mesophyte (q.not to be confused with dyssophyte .) or an epiphyte (q.f.v.v. hydrophyte.).) and a xerophyte •An aiphyllophyte is a plant found growing in evergreen forests •An aithalophyte is a plant found growing in evergreen thickets •An alsophyte is a grove plant •A bathyphyte is a plant found typically or exclusively in lowlands •A dissophyte .v.is a plant which can behave either as a hydrophyte (q.not to be confused with dissophyte .v.) and a hydrophyte •A mesophyte is a plant adapted to medium moisture levels (c.v.

HYDROPHYTE •Aquatic plants — also called hydrophytes — are plants that have adapted to living in or on aquatic environments. by forming complexes of cells. aquatic plants can only grow in water or permanently saturated soil. hydrophytes tend to develop large intercellular spaces. •Aquatic vascular plants can be ferns or angiosperms (from both monocot and dicot families). This means the plant has less need to regulate transpiration. hydrophytes do not have a problem in retaining water due to the abundance of water in its environment.the massive globular protruding riblike structures (the major veins of the leaf) support the otherwise huge. LA – 8106 ARJUN SHARMA LA – 9106 SANDIP PATIL Aerenchyma help the plant to stay float Victoria regina the Royal water lily . •Remaining afloat is one of the major problems in an hydrophytes life . which become effective bubble barriers. In order to facilitate these functions. Seaweeds are not vascular plants but multicellular marine algae. thin leaf blade." •As opposed to plants types such as mesophytes and xerophytes. •Because living on or under the water surface requires numerous special adaptations. which may be subdivided to prevent free movement of large air bubbles. and therefore not typically included in the category. "aquatic plants. Elodea has a large proportion of the stem occupied by structured airspaces. ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS -BOTANY . is important.gaseous exchange too. which are separated from one another by nodal plates.

•Smaller roots: water can diffuse directly into leaves. whilst the floating leaf (lower diagram) contains numerous intercellular airspaces and has a columnar mesophyll arrangement. •Specialized roots designed to take in oxygen. (upper diagram) and only three cells thick. •Air sacs for flotation. that can be on either side of leaves. •Large flat leaves on surface plants for flotation. LA – 8106 ARJUN SHARMA LA – 9106 SANDIP PATIL The submerged aquatic leaf is simple.HYDROPHYTE Hydrophytes share several survival characteristics: •A thin (or no) cuticle. •Large intercellular spaces to reduce weight. •Feathery roots: no need to support the plant. The primary function of cuticles is to prevent water loss. •A less rigid structure: water pressure supports them. This means that guard cells on the stomata are generally inactive. •An increased number of stomata. •Stomata that are open most of time: water is abundant. thus most hydrophytes have no need for cuticles. ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS -BOTANY .

temperature and water availability will govern the day to day life of the plant and will affect the structure (morphology and anatomy) of the plant itself. very complex. but lack others.MESOPHYTE •Mesophytes are plants that have an adequate water supply. •The vascular system has to become well developed in order to ensure survival. •For example. when they are exposed to extreme conditions they do not survive well. •Mesophytes have to contend with a number of issues which will directly and indirectly exert effects upon their physiology. smaller in autumn). •Vascular development is various and in some instances. and a greater number of stomata on the undersides of leaves. •Such plants have some xeromorphic features in order that they should conserve enough water such as a cuticle. •Wood formation for example. and some may show seasonal size change (large in spring. ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS -BOTANY . meaning they do not retain too much water. Because of their lack of particular adaptation. LA – 8106 ARJUN SHARMA LA – 9106 SANDIP PATIL Tropical Wood has large-diameter vessels Temperate Wood tends more towards smaller diameter conducting elements. is governed by the climate prevailing where the specimen grows. •Light intensity. stomata with regulable diameter. high light intensities. water stress and nutrient status are perhaps some of the most important. diurnal temperature ranges.

prolonged periods of it can lead to permanent wilting or cell plasmolysis and subsequently death. Their cells are thus likely to lose turgidity. •In dry weather they may suffer from water stress (losing more water via transpiration than can be gained from the soil). and that exposed to solar radiation. Although mesophytes often recover from such wilting. LA – 8106 ARJUN SHARMA LA – 9106 SANDIP PATIL ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS -BOTANY . This may cause the plants cells to become plasmolysed. prompting wilting. they can increase their rate of transpiration by opening their stomata. if there is enough water in the soil to allow this. meaning temperature stress is reduced. but. thus meaning some heat is removed by the exiting water. Again they have no specific adaptations to overcome this. •Aerial parts like leaves & stem have cuticle to reduce water loss & protect internal tissues from heat. meaning it reduces transpiration. Wilting does actually have some benefits as it reduces the leaf surface area exposed to the atmosphere. They have no specific adaptations to overcome this. and can only respond by closing their stomata to prevent further dehydration.MESOPHYTE •In hot weather they may overheat and suffer from temperature stress.

•Eg. Deep water courses.HYGROPHYTE •Plants growing in persistent moist conditions are hygrophytes. which is less in shady places. shaded depressions of hills •They exhibit poor development of roots & vascular tissues. •Leaves are large. green. LA – 8106 ARJUN SHARMA LA – 9106 SANDIP PATIL ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS -BOTANY . shining and fully expanded with numerous stomata in order to make fullest use of available sunlight. •Eg. Ferns.

wikipedia.in •www. Kumar Media 2001 •Vartapetian Boris et al.desertmuseum.desertusa.anubis.ru.nic.in •www.com •www.nic.forest.nic.za •www. Plant Adaptations to Anaerobic Stress.gujaratforest.org •www.org LA – 8106 ARJUN SHARMA LA – 9106 SANDIP PATIL ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS -BOTANY .in •www.ac.com •www. Botany in forestry & environment.ap.envfor.natureserve. Review •www.REFERENCES •Kumar Ashok.