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Introduction 1. Selection of Insulators 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Introduction Pin Insulators Post Insulators Stay Insulators Cap and Pin Disc Insulators Insulator testing
2. Conductors 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Phase Conductors 2.3 Corrosion Performance 3. Conductor Sag Tension Theory 3.1 The Conductor profile Parabola vs Catenary 3.2 Sag 3.3 Slack 3.4 Factors that affect conductor tension 3.5 Multiple Span tension calculations – ruling Span 3.6 Sag tension calculations 3.7 Span ratios 3.8 Wind Span 3.9 Weight Span 3.10 Examples 4 Crossarms 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Design loads 4.3 Conductor spacing 5. Poles 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Wood pole Strength 5.3 Pole Design loads 6. Pole Foundations 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Foundation strength 7. Ground Stays 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Stay Application 7.3 Pole bending moment APPENDIX 1 Conductor Loads APPENDIX 2. Distribution Line Layout Steps
Check this is the latest version before use. Page 1 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager
Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802
NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN
What are we designing for? • • • • • Compliance with Statutory Regulations Safety of both our employees and general public Economic utilisation of materials To best meet the needs of customers with minimum environmental impact To obtain a standard acceptable both from an engineering view and aesthetically (ie. have regard for the look of our construction from the public’s point of view).
What physical loadings do we have to allow for our design? • • Weight of conductor and fittings Conductor tension:Terminal load Deviation load Differential conductor loads in adjacent spans Vertical loads Stay loads
Environmental Loads (eg. Wind) On Structures On Conductors Construction and maintenance loads
LIMIT STATE DESIGN Current practice for the design of Overhead Line Structural Components is to use a Limit State design approach as set out in C (b) 1-1999 Guidelines for Design and Maintenance of Overhead Distribution and Transmission Lines. The Limit State design approach uses a reliability based (risk of failure) approach to match component strengths (modified by a factor to reflect strength variability) to the effect of loads calculated on the basis of an acceptably low probability of occurrence. This approach allows component strengths to be more readily matched and optimised by economic comparison. The corresponding Limit State wind pressures which correspond to the previously used working stress values of 500pa and 660 pa and which result in equivalent failure rates based on typical component strengths factored by strength factors which incorporate appropriate component reliability factors are approx 900pa and 1200pa respectively. Limit State wind load pressures are therefore greater than permissible stress loads by a factor of 1.8. Conductor tension loads will increase in response to the higher design wind pressures by a factor of depending on conductor everyday tension and conductor characteristics and generally in the range 1.3 to 1.6. Conductor weight loads will increase due to the effect of increased tension on structures with a height profile above the average of neighbouring structures, however in general this factor is fairly minimal in relatively flat terrain.
Check this is the latest version before use. Page 2 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager
Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802
The advantage of this approach is that detailed structure design is not required.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN Design Component stresses is based on the ultimate stress at failure modified by a strength factor. This would be extremely time consuming and is probably only justified for high value transmission lines. What physical conditions do we have to allow for in our design? • Conductor clearance:To ground. this should be referred to the Lines Standards Department for a detailed design and approval. To achieve a minimum cost line layout staff needs to apply the standard structures in the most cost efficient way. This approach allows for economics of scale on material purchases and achieved a measure of uniformity of construction. This requires: • • • • Clear understanding of structure capabilities Methodical approach using all available tools “feel” and “insight” which come with experience detailed checking of work undertaken Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 Check this is the latest version before use. a line can be constructed safely using standard building blocks. It is also worth noting that Ergon Energy has determined that. Design component stresses are listed in the relevant sections of the Design Manual. Page 3 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager . Ergon Energy uses the standard structure approach for the majority of its lines and layout staff need only select the appropriate structure to suit the specific application. Another approach is to utilise a range of standard structures with pre-designed electrical and mechanical capabilities and apply them to a particular project. roads etc To railway lines Over flood country To buildings etc Other lines Terrain Roads Railway lines Telecom Stays Special exclusion areas Airfields Roads Railway lines Telecom Stays Special exclusion areas • Topography:- • Avoidance of obstructions:- How do we allow for all these variable factors in our design? In order to minimise the risk of failure of an overhead line it is necessary to ensure that each component of an overhead line has been designed to meet all the electrical and mechanical loads likely to be experienced in service as far as reasonably practical. every line and every structure in that line could be individually designed to meet the project requirements. Where standard structures do not satisfy a line requirement. which takes into account the material strength variability. In order to achieve this. lines designed using the standard structure drawings do require such approval. and as long as the structures are used within specification.
gunshot and pollution. it has altered little in appearance. a type of load. Pin type insulators for the lower voltages are designed so that the puncture voltage is higher than the flashover voltage. It provides the most economic. the porcelain is placed in tension. and the porcelain will fail. The following points must be considered in the selection of the appropriate insulation of an overhead line: • • • 1. layout and design staffs who apply these standards to an overhead line need to be aware of some of the basic design principles so as to apply the most appropriate structure to a defined requirement. It will be apparent that this type of construction renders it almost non-puncturable and a further advantage is that if any expansion of the cemented base joint does occur the porcelain is put into compression. simple and efficient method of conductor support for voltage up to and including 33kV.1 SELECTION OF INSULATORS Introduction One of the most important and yet one of the most vulnerable links in transmission and distribution is insulators. The design of synthetic type insulators has improved both electrically and mechanically in recent times and they are being used in urban areas to minimise radio interference and in areas where gunshot or stone throwing is a problem. Page 4 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 . which it has little ability to withstand.2 50Hz performance (usually a pollution requirement) Impulse capabilities Switching capabilities Pin Insulators This type was amongst the earliest designs. power arcs. and although these materials are relatively brittle and inelastic. they have proven service experience and are still widely used. If this occurs with the cemented joint of the screwed lead thimble of the pin type insulator as discussed above. Check this is the latest version before use. corrosion. Insulator damage may occur due to such widely varying causes as lighting (puncture). stone throwing.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN While there are a range of standard construction. 1. These notes provide an overview of the following factors in line design: • • • • • • • Selection of Insulators Conductors Sag and tension theory Crossarms Poles Pole Foundations Ground Stays 1 1.3 Post Insulators These insulators are of one piece porcelain construction and have a cemented on a galvanised malleable cast iron base provided with a taped hole for fixing stud. however if the insulator glazing under the conductor is damaged (usually caused by vibration) the insulator may puncture. Porcelain and toughened glass are the materials principally used for supporting conductors on overhead lines. and although it has improved both electrically and mechanically.
All stays wires attached to wooden poles supporting active conductors should be fitted with stay insulators. need not be tested.5 Cap and Pin Type Disc Insulators These insulators are used at tension positions (ie. availability and conductivity.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN Where adequate additional insulation is not provided by the support (eg. Termination and suspension) in high voltage lines and are available in 70kN and 160kV strengths to suit the various conductor loadings. weight. Toughened glass insulators however. In areas of high pollution. The insulators should be mounted not less than 2.2 Phase Conductors The conductors fulfil an electromechanical function. however with the expansion of electricity networks. Information on selection of insulators is contained in the Design manual section on “Insulators” 2 CONDUCTORS 2.7 metres vertically above ground and have a wet power frequency flashover voltage not less than one and a half times the highest voltage conductor supported by the pole. several factors. AAC = All Aluminium Conductor ACRS = All Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforcement AAAC = All Aluminium Alloy Conductor Steel conductors are still widely used as overhead earth wires and also as phase conductors on rural distribution lines. eg.) then the insulators should be of two piece or non-puncturable construction to minimise the risk of an electric hazard due to insulator failure. particularly costal areas the pin of the insulator should be fitted with zinc collar. such as price. The selection and placement of stay insulators should be in accordance with ESAA C (b) 1. fibreglass etc. copper was mainly used as the material of overhead line conductors.1 Introduction Economically. Page 5 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 . SC/GZ = Galvanised Steel Conductor SC/AC = Aluminium Clad Steel Conductor 2. Timber. consequently their selection is of prime importance. have virtually compelled Overhead Line Design Engineers to concentrate on aluminium based conductors. eg. 1.4 Stay Insulators The stay insulator inserted in the stay wire is usually of porcelain and is so designed that in the event of failure of the stay insulator the stay wires will not fall to ground.6 Insulator Testing All porcelain insulators taken out of service must be tested before re-erection. conductors represent between 20 to 40% of the total cost of a line. Check this is the latest version before use. The cap and pin design ensures that the porcelain or glass of the high insulator is always in compression. since the smallest fault will cause disintegration of the insulator. In earlier days of electrical power transmission. hence both the electrical and mechanical aspects are to be considered. 1. 1.
However there are cases where initial cost is not the governing factor. Page 6 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 . 2. Mechanical parameters: As already indicated. Table 2.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN Electrical parameters: The most important parameter affecting the choice of conductor is its resistance. since being monometallic. for example. One of these is the corrosion performance.3 Corrosion Performance Table 3. for salt spray pollution the relative distances from the source depend upon the prevailing winds and the terrain. For AC lines.3. 3 or 4 phase). thus leading to the use of bundled conductor (ie. 2. power loss and current rating. the diameter of a conductor affects the inductance and the capacities. the above considerations are generally adequate. which has been known to have severe effects. but AAAC has always been more expensive than ACSR. the above gradient on the conductor surface may require the selection of a conductor on the basis of its diameter. however at higher voltages. The advantageous mechanical properties of aluminium alloys have also been recognised for long time. the risk of bimetallic corrosion between the aluminium and the zinc on the steel core are nonexistent. should also be taken into account. for equivalent conductivities.1 provides an indication of the relative corrosion performance of various conductor types. Aluminium based conductors represent the highest proportion of conductor usage. because it influences voltage regulation. Special circumstances such as crop dusting. The recommendations should be modified by local experience.1 Indication of relative corrosion performance of conductors SALT SPRAY POLLUTION CONDUCTOR TYPE AAC AAC/6201 AAAC/1120 ACSR/GZ ACSR/AZ ACSR/AC SC/GZ SC/AC HDCu OPEN OCEAN 1 1 1 3 2 1 3 1 1 BAYS INLETS SALT LAKES 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION ACIDIC 1 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 2 ALKALINE 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 1 1 = Good performance 2 = Average performance 3 = Poor performance Check this is the latest version before use. Consequently AAAC conductors are used on lines in coastal areas. Up to a voltage of 132kV.
3 Slack The difference in distance between the straight line between the supports and the distance along the parabola arc (the stretched conductor length) is called the slack. 3.2 Sag The following formula for the sag in a parabola can be used for level and non-level spans.Parabola versus Catenary A parabola is the shape of a cable that supports a uniform horizontal load. Whereas a catenary is the shape that is formed by a hanging cable whose weight is a constant per unit of arc length. S= w L2 8T S = mid-span sag (m) w = conductor weight (N/m) L = horizontal span length (m) T = conductor tension (N) The conductor tension T is the tension at the low point of the cable. CONDUCTOR SAG – TENSION THEORY 3.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN 3. So for most practical distribution applications the parabola will suffice and is the assumption generally used for distribution design. are much simpler than the catenary formulae. Page 7 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 . Provided that the sag is less than 9% of the span length. An example of a parabola is the cable of a suspension bridge that supports the deck below. however the tension does increase with conductor elevation. meaning chain. The word catenary comes from the Latin word catena. there is less than 1% difference in their shapes.81 1000 Wc = conductor weight (kg/km) 3. which must be converted into N/m to use in the above equation. For a level span the slack is given by K= 8 S2 3L K = slack (m) S = mid-span sag (m) L = span length (m) Check this is the latest version before use. The tension at the supports will be no greater than an additional 7% of the tension at the low point for a level span where the sag is less than 9% of the span length. which are derived for the parabola. Normally the conductor weight is given in kg/km.1 The Conductor Profile . w= Wc × 9. A level span is a span where the conductor supports are at the same elevation. The mathematical formulae.
5 Multiple Span Tension Calculations . A higher tension may be used when the conductor is first erected to allow for “settling in of conductor strands and for subsequent metallurgical creep of the conductor material Pole movement Any movement of pole tops due to stay relaxation etc will have the effect of introducing additional length into the span. Check this is the latest version before use. Age Conductor sag over time may increase due to the effects of strand settling in and metallurgical creep. The increase in tension will increase the cable length due to elastic stretch by an amount given by given by: ∆L = (To − T ) / EA To = the initial tension in newtons T = the final tension E = the coefficient of elasticity A = the cross section of the conductor in metres. the unstretched conductor length will increase by an amount equal to: ∆ L = α T S ∆L = αTS α = the coefficient of thermal expansion T = the temperature increase in deg C S = the span length in metres This will result in a decrease in conductor tension and an increase in sag.Ruling Span The ruling span (or equivalent span) is defined as that span which behaves identically to the tension in every span of a series of suspension spans under the same loading condition. This increase in resultant load will result in an effective sag in an inclined direction with both horizontal and vertical components.4 Factors that Affect Conductor Tension Temperature As the temperature increases.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN 3. In general the flexibility of a wood pole is sufficient to ensure that an intermediate pin structure can be considered as a suspension for the purposes of calculation of the ruling span provided that the ratio of adjacent span lengths is not too extreme (eg less than 1:2). 3. Ice Ice build up on the conductor will increase the apparent diameter and weight of the conductor. Wind A wind load on the conductor will increase the apparent weight of the conductor resulting in an in increase in tension. This is not an issue in Queensland however the same approach can be used for calculating loads and sags if bird darverters are installed along a span. Page 8 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 .
This equation applies for lines in flat to undulating terrain. (relates to insulation adhesion considerations). Conductor Strength Limit State . In rural situations practice is therefore to limit adjacent span ratios to 1:2. Check this is the latest version before use.) Conductor Strength Limit State LV ABC conductors – 40% of Conductor nominal breaking load at a temperature of 15°C. This relates to structural loadings at a temperature of 0°C.7 Span Ratios Large differences in the lengths of adjacent spans can result in significant tension differences across intermediate structures. In some cases however the maximum wind condition may govern at increased span lengths. In short slack span urban situations. 3.as specified in the table of “Standard Conductor Applications” following in this section at a temperature of 15°C. which may not be able to be equalised by movement of the pole top and may cause ties or pins to fail. use of Equation (4) in Appendix E of C(b)1-1999 Guidelines for Design and Maintenance of Overhead Distribution and Transmission Lines may be required. Lr = i =1 n Σ L3 i Σ Li n i =1 Lr = ruling span Li = horizontal span length of span i n = number of spans between strain structures. Conductor stringing charts from which conductor tensions can be determined for differing temperature and wind loading conditions are located in the “Stringing Charts” section of the Design manual.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN The ruling span can be calculated using. In very mountainous terrain with large differences in elevation between structures. Conductor Tension Limitations Conductor tension limitations are determined by the most onerous of the following conditions: • • • • Serviceability Condition or everyday condition (relates to vibration. Page 9 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 . In general the everyday or serviceability condition will govern and a tension change calculation is used to calculate tensions and sags under other conditions. (This condition will generally never govern for the range of conditions proposed. this practice is generally not necessary. The span at which the change occurs is called the transition span.6 Sag and tension Calculations These calculations are primarily used to calculate the conductor tension under one set of conditions based on known tension under some other condition. 3. Serviceability Condition – low temperature condition – 50% of conductor nominal breaking load. construction and anchoring practicalities).Bare conductors – 70% of Conductor nominal breaking load at a temperature of 15°C.
which can be calculated using the formulae for thermal expansion .1 / 13.33 m.8 deg C we can calculate the resulting tension as 6682 N and sag as 2. with the following properties: Tension T = 5368 N (22 % NBL) Weight w = 1.21 m. Now calculate the tension and sag under the maximum wind condition of 900 Pa Using the conductor tension change program.893 N/m Span Length S = 250 m Ruling Span Length is also 250 m The sag under this condition is 1. Consider a span of Raisin (3/4/2.8 ie –13. This will cause the tension to increase however the resulting increase in elastic stretch will partly reduce the effect. 3.9x10-6 x 250 = 28.9 Weight Span The weight span at a structure is the length of span between the catenary low points on either side of the particular structure and determines the vertical load due to the weight of conductor at that structure. 3. This means that the conductor is over tensioned by a factor of 25% Example 4.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN 3.∆ L = α T S.8 deg C By going to the Conductor tension Change Program enter option and using a final condition of 15-28. Example 2.82 m.8 Wind Span The wind span at a particular structure is the length of span that determines the transverse load on the structure due to wind action on the conductor and is defined as: Lw = one half the sum of the adjacent spans. Example 3. Now calculate the tension and sag under the maximum operating temperature of 60 deg C and no wind Using the conductor tension change program.5 ACSR) conductor strung to a tension of 22% NBL at 15 deg C.10 Examples Example 1. Therefore T = ∆ L/α S = 0. the tension under this condition is 9895 newtons with vertical sag of 1.49 m and horizontal sag of 5. Page 10 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 . Now consider what happens if the conductor is over tensioned by pulling an additional 100 mm out of the span during stringing. We can treat the removal of this conductor length as being similar to a reduction in temperature. Check this is the latest version before use.893x250 2 /(8x 5368) = 2.76 metres This sag can also be determined from the Conductor tension change program. the tension under this condition is 3868 N with vertical sag of 3.
1 Crossarms Introduction Crossarms may be either wood or steel construction but the general design procedure is the same.6 ie 72. which can be calculated using the formulae for thermal expansion . We can treat the reduction of this additional conductor length as being similar to a decrease in temperature.39 m. effectively puts an additional 200 mm of cable into the span. Of course if this span were one of a section. We can treat the addition of this additional conductor length as being similar to an increase in temperature which can be calculated using the formulae for thermal expansion . If we repeated the same exercise with a 100 m span (and 100 m ruling span).2 ie 9.∆ L = α T S.2 deg C By going to the Conductor tension Change Program enter option and using a final condition of 15 – 5.8 deg C we can calculate the resulting tension as 5586 N and sag as 2. Therefore ∆ L = 250 – Sqrt(250 2+ 3 2) = 0. the tension would increase to 6143 N which would be around 15 % overtension and may need correction but then only if there are termination structures at each of the adjacent structures. Therefore T = ∆ L/α S = 0.6 deg C we can calculate the resulting tension as 3567 N and sag as 4.15 m. 4 4.9x10-6 x 250 = 57.9x10-6 x 250 = 5. This means that there is additional sag of 1. Therefore T = ∆ L/α S = 0. Now consider what happens if we raise one pole by 3 metres in a section with 250 m spans either side on reasonably even ground.∆ L = α T S. Wood crossarms do however have significant benefits with regard to electrical performance associated with lightning outage performance.Sqrt( L2 + h2). This will cause the tension to decrease however the resulting decrease in elastic stretch will partly reduce the effect.65 m. Example 5. L = span length H = increase in pole Height.018 /13. Page 11 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 . The mechanical loads to which Check this is the latest version before use. The increase in chord length can be calculated by ∆ L = L.018 m This will cause the tension to increase however the resulting increase in elastic stretch will partly reduce the effect.6 deg C By going to the Conductor tension Change Program enter option and using a final condition of 15 + 57. the effect of tension equalisation provided by adjacent spans would tend to reduce these effects. which will most likely to result in statutory clearances not being maintained.2 / 13.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN Now consider what happens if the conductor is under tensioned because a stay foundation relaxed to allow the pole head to move by 200 mm which. This means that there is an increase in tension of 4% which should be OK.
Bending moment due to transverse conductor loads .8 TYPE Single Arm Double Arm S.4 8.2 9. depending upon whether the profile imposes a down pull or an uplift of the conductors.4 24.0 Maint (kN) 7.2 Design Loads In designing crossarms for single supports the crossarms can generally be treated as two cantilevers fixed at the support.2 S.D.L. The self weight of the crossarm (This load is minimal) Kingbolts must also be checked for allowable bearing loads perpendicular and parallel to the timber grain. = Short Duration limit state Loads eg.6 30. Maintenance loads resulting from additional conductor lowering or anchoring activities and loads due to pole top rescue.5 19.D. Allowable stresses for timber are dependant on the duration of the application of the load hence different allowable stresses are used for long duration.0 14. (kN) 8. Table 4.D.L. Crossarm brace bolts must be checked for allowable bearing loads at an angle to the timber grain. these mechanical loads should be determined in accordance with ESAA C(b)1.5 8. this may be either positive or negative.L. (kN) 4.(These loads are fairly minimal) Bending moment due to direct horizontal pull of conductors (termination or strain structure only).2 35. for some of the more commonly used crossarms the table makes no allowance for vertical load.wind and deviation loads acting at top of insulator pin (intermediate structures only). = Long Duration Loads eg.2 15.L. Wind Loads L. Page 12 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 .D. Conductor Weight Maint = Maintenance loads Check this is the latest version before use. Refer to Appendix 1 for details on wind span.0 7. 4.4 L.8 S.7 12.8 2700 Maint (kN) 6. (kN) 150x100 175x125 150x100 175x125 9. Table 4.0 16.L.4 28.6 17. Refer to Appendix 1 for illustration of weight span.1 Allowable Horizontal Crossarm Loads CROSSARM LENGTH CROSSARM 2400 S.1 gives the allowable long and short duration crossarm loads.4 13.3 15. as far as reasonably practicable. maintenance and short duration or wind loads.D. The crossarm at the support is therefore subjected to the following bending moments: • • • • • • • Bending moment due to weight span of conductor.4 16.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN crossarms may be subjected should take into account the conditions likely to be experiences in service so as to minimise the probability of failure.7 14.L (kN) 4.D.
) is the continuous load that the pole has to withstand day after day. as the properties of soil are not as definite as those for other materials such Check this is the latest version before use. medium and heavy class. For information on conductor separation refer to the Design Manual section “Layout Clearances”.L. unstayed termination and unbalanced strain poles due to differential conductor tension in adjacent spans. however for stayed poles a vertical load is imposed by the stay as well as the weight and fittings and this becomes a major consideration. Stayed poles are also subject to a bending moment.3 Pole design Loads Unstayed poles may be subjected during service to the following horizontal loads:• • • Horizontal load due to wind acting on pole Horizontal load due to conductor wind span Horizontal load due to conductor tension on angle. All poles (wood or concrete) are now supplied with tip strength rating. properly chosen with regards to local conditions and requirements. A vertical load is only imposed on unstayed poles by the conductor weight span and weight of fittings and very seldom becomes an important consideration.D.3 Conductor Spacing Crossarms must also be selected to give the required separation at the support and at midspan. It is assessed as equivalent to the load applied by conductor tension at 15° C no wind and is half of the specified tip load (or approx 28% of the limit state load) 5.1 Poles Introduction Pole structures.2 Wood Pole Strength Rating Previously wood poles were classified into light. long life of equipment and low maintenance costs. are a decisive factor in ensuring high continuity of service. 5. 5 5.1 Pole Foundations Introduction The design of support foundations is rather more difficult than the design of other overhead line components.8 to equate to limit state wind pressure loads on the project areas of both the pole and the conductor.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN 4. Typical wind pressures: Conductor 900 Pa or 1200 Pa in cyclonic areas Pole 1300 Pa or 1700 Pa in cyclonic areas The pole long duration load (L. which is generally greatest at the stay foundation.L.) is the strength corresponding to the maximum allowable working pole tip load and must be multiplied by 1. Page 13 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 . Good pole supports.D. 6 6. regardless of strength group. and particularly single member pole supports are used to carry both high and low voltage conductors. The strength rating or short duration loads (S. and the Design Engineer had to determine the loading which each class and strength group would carry.
Check this is the latest version before use. Too much attention cannot be directed to the design. must be calculated. aluminium. In the economic design of stays it is essential to match the strength of the component parts. due to the conductor termination or deviation. The maximum working strength of a particular stay type is determined by the least value of the strength of: • • • • • • 7. Page 14 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 . P. The stay wire. rod. This occurs in the majority of cases as most stays on standard constructions are placed as close as possible to the crossarm. and consequently for design purposes soil properties are selected within very widely varying limits. bed log/screw anchor etc. bedlog etc. depends equally as much on being correctly stayed as it does on the proper erection of the conductors. take the pull due to the conductors.2 Foundation Strength The allowable pole tip Pο (kN) due to foundation strength is given by the following equation: Tip Load Pο = KmaxD J3 12 (h + ¾ J) where Kmax = Passive Soil Reaction (kPa/m) D = Average below ground pole diameter (m) J = Pole setting depth (m) H = Height of pole above ground (m) 7 7. ie. making off and setting of stays. as the future safety of the line.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN as steel.. the horizontal load acting on the stay.2 Stayrod Eyebolt Staywire Preformed Guy Grips Stay Insulators Foundations Stay Application It is important to note that when the stay attachment is at the load centre the horizontal component of the stay load is equal to the horizontal load occurring at the load centre. 6. particularly under adverse weather conditions. Where the stay attachment is not to close to the load centre.1 Ground Stays Introduction It is necessary to stay overhead line supports at locations where the loads exceed the capacity of the pole/foundations so that the stay wire. rod. copper etc.
2 Stay Horizontal Loads for 30 kN conductor load. . P.where Check this is the latest version before use. L x P y P = L (1+3x/2y) The calculation of the equivalent horizontal load..0kN 32...3 Pole Bending Moment The pole must be designed to resist the maximum bending moment that will occur at the point of stay attachment.0m CONDUCTOR LOAD (L1) 30kN 30kN 30kN 30kN 30kN STAY HORIZONTAL LOAD (P) 30..... Table 7.. .0m 1. assumes that the bending moment occurring at a point one third the height of the stay attachment above ground level is zero.....5kN 40.... = fZ .. P...5m 2. H.....5m 1.0kN 7..2.M.0 m.1 lists the stay horizontal loads for a number of stay attachments for a conductor load L1 = 30kN and a stay height above ground y = 9. x + wind on pole.0kN 37....where B.. The allowable bending moment on wood a pole at the stay attachment points is given by the following equation: B. Table 7..M.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN Select the appropriate stay whose allowable horizontal load.. Page 15 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 ..... STAY ATTACHMENT (X) At load centre 0...5kN 35. is greater than the calculated load... = bending moment F = design stress Z = section modules L1 x = conductor = height of L1 above stay fZ > L1 .....
5m 1.L.0m 101.L.D.0m 1.L. CONDUCTOR TENSION (kN) HORIZONTAL STAY TENSION (kN) At load centre 0.4 9.L.0 kN Wood Pole STAY ATTACHMENT MAX.) for a 14.0 32.7 33.D.6 41. CONDUCTOR TENSION (kN) MAX ALLOW L. Page 16 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 . ALLOW S.) and long duration load (L.4 50.5 7.3 lists the maximum allowable conductor short duration load (S.D.8 Check this is the latest version before use.3 57.2 108. Table 7.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN Table 7.8 25.0m 8.5m 2.D.3 Governed by allowable stay load 28.0m x 8kN wood pole.3 Pole Bending Moment – Allowable Conductor Tension 14.4 14.
Dia (m) x Wind Pressure (Pa) x Wind Span (m) = Cond.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN APPENDIX 1 CONDUCTOR LOADS Transverse Wind Load(N) Vertical Load (N = Cond. Weight (N/m) x Weight Span (m) Wind Pressure 500Pa 900Pa 1200Pa Wind Speed 100 km/hr 160 km/hr 184 km/hr 2 x Wind Span Weight Span 0°C 50°C Weight Span @ 0°C Weight Span @ 50°C 0°C 50°C Check this is the latest version before use. Page 17 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 .
NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN Weight Span @ 50°C 0°C Weight Span @ 0°C (negative) 50°C Check this is the latest version before use. Page 18 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 .
10. Use of bisect stays on small angles is an alternative option to increasing pole strengths. If the terrain is not substantially flat. 1. Determine strain/angle pole locations taking into account the deviation angle limits on pin insulators as per the table in the Design Manual. Determine conductor size and type based on planning requirements and application.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN APPENDIX 2 DISTRIBUTION LINE LAYOUT STEPS The following steps are suggested as the approach to be followed in designing a line from scratch. 11. 3. This can be determined using the Weight span program which will output the weight span under the sustained load. maintenance and limit state conditions. If poor soil foundations are anticipated. If the weight span is negative. 7. Using the Crossarm design program. Determine the Limit state design wind pressure on conductors appropriate to the location (eg 900 or 1200 pa). 12. Consideration in this decision should be given to the difficulty of staying and frequency of angles required by route restrictions. 9. 2. 4. return to step 9 using a greater pole or foundation strength. semi urban or rural. 5. If these allowable spans are unrealistically low. If ratios of adjacent span lengths exceed 2:1 in full tension rural situations. Determine the proposed stringing tension based on the situation eg. Consideration should also be given to any future requirement for subsidiary circuits. 8. Urban. profile the line and determine pole locations and heights necessary to achieve ground clearances and likely strain/ angle positions. Determine the weight span in particular on poles with a height which is significantly greater or less than their neighbours. Determine the ruling span using the Ruling span program for each section of line between strain structures.mid span clearance limitation program. Determine expected span length on level ground from experience or by using suggested span and pole height / strength in the pole layout tables or the program Maximum span – ground clearance limitation. a strain structure should be selected. check that the proposed crossarm sizes are sufficient. 6. Use the Allowable pole tip load program to determine allowable (limit state) pole tip loads based on expected pole strengths and foundation conditions. Consider the need for future subsidiary circuits in the selection of pole /foundation design. consider the use of a strain pole. Use the pole top loads from step 9 to input into the Allowable wind span program to determine the allowable wind span on unstayed intermediate poles. These pole tip loads are after allowance has been made to take into account wind on the pole element. Page 19 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 . With experience or by reference to the tables of common applications in the Design manual section “Pole Structures” many of these steps will not be required for jobs of a standard nature. Check any long spans to ensure that mid span phase to phase clearance requirements are met using the Maximum span . Allowable weight spans for the selected crossarm sizes under the sustained Check this is the latest version before use. allowance should be made for additional pole setting depth at this stage.
use the Conductor tension change program to calculate the horizontal swing under the 500 pa and 30 deg C condition. maintenance and limit state conditions should exceed the weight spans determined from step 11. use the Resultant stay load program to check that the stay horizontal load is not exceeded and that the bending moment in the pole at the stay attachment is not exceeded. 15. 14. Check this is the latest version before use. For any span where clearance to an adjacent structure may be an issue under conductor blowout. 16. Add to this the relevant statutory clearance to check if clearance to the object from the line is sufficient. 17. Conductor sagging information for listing on the construction plan for use by field staff in sagging the conductors can be determined using the Conductor sagging program. use the Phase separation program to check clearances. For structures with multiple circuits or the stay attachment position away from the conductor attachment locations. If not reduce span length or reposition poles and recalculate. Check that allowable horizontal stay loads from the Design Manual section “stays” exceed the limit state conductor wind and tension loads. Limit state conductor tensions can be determined using the Conductor tension change program. Page 20 of 20 Reference P56M02R09 Ver 1 Reference Approved by: Jim Brooks Network Lines Standards Manager Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802 . For any spans with different or unusual conductor configuration at one end and where mid span clearance may be an issue.NETWORK LINES STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN load. 13.
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