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1.0 DESIGN PROCESS
The design process is illustrated by the following models namely Shigley, Paul and Beitz, Ohsuga and Earle. 1.1 Shighely Model: In the design process, there are six steps to be followed which are shown in fig 1.5. Recognition of need: The problems in the existing products (or) Potential for new products in market has to be identified. Definition of problem: The problem in the existing product or specification of the new product is specified as Design Brief to the designers. It includes the specification of physical and functional characteristics, cost, quality, performance requirements etc.
Fig 1.1. The general design procedure defined by Shigley Synthesis: In this stage, the designer develops number of designs to meet the requirement of design brief. Analysis & Optimization: • • Each design from the synthesis stages are analysed and optimum one is selected. It should be noted that synthesis and analysis are highly iterative. A certain component or subsystem of the overall system conceived by the designer in the synthesis stage is subjected to analysis. Based on the analysis, improvements are made and redesigned. The process is repeated until the design optimized within all the constraints imposed by designer.
Evaluation: • • • In this stage optimized design from the previous stage is checked for all the specification mentioned in the Design Brief . A prototype of the product is developed and experimentally checked for its performance, quality, reliability and other aspects of product. The discrepancies/problems are faced, it is recommend to redesign the product which should be fed back to the designer in the synthesis stage.
Presentation: After the product design passing through the evaluation stage, drawings. diagrams, material specification, assembly lists, bill of materials etc. which are required for product manufacturing are prepared and given to process planning department and production department. 1.2 Earle model: The steps in the design process prepared by Earle are shown in fig.1.2. Problem identification
Fig 1.2. Steps of design process by Earle (1). Problem identification: The problem identification can be one of two general types. (i). Identification of need. (ii). Identification of design criteria. Identification of need is the beginning point of the design process. It may be a defect or discrepancy in the existing product or need for a new product. Identification of design criteria is the part of the problem identification where the designer conducts an in-depth investigation of the specifications that must be met by a new design. Types of problem identification are shown in fig 1.9. Types of problem identification
Fig 1.3. Type of problem identification The problem identification needs to gather data of several types. Such as survey, historical records, personal observations, experimental data, physical measurements etc. The following steps should be used in problem identification.
Fig 1.3. Steps followed in problem identification (a) Problem statement: write down the problem statement to begin the thinking process. The statement should be complete and comprehensive but concise. (b) Problem requirements: list the positive requirements that must be achieved through design. (c) Problem limitations: list negative factors that confine the problem to be specified as limitations. (d) Sketches: make sketches of physical characteristics of the problem. Add notes and dimensions that would make these sketches more understandable. (e) Gather data: the gathered data should be graphed for easy interpretation. (u) Preliminary ideas: Preliminary ideas are the generation of as many ideas as possible for solution. These ideas should be sufficiently broad to allow for unique solutions that could revolutionize present methods. All ideas should be recorded in written form with sketches. A systematic approach should be used to gather preliminary ideas for the design problem. The following sequence of steps is suggested.
Design need 1. Defects. 2. Bad condition. 3.Need for solution. 4. Market need. Design criteria 1. Features. 2. Numbers. 3. Size-weight. 4. Price cost. Problem identification (a) Conduct brain stroming session: Brainstrom is a conference technique by which a group attempts to find a solution for a specific problem by amassing all the ideas spontaneously contributed by its members. (b) Prepare sketches and notes: Sketching is most important medium for developing preliminary ideas. Computer graphics can be used for modifying and developing a number of ideas. (c) Research existing designs: Preliminary ideas can be obtained through research of similar products, designs from technical magazines, manufacturer s brochures, patents and consultants. (d) Conduct survey: Survey methods are used to gather opinions and reactions to a preliminary design or complete design. This could be accomplished by interviews, questionnaire etc. (iii) Design refinement: Several of better preliminary ideas are selected for further refinement to determine their true merits. Rough sketches are converted to scale drawings that will permit space analysis, critical measurements etc. descriptive geometry can be applied for this purpose. Computer graphics is a powerful tool that can be used to refine the preliminary idea. (iv) Analysis: A product must be analyzed to determine its acceptance by the market before it is released for production. It involves the evaluation of best designs to determine the comparative merits of each with respect to cost, strength, function and market-appeal. The general areas of analysis are (a) Functional analysis. (b) Human engineering. (c) Market and product analysis. (d) Specification analysis. (e) Strength analysis. (f) Economic analysis. (g) Model analysis.
The physical specifications of a product must be analyzed to finalize the design. Eg. size, ranges and shipping specifications. The design must be analyzed for strength to support dead loads, shock loads, fatigue loads etc. The cost analysis must be performed to determine the item s production cost and margin of profit that can be realized from it. Engineering graphics and modeling of descriptive geometry are valuable tools for analysis.
1.2 MORPHOLOGY OF DESIGN
The morphology of design refers to the study of the chronological structure of design projects. It is defined by seven phases and their sub steps. Out of the seven phases, the first three phases belong to design and the remaining four phases belong to production distribution, consumption and retirement.
Phase I —Feasibility study / Conceptual design: A design project begins with a feasibility study. The various steps followed are. (1) To determine whether the need is original, whether it is valid, has current existence or has strong evidence of latent existence. (2) To explore the design problem generated by the need and to identify its elements such as working parameters, constraints and major design criteria. (3) To conceive a number of feasible solutions to the problem. (4) And sort out the potentially useful solution out of the feasible ones on the basis of (a) Technical suitability. (b) Physical reliability and (c) Economic feasibility. Phase II — Preliminary design / Embodiment design: In this phase, preliminary design of system starts with set of useful solution which were developed in the feasibility study. The various steps involved in the phase are (1) To establish which of the proposed alternatives is the best design concept. Each of the alternative design is subjected to the test of analysis. Until evidence suggests that either the particular solution is inferior to other or is superior to all. Surviving solution is tentatively accepted for further examination. (2) Synthesis studies are initiated for establishing the range within which the major design parameters must be controlled. (3) Next, the tolerances in the characteristics of major components and critical materials which require mutual compatibility are investigated and properly fit into the system. (4) Examining the influence of environmental, internal and external constituents on the system. (5) Project studies are undertaken to study whether the design will meet customers need, status of the product to be developed with that of products from competitors, availability of critical raw materials, effect of technological advancement, rate of obsolescence or wear etc. (6) Testing the critical aspect of the design in order to validate the design concept and to provide necessary information for the subsequent phases. Phase – III Detailed design: In this phase, the engineering description of a tested and producible design is furnished. Up to this point, the design project is characterized by great flexibility. Major changes in the concept could be accommodated with out of greater financial loss. But in this stage, searching on a large scale must come to an end and a final decision for a particular design can be made or the project must be abandoned as infeasible. The various steps taken in this design phases are (1) Developing an overall synthesis of the design project and preparing a major layout of the system. (2) Preparing specifications of various sub systems and components on the basis of master layout.
(3) Deciding various dimensions of components. (4) Initiating the experiment design by constructing to check untried ideas. Phase IV —Planning the production process: The general steps followed are: (1) Preparing detailed process planning sheets for every parts, subassembly and final assembly. These sheets contains information about sequential list of operations which must be performed to produce the parts, raw material details, special instructions, tools and machines required etc. (2) Design of tool and fixture. Based on the information in the process chart tools and fixtures are developed. (3) Planning to acquire new production or plant facilities. (4) Planning for quality control s (5) Planning for production personnel. (6) Planning for production control. (7) Planning for information flow-feed back system. Phase V —planning for distribution: After production of the products, the products have to be distributed. Designers are not directly involved in the distribution activities. His job is finding the problems of distribution and getting solution for these problems. In this phase, a plan on effective and flexible system of distribution of designed goods: Some of the activities which are carried out in this phase are (1) Design the packaging of the product: • • • Based on the outer shape of the product, packaging system will be developed such a way that the transportation cost will be minimum and safe. Individual and special packaging may be needed to secure protection from shock and weather. Special strapping and palletizing arrangement may be developed to facilitate handling. Economically favorable locations for warehouse are selected and the warehousing facilities are designed. brochures/ Technical phamplets, displays based on design features and test data have to be developed.
(2) Planning the ware housing system: •
(3) Planning for promotional activity: •
(4) Factors such as attractive display, additional attachment features and final conditioning.
There should be enough flexibility in design to allow (a) for special modifications to suit customers need, (b) for adding available optional feature as required by the customer (c) for modular additions to the system to increase its capacity. Phase-VI--Planning for consumption: Consumption is the third phase in the production-consumption cycle. Its influence on design is very high compare to the other phase of design. In design for consumption, the following factors must be considered. (1) Design for maintenance (2) Design for reliability (3) Design for safety. (4) Design for convenience of use. (5) Design for economic operation. (6) Design for aesthetic features. (7) Design for adequate duration of services. (8) Product improvement based on the service data. Phase-VII--Planning for Retirement: The fourth process in the production-consumption cycle is disposal of the retired product. There are two types of retirement of economic commodity in use. (1) Physical deterioration (2) Technical obsolescence. The duty of the designer is to decide the type of retirement the product has to face. If the article in use is worn to a point which it can no longer provide adequate performance, then article needs replacement. Presently most of the products in use are retired more frequently because of technical obsolescence than for physical deterioration. This compels the designer to accelerate the aging process of goods in use. Hence this aspect of design needs further study.
1.3 PRODUCT CYCLE
The product cycle includes all the activities starting from identification for product to deliver the finished product to the customer. The diagram shows various steps in the product cycle. • • The product cycle starts from customers and markets which needs for a new product. The basic work for product development such as synthesis, analysis, evaluation and document are carried out by the design engineering. In some places, even the prototype testing of the product is carried before going for actual production. The detailed design of the product is drafted and given to the process planning department.
A process plan is formulated which specifies the sequences of production operations to be carried out to produce the new product. Some times, for the manufacturing of new product, new equipments and tools may be required which will be ordered at this stage. Based on the process plan, production schedule will be prepared. This scheduling provides a plan to the company that a certain quantities of the product should be manufactured within the specified time period. The production is followed by quality testing and delivery to the customer.
Fig 1.3. Conventional Design Process
1.4 Computer Aided Product Cycle:
Fig 1.4. Computer aided product cycle.
From the fig 1.4. it can be understood that the computer aids each and every activities of the product cycle. • • • • Computer aided design and automated drafting are utilized for design engineering works and for detail drawing of the product. The computers are also used in process planning and scheduling works to perform their functions efficiently. Even the product monitoring and control of shop floor activities computers are used. Computer controlled robots and CNC machines etc are used in production activities. In quality control, the computers are used for quality checking/Inspection and performance testing on the products and its components. In the modern manufacturing process, computers have become very useful and essential tool to carry out the design and production activities effectively and efficiently.
1.5 SEQUENTIAL ENGINEERING
• Three major phases of conventional manufacturing process are design, process planning and manufacturing. All these phases are carried out sequentially. In design phase of the conventional manufacturing process, the product is designed based on the specifications/requirements and methods of manufacturing are decided. In the process planning phase, manufacturing instructions are given based on the method of manufacturing, decoded in the design phase. These instructions are interpreted and production works are carried out in the manufacturing phase. All these phases and supporting activities like quality and testing activities and marketing activities are carried out one after the other. As it can be seen that in each phase/activities there is no interaction between them. The other name for sequential approach is Over Wall approach. Because each department complete their work and throw to the next department as shown in fig 1.5. There is no interaction i.e. there is a communication barrier between each department. This is shown in fig 1.5
Fig 1.5 Sequential engineering approach
In sequential product development, (1) Decisions are taken by individuals. (2) Product modifications/changes will be slow. (3) Each activity is carried out sequentially; hence this approach requires longer lead time. (4) Because of the above reasons, product quality will be low. (5) If any modifications to be made on the product by down stream departments, it has to be fed back and this often involves in additional expenditure and also results in unnecessary delay in product cycle.
1.6 CONCURRENT ENGINEERING(CE)
In the conventional manufacturing method, both design and manufacturing are separated. Because of this, quality may be lost and design modifications can be possible at the last stage of production. Global competition pressurizes the firms to produce products with high performance, reliable, low cost with less lead time. To achieve this, in the product planning stage itself a co-operate work between design and manufacturing and other specialists has to be made. This is known as Concurrent Engineering or Simultaneous Engineering . Firms wherever possible converts the sequential work flow into current work flow. For example, planning activity is made as concurrent as shown in fig 1.6 Since activities start in parallel, the lead time reduces. Unlike sequential engineering, in concurrent engineering the design decisions are taken by a multidisciplinary team. A typical team consists of experts from (1) Material (2) Manufacturing process (3) Assembly (4) Maintenance (5) Marketing (6) Service personnel (7) End users and (8) Specialists in the product related field for example:- Noise and vibration specialists. Now the work of the designer is to evaluate his design ideas with this team repeatedly in the conceptualization of product stage itself after getting approval from this team, design of product can be used for further processing.
Fig 1.6. Concurrent workflow in the planning stage In concurrent engineering, the product design is the responsibility of this multidisciplinary team. This team follows the product from inception to complete production and beyond.
Fig 1.7. Comparison of no of changes in sequential and concurrent engineering 1.6.1 Advantage of concurrent engineering: 1. The design decisions are taken by a team of multi disciplinary experts. 2. Changes and modifications on the product design will be faster. 3. Shorter lead time because all the activities related to product design and development are carried out simultaneously. 4. Higher quality. 5. In sequential engineering the number of modifications changes will be distributed throughout the product development cycle. But in concurrent engineering number of changes/modifications will be maximum at the beginning of the product development cycle. This is shown in fig 1.7
1.6.2 Characteristics of Concurrent Engineering: 1. Product responsibilities lie on team of multi disciplinary group. 2. Integration of design, process planning and production will be achieved. 3. Product lead time will be less, because cross-functional activities are started simultaneously. 4. Most of the modification charges are carried in the planning stage itself. 5. Frequent review of design and development process. 6. Rapid prototyping. 7. More attention will be given to satisfy the customer needs and to include newer technologies in product development. 1.6.3 Features Which Cause Success for Concurrent Engineering: CE can be successfully implemented when whole of the organization involved is in it. Every one accepts that problems exist and try to solve them together. The features of C.E. are 1. In sequential engineering designers were involved in design of product. Now, designers duty is getting changed. They are helping to design the product and getting approval of the design from product team. 2. In sequential engineering, every one trying to implement the designer idea. But in C.E. every one in the team is involved in product design and development activities. 3. C.E. eliminate the conflicts between the departments (like design, process plan) and production and inspection departments). 4. In C.E., all the activities are started simultaneously to decrease the lead time. 5. C.E. yield high performance, high quality, reliable products with less lead time.
1.7 ROLE OF COMPUTERS
Computers are very much useful in 1. Design process and 2. Manufacturing process of a product cycle. 1.7.1 The Role of Computers in Design Process: The various design related tasks in which the computers can be used are: 1. Geometric modeling. 2. Design simulation. 3. Design Analysis. 4. Design optimization. 5. Design review and evaluation. 6. Automated drafting. Let us discuss each of them in detail
1. Geometric Modeling: It is used to create image of the object in the CRT screen. It is concerned with computer compatible mathematical description of geometry of an object. The geometric modeling is classified into three types. (a) Wire frame modeling: It is can be considered as advancement of drafting software and basic for modeling software. (b) Surface modeling: It is an advanced modeling technique than wire frame modeling. Using which complex surface shapes such as aerofoil, car door panels, shoe model etc can be modeled. (c) Solid modeling: It is the most powerful 3D modeling technique. It provides the user with complete information about the model. 2. Design Simulation: It can be used for animation and assembly works. The animation work can be used to understand how a designed system work without going for actual working model. The assembly facility with the modeling software are provided with interference checking. Using this, dimensional error can be identified before starting the production activities. 3. Design Analysis: The models which are created can be used for analysis. There are two important types of design analysis as follows: (1) Analysis for mass properties: Surface area, weight, volume, C.G. and MI. of the solid object can be predicted. (2) Finite element analysis: It is the most powerful feature of a CAD system. It is a computer analysis to simulate the response of design change in its environment. 4. Design Optimization: Optimization software tools are available in a CAD system. Some FEA packages are provided with some of shape and structural optimization feature. 5. Design Review and Evaluation: The accuracy of the design can be checked and rectified if required in the CRT screen itself. Tolerance checking, interference checking, kinematic checking etc can be done on com itself before commencing for actual production. 6. Automated drafting: Automated drafting is a process of creating hard copies of design drawing. Drafting software s such as Auto CAD, MCAD etc., are provided with features like automatic dimensioning generating different views of object and sectional views of the object etc.
1.8 Computer Aided Engineering(CAE):
• • Computer aided engineering (CAE) means the use of computer in tasks essential to engineering a product. It involves in many aspects and has evolved from computer aided drafting through incorporation of computer-aided design (CAD) with computerautomated machinery to provide comprehensive mechanical design, automation. In general, the idea is to use computer processing and interactive computer graphics to enable the engineers to create, modify and analyze designs. The activities of CAE is shown in fig 1.8 which includes finite element analysis software as a major component.
• The recent trend in CAE is utilizing the knowledge based engineering system
Fig: 1.8 Activities of CAE 1.8.1 Benefits: 1. CAB consists of powerful tools in it, which saves time and reduces work in the design office. 2. Using CAE better designs can be generated. 3. It offers the firm the ability to give faster quotations. 4. It provides automatic machine tool control to produce the designed parts on the computer.
5. It is a tool which links the design and machinery process. 6. Implementation of knowledge based engineering software on CAB, yields better design. 7. It facilitates concurrent engineering. 8. CAE combines man and machine together in a team to solve the production problems.
1.9 COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN (CAD)
Fig 1.9. CAD process The conventional design process has been accomplished on drawing boards with design being documented in the form of a detailed engineering drawing. This process is iterative in nature and is time consuming. The computer can be beneficially be used in the design process. The various design related tasks which are performed by a modem computer aided design system can be grouped in to four functional areas. 1. Geometric modeling. 2. Engineering analysis. 3. Design review and evaluation. 4. Automated drafting. These four areas correspond to the final four phases of Shigley s general design process, illustrated in fig 1.19. 1. Geometric modeling: The geometric modeling is concerned with computer compatible mathematical description of geometry of an object. The mathematical description should be such that
(a) the image of the object can be displayed and manipulated in the computer terminal. (b) Modification on the geometry of the object can be done easily, (c) it can be stored in the computer memory and (d) also can be retrieve back on the computer screen for review, analysis or alteration. In geometric modeling, 3 types of commands will be used. They are 1. Commands used to generate basic geometric entities like points, lines, circles etc. 2. Commands used to do manipulation work like scaling, translation, rotation etc. 3. Commands used for Boolean operation to form the image of the object in the computer screen. The geometric modeling is classified into 1. Wire-frame modeling 2. Surface modeling 3. Solid modeling. Description of each modeling in detail is discussed in unit III. 2. Design Analysis: The computer can be used to aid the analysis work such as stress- ina heat transfer analysis, etc. The analysis can be done either by using specific program generated for it or by using general purpose software commercially available in the market. The geometric models generated can be used for the analysis by properly interfacing the modeling software with the analysis software. Two types of important engineering analysis are 1. Analysis for mass properties. 2. Finite element analysis (FEA). • By using mass properties analysis, properties of solid object can be determined, such as surface area, weight volume, C.G. and MI. Similarly for plane surfaces perimeter, Area and MI. can be determined. Finite element analysis is the most powerful feature of a CAD system. Here, the object is divided into a large number of finite elements. The entire object can be analysed for stress-analysis, heat transfer analysis etc. For solving he FEA problems computers with larger memory and computational capabilities are required. The graphical output of FEA is displayed in the computer terminal for better understanding of results through visualization. Designer can modify/redesign the model, and by using FEA software analysis can be done easily. The accuracy of the design can be checked and rectified if required in the CRT screen itself.
3. Design Review & Evaluation: •
Layering feature available in software are very useful for design review purpose. For example, by layering procedure the finish product can be placed over the casting image of the same product, it is easy to visualize that allowance given in the casting are enough or not. Similarly, using the layer procedure, every stage of production can be checked. Another review feature available in the modeling softwares are interference checking . The dimensions of the mating parts can be checked. In some case, two components may occupy same position in the assembly. These types of errors can be eliminated before involving in manufacturing activities. Some of the modeling software is provided with Kinematic analysis feature. This can be Suppose a new mechanism is to be designed, the same mechanism can be simulated in the computer. By animation, the working of the mechanism can be checked. This will relieve the designer from tedious conventional method of mechanism checking. Another advantage of animating the complete assembly of product is that whether any component fouls the other components in its working. Many commercial softwares are available. One of which ADAMS (Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems) is one of the best software for Kinematic analysis. Automated drafting is the process of creating hard copies of design drawing. The important features of a drafting softwares are automated dimensioning, scaling of the drawing and capable of generating sectional views, enlargement of minute part details and ability to generate different views of the object like g oblique, isomeric and perspective views. Thus, CAD systems can increase productivity on drafting.
4. Automated Drafting: • •
1.10 DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE
The design for manufacture (DFM) provides guidelines for the designer about the good manufacturing practices. The guidelines of the DFM are grouped into four groups. (1) Guide lines for general approach to DFM. (2) Guide lines for selection of the manufacturing processes. (3) Guide lines for particular processes. (4) Guide lines for assembly. 1.10.1 Guidelines for general approach To DFM: Some of the important guidelines are (1) Design parts can be used in multiple products. This can reduce the production cost as the volume of parts to be manufacture gets increased. (2) In a product there should be a minimum number of separable parts. This will decrease the inventory cost, and also assist maintenance and assembly.
(3) Try to use standard parts as far as possible. (4) Use parts of known capacity from known supplier, so that others expertise can also be utilized. (5) Use established & proven technology as far as possible. (6) Avoid using high cost techniques unless it is technically required. (7) Choose simple and regular shapes for the parts to be designed. (8) Choose simple part assemblies. (9) Select wide tolerance for size and surface finish of the product without affecting its performance. This will reduce the manufacturing cost. 1.10.2. Choice of production processes: (1) Before selecting a process, comparative assessment of different production methods has to be made. By analysis the different production process in terms of cost of production and volume of production, a production method has to be selected. (2) Select a process which can satisfy the tolerance and surface finish required with minimum cost. (3) Select a process which has less rejection and hazardous. 1.10.3. Guidelines for particular processes: Each process has its own guidelines to be followed. We will consider some of the important guidelines for forming casting and machining operations.
1.Forming operation: • • Forging, extrusion, rolling are some of the forming operations. In the forming operation, the material plastically flows into the die cavity to conform the shape of the product, here some guidelines are given.
1. The shape of the product should be simple and it should be such that it assist the metal flow in the die cavity. In other words, shape of the product should not hinder/restraint the metal flow in the die cavity as explained in fig 1.20(a) & (b). 2. The finish product can be easily removed from the die cavity. This has to be achieved by means of taper on the outer surface of the job, but not by under cut provision on the job. 3. Avoid narrow deep ribs on the job. In these places, try to have broad less deep ribs as showing1.21
4. Sudden change in the cross-section should be avoided. 5. Sharp corner should be avoided. 6. Split lines of die should be in the same plane. 7. The shape of part to be formed should be as simple as possible. 8. The cost of tooling should be minimum.
2. Moulding Process: In moulding process, the liquid metal flows in the mould cavity to confirm the shape of the product. Some of guidelines to be followed are (1) The casting should be easily removed from the mould. (2) Use simple shape with minimum number of pattern pieces and cores. (3) Cost of tooling should be minimum. (4) Maintain the wall thickness of the casting as small as possible. (5) Vary the wall thickness gradually when it is required.
(6) Avoid sloping surface on which further machining has to be done. Instead have right angle surface so that machining can be done easily. (7) Provide accurate location for core and easy removal of flash. 3. Metal Removal Process:
(1) The shape of the component should be such that material can be removed easily and cheaply. (2) Select proper machine tools to have acceptable tolerance and surface finish. (3) Try to give wide tolerance and surface finish variation as far as possible. Allow runout for tool
(4) Surfaces are to be machined with simple tool shapes. (5) If there are multiple surfaces to be machined, try to have simple continuous machined surface. (6) Try to have machined surface parallel and perpendicular to each other, so that locating the job on the machine bed is easy and also simple tools can be used for machining. (7) See that enough space on the job for clamping. (8) Provide adequate run out. (9) Provide boss for drilling on curved tapered surface.
(10). If single surface is to be machined, minimize the surface area to be machined. Machined surface (11) Try to have rectilinear shaped job.
1. Design for ease of insertion: - It is practically proved that inserting a part from top in downward direction is easy, fast, efficient and less expensive than inserting a part from bottom or from side directions. 2. Design for ease of fastening and joining: Before selecting a fastening/joining process (screws, adhesive bounding etc.) do systematic listing, classification and assessment of available joining method and select a suitable joining/fastening process for assembly. Once a method is selected, use same method for other joining/fastening operations as far as possible. 3. Design for ease of handling: - Parts handling may consume nearly 80% of assembly time. For ease of handling, the material and surface of the job should be adequate for handling. 4. Modular construction: - It means that main assembly should be divided in to a number of modular/sub assemblies. This makes the assembly process easier; since sub assembly works are carried separately and hence time for assembling reduces. 5. Sandwich construction: - Both in main assembly and sub assemblies, components are to be assembled one by one. The positioning of a component is made easy by previously assembled parts. Advantage is that, a pick and place robots can be used in the assembly process. 6. To make the assembly process easier, avoid assigning close tolerance and high surface finish for the components.
7. Use standardized components and sub assemblies, so that varieties can be reduced and hence the cost of product can be reduced with increased volume of production and also it makes the assembly process simpler. 8. Select a base component for assembly such that it should have adequate solid base. 9. Designer should plan for flexible sequencing of assembly operation, ie. avoiding compulsory assembly sequence. In general, designer should be supplied with information which will allow them to know the consequences of their design from every aspect of manufacturing. Recent trends: The guidelines for DFM are converted into expert system to assist the designer in decision making.
1.11 COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING (CAM)
• The manufacturing functions such as process planning, scheduling, production and quality control are carried out with assistances of computer known as Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM). The typical CAM process is shown in fig 1.10. The geometric model developed during the CAD process form the basis for CAM activities.
Fig 1.10. Typical CAM process • • • Various CAM activities may require various CAD information. Interface algorithms are utilized to extract such information from CAD databases. With computer aided process planning, the order of processes and machine tools and equipments required can be determined. In production planning and control, tools such as computer integrated production management system (CIPMS), computerized scheduling etc, can be utilized to plan, execute and control the entire manufacturing process. Computer controlled machines, robots etc can be used to carry out actual production processes efficiently. In addition with computer aided quality control (CAQC), the lead time of production can be decreased. CAQC ensures better quality control over convention quality control activities. Automated special machines for assembly, robots etc can be instructed with the help of computers to assemble the parts to produce the final product. Final products are packed and delivered to consumers. Application areas of CAM and functions of each activities of CAM are discussed.
1.11 BENEFITS OF CAD
There are many benefits of computer-aided design; only some of the benefits are described below. 1. New products are designed faster. CAD can drastically reduce the number of steps involved in the design process for a particular product and can also make each design step much easier and less tedious for designer to perform. For example, since the analysis procedures are computerized, time and effort are reduced and the same time the accuracy of design is getting increased. 2. Errors during change of design will be less. 3. Hard copy of the drawings are of better quality, hence there will be less ambiguity and better clarity. 4. Detailed or assembly drawing can be automatically generated. This can be utilized for production activities, MRP, inventory control etc. 5. Models generated can be utilized for rapid prototyping. 6. The model can be seen in the terminal and the designer can manipulate the model easily. With this flexibility of manipulating the design drawings the designer can visualize the complex problem arising in the design. This helps the designer to make better decision and obtain a optimum solution. This leads to improvement in the quality of the design. 7. DFM can be implemented easily. 8. Design model can be used to generate N.C part programming automatically. 9. Design can be linked with inspection for example online inspection using CMM, which can compare the actual part geometry with design geometry in the design database. 10. CAD is faster than traditional design process which results in shorter lead time. 11. In conventional design, designers/draftsman ratio is high but this is less in CAD environment. It means that the productivity of the design department is getting increased.
1.12 IMPLIMENTATION OF CAD
The following points may be considered while implementing CAD. 1. Setup a committee of consists of designers, manufacture management, workforce etc. 2. Justify the implementation of CAD from financial, technical and social point of view. 3. Decide the specifications of the system required. 4. Evaluate and select the system. 5. Install the selected system. 6. Arrange for the support services needed for the system. 7. Plan for future expansion of the system.
PART- A-TWO MARKS QUESTIONS 1. What are the basic hardware components of a computer? 2. Name four secondary storage units? 3. Mention at least four input devices. 4. What are three main categories of CRT graphics display? 5. Classify printers. 6. Name two types of plotter. 7. What is design lead time? 8. Name three applications software used in CAD. 9. Name four utility commands used in a drafting software 10. Name four edit commands used in a drafting software. 11. What is the use of block option of a drafting software? 12. What is meant by morphology of design? 13. Mention the 3 phases of preliminary design phases in morphology of design. 14. Name phases related to production-consumption cycle in morphology of design 15. Why lead time in sequential product development is more? 16. Define geometric modeling. 17. Mention two important design analysis carried out using 3D model 18. What is ADAMS? 19. Define CAPP. 20. What are elements of CAE? 21. Mention one application of CAE. 22. Define CAD. Mentions areas of application of CAD. 23. Define CAM. 24. What is meant by modular construction and explain its use? 25. What is meant by sandwich construction and explain its use? 26. What is meant by concurrent engineering? 27. What is DFA? 28. What is DFM? 29. What is DFMA? 30. Define CAE. 31. Name any four reasons for implementing CAD in design. 32. Mention the CAD tools required to support various phase of the design.
33. What are main features of a drafting software? 34. What is an operating system? 35. Mention anv four operating system. 36. What is pixel? PART – B-REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. 2. Explain seven phases of morphology of design proposed by ASIMOW? 2. Compare the conventional product cycle with computer aided product cycle. 3. Compare sequential engineering with concurrent engineering. 4. List the benefits of concurrent engineering. 5. Explain the features of concurrent engineering. 6. Explain the role of computers in design. 7. Explain the role of computers in manufacturing. 8. Define CAD. Explain how the computer can assist the design process. 9. Define CAE? What are its elements? Explain with an example. 10. Explain the design process proposed by Shigley. 11. Explain the steps followed in design process proposed by Earle. 12. What is meant by knowledge based engineer (KBE)? Explain how KBE improves the productivity of CAE? 13. Mention the importance of DFM? Explain why a designer should know about DFM ? 14. Explain the general guidelines to be followed in DFM? 15. List some important DFM guide lines to be followed the moulding, forming and metal removal processes. 16. State some of the important guide lines to be followed in DFA. 17. Define CAM? Also explain different activities carried out in CAM and implementation of CAM on a CAD/CAM process. 18. List and explain benefits of CAD. 19. Explain the typical features of drafting software. 20. List and explain the functions of each input and output devices of a CAD system? 21. Write short notes about graphics display devices. 22. Give specification of a computer used in CAD environment. 23. Explain the importance of CAD/CAM database. 24. What is product cycle and explain the various steps involved in product cycle?
25. With the help of neat sketch explain the implementation of a typical CAD process in a design department. 26. Briefly explain the benefits of computer aided design. 27. What is meant by computer aided engineering? Discuss how CAE can help to optimize the product design. 28. What do you understand by design for manufacture and assembly (DFMA)? 29. State the various design phases and brief explains them? Also explain with block diagram the aid of computer in the design process. 30. Discuss the application of computer in the following computer aided design process. a. Engineering analysis b. Automated drafting. 31. Explain the terms layering, scaling and primitives in solid modeling.