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Yoga's Forgotten Foundation

Yoga's Forgotten Foundation

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Yoga's Forgotten Foundation:
Twenty Timeless Keys
To Your Divine Destiny

From Publishers Weekly:
Yoga is not just a physical discipline, says the late guru Subramuniyaswami, founder of the Himalayan Academy, author of How to Become a Hindu and a tireless leader in the establishment of Hinduism in the West. Yoga, he says, is a comprehensive and transformative spiritual program for wholeness and inner peace. He outlines 10 yamas (restraints) that lead to happiness, including non-harming, patience, compassion, purity and a moderate appetite. He also outlines 10 niyamas (observances), such as tithing, chanting mantras, studying scripture, seeking serenity and showing remorse for misdeeds. The book is highly practical, with specific suggestions for keeping each yama and niyama. Full-color illustrations are sprinkled throughout the book to demonstrate the various principles.
Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Product Description
A must-read for serious yoga practitioners, meditators and anyone deeply involved with transformative spiritual life, Yoga's Forgotten Foundation delves into the integrated approach to yoga as taught by the great masters of India. It is a cogent reminder to those who want to start at the end of the spiritual path that there is an essential beginning, the neglect of which portends failure and disappointment. In 224 pages, with full-color Indian art, it explores the traditional foundation of yoga, twenty little-known guidelines on personal ethics, self-control and religious practice, called the yamas and niyamas.

The yamas and niyamas have been preserved through the centuries as the first and second stage of the eight-staged practice of yoga. They provide the essential foundation to support our yoga practice so that attainments in higher consciousness can be sustained.

The book begins with a forward by the author's spiritual successor, Satguru Bodhinatha Veylanswami, and takes the reader step by step through noninjury, truthfulness, nonstealing, sexual purity, patience, contentment and other facets of virtue. Grounded in a traditional Hindu point of view, yet admirably relevant to us all, the book discusses some of the toughest issues and challenges of modern life, including promiscuity, domestic abuse, child-rearing, overeating, gambling, vegetarianism, violence, injustice and pornography—relating them all to progress on the yoga path. It also explores the essential practices, including charity, worship, chanting mantras, austerity and scriptural study. 224 pages, full color.
Yoga's Forgotten Foundation:
Twenty Timeless Keys
To Your Divine Destiny

From Publishers Weekly:
Yoga is not just a physical discipline, says the late guru Subramuniyaswami, founder of the Himalayan Academy, author of How to Become a Hindu and a tireless leader in the establishment of Hinduism in the West. Yoga, he says, is a comprehensive and transformative spiritual program for wholeness and inner peace. He outlines 10 yamas (restraints) that lead to happiness, including non-harming, patience, compassion, purity and a moderate appetite. He also outlines 10 niyamas (observances), such as tithing, chanting mantras, studying scripture, seeking serenity and showing remorse for misdeeds. The book is highly practical, with specific suggestions for keeping each yama and niyama. Full-color illustrations are sprinkled throughout the book to demonstrate the various principles.
Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Product Description
A must-read for serious yoga practitioners, meditators and anyone deeply involved with transformative spiritual life, Yoga's Forgotten Foundation delves into the integrated approach to yoga as taught by the great masters of India. It is a cogent reminder to those who want to start at the end of the spiritual path that there is an essential beginning, the neglect of which portends failure and disappointment. In 224 pages, with full-color Indian art, it explores the traditional foundation of yoga, twenty little-known guidelines on personal ethics, self-control and religious practice, called the yamas and niyamas.

The yamas and niyamas have been preserved through the centuries as the first and second stage of the eight-staged practice of yoga. They provide the essential foundation to support our yoga practice so that attainments in higher consciousness can be sustained.

The book begins with a forward by the author's spiritual successor, Satguru Bodhinatha Veylanswami, and takes the reader step by step through noninjury, truthfulness, nonstealing, sexual purity, patience, contentment and other facets of virtue. Grounded in a traditional Hindu point of view, yet admirably relevant to us all, the book discusses some of the toughest issues and challenges of modern life, including promiscuity, domestic abuse, child-rearing, overeating, gambling, vegetarianism, violence, injustice and pornography—relating them all to progress on the yoga path. It also explores the essential practices, including charity, worship, chanting mantras, austerity and scriptural study. 224 pages, full color.

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Published by: Himalayan Academy Publications on Jul 27, 2009
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l¯ï¯-ï -ï-ï ¯ïï ¯ï¯¯ï -ï ¯ï-ï

First Edition
Copyright © 2004
by Himalayan Academy
Yoga’s Forgotten Foundation, Twenty Timeless Keys to Your
Divine Destiny is published bv Himalavan Academv. All
rights are reserved. Tis book mav be used to share the
Hindu Dharma with others on the spiritual path, but
reproduced onlv with the publisher’s prior written consent.
Designed, tvpeset and edited bv the sannyâsin swâmîs of the
Saiva Siddhanta Yoga Order, :o, Kalolalele Road, Kapaa,
Hawaii, oo,ao-o,oa, USA.
Art Descriptions
Chapter Art: The art opening each chapter is the work of A. Manivelu.
Cover Art: Artist S. Rajam depicts Lord Íiva embracing the restraints
and observances with ten pairs of seekers, one yama and one niyama as
described in the text.
Dakshi∫âmûrti: Opposite the half-title page is a photo of the twelve-
foot-tall black granite statue of Lord Íiva as the silent sage, teacher of
teachers. The statue is situated at Kauai’s Hindu Monastery at the north
perimeter of Iraivan Temple.
Half-title page: S. Rajam paints each of the twenty yamas and niyamas
being practiced under a giant forest tree.
Published bv
Himalavan Academv
USA • India
vvi×1iu i× m.i.vsi. vv s.mvoov×. vvi×1ivs su× vuu
vv .vv.×cimi×1 wi1u Um. vUviic.1io×s
Librarv of Congress Control Number :oo,::oo8,
ISbn o-oa,ao,-o:-:
Twenty Timeless Keys
To Your Divine Destiny
l¯ï¯-ï -ï-ï ¯ïï ¯ï¯¯ï -ï ¯ï-ï
·¯ïï-ïï·ï ¯ïï -ïﯯï¯ï
l¯ï ïïl-ï-+¯ï¯ïïl-ï-ï-¯ï +-ï¯ï
Satguru Sivaya
Subramuniyaswami
v CONTENTS
Contents
Vishayasûchî
l¯ï¯ï¯ï¯ï¯ïl
Foreword—Upakrama˙ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii
Author’s Introduction—Granthakâra Bhûmikâ . . . . . . . . xi
:. Te First Restraint, Noninjurv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :
:. Te Second Restraint, Truthfulness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,
,. Te Tird Restraint, Nonstealing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ::
a. Te Fourth Restraint, Sexual Puritv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . :,
,. Te Fifh Restraint, Patience. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :,
o. Te Sixth Restraint, Steadfastness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :o
,. Te Seventh Restraint, Compassion . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,,
8. Te Eighth Restraint, Honestv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,,
o. Te Ninth Restraint, Moderate Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . a,
:o. Te Tenth Restraint, Puritv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,:
::. Te First Observance, Remorse and Modestv . . . . . ,,
::. Te Second Observance, Contentment . . . . . . . . . . . o,
:,. Te Tird Observance, Giving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,,
:a. Te Fourth Observance, Faith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8,
:,. Te Fifh Observance, Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o,
:o. Te Sixth Observance, Scriptural Studv . . . . . . . . . :o:
:,. Te Seventh Observance, Cognition . . . . . . . . . . . . :oo
:8. Te Eighth Observance, Sacred Vows . . . . . . . . . . . ::o
:o. Te Ninth Observance, Recitation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ::,
:o. Te Tenth Observance, Austeritv and Sacrifce . . . :,:
Conclusion—Samâpanam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :,,
Glossarv—Íabda Koßa˙ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :a:
Sanskrit Pronunciation—Ucchâra∫am Saµsk®ita. . . . . . :o,
Index—Anukrama∫ikâ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :oo
Colophon—Antyavachanam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :8:
About the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :8,
vii
Foreword
Upakrama˙
¯¯ï+¯-ï
UrUdevA trAveled by AIr often, And from
tIme to tIme commented on how pro·
feSSIonAlly the flIght crew hAd con-
DUCTED THEMSELVES. HE WOULD ASK, “HOW
ofen do vou see a professional team of people misbehave on
the job: You’re on a fight from San Francisco to Singapore.
Do the stewardesses bicker in the aisle: Of course not. People
at this level of business have control of their minds and emo-
tions. If they didn’t, they would soon be replaced. when they
are on the job, at least, thev follow a code of conduct spelled
out in detail bv the corporation.” He would go on to sav
that it’s not unlike the moral code of anv religion, outlining
sound ethics for respect and harmonv among humans. Tose
seeking to be successful in life strive to fulfll a moral code
whether “on the job” or of. Does Hinduism and its scriptures
on yoga have such a code: Yes: twentv ethical guidelines
called yamas and niyamas, “restraints and observances.”
Tese “do’s” and “don’ts” are a common-sense code
recorded in the Upanishads, the fnal section of the o,ooo-
to 8,ooo-vear-old Vedas, mankind’s oldest bodv of scripture,
and in other holv texts expounding the path of yoga. Te
yamas and niyamas have been preserved through the cen-
turies as the foundation, the frst and second stages, of the
eight-staged practice of yoga. Yet, thev are fundamental to all
beings, expected aims of evervone in societv, and assumed
to be fullv intact for anvone seeking life’s highest aim in the
pursuit called yoga. Sage Patanjali (ca :oo vci), raja yoga’s
foremost propounder, told us, “Tese yamas are not limited
bv class, countrv, time (past, present or future) or situation.
Hence thev are called the universal great vows.” Yogic scholar
FOREWORD
viii
Yoga’s forgotten foundation
viii
Swami brahmananda Saraswati revealed the inner science
of yama and niyama. Tev are the means, he said, to control
the vitarkas, the cruel mental waves or thoughts, that when
acted upon result in injurv to others, untruthfulness, hoard-
ing, discontent, indolence or selfshness. He stated, “For each
vitarka vou have, vou can create its opposite through yama
and niyama, and make vour life successful.”
Todav’s popular concept of yoga equates it with ha†ha yoga
and the practice of the ha†ha yoga âsanas, or postures. Manv
who practice voga do so solelv for health benefts. However,
others pursue it in hopes of reaping the spiritual benefts it
ofers. It is to these spiritual seekers who have higher con-
sciousness as the goal of their yoga that this book is directed.
Yoga is also known as ash†âˆga yoga because it consists
of eight stages: yama, restraint; niyama, observance; âsana,
seat or posture; prâ∫âyâma, mastering life force; pratyâhâra,
withdrawal; dhara∫â, concentration; dhyâna, meditation;
and samâdhi, God Realization. Tese two vital stages—yama,
the restraints; and niyama, the observances—traditionallv
precede âsana, but thev are omitted in most yoga classes
todav. We can liken these eight limbs to a tall building. Te
yamas are the frst part of the foundation, like the cement,
and the niyamas are the second part, like the steel. Together
thev provide the support a skvscraper needs to stand. Åsana,
prâ∫âyâma and pratyâhâra are like the lower foors, dhâra∫a,
dhyâna, the middle ones, and samâdhi is the top foor.
I remember years ago watching the transamerica build-
ing in San Francisco being erected. First the construction
crew dug down quite a depth with huge equipment. Ten
massive steel pilings were driven, inches at a time, hundreds
of feet into the earth. Ten thousands of vards of concrete
were poured. Te long lineup of cement trucks created a traf-
fc jam in the well-tramcked business district. From the con-
crete, the steel rose upward as a framework for the rest of the
structure. Tis massive foundation was needed to keep this
FOREWORD ix
famous modern pvramid from toppling in an earthquake.
In spiritual life, without a foundation of good character
and discipline, success in yoga will not be lasting. Sooner or
later, the earthquakes in our personal life, the times of great
stress and dimcultv, will bring outbursts of anger or periods
of discouragement, causing our higher consciousness to
fall back to earth. to quote from gurudeva: “It is true that
bliss comes from meditation, and it is true that higher con-
sciousness is the heritage of all mankind. However, the ten
restraints and their corresponding practices are necessarv to
maintain bliss consciousness.” We are a soul, a divine being,
and it is important to refect on that Divinitv. However, we
are living in a phvsical bodv, and, therefore, in addition to
the soul, we also have an instinctive and intellectual nature.
Gurudeva describes this as the three phases of the mind:
instinctive, intellectual and superconscious.
Making progress on the spiritual path requires learn-
ing to control the instinctive mind. Tis is where the yamas
come into plav. Tev give us a list of tendencies we need to
control. Te classical depiction of restraint is the charioteer
pulling back on the reins of a team of horses to keep them
under control. Te practice of the nivamas develops a more
cultured nature that takes jov in scriptural studv, devotional
practices and helping others. It focuses on expressing our
soul nature in our outer actions. Together the vamas and
nivamas provide the foundation to support our voga practice
so that attainments in higher consciousness can be sustained.
How Gurudeva Created this Book
Yoga’s Forgotten Foundation was dictated bv Satguru Sivava
Subramunivaswami during twentv-fve afernoon editing
sessions with two of his âchâryas at Kauai’s beachboy hotel
between Februarv :a and March :o, :ooo. Gurudeva was
determined to capture the essence of these ancient guide-
lines and bring them forward to the world in answer to the
x
Yoga’s forgotten foundation
x
fallacv that “Hinduism has no code of ethics.” For manv
decades, he had known onlv of the fve yamas and niyamas
that are presented bv Sage Patanjali in his Yoga Sûtras and
brushed over in nearlv all voga texts as the frst and second
stages of ash†âˆga yoga. but those ten guidelines were not
complete enough to encompass the broad scope of human
conduct. In the late sixties, in fact, gurudeva presented his
own unique ,o-point code of virtuous, contemplative living,
which included planting trees, perfecting an art or craf and
leaving beautv where vou pass (see Living with Íiva chapter
:a, “Life the Great Experience”). So, fnding that there was
indeed an ancient and much more comprehensive set of
twentv yamas and niyamas was like unearthing gold. His
swamis discovered these in Rishi Tirumular’s Tirumantiram,
a :,:oo-vear-old vogic scripture written in ancient Tamil,
which gurudeva commissioned dr. b. natarajan to translate
into English in :o,8. Now thev had onlv to be elucidated
and brought into the Hindu mainstream through cogent
commentarv.
From the outset, Gurudeva envisioned his dissertations
being compiled into a book—the verv book vou now hold
in vour hands. Sitting with his monastic editing team from
a to ,pm everv dav for fve weeks, Gurudeva spoke out
from the “inner skv” on each virtue and religious practice,
responding to specifc questions from the two âchâryas to
draw forth his wisdom. gurudeva used to say, “I have good
writers upstairs.” Te answers were tvped into the verv
frst laptop computer we ever owned, a Sonv TvpeCorder,
which recorded the text on micro-cassette tapes, which were
downloaded to desktop Macintoshes at the monasterv the
next dav. At that time, there were lots of other projects in
process for the Ganapati Kulam (the monasterv group that
produces publications), most importantlv Dancing with
Íiva, so all those hours of dictation were neatlv set aside for
some future date when thev could be compiled, cleaned up
FOREWORD xi
(it was horriblv dimcult to tvpe on that stif Sonv kevboard)
and brought back to the table for editing suggestions and
for further input from Gurudeva. As unlikelv as it would
have seemed then, those precious manuscripts would lie
untouched for a full ten vears, until the turn of the millen-
nium, when Gurudeva turned his attention to Living with
Íiva, the third massive tome in his Master Course trilogv.
In fact, gurudeva considered these yamas and niyamas
the heart and core of that thousand-page masterpiece on
Hinduism’s contemporarv culture. He worked on Living with
Íiva at his editing sessions everv dav for almost two vears,
beginning in :ooo, driven inwardlv to complete it.
It was only afer gurudeva’s passing into the Íivaloka
in :oo: that the idea reemerged of a separate small book
presenting this ancient and now fullv illuminated “code
of conduct.” I was inspired to extract and repurpose it to
reach a broader audience as a handbook for spiritual life.
like gurudeva, I was concerned that so many seekers are
unaware of these guidelines for good character and self-
discipline and therefore are not properlv prepared for the
practice of yoga, or even to live a wholesome, spiritual life.
Satguru bodhinatha veylanswami
:o,·³ Jagadâchârya of the nandinâtha
sampradâya’s Kailâsa Paramparâ
guru Mahâsannidhânam
Kauai aadheenam, Hawaii
xiii IntrodUctIon
Introduction
Bhûmikâ
-ïl-ï+¯ï
elIgIon teAcheS US how to become bet-
ter people, how to lIve AS SpIrI tUAl
be IngS on thIS eArth. thIS hAppenS
throUgh lIvIng vIrtUoUSly, followIng
the natural and essential guidelines of dharma. For Hindus,
these guidelines are recorded in the yamas and niyamas,
ancient scriptural injunctions for all aspects of human
thought, attitude and behavior. In Indian spiritual life, these
Vedic restraints and observances are built into the character
of children from a verv earlv age. For adults who have been
subjected to opposite behavioral patterns, these guidelines
mav seem to be like commandments. However, even thev
can, with great dedication and efort, remold their character
and create the foundation necessarv for a sustained spiritual
life. Trough following the yamas and niyamas, we cultivate
our refned, spiritual being while keeping the instinctive
nature in check. We lif ourself into the consciousness of
the higher chakras—of love, compassion, intelligence and
bliss—and naturallv invoke the blessings of the divine devas
and Mahådevas.
Yama means “reining in” or “control.” Te yamas in clude
such injunctions as noninjurv (ahiµsâ), nonstealing
(as teya) and moderation in eating (mitâhâra), which har-
ness the base, instinctive nature. Niyama, literallv “unleash-
ing,” indicates the expression of refned, soul qualities
through such disciplines as charitv (dâna), contentment
(san tosha) and incantation (japa).
It is true that bliss comes from meditation, and it is
true that higher consciousness is the heritage of all man-
kind. However, the ten restraints and their corresponding
xiv
Yoga’s forgotten foundation Yoga’s forgotten foundation
xiv
practices are necessarv to maintain bliss consciousness, as
well as all of the good feelings toward oneself and others
attainable in anv incarnation. Tese restraints and practices
build character. Character is the foundation for spiritual
unfoldment.
Te fact is, the higher we go, the lower we can fall. Te
top chakras spin fast; the lowest one available to us spins
even faster. Te platform of character must be built within
our lifestvle to maintain the total contentment needed to
persevere on the path. Tese great ®ishis saw the frailtv of
human nature and gave these guidelines, or disciplines, to
make it strong. Tev said, “Strive!” Let’s strive to not hurt
others, to be truthful and honor all the rest of the virtues
thev outlined.
The ten yamas are: I) ahiµsâ, “noninjury,” not harm-
ing others by thought, word or deed; 2) satya, “truthfulness,”
refraining from lying and betraying promises; ,) asteya,
“nonstealing,” neither stealing nor coveting nor entering into
debt; a) brahmacharya,

“divine conduct,” controlling lust
by remaining celibate when single, leading to faith fulness
in marriage; -) kshamâ,

“patience,” restraining intolerance
with people and impatience with circumstances; o) dh®iti,
“steadfastness,” overcoming nonperseverance, fear, indeci-
sion, inconstancy and changeableness; ,) dayâ, “compassion,”
conquering callous, cruel and insensitive feelings toward all
beings; 8) ârjava, “honesty, straightforwardness,” renounc-
ing deception and wrongdoing; u) mitâhâra, “moderate
appetite,” neither eating too much nor consuming meat,
fsh, fowl or eggs; Io) ßaucha, “purity,” avoiding impur ity in
body, mind and speech.
Te niyamas are: I) hrî, “remorse,” being modest and
showing shame for misdeeds; :) santosha, “contentment,”
seeking joy and serenity in life; ,) dâna, “giving,” tithing
and giving generously without thought of reward; a) âstikya,
“faith,” believing frmly in God, Gods, guru and the path to
xv IntrodUctIon
enlightenment; -) Èßvarapûjana, “worship of the Lord,” the
cultivation of devotion through daily worship and medita-
tion; o) siddhânta ßrava∫a, “scriptural listening,” studying
the teachings and listening to the wise of one’s lineage;
,) mati, “cognition,” developing a spiritual will and intel-
lect with the guru’s guidance; 8) vrata, “sacred vows,” fulfll-
ing religious vows, rules and observances faithfully; u) japa,
“recitation,” chanting mantras daily; Io) tapas, “austerity,”
performing sâdhana, penance, tapas and sacrifce.
In comparing the yamas to the niyamas, we fnd the
restraint of noninjurv, ahiµsâ, makes it possible to practice
hrî, remorse. Truthfulness brings on the state of santosha,
contentment. And the third yama, asteya, nonstealing, must
be perfected before the third niyama, giving without anv
thought of reward, is even possible. Sexual puritv brings
faith in God, Gods and guru. Kshamâ, patience, is the
foundation for Èßvarapûjana, worship, as is dh®iti, steadfast-
ness, the foundation for siddhânta ßravana. Te yama of
dayâ, compassion, defnitelv brings mati, cognition. Årjava,
honestv—renouncing deception and all wrongdoing—is
the foundation for vrata, taking sacred vows and faithfullv
fulflling them. Mitâhâra, moderate appetite, is where yoga
begins, and vegetarianism is essential before the practice of
japa, recitation of holv mantras, can reap its true beneft in
one’s life. Íaucha, puritv in bodv, mind and speech, is the
foundation and the protection for all austerities.
Te twentv restraints and observances are the frst two
of the eight limbs of ash†âˆga yoga, constituting Hinduism’s
fundamental ethical code. because it is brief, the entire code
can be easilv memorized and reviewed dailv at the familv
meetings in each home. Te yamas and niyamas are the
essential foundation for all spiritual progress. Tev are cited
in numerous scriptures, including the Íâ∫∂ilya and Varâha
Upanishads, the Ha†ha Yoga Pradîpikâ bv Gorakshanatha,
the Tirumantiram of Rishi Tirumular and the Yoga Sûtras
xvi
Yoga’s forgotten foundation Yoga’s forgotten foundation
xvi
of Sage Patanjali. All of these ancient texts list ten yamas and
ten niyamas, with the exception of Patanjali’s classic work,
which lists just fve of each. Patanjali lists the yamas as:
ahiµsâ, satya, asteya, brahmacharya and aparigraha (non-
covetousness); and the niyamas as: ßaucha, santosha, tapas,
svâdhyâya (self-refection, scriptural studv) and Èßvara pra∫i-
dhâna (worship).
In the hindu tradition, it is primarily the mother’s job
to build character within the children, and therebv to con-
tinuallv improve societv. Mothers can studv and teach these
guidelines to uplif their children as well as themselves. Each
discipline focuses on a diferent aspect of human nature,
its strengths and weaknesses. Taken as a sum total, thev
encompass the whole of human experience and spiritualitv.
You mav do well in upholding some of these but not so well
in others. Tat is to be expected. Tat defnes the sâdhana,
therefore, to be perfected.
Te yamas and niyamas and their function in our life can
be likened to a chariot pulled bv ten horses. Te passenger
inside the chariot is vour soul. Te chariot itself represents
vour phvsical, astral and mental bodies. Te driver of the
chariot is vour external ego, vour personal will. Te wheels
are vour divine energies. Te niyamas, or spiritual practices,
represent the spirited horses, named Hrî, santosha, dâna,
Åstikya, Èßvarapûjana, siddhânta Írava∫a, Mati, Vrata, Japa,
and tapas. the yamas, or restraints, are the reins, called
ahiµsâ, satya, asteya, Brahmacharya, Kshamâ, dh®iti, dayâ,
Årjava, Mitâhâra and Íaucha. by holding tight to the reins,
the charioteer, vour will, guides the strong horses so thev can
run forward swiflv and gallantlv as a dvnamic unit. So, as
we restrain the lower, instinctive qualities through uphold-
ing the yamas, the soul moves forward to its destination in
the state of santosha. Santosha, peace, is the eternal satisfac-
tion of the soul. At the deepest level, the soul is alwavs in the
state of santosha. but outwardly, the propensity of the soul
xvii IntrodUctIon
is to be clouded bv lack of restraint of the instinctive nature,
lack of restraint of the intellectual nature, lack of restraint of
the emotional nature, lack of restraint of the phvsical bodv
itself. Terefore, hold tight the reins.
Te yamas, or restraints, must be well understood and
accomplished before the niyamas can be earnestlv under-
taken. While we are worried about truthfulness, nonstealing,
patience, compassion and being honest, how can we practice
the niyamas—contentment, charitv, worship, recitation of
mantras? Te answer is, we can’t. Te niyamas follow the
yamas. Once the yamas are safelv tucked awav, and our
lifestvle, thinking stvle, speech stvle, emotional stvle refect
these ten restaints, then we can move on to the niyamas.
Once vou feel vou have a minimal masterv of the yamas,
then go on to the niyamas, the practices, in full vigor. Te
observances will strengthen the restraints, as the restraints
will allow us to fulfll the observances.
You must realize that throughout this process vou are a
self-efulgent soul, perfect in everv wav, incomprehensiblv
beautiful, as a shining one, but that the lifestvles, thinking
stvles, etc., at this time in the Kali Yuga are incomprehen-
siblv complex, ofen demoralizing, and depression can set
in at a moment’s notice. but always keep in mind your here-
and-now perfection, alreadv-done perfection. You don’t
have to do a thing about it other than learn how to live
with it, and manifest it in vour dailv life. Deal with it. Tese
restraints and observances can adjust the outside view to the
beautiful self-efulgent, shining inner vou.
It is important to realize that the yamas, restraints, are
not out of the reach of the lowliest among us. No matter
where we are in the scale of life, we all started from the
beginning, at the bottom, didn’t we: Tis is our philoso-
phv. Tis is our religion. Tis is the evolution of the soul.
We improve, life afer life, and these guidelines, yamas
and niyamas, restraints and practices, are gifs from our
xviii
Yoga’s forgotten foundation Yoga’s forgotten foundation
xviii
®ishis, from God Íiva Himself through them, to allow us to
judge ourself against these pillars of virtue as to how far we
have progressed or strayed. In the early births, we are like
children. We do not strav from anvthing. We run here and
there and evervwhere, disobev everv rule, which when told
of we cannot remember. We ignore anv admonishment. As
adolescents, we force our will on societv, want to change
it, because we don’t like the hold it has on us. Wanting to
express themselves in most creative wavs, rebellious vouths
separate themselves from other people, children and the
adults. Tev do make changes, but not alwavs for the best.
As an adult, we see both—the past and the impending
future of old age—and, heads down, we are concerned with
accumulating enough to see life through to its uncertain
end. When the accumulations have become adequate, we
will look back at the undisciplined children, the headstrong,
unrulv adolescents and the self-possessed, concentrated
adults and try to motivate all three groups. In our great
religion, the sanâtana Dharma, known todav as Hinduism,
twentv precepts, the yamas and niyamas, restraints and
observances, are the guidelines we use to motivate these
three groups. Tese are the guidelines thev use to motivate
themselves, for each group is mvsticallv independent of the
others; so it seems.
xix IntrodUctIon
Te Way of Yama-Niyama
Te being first,
Te Meaning-Central of Vedas all,
Te Light Divine,
Te Fire within that Light,
He who shares Himself
Half-and-Half with His Íakti
And the Divine Iustice thereof—
Tem, he in niyama’s path knows.
Ten Virtues of Yama
Puritv, compassion, frugal food and patience
Forthrightness, truth and steadfastness—
Tese he ardentlv cherishes.
Killing, stealing and lusting he abhors.
Tus stands with virtues ten
Te one who niyama’s wavs observes.
Ten Attributes of Niyama
Tapas, meditation, serenitv, and holiness
Charitv, vows in Íaiva Wav and siddhânta learning
Sacrifce, Íiva pûjâ and thoughts pure—
With these ten, the one in
Niyama perfects his Wavs.
Tirumantiram, 555-557
xx
Yoga’s forgotten foundation
xx
Te Ten Yamas, Restraints for
Proper Conduct from the Vedas
:. Noninjurv, ahiµsâ: Not harming others
bv thought, word, or deed.
:. Truthfulness, satya: Refraining from
lving and betraving promises.
,. Nonstealing, asteya: Neither stealing, nor
coveting nor entering into debt.
a. Divine conduct, brahmacharya: Controlling
lust bv remaining celibate when single, lead-
ing to faithfulness in marriage.
,. Patience, kshamâ: Restraining intolerance
with people and impatience with
circumstances.
o. Steadfastness, dh®iti: Overcoming
nonperseverance, fear, indecision and
changeableness.
,. Compassion, dayâ: Conquering callous, cruel
and insensitive feelings toward all beings.
8. Honestv, straightforwardness, ârjava:
Renouncing deception and wrongdoing.
o. Moderate appetite, mitâhâra: Neither eating too
much nor consuming meat, fsh, fowl or eggs.
:o. Puritv, ßaucha: Avoiding impuritv in bodv,
mind and speech.
Yoga’s forgotten foundation
xxi IntrodUctIon
Te Ten Niyamas, Observances
For Spiritual Life from the Vedas
:. Remorse, hrî: being modest and
showing shame for misdeeds.
:. Contentment, santosha: Seeking
jov and serenitv in life.
,. Giving, dâna: Tithing and giving
generouslv without thought of reward.
a. Faith, âstikya: believing frmly
in God, Gods, guru and the path
to enlightenment.
,. Worship of the Lord, Èßvarapûjana: Te
cultivation of devotion through dailv
worship and meditation.
o. Scriptural listening, siddhânta ßrava∫a:
Studving the teachings and listening to the
wise of one’s lineage.
,. Cognition, mati: Developing a spiritual will
and intellect with the guru’s guidance.
8. Sacred vows, vrata: Fulflling religious vows,
rules and observances faithfullv.
o. Recitation, japa:
Chanting mantras dailv.
:o. Austeritv, tapas: Performing sâdhana,
penance, tapas and sacrifce.

Summary of the First Restraint
Practice noninjurv, not harming others bv
thought, word or deed, even in vour dreams.
Live a kindlv life, revering all beings as expres-
sions of the One Divine energv. Let go of fear
and insecuritv, the sources of abuse. Knowing
that harm caused to others unfailinglv returns
to oneself, live peacefullv with God’s creation.
Never be a source of dread, pain or injurv.
Follow a vegetarian diet.
One man is beating a small boy, while an onlooker
rushes forward to intervene and stop the injury.
chApter 1: nonInjUry :
1ui iivs1 vis1v.i×1
Noninjury
Ahiµsâ
¤lr¯ïï
HE fiRST Yama IS AHI˜SÅ, nonInjUry. to
prActIce AHI˜SÅ, one hAS to prActIce
saNTOsha, CONTENTMENT. THE SÅ DHANA
IS to SeeK joy And SerenIty In lIfe, re-
maining content with what one has, knows, is doing and
those with whom he associates. bear your karma cheerfullv.
Live within vour situation contentedlv. Hiµsâ, or injurv, and
the desire to harm, comes from discontent.
Te ®ishis who revealed the principles of dharma or
divine law in Hindu scripture knew full well the potential for
human sufering and the path which could avert it. To them
a one spiritual power fowed in and through all things in this
universe, animate and inanimate, conferring existence bv
its presence. To them life was a coherent process leading all
souls without exception to enlightenment, and no violence
could be carried to the higher reaches of that ascent. Tese
®ishis were mvstics whose revelation disclosed a cosmos in
which all beings exist in interlaced dependence. Te whole
is contained in the part, and the part in the whole. based on
this cognition, thev taught a philosophv of nondiference of
self and other, asserting that in the fnal analvsis we are not
separate from the world and its manifest forms, nor from the
Divine which shines forth in all things, all beings, all peoples.
From this understanding of oneness arose the philosophical
basis for the practice of noninjurv and Hinduism’s ancient
commitment to it.
We all know that Hindus, who are one-sixth of the human
race todav, believe in the existence of God evervwhere, as
an all-pervasive, self-efulgent energv and consciousness.
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon :
Tis basic belief creates the attitude of sublime tolerance
and acceptance toward others. Even tolerance is insuffcient
to describe the compassion and reverence the Hindu holds
for the intrinsic sacredness within all things. Terefore,
the actions of all Hindus are rendered benign, or ahiµsâ.
One would not want to hurt something which one revered.
On the other hand, when the fundamentalists of anv
religion teach an unrelenting dualitv based on good and evil,
man and nature or God and Devil, this creates friends and
enemies. Tis belief is a sacrilege to Hindus, because thev
know that the attitudes which are the bv-product are totallv
dualistic, and for good to triumph over that which is alien or
evil, it must kill out that which is considered to be evil.
Te Hindu looks at nothing as intrinsicallv evil. To him
the ground is sacred. Te skv is sacred. Te sun is sacred.
His wife is a Goddess. Her husband is a God. Teir children
are devas. Teir home is a shrine. Life is a pilgrimage to
mukti, or liberation from rebirth, which once attained is the
end to reincarnation in a phvsical bodv. When on a holv pil-
grimage, one would not want to hurt anvone along the wav,
knowing full well the experiences on this path are of one’s
own creation, though mavbe acted out through others.
Noninjury for Renunciates
Ahiµsâ is the frst and foremost virtue, presiding over
truthfulness, nonstealing, sexual puritv, patience, stead-
fastness, compassion, honestv and moderate appetite. Te
brahmachârî and sannyâsin must take ahiµsâ, noninjurv,
one step further. He has mutated himself, escalated himself,
bv stopping the abilities of being able to harm another bv
thought, word or deed, phvsicallv, mentallv or emotionallv.
Te one step further is that he must not harm his own self
with his own thoughts, his own feelings, his own actions
toward his own bodv, toward his own emotions, toward his
own mind. Tis is verv important to remember. And here, at
chApter 1: nonInjUry ,
this juncture, ahiµsâ has a tie with satya, truthfulness. Te
sannyâsin must be totallv truthful to himself, to his guru, to
the Gods and to Lord Íiva, who resides within him everv
minute of every hour of every day. but for him to truly know
this and express it through his life and be a living religious
example of the sanâtana Dharma, all tendencies toward
hiµsâ, injuriousness, must alwavs be defnitelv harnessed
in chains of steel. Te mystical reason is this. because of
the brahmachârî’s or sannyâsin’s spiritual power, he reallv
has more abilitv to hurt someone than he or that person
mav know, and therefore his observance of noninjurv is
even more vital. Yes, this is true. A brahmachârî or san-
nyâsin who does not live the highest level of ahiµsâ is not
a brahmachârî.
Words are expressions of thoughts, thoughts created
from prâ∫a. Words coupled with thoughts backed up bv
the transmuted prâ∫as, or the accumulated bank account
of energies held back within the brahmachârî and the san-
nyâsin, become powerful thoughts, and when expressed
through words go deep into the mind, creating impressions,
saµskâras, that last a long time, maybe forever. It is truly
unfortunate if a brahmachârî or sannyâsin loses control of
himself and betravs ahiµsâ bv becoming hiµsâ, an injurious
person—unfortunate for those involved, but more unfortu-
nate for himself. When we hurt another, we scar the inside of
ourself; we clone the image. Te scar would never leave the
sannyâsin until it lef the person that he hurt. Tis is because
the prâ∫as, the transmuted energies, give so much force to
the thought. Tus the words penetrate to the verv core of
the being. Terefore, angrv people should get married and
should not practice brahmacharya.
a boy has broken a vase and is denying the mischief.
mother watches, hoping he will learn to tell the truth.

Summary of the Second Restraint
Adhere to truthfulness, refraining from lving
and betraving promises. Speak onlv that which
is true, kind, helpful and necessarv. Know-
ing that deception creates distance, don’t keep
secrets from family or loved ones. be fair,
accurate and frank in discussions, a stranger to
deceit. Admit vour failings. Do not engage in
slander, gossip or backbiting. Do not bear false
witness against another.
CHAPTER 2: TRUTHFULNESS ,
1ui sico×u vis1v.i×1
Truthfulness
Satya
¯ï-¯ï
aTYa, trUthfUlneSS, IS the Second Yama.
It SeemS thAt lIttle chIldren Are nAtU·
rAlly trUthfUl, open And honeSt. theIr
lIveS Are UncomplIcAted, And they
have no secrets. National studies show that children, even at
an earlv age, learn to lie from their parents. Tev are taught
to keep familv secrets, whom to like, whom to dislike, whom
to hate and whom to love, right within the home itself. Teir
minds become complicated and their judgments of what to
sav and what not to sav are ofen infuenced bv the possibil-
itv of a punishment, perhaps a beating. Terefore, to fullv
encompass satya and incorporate it in one’s life as a teenager
or an adult, it is quite necessarv to dredge the subconscious
mind and in some cases reject much of what mother or
father, relatives and elders had placed into it at an earlv age.
Onlv bv rejecting the apparent opposites, likes and dislikes,
hates and loves, can true truthfulness, which is a qualitv
of the soul, burst forth again and be there in full force as it
is within an innocent child. A child practices truthfulness
without wisdom. Wisdom, which is the timelv application
of knowledge, guides truthfulness for the adult. To attain
wisdom, the adult must be conversant with the soul nature.
What is it that keeps us from practicing truthfulness:
Fear, mainlv. Fear of discoverv, fear of punishment or loss of
status. Tis is the most honest untruthfulness. Te next laver
of untruthfulness would be the mischievous person willing
to take a chance of not being caught and deliberatelv invent-
ing stories about another, deliberatelv lving when the truth
would do just as well. Te third and worst laver is calculated
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon o
deception and breaking of promises.
satya is a restraint, and as one of the ten restraints it
ranks in importance as number two. When we restrain our
tendencies to deceive, to lie and break promises, our external
life is uncomplicated, as is our subconscious mind. Honestv
is the foundation of truth. It is ecologically, psychologically
purifving. However, manv people are not truthful with them-
selves, to themselves, let alone to others. And the calculated,
subconscious built-in program of these clever, cunning, two-
faced individuals keeps them in the inner worlds of darkness.
To emerge from those worlds, the practice of truthful-
ness, satya, is in itself a healing and purifving sâdhana.
what is breaking a promise? breaking a promise is, for
example, when someone confdes in vou, asks vou to keep
it to vourself and not to tell anvone, and then vou tell. You
have betraved vour promise. Confdences must be kept at
all costs in the practice of satya.
Tere are certainlv times when withholding the truth
is permitted. Te Tirukural, Weaver’s Wisdom, explains that
“Even falsehood is of the nature of truth if it renders good
results, free from fault” (292). An astrologer, for instance,
while reviewing a chart would refrain from telling of a heart-
break that might come to a person at a certain time in his life.
Tis is wisdom. In fact, astrologers are admonished by their
gurus to hold back information that might be harmful or
deeplv discouraging. A doctor might not tell his patient that
he will die in three davs when he sees the vital signs weaken-
ing. Instead, he may encourage positive thinking, give hope,
knowing that life is eternal and that to invoke fear might cre-
ate depression and hopelessness in the mind of the ill person.
When pure truthfulness would injure or cause harm,
then the frst yama, ahiµsâ, would come into efect. You
would not want to harm that person, even with the truth.
but we must not look at this verse from the Tirukural as
giving permission for deception. Te spirit of the verse
CHAPTER 2: TRUTHFULNESS ,
is wisdom, good judgment, not the subterfuge of telling
someone vou are going to Mumbai when vour actual des-
tination is Kalikot. Tat is not truthful. It would be much
better to avoid answering the question at all in some wav if
one wanted to conceal the destination of his journev. Tis
would be wisdom. You would not complicate vour own sub-
conscious mind bv telling an untruth, nor be labeled decep-
tive in the mind of the informed person when he eventuallv
discovers the actual truth.
Honesty with Your Guru
Some people use the excuse of truthfulness to nag their
spouse about what thev don’t like about him or her, or to
gossip about other people’s faws. Tis is not the spirit of
satya. We do not want to expose others’ faults. Such con-
frontations could become argumentative and combative.
no one knows one’s faults better than oneself. but fear and
weakness ofen prevail, while motivation and a clear plan
to correct the situation are absent. Terefore, to give a clear
plan, a positive outlook, a new wav of thinking, diverts the
attention of the individual and allows internal healing to
take place. Tis is wisdom. Tis is ahiµsâ, noninjurv. Tis
is satya, truthfulness. Te wise devotee is careful to never
insult or humiliate others, even under the pretext of telling
the truth, which is an excuse that people sometimes use to
tell others what thev don’t like about them. Wise devotees
realize that there is good and bad in evervone. Tere are
emotional ups and downs, mental elations and depressions,
encouragements and discouragements. Let’s focus on the
positive. Tis is ahiµsâ and satya working together.
Te brahmachârî and the sannyâsin must be absolutelv
truthful with their satguru. Tev must be absolutelv diplo-
matic, wise and alwavs accentuate the good qualities within
the sannyâsin and brahmachârî communities. Te guru has
the right to discuss, rebuke or discipline the uncomelv
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon 8
qualities in raising up the brahmachârî and sannyâsin.
Onlv he has this right, because it was given to him bv the
brahmachârîs and sannyâsins when thev took him as their
satguru. Tis means that brahmachârîs and sannyâsins can-
not discipline one another, psvchoanalvze and correct in the
name of truthfulness, without violation of the number one
yama—ahiµsâ, noninjurv.
Mothers and fathers have rights with their own chil-
dren, as do gurus with their ßishyas. Tese rights are limited
according to wisdom. Tev are not all-inclusive and should
not inhibit free will and well-rounded growth within an
individual. Tis is whv a guru is looked upon as the mother
and father bv the mother and father and bv the disciple
who is sent to the guru’s âßrama to study and learn. It is the
guru’s responsibilitv to mold the aspirant into a solid mem-
ber of the monastic communitv, just as it is the mother’s and
father’s dutv to mold the vouth to be a responsible, looked-
up-to member of the familv communitv. Tis is how societv
progresses.
Te practice, niyama, to strengthen one’s satya qualities
is tapas, austeritv—performing sâdhana, penance, tapas
and sacrifce. If you fnd vou have not been truthful, if vou
have betraved promises, then put vourself under the tapas
sâdhana. Perform a lengthv penance. Atone, repent, perform
austerities. You will soon fnd that being truthful is much
easier than what tapas and austerities will make vou go
through if vou fail to restrain vourself.
Truthfulness is the fullness of truth. Truth itself is full-
ness. Mav fullness prevail, truth prevail, and the spirit of
satya and ahiµsâ permeate humanitv.
CHAPTER 2: TRUTHFULNESS o
Two boys conspire to break the principle of asteva as
one distracts a merchant while the other steals a book.

Summary of the Tird Restraint
Uphold the virtue of nonstealing, neither thiev-
ing, coveting nor failing to repav debt. Control
vour desires and live within vour means. Do not
use borrowed resources for unintended pur-
poses or keep them past due. Do not gamble or
defraud others. Do not renege on promises. Do
not use others’ names, words, resources or rights
without permission and acknowledgement.
chApter 3: nonSteAlIng ::
1ui 1uivu vis1v.i×1
Nonstealing
Asteya
¤¯-ï¯ï
sTeYa IS the thIrd Yama, neiTher sTeaL-
inG, nor coveTinG nor enTerinG inTo
debT. we All Know whAt SteAlIng IS.
bUt now let’S define covetoUSneSS. It
could well be defned as owning something mentallv and
emotionallv but not actuallv owning it phvsicallv. Tis is
not good. It puts a hidden psychological strain on all parties
concerned and brings up the lower emotions from the tala
chakras. It must be avoided at all cost. coveting is desiring
things that are not vour own. Coveting leads to jealousv,
and it leads to stealing. Te frst impulse toward stealing is
coveting, wanting. If you can control the impulse to covet,
then vou will not steal. Coveting is mental stealing.
Of course, stealing must never ever happen. Even a
pennv, a peso, a rupee, a lira or a ven should not be misap-
propriated or stolen. Defaulting on debts is also a form of
stealing. but avoiding debt in principle does not mean that
one cannot buv things on credit or through other contrac-
tual arrangements. It does mean that payments must be
made at the expected time, that credit be given in trust and
be eliminated when the time has expired, that contracts be
honored to the satisfaction of all parties concerned. Running
one’s afairs on other peoples’ monev must be restrained. To
control this is the sâdhana of asteya. Brahmachârîs and san-
nyâsins, of course, must scrupulouslv obev these restraints
relating to debt, stealing and covetousness. Tese are cer-
tainlv not in their code of living.
To perfect asteya, we must practice dâna, charitv, the
third niyama; we must take the dâßama bhâga vrata, promis-
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon ::
ing to tithe, pav dâßamâµßa, to our favorite religious organi-
zation and, on top of that, give creativelv, without thought of
reward. Stealing is selfshness. Giving is unselfshness. Anv
lapse of asteya is corrected bv dâna.
It is important to realize that one cannot simply obey the
yamas without activelv practicing the niyamas. To restrain
one’s current tendencies successfullv, each must be replaced
bv a positive observance. For each of the yamas, there is a
positive replacement of doing something else. Te niyamas
must totallv overshadow the qualities controlled bv the
yamas for the perfect person to emerge. It is also important
to remember that doing what should not be done—and not
doing what should be done—does have its consequences.
Tese can be manv, depending upon the evolution of the
soul of each individual; but all such acts bring about the
lowering of consciousness into the instinctive nature, and
inevitable sufering is the result. Each Hindu guru has his
own wavs of mitigating the negative karmas that result as
a consequence of not living up to the high ideals of these
precepts. but the world is also a guru, in a sense, and its
devotees learn bv their own mistakes, ofen repeating the
same lessons manv, manv times.
Debt, Gambling and Grief
I was asked, “Is borrowing money to fnance one’s business
in accord with the yama of nonstealing: When can vou use
other peoples’ monev and when should vou not:” When
the creditors start calling vou for their monev back, send-
ing demand notices indicating that thev onlv extended vou
thirtv davs’, sixtv davs’ or ninetv davs’ credit, then if vou fail
to pav, or pav onlv a quarter or half of it just to keep them
at arm’s length because vou still need their monev to keep
doing what vou are doing, this is a violation of this yama.
Tere are several kinds of debt that are disallowed bv
this yama. One is spending bevond vour means and accu-
chApter 3: nonSteAlIng :,
mulating bills vou can’t pav. We are reminded of Tirukural
verse 478 which savs that the wav to avoid povertv is to
spend within vour means: “A small income is no cause for
failure, provided expenditures do not exceed it.” We can see
that false wealth, or the mere appearance of wealth, is using
other peoples’ monev, either against their will or bv paving
a premium price for it. Manv people todav are addicted to
abusing credit. It’s like being addicted to the drug opium.
People addicted to O.P.M.—other people’s monev—com-
pulsivelv spend bevond their means. Tev don’t even think
twice about handing over their last credit card to pav for that
$500 sârî afer all the other credit cards have been “maxed
out.” When the bill arrives, it gets added to the stack of other
bills that can’t possiblv be paid.
Another kind of debt is contracting resources bevond
vour abilitv to pav back the loan. Tis is depending on a frail,
uncertain future. Opportunities mav occur to pav the debt,
but then again thev mav not. Te desire was so great for the
commoditv which caused the debt that a chance was taken.
Essentiallv, this is gambling with someone else’s monev; and
it is no wav to run one’s life.
Gambling and speculation are also forms of entering
into debt. Speculation could be a proper form of acquiring
wealth if one has the wealth to maintain the same standard
of living he is accustomed to even if the speculation failed.
Much of business is speculation; and high-risk speculations
do come along occasionallv; but one should never risk more
than one can aford to lose.
Gambling is diferent, because the games are fun, a
means of entertainment and releasing stress; though even
in the casinos one should not gamble more than he could
aford to lose. However, unlike speculation, when one is in
the excitement of gambling and begins to lose, the greed and
desire to win it all back arises, and the fustered gambler mav
risk his and his familv’s wealth and well-being. Stress builds.
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon :a
Te disastrous consequences of gambling were admonished
in the oldest scripture, the Âig Veda, in the famous four-
teen-verse “Gambler’s Lament” (10.34. ve, p. 501). Verse ten
summarizes: “Abandoned, the wife of the gambler grieves.
Grieved, too, is his mother, as he wanders vaguelv. Afraid
and in debt, ever greedv for monev, he steals in the night
to the home of another.” Tis is not fun; nor is it entertain-
ment.
Tese are the grave concerns behind our sûtra in Liv-
ing with Íiva that prohibits gambling for mv ßishyas: “Íiva’s
devotees are forbidden to indulge in gambling or games of
chance with pavment or risk, even through others or for
emplovment. Gambling erodes societv, assuring the loss of
manv for the gain of a few” (sûtra 76). Evervone reallv knows
that the secret to winning at gambling is to own a casino.
Compulsive gambling and reckless, unfounded specu-
lation are like stealing from vour own familv, risking the
familv wealth. More than that, it is stealing from vourself,
because the remorse felt when an inevitable loss comes
could cause a loss of faith in vour abilities and vour judg-
ment. And if the loss afects the other members of the familv,
their estimation and respect and confdence in vour good
judgment goes wav down.
Manv people justifv stealing bv saving that life is unfair
and therefore it’s OK to take from the rich. Tev feel it’s OK
to steal from a rich corporation, for example: “Tev will
never miss it, and we need it more.” Financial speculation
can easilv slide into unfair maneuvering, where a person
is actuallv stealing from a small or large companv, therebv
making it fail. Te credibilitv of the person will go down,
and businesses will beware of this speculative investor who
would bring a companv to ruin to fatten his own pockets.
Entering into debt is a modern convenience and a modern
temptation. but this convenience must be honored within
the time allotted. If you are paying a higher interest rate
chApter 3: nonSteAlIng :,
because of late or partial pavments, vou have abused vour
credit and vour creditors.
At the Global Forum for Human Survival in 1990 in
Moscow, the participants began worrving about the kids, the
next generation. “What are thev going to think of us:” thev
asked. Is it fair to fulfll a need now, spoil the environment
and hand the bill over to the next generation: No, it is not.
Tis is another form of stealing. We can’t sav, “We have to
have chlorofuorocarbons now, and the next generation has
to face the consequences.” Te yamas and niyamas are thus
not just a personal matter but also a national, communal and
global matter. Yes, this takes asteya and all the restraints and
observances to another dimension.

Summary of the Fourth Restraint
Practice divine conduct, controlling lust bv
remaining celibate when single and faithful in
marriage. before marriage, use vital energies
in studv, and afer marriage in creating familv
success. Don’t waste the sacred force bv promis-
cuity in thought, word or deed. be restrained
with the opposite sex. Seek holv companv. Dress
and speak modestlv. Shun pornographv, sexual
humor and violence.
a brother guards his sister’s purity, brahma charva,
from a rogue who has approached her immodestly.
chApter 4: SexUAl pUrIty :,
1ui ioUv1u vis1v.i×1
Sexual Purity
Brahmacharya
·ïn¯ï¯ï
rahmacharYa, SexUAl pUrIty, IS A very
Im portAnt reStrAInt Among the An -
cIent ÍaiVite ethIcAl prIncIpleS Known
AS Yamas AND NiYamas, becAUSe It SetS
the pattern for one’s entire life. Following this principle,
the vital energies are used before marriage in studv rather
than in sexual fantasv, e-pornographv, masturbation, neck-
ing, petting or sexual intercourse. Afer marriage, the vital
energies are concentrated on business, livelihood, fulflling
one’s duties, serving the communitv, improving oneself and
one’s familv, and performing sâdhana. For those who do not
believe in God, Gods, guru or the path to enlightenment,
this is a diffcult restraint to fulfll, and such people tend
to be promiscuous when single and therefore unfaithful in
marriage.
Te rewards for maintaining this restraint are manv.
Tose who practice brahmacharya before marriage and
applv its principles throughout married life are free from
encumbrances—mentallv, emotionallv and phvsicallv. Tev
get a good start on life, have long-lasting, mature familv
relationships, and their children are emotionallv sound,
mentallv frm and phvsicallv strong.
Tose who are promiscuous and unreligious are suscep-
tible to impulses of anger, have undefned fears, experience
jealousv and the other instinctive emotions. Te doors of
the higher world are open to them, but the doors of the
lower world are also open. Even the virgin brahmachârî
who believes frmlv in God, Gods, guru and the path to
enlightenment and has a strict familv must be watched and
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon :8
carefullv guided to maintain his brahmacharya. Without this
careful attention, the virginitv mav easilv be lost.
Brahmacharya for the monastic means complete sexual
abstinence and is, of course, an understood requirement
to maintain this position in life. Tis applies as well to anv
single individual who has taken the celibacv vow, known as
brahmacharya vrata. If brahmacharya is compromised bv
the brahmachârî, he must face the consequences and reaf-
frm his original intent. Having lost faith in himself because
of breaking his vrata, his self-confdence must be rebuilt.
It should be perfectly clear that it is totally unacceptable
for men or women who have taken up the celibate monastic
life to live a double standard and surround themselves with
those of the opposite sex—be thev fellow âßramites, personal
aides, secretaries or close devotees—or with their former
familv. Nowadavs there are pseudo-sannyâsins who are mar-
ried and call themselves swâmîs, but, if pressed, thev might
admit that thev are simplv yoga teachers dressed in orange
robes, bearing the title “swâmî” to attract the attention of
the uninformed public for commercial reasons.
Tere is great power in the practice of brahmacharya, lit-
erallv “Godlv conduct.” Containing the sacred fuids within
the bodv builds up a bank account through the vears that
makes the realization of God on the path to enlightenment
a realitv within the life of the individual who is single. When
brahmacharya is broken through sexual intercourse, this
power goes away. It just goes away.
Brahmacharya in Family Life
Te observance of brahmacharya is perhaps the most
essential aspect of a sound, spiritual culture. Tis is whv in
Íaivism bovs and girls are taught the importance of remain-
ing celibate until thev are married. Tis creates healthv indi-
viduals, phvsicallv, emotionallv and spirituallv, generation
afer generation. Tere is a mystical reason. In virgin boys
chApter 4: SexUAl pUrIty :o
and girls, the psvchic nâ∂îs, the astral nerve currents that
extend out into and through their aura, have small hooks at
the end. When a bov and girl marrv, the hooks straighten
out and the nâ∂îs are tied one to another, and thev actuallv
grow together. If the frst sexual experience is premarital
and virginitv is broken, the hooks at the end of the nâ∂îs
also straighten out, but there is nothing to grow onto if the
partners do not marrv. Ten, when either partner marries
someone else, the relationship is never as close as when a
virgin bov and girl marrv, because their nâ∂îs don’t grow
together in the same way. In cases such as this, they feel the
need for intellectual stimuli and emotional stimuli to keep
the marriage going.
Youth ask, “How should we regard members of the
opposite sex:” Do not look at members of the opposite
sex with anv idea of sex or lust in mind. Do not indulge in
admiring those of the opposite sex, or seeing one as more
beautiful than another. boys must foster the inner attitude
that all voung women are their sisters and all older women
are their mother. Girls must foster the inner attitude that
all voung men are their brothers and all older men are their
father. Do not attend movies that depict the base instincts of
humans, nor read books or magazines of this nature. Above
all, avoid pornography on the Internet, on tv and in any
other media.
To be successful in brahmacharya, one naturallv wants
to avoid arousing the sex instincts. Tis is done bv under-
standing and avoiding the eight successive phases: fantasv,
glorifcation, firtation, lustful glances, secret love talk,
amorous longing, rendezvous and fnally intercourse. be
verv careful to mix onlv with good companv—those who
think and speak in a cultured wav—so that the mind and
emotions are not led astrav and vital energies needed for
studv used up. Get plentv of phvsical exercise. Tis is verv
important, because exercise sublimates vour instinctive
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon :o
drives and directs excess energv and the fow of blood into
all parts of the bodv.
Brahmacharya means sexual continence, as was observed
by Mahatma Gandhi in his later years and by other great
souls throughout life. There is another form of sexual purity,
though not truly brahmacharya, followed by faithful fam-
ily people who have a normal sex life while raising a family.
They are working toward the stage when they will take their
brahma charya vrata after sixty years of age. Thereafter they
would live to gether as brother and sister, sleeping in separate
bedrooms. during their married life, they control the forces
of lust and regulate instinctive energies and thus prepare
to take that vrata. but if they are unfaithful, firtatious and
loose in their thinking through life, they will not be inclined
to take the vrata in later life.
Faithfulness in marriage means fdelitv and much more.
It includes mental faithfulness, non-firtatiousness and mod-
estv toward the opposite sex. A married man, for instance,
should not hire a secretarv who is more magnetic or more
beautiful than his wife. Metaphvsicallv, in the perfect familv
relationship, man and wife are, in a sense, creating a one ner-
vous svstem for their joint spiritual progress, and all of their
nâ∂îs are growing together over the years. If they break that
faithfulness, thev break the psvchic, soul connections that
are developing for their personal inner achievements. If one
or the other of the partners does have an afair, this creates
a psvchic tug and pull on the nerve svstem of both spouses
that will continue until the afair ends and long aferwards.
Terefore, the principle of the containment of the sexual
force and mental and emotional impulses is the spirit of
brahmacharya, both for the single and married person.
chApter 4: SexUAl pUrIty ::
Rules for Serious People
For virtuous individuals who marrv, their experiences with
their partner are, again, free from lustful fantasies; and emo-
tional involvement is onlv with their spouse. Yes, a normal
sex life should be had between husband and wife, and no
one else should be included in either one’s mind or emotions.
Never hugging, touching another’s spouse or exciting the
emotions; alwavs dressing modestlv, not in a sexuallv arous-
ing wav; not viewing sexuallv oriented or pornographic
videos; not telling dirtv jokes—all of these simple customs
are traditional wavs of upholding sexual puritv. Te yama
of brahmacharya works in concert with asteya, nonstealing.
Stealing or coveting another’s spouse, even mentallv, creates
a force that, once generated, is diffcult to stop.
In this day and age, when promiscuity is a way of life,
there is great strength in married couples’ understanding
and applying the principles of sexual purity. If they obey
these principles and are on the path of enlightenment, thev
will again become celibate later in life, as thev were when
thev were voung. Tese principles persist through life, and
when their children are raised and the forces naturallv
become quiet, around age sixtv, husband and wife take the
brahmacharya vrata, live in separate rooms and prepare
themselves for greater spiritual experiences.
Married persons uphold sexual puritv bv observing the
eightfold celibacv toward evervone but their spouse. Tese
are ideals for serious, spiritual people. For those who have
nothing to do with spiritualitv, these laws are meaningless.
We are assuming a situation of a couple where evervthing
thev do and all that happens in their life is oriented toward
spiritual life and spiritual goals and, therefore, these prin-
ciples do applv. For sexual puritv, individuals must believe
frmlv in the path to enlightenment. Tev must have faith in
higher powers than themselves. Without this, sexual puritv
is nearlv impossible.
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon ::
One of the fastest wavs to destrov the stabilitv of families
and societies is through promiscuitv, mental and/or phvsical,
and the best wav to maintain stabilitv is through self-control.
Te world todav has become increasinglv unstable because
of the mental, phvsical, emotional license that people have
given to themselves. Te generation that follows an era of
promiscuitv has a dearth of examples to follow and are even
more unstable than their parents were when thev began their
promiscuous living. Stabilitv for human societv is based on
moralitv, and moralitv is based on harnessing and control-
ling sexualitv. Te principles of brahmacharya should be
learned well before pubertv, so that the sexual feelings the
voung person then begins to experience are free of mental
fantasies and emotional involvement. Once established in a
voung person, this control is expected to be carried out all
through life. When a virgin bov and girl marrv, thev transfer
the love thev have for their parents to one another. Te bov’s
attachment to his mother is transferred to his wife, and the
girl’s attachment to her father is transferred to her husband.
She now becomes the mother. He now becomes the father.
Tis does not mean thev love their parents anv less. Tis is
whv the parents have to be in good shape, to create the next
generation of stable families. Tis is their dharmic duty. If
thev don’t do it, thev create all kinds of uncomelv karmas
for themselves to be faced at a later time.
chApter 4: SexUAl pUrIty :,

Summary of the Fifh Restraint
Exercise patience, restraining intolerance
with people and impatience with circumstances.
be agreeable. let others behave according to
their nature, without adjusting to vou. Don’t
argue, dominate conversations or interrupt
others. don’t be in a hurry. be patient with
children and the elderlv. Minimize stress bv
keeping worries at bav. Remain poised in good
times and bad.
Kshamâ is epitomized by a mother’s patiently setting
aside her urgent duties to tend to her daugher’s tears.
chApter 5: pAtIence :,
1ui iii1u vis1v.i×1
Patience
Kshamâ
ªï-ïï
AtIence, or KSHAMÅ, THE fiFTH YAMA, IS AS
eSSentIAl to the SpIrItUAl pAth AS the
SpIrItUAl pAth IS to ItSelf. ImpAtIence IS
A SIgn of deSIroUSneSS to fUlfiLL UNFUL·
flled desires, having no time for anv interruptions or delavs
from anvthing that seems irrelevant to what one reallv wants
to accomplish.
We must restrain our desires bv regulating our life with
dailv worship and meditation. Dailv worship and medita-
tion are diffcult to accomplish without a break in continu-
itv. However, impatience and frustration come automaticallv
in continuitv, dav afer dav, ofen at the same time—being
impatient before breakfast because it is not served on time,
feeling intolerant and abusive with children because thev
are not behaving as adults, and on and on. Evervthing has
its timing and its regularitv in life. Focusing on living in
the eternity of the moment overcomes impatience. It pro-
duces the feeling that one has nothing to do, no future to
work toward and no past to relv on. Tis excellent spiritual
practice can be performed now and again during the dav
bv anvone.
Patience is having the power of acceptance, accepting
people, accepting events as thev are happening. One of
the great spiritual powers that people can have is to accept
things as thev are. Tat forestalls impatience and intoler-
ance. Acceptance is developed in a person bv understand-
ing the law of karma and in seeing God Íiva and His work
evervwhere, accepting the perfection of the timing of the
creation, preservation and absorption of the entire universe.
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon :o
Acceptance does not mean being resigned to one’s situation
and avoiding challenges. We know that we ourselves created
our own situation, our own challenges, in a former time bv
sending forth our energies, thoughts, words and deeds. As
these energies, on their cvcle-back, manifest through people,
happenings and circumstances, we must patientlv deal with
the situation, not fght it or trv to avoid it or be discouraged
because of it. Tis is kshamâ in the raw. Tis is pure kshamâ.
Patience cannot be acquired in depth in anv other wav. Tis
is whv meditation upon the truths of the sanâtana Dharma
is so important.
It is also extremely important to maintain patience with
oneself—especiallv with oneself. Manv people are masters of
the façade of being patient with others but take their frus-
trations out on themselves. Tis can be corrected and must
be corrected for spiritual unfoldment to continue through
an unbroken routine of dailv worship and meditation and
a vearlv routine of attending festivals and of pilgrimage,
tîrthayatra.
Most people todav are intolerant with one another and
impatient with their circumstances. Tis breeds an irrever-
ent attitude. nothing is sacred to them, nothing holy. but
through dailv exercising anger, malice and the other lower
emotions, thev do, without knowing, invoke the demonic
forces of the Narakaloka. Ten thev must sufer the backlash:
have nightmares, confusions, separations and even perform
heinous acts. Let all people of the world restrain themselves
and be patient through the practice of dailv worship and
meditation, which retroactivelv invokes the divine forces
from the Devaloka. Mav a great peace pervade the planet
as the well-earned result of these practices.
Te next time vou fnd vourself becoming impatient,
just stop for a moment and remember that vou are on the
upward path, now facing a rare opportunitv to take one
more step upward bv overcoming these feelings, putting all
chApter 5: pAtIence :,
that vou have previouslv learned into practice. One does
not progress on the spiritual path bv words, ideas or unused
knowledge. Memorized precepts, ßlokas, all the shoulds and
should-nots, are good, but unless used thev will not propel
you one inch further than you already are. It is putting what
vou have learned into practice in these moments of experi-
encing impatience and controlling it through command of
vour spiritual will, that moves vou forward. Tese steps for-
ward can never be retracted. When a test comes, prevail.
Sâdhakas and sannyâsins must be perfect in kshamâ, for-
bearing with people and patient under all circumstances, as
thev have harnessed their karmas of this life and the lives
before, compressed them to be experienced in this one life-
time. Tere is no cause for them, if thev are to succeed, to
harbor intolerance or experience anv kind of impatience
with people or circumstances. Teir instinctive, intellectual
nature should be caught up in dailv devotion, unreserved
worship, meditation and deep self-inquirv. Terefore, the
practice, niyama, that mitigates intolerance is devotion,
Èßvarapûjana, cultivating devotion through dailv worship
and meditation.
Te worker on the lef works steadily and energetically,
exemplifying dh®iti, while the other is less productive.

Summary of the Sixth Restraint
Foster steadfastness, overcoming nonperse-
verance, fear, indecision and changeableness.
Achieve vour goals with a praver, purpose, plan,
persistence and push. be frm in your decisions.
Avoid sloth and procrastination. Develop will-
power, courage and industriousness. Overcome
obstacles. Never carp or complain. Do not let
opposition or fear of failure result in changing
strategies.
CHAPTER 6: STEADFASTNESS :o
1ui six1u vis1v.i×1
Steadfastness
Dh®iti
·ïl-ï
TEADFASTNESS, DHÂITI, IS the SIxth YAMA.
to be SteAdfASt, yoU hAve to USe yoUr
wIllpower. wIllpower IS developed
eASIly In A perSon who hAS An AdeqUAte
memorv and good reasoning faculties. To be steadfast as we
go through life, we must have a purpose, a plan, persistence
and push. Ten nothing is impossible within the circumfer-
ence of our prârabdha karmas.
It is impossible to be steadfast if we are not obeying the
other restraints that the ®ishis of the Himalavas laid down
for us as the fruits of their wisdom. All of these restraints
build character, and dh®iti, steadfastness, rests on the foun-
dation of good character. Character—the abilitv to “act with
care”—is built slowlv, over time, with the help of relatives,
preceptors and good-hearted friends. Observe those who
are steadfast. You will learn from them. Observe those who
are not, and thev, too, will teach vou. Tev will teach what
vou should not do. To be indecisive and changeable is not
how we should be on the path to enlightenment, nor to be
successful in anv other pursuit. Nonperseverance and fear
must be overcome, and much efort is required to accom-
plish this. Dailv sâdhana, preferablv under a guru’s guidance,
is suggested here to develop a spiritual will and intellect.
In the Íândilya Upanishad, dh®iti has been described
as preserving frmness of mind during the period of gain
or loss of relatives. Tis implies that during times of sorrow,
diffcult karmas, loss and temptation, when in mental pain
and anguish, feeling alone and neglected, we can persevere,
be decisive and bring forth the dh®iti strength within us
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon ,o
and thus prevail. One translator of the Varuha Upanishad
used the word courage to translate dh®iti. Courageous and
fearless people who are just and honest prevail over all kar-
mas—benevolent, terrible and confused. Tis virtue is much
like the monk’s vow of humilitv, part of which is enduring
hardship with equanimitv, ease of mind, which means not
panicking. Te Tirukural reminds us, “It is the nature of
asceticism to patientlv endure hardship and to not harm liv-
ing creatures” (261). And we can sav that dh®iti itself is a “hard
ship”—a ship that can endure and persevere on its course
even when tossed about on the waves of a turbulent sea.
Some might wonder whv it is good to passivelv endure
hardship. To persevere through hardship one must under-
stand, as all Hindus do, that anv hardship coming to us we
ourselves participated in setting into motion in the past. To
endure hardship and rise above it in consciousness is to
overcome that karma forever. To resent hardship, to fght it,
is to have it return later at a most inconvenient time.
An essential part of steadfastness is overcoming change-
ableness. Changeableness means indecision, not being deci-
sive, changing one’s mind afer making a deliberate, positive
decision. Changing one’s mind can be a positive thing, but
making a frm, well-considered decision and not follow-
ing it through would gain one the reputation of not being
dependable, even of being weak-minded. No one wants a
reputation like this.
How can we discriminate between this and the strength
of a person who changes his or her mind in wisdom because
of changes of circumstance: A person who is changeable is
fckle and unsure of himself, changing without purpose or
reason. Dh®iti, steadfastness, describes the mind that is will-
ing to change for mature reasons based on new information
but holds steadv to its determinations through thick and
thin in the absence of such good reasons. Its decisions are
based on wise discrimination. A person who is patient and
CHAPTER 6: STEADFASTNESS ,:
truthful, who would not harm others bv thought, word or
deed and who is compassionate and honest has the strong
nature of one who is frm in dh®iti, steadfastness. He is the
prevailer over obstacles. One frm in dh®iti can be leaned
upon bv others, depended upon. He is charitable, has faith
in God, Gods and guru, worships dailv and manifests in
his life a spiritual will and intellect. In relaxed moments he
experiences santosha, contentment, not being preoccupied
bv feelings of responsibilitv, dutv or things lef undone.
Te spiritual path is a long, enduring process. It does
not reach fruition in a vear or two vears. Te spiritual path
brings lots of ups and downs, and the greatest challenges will
come to the greatest souls. With this in mind, it becomes
clear that steadiness and perseverance are absolutelv essen-
tial on the spiritual path.
Te man beating his dog has little compassion, dayâ.
a friend urges him to cognize the cruelty of his actions.

Summary of the Seventh Restraint
Practice compassion, conquering callous,
cruel and insensitive feelings toward all beings.
See god everywhere. be kind to people, ani-
mals, plants and the Earth itself. Forgive those
who apologize and show true remorse. Foster
svmpathv for others’ needs and sufering. Honor
and assist those who are weak, impoverished,
aged or in pain. Oppose familv abuse and
other cruelties.
chApter 7: compASSIon ,,
1ui sivi×1u vis1v.i×1
Compassion
Dayâ
¯¯ïï
AYÅ, compASSIon, IS the Seventh Yama.
SometImeS It IS KInd to be crUel, And At
other tImeS It IS crUel to be KInd. thIS
STATEMENT HAS COME FORWARD FROM
religion to religion, generation to generation. Compassion
tempers all decisions, gives clemencv, absolution, forgive-
ness as a boon even for the most heinous misdeeds. Tis
is a qualitv built on steadfastness. Dayâ comes from deep
sâdhana, prolonged santosha, contentment, scriptural studv
and listening to the wise. It is the outgrowth of the unfolded
soul, the maturing of higher consciousness. A compassion-
ate person transcends even forgiveness bv caring for the
sufering of the person he has forgiven. Te compassionate
person is like a god. he is the boon-giver. boons, which are
gifs from the Gods, come unexpectedlv, unasked-for. And
so it is with the grace of a compassionate person.
A devotee asked, “What should we think about those
who are cruel toward creatures, who casuallv kill fies and
step on cockroaches:” Compassion is defned as conquering
callous, cruel and insensitive feelings toward all beings. A
compassionate person would tell a plant verballv if he was
going to pick from it, intuiting that the plant has feelings of
its own. A compassionate person would seek to keep pests
awav rather than killing them. A callous person would tear
the plant up bv its roots. A cruel person would, as a child,
pull one wing of a fv and, unless corrected, mature this
crueltv on through life until he maimed a fellow human.
Compassion is just the opposite to all this.
When we fnd callous, cruel and insensitive people in
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon ,a
our midst, we should not take them into our inner circles,
but make them feel thev must improve before admittance
onto the spiritual path. Compassion is the outgrowth of
being forgiving. It is the outgrowth of truthfulness, and of
noninjury. It is a product of asteya, of brahmacharya and
of kshamâ. It is, in fact, higher consciousness, based in the
vißuddha chakra of divine love.
one can’t command compassion. before compassion
comes love. Compassion is the outgrowth of love. Love
is the outgrowth of understanding. Understanding is the
outgrowth of reason. One must have suffcient memorv to
remember the various points of reason and enough will-
power to follow them through to be able to psvchicallv look
into the core of existence to gain the reverence for all life,
all living organisms, animate or inanimate. Compassion is a
verv advanced spiritual qualitv. When vou see it exhibited in
someone, vou know he is verv advanced spirituallv—prob-
ably an old soul. It really can’t be taught. Dayâ goes with
ânanda. Compassion and bliss are a one big package.
What is the diference between ahiµsâ and dayâ, com-
passion, one might ask: Tere is a distinct diference. Not
harming others bv thought, word or deed is a cardinal law
of Hinduism and cannot be avoided, discarded, ignored or
replaced bv the more subtle concept of compassion. Ahiµsâ,
among the yamas and niyamas, could be considered the onlv
explicit commandment Hinduism gives. Compassion comes
from the heart, comes spontaneously. It is a total fow of
spiritual, material, intellectual giving, coming unbidden to
the receiver.
compassion by no means is foolishness or pretense. It is
an overfowing of soulfulness. It is an outpouring of spiritual
energv that comes through the person despite his thoughts
or his personal feelings or his reason or good judgment. Te
person experiencing compassion is ofen turned around
emotionallv and mentallv as he is giving this clemencv, this
chApter 7: compASSIon ,,
boon of absolution, despite his own instinctive or intellec-
tual inclinations. Tis is a spiritual outpouring through a
person. Rishi Tirumular used the word arul for this yama.
Arul means grace in the ancient Tamil language.
A devotee once e-mailed me, saying, “recently I was
going through some sufering and had bad thoughts and
bad feelings for those who caused that sufering. Now that
I’m feeling better, can I erase those bad thoughts and feel-
ings:” Toughts and bad feelings vou have sent into the
future are bound to come back to you. but, yes, you can
mitigate and change that karma bv being extra-special nice
to those who abused vou, hurt vou or caused vou to have
bad thoughts and feelings against them. being extra-special
nice means accepting them for who thev are. Don’t have
critical thoughts or trv to change them. Have compassion.
Tev are who thev are, and onlv thev can change themselves.
be extra-special nice. go out of your way to say good words,
give a gif and have good feelings toward them.
Two students are cheating on a test while a peer
admonishes them to follow ârjava, honesty.

Summary of the Eighth Restraint
Maintain honestv, renouncing deception and
wrongdoing. Act honorablv even in hard times.
Obev the laws of vour nation and locale. Pav
your taxes. be straightforward in business. do
an honest dav’s work. Do not bribe or accept
bribes. Do not cheat, deceive or circumvent to
achieve an end. be frank with yourself. face and
accept vour faults without blaming them
on others.
CHAPTER 8: HONESTY ,,
1ui iicu1u vis1v.i×1
Honesty
A
-
rjava
¤ï¯ï¯ï
ONESTY, ÅRjAVA, IS the eIghth Yama. THE
moSt ImportAnt rUle of honeSty IS to
be honeSt to oneSelf, to be Able to fAce
Up to oUr problemS And AdmIt thAt we
have been the creator of them. To be able to then reason
them through, make soulfullv honest decisions toward their
solutions, is a boon, a gif from the Gods. To be honest with
oneself brings peace of mind. Tose who are frustrated, dis-
content, are now and have been dishonest with themselves.
Tev blame others for their own faults and predicaments.
Tev are alwavs looking for a scapegoat, someone to blame
something on. To deceive oneself is trulv the ultimate of
wrongdoing. To deceive oneself is trulv ignorance in its tru-
est form. Honestv begins within one’s own heart and soul
and works its wav out from there into dealing with other
people. Polonius wiselv said in Shakespeare’s Hamlet, “Tis
above all: to vour own self be true, and it must follow, as the
night the dav, vou cannot then be false to anv man.”
Te adage, “Sav what vou mean, and mean what vou
sav” should be heard again and again bv the vouth, middle-
aged and elderlv alike. Sir Walter Scott once said, “Oh what
a tangled web we weave when frst we practice to deceive.”
Mark Twain observed, “Te advantage of telling the truth
is that vou don’t have to remember what vou said.” Another
philosopher, wise in human nature, noted, “You can watch
a thief, but vou cannot watch a liar.” To be deceptive and not
straightforward is thieving time from those vou are deceiv-
ing. Tev are giving vou their heart and mind, and vou are
twisting their thoughts to vour own selfsh ends, endeavor-
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon ,8
ing to plav them out, to take what thev have, in favors or in
kind, for vour personal gain.
Deception is the cruelest of acts. A deceptive person is
an insidious disease to societv. Manv parents, we are told,
teach their children to be deceptive and cunning in order
to get on in the world. Tev are not building good citizens.
Tev are creating potential criminals who will eventuallv, if
thev perfect the art, ravage humankind. To be straightfor-
ward is the solution, no matter how diffcult it is. To show
remorse, be modest and show shame for misdeeds is the wav
to win back the faith, though mavbe not the total trust, and
a smidgen of respect from those who have discovered and
exposed vour deception. Årjava is straightness with neigh-
bors, familv and with vour government. You pav vour taxes.
You observe the laws. You don’t fudge, bribe, cheat, steal or
participate in fraud and other forms of manipulation.
bribery corrupts the giver, the taker and the nation. It
would be better not to have, not to do, and to live the simple
life, if briberv were the alternative. To participate in briberv is
to go into a deceptive, illegal partnership between the briber
and the bribed. If and when discovered, embarrassment no
end would fall on both parties involved in the crime, and
even if not discovered, someone knows, someone is watch-
ing, vour own conscience is watching. Tere is no law in anv
legal code of anv government that savs briberv is acceptable.
Tere are those who feel it is suffcient to be honest and
straightforward with their friends and familv, but feel justi-
fed to be dishonest with business associates, corporations,
governments and strangers. Tese are the most despicable
people. Obviouslv thev have no knowledge of the laws of
karma and no desire to obtain a better, or even a similar,
birth. Tev mav experience several abortions before obtain-
ing a new phvsical bodv and then be an unwanted child.
Tev mav sufer child abuse, neglect, beatings, perhaps even
be killed at a voung age. Tese two-faced persons—honest to
CHAPTER 8: HONESTY ,o
immediate friends and relatives, but dishonest and deceptive
and involved in wrongdoings with business associates and
in public life—deserve the punishment that onlv the lords of
karma are able to deal out. Tese persons are training their
sons and daughters to be like themselves and pull down
humanitv rather than uplif mankind.
Honesty in Monastic Life
We can sav that sâdhakas, yogîs and swâmîs upholding their
vows are the prism of honestv. Te ravs of their auras radiate
out through all areas of life. Tev are the protectors, the sta-
bilizers, the uplifers, the consolers, the svmpathizers. Tev
have the solution to all human problems and all human ills,
or thev know where to fnd those solutions, to whom to go
or what scripture to read. To be a sâdhaka, yogî or swâmî,
honestv is the primal qualifcation, ves, primal qualifca-
tion—honestv, ârjava. No satguru would accept a monastic
candidate who persists in patterns of deception, wrongdoing
and outright lies and who shows no shame for misdeeds.
Human relations, especiallv the guru-disciple relation-
ship, derive their strength from trust, which each shares and
expresses. Te breaking of the yama of ârjava is the sever-
ing of that trust, which therebv provokes the destruction or
demise of the relationship. When the relationship falls into
distrust, suspicion, anger, hate, confusion and retaliation,
this gives birth to argument.
Countries that have weak leadership and unstable gov-
ernments that allow wrongdoing to become a wav of life,
deception to be the wav of thinking, are participating in
dividing the masses in this verv wav. People begin to distrust
one another. because they are involved in wrongdoing, they
suspect others of being involved in wrongdoings. People
become angrv because thev are involved in wrongdoing.
And fnallv the countrv fails and goes into war or succumbs
to innumerable internal problems. We see this happening all
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon ao
over the world. A strong democratic countrv is constantlv
showing up politicians who take bribes and presidents
who are involved in deception and wrongdoing, who set
a poor example for the masses as to how things should be.
Higher-consciousness governments are able to maintain
their economv and feed their people. Lower-consciousness
governments are not.
Even large, successful corporate monopolies deem
honestv as the frst necessarv qualifcation for an emplovee.
When his deception and wrongdoing are discovered, he is
irrevocablv terminated. Tere are manv religious organiza-
tions todav that have deceptive, dishonest people within
them who connive wrongdoings, and these religious groups
are failing and reaping the rewards of failing through loss and
confusion. It is up to the heads of those organizations to weed
out the deceptive, corruptive, virus-like persons to maintain
the spiritualitv and fulfll the original intent of the founders.
Årjava could well be interpreted as simplicitv, as manv
commentators have done. It is easier to remember the truth
than remember lies—white lies, gray lies or black lies. It is
easier to be straightforward than conniving and deceptive,
dishonest. A simple life is an honest life. An honest life is
a simple life. When our wants which produce our needs
are simple, there is no need to be deceptive or participate
in wrongdoing. It’s as simple as that. Årjava means not
complicating things, not ramifving concerns and anxieties.
Tis is to sav, when a situation occurs, handle the situation
within the situation itself. Don’t use the emotion involved
in the situation to motivate or manipulate for personal gain
in another situation. Don’t owe people favors, and don’t
allow people to owe vou favors. Don’t promise what vou
can’t deliver, and do deliver what vou promise. Tis is the
sanâtana dharma way. If the neo-Indian religion is teaching
diferently, pay no attention. It is all political, and it has no
kinship to dharma.
CHAPTER 8: HONESTY a:
at a cafe two men enjoy a rice and curry meal on banana
leaves. One follows mitâhâra, while the other overeats.

Summary of the Ninth Restraint
be moderate in appetite, neither eating too
much nor consuming meat, fsh, shellfsh, fowl
or eggs. Enjov fresh, wholesome vegetarian
foods that vitalize the bodv. Avoid junk food.
Drink in moderation. Eat at regular times,
onlv when hungrv, at a moderate pace, never
between meals, in a disturbed atmosphere or
when upset. Follow a simple diet, avoiding rich
or fancv fare.
chApter 9: moderAte dIet a,
1ui ×i×1u vis1v.i×1
Moderate Diet
Mitâhara
l-ï-ïïr¯
ITÅHÅRA, moderAte Ap petIte, IS the
TENTH Yama. SImIlArly, miTaVYaYiN IS lIt·
tle or moderAte SpendIng, beIng eco·
nomIcAl or frUgAl, And miTasÅYaN is
is sleeping little. Gorging oneself has alwavs been a form of
decadence in everv culture and is considered unacceptable
behavior. It is the behavior of people who gain wealth and
luxuries from the miseries of others. Decadence, which is a
dance of decav, has been the downfall of manv governments,
empires, kingdoms and principalities. Marie Antoinette,
queen of france, made the famous decadent statement
just before the french revolution: “If the people have no
bread, let them eat cake.” Nearlv evervone who heard that
imperious insult, including its authoress, completelv lost
their heads. Decadence is a form of decav that the masses
have railed against centurv upon centurv, millennium afer
millennium.
All this and more shows us that mitâhâra is a restraint
that we must all obev and which is one of the most diffcult.
Te bodv knows no wisdom as to shoulds and should-nots.
It would eat and drink itself to death if it had its way, given
its own instinctive intelligence. It is the mind that controls
the bodv and emotions and must efect this restraint for its
own preservation, health and wellness of being, to avoid the
emptiness of “sick-being.”
According to âyurveda, not eating too much is the great-
est thing vou can do for health if vou want a long life, ease
in meditation and a balanced, happv mind. Tat is whv, for
thousands of vears, yogîs, sâdhus and meditators have eaten
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon aa
moderatelv. Tere is almost nothing, apart from smoking
and drugs, that hurts the bodv more than excessive eating,
and excessive eating has to be defned in both the amount of
food and the quality of food. If you are regularly eating rich,
processed, dead foods, then vou are not following mitâhâra,
and vou will have rich, fnelv processed, dead, dredged-up-
from-the-past karmic experiences that will ruin vour mar-
riage, wreak havoc on vour children and send vou earlv to
the funeral pvre.
For the twentv-frst centurv, mitâhâra has still another
meaning. Our ®ishis mav have anticipated that the economv
of mitâhâra makes it a global discipline—eating frugallv, not
squandering vour wealth to overindulge vourself, not using
the wealth of a nation to pamper the nation’s most prosper-
ous, not using the resources of the Earth to satiate excessive
appetites. If all are following mitâhâra, we will be able to
better feed evervone on the planet; fewer will be hungrv. We
won’t have such extreme inequalities of excessive diet and
inadequate diet, the incongruitv of gluttonv and malnutri-
tion. We will have global moderation. Te Hindu view is
that we are part of ecologv, an intricate part of the planet.
Our phvsical bodv is a species here with rights equal to a
fea, cockroach, bird, snake, a fsh, a small animal or an
elephant.
Diet and Good Health
by following mitâhâra vou can be healthier, and vou can
be wealthier. A lot of monev is wasted in the average familv
on food that could go toward manv other things the familv
needs or wants. If you are healthier, you save on doctor bills,
and because this also helps in sâdhana and meditation, vou
will be healthv, happv and holv. Overeating repels one from
spiritual sâdhana, because the bodv becomes slothful and
lazv, having to digest so much food and run it through its
svstem. Eating is meant to nourish the bodv with vitamins
chApter 9: moderAte dIet a,
and minerals to keep it functioning. It is not meant for mere
personal, sensual pleasure. A slothful person naturallv does
not have the inclination to advance himself through educa-
tion and meditation, and is unable to do anvthing but a
simple, routine job.
We recentlv heard of a Western science lab studv that
fed two groups of rats diferent portions of food. Tose who
were allowed to have anv amount of food thev could eat
lived a normal rat life span. Tose who were given half that
much lived twice as long. Tis so impressed the scientists
that thev immediatelv dropped their own calorie input and
lost manv pounds, realizing that a long, healthv life could
be attained bv not eating so much.
People on this planet are divided in two groups, as delin-
eated bv states of consciousness. Te most obvious group
is those ruled bv lower consciousness, which proliferates
deceit and dishonestv and the confusion in life that these
bring, along with fear, anger, jealousv and the subsequent
remorseful emotions that follow. On the purer side are those
in higher consciousness, ruled bv the powers of reason and
memorv, willpower, good judgment, universal love, compas-
sion and more. A vegetarian diet helps to open the inner man
to the outer person and brings forth higher consciousness.
Eating meat, fsh, fowl and eggs opens the doors to lower
consciousness. It’s as simple as that. A vegetarian diet cre-
ates the right chemistrv for spiritual life. Other diets create a
diferent chemistrv, which afects vour endocrine glands and
vour entire svstem all dav long. A vegetarian diet helps vour
svstem all dav long. Food is chemistrv, and chemistrv afects
consciousness; and if our goal is higher consciousness, we
have to provide the chemistrv that evokes it.
Take Charge of Your Body
Tere is a wonderful breathing exercise vou can perform
to aid the digestion and elimination of food bv stimulating
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon ao
the internal fre. breathe in through your nose a normal
breath, and out through vour nose verv fast while pulling
the stomach in. Ten relax vour stomach and again breathe
in naturallv and then out quicklv bv pulling the stomach in
to force the air out of the lungs. Do this for one minute, then
rest for one minute, then do it again. Ten rest for a minute
and do it again. About three repetitions is generallv enough
to conquer indigestion or constipation. Tis prâ∫âyâma
amplifes the heat of the bodv and stimulates the fre that
digests food and eliminates waste. It is especially good for
those who are rather sedentarv and do a lot of intellectual
work, whose energies are in the intellect and mav not be
addressing their digestive needs adequatelv.
Take charge of vour own bodv and see that it is work-
ing right, is healthy and you are eating right. If you do
overindulge, then compensate bv fasting occasionallv
and performing phvsical disciplines. Most people have
certain cravings and desires which thev permit themselves
to indulge in, whether it be sweets or rich, exotic foods or
overlv spiced foods. Discovering and moderating such per-
sonal preferences and desires is part of the spiritual path. If
vou fnd vou overindulge in jellv beans, cashew nuts, licorice,
chocolate, varieties of sof drinks or exotic imported cof-
fee, moderate those appetites. Ten vou are controlling the
entire desire nature of the instinctive mind in the process.
Tat is a central process of spiritual unfoldment—to control
and moderate such desires.
Te ®ishis of vore taught us to restrain desire. Tev used
the words restrain and moderate rather than suppress or
eliminate. We must remember that to restrain and moderate
desire allows the energv which is restrained and moderated
to enliven higher chakras, giving rise to creativitv and intu-
ition that will actuallv better mankind, one’s own household
and the surrounding communitv.
Te ®ishis have given us great knowledge to help us know
chApter 9: moderAte dIet a,
what to do. Studv vour bodv and vour diet and fnd out
what works for vou. Find out what foods give vou indiges-
tion and stop eating those things. but remember that eating
right, in itself, is not spiritual life. In the early stages seekers
ofen become obsessed with fnding the perfect diet. Tat
is a stage thev have to go through in learning. Tev have to
fnd out what is right for them. but it should balance out to
a simple routine of eating to live, not living to eat.
Reasons for Vegetarianism
Vegetarianism has for thousands of vears been a principle of
health and environmental ethics throughout India. Tough
Muslim and Christian colonization radicallv undermined
and eroded this ideal, it remains to this dav a cardinal ethic
of Hindu thought and practice. A subtle sense of guilt per-
sists among Hindus who eat meat, and there exists an ongo-
ing controversv on this issue. Te Sanskrit for vegetarianism
is ßâkâhâra, and one following a vegetarian diet is a ßâkâhârî.
Te term for meat-eating is mânsâhâra, and the meat-eater is
called mânsâhârî. Åhâra means “food” or “diet,” ßâka means
“vegetable,” and mânsa means “meat” or “fesh.”
Amazingly, I have heard people defne vegetarian as a
diet which excludes the meat of animals but does permit
fsh and eggs. but what really is vegetarianism? It is living
onlv on foods produced bv plants, with the addition of dairv
products. Vegetarian foods include grains, fruits, vegetables,
legumes, milk, vogurt, cheese and butter. Te strictest
vegetarians, known as vegans, exclude all dairv products.
Natural, fresh foods, locallv grown without insecticides or
chemical fertilizers are preferred. A vegetarian diet does not
include meat, fsh, shellfsh, fowl or eggs. For good health,
even certain vegetarian foods are minimized: frozen and
canned foods, highlv processed foods, such as white rice,
white sugar and white four; and “junk” foods and bever-
ages—those with abundant chemical additives, such as arti-
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon a8
fcial sweeteners, colorings, favorings and preservatives.
In the past ffv vears millions of meat-eaters have made
the decision to stop eating the fesh of other creatures. Tere
are fve major motivations for such a decision.
1) Manv become vegetarian purelv to uphold dharma,
as the frst dutv to God and God’s creation as defned bv
Vedic scripture.
2) Some abjure meat-eating because of the karmic conse-
quences, knowing that bv involving oneself, even indirectlv,
in the cvcle of inficting injurv, pain and death bv eating
other creatures, one must in the future experience in equal
measure the sufering caused.
3) Spiritual consciousness is another reason. Food is the
source of the bodv’s chemistrv, and what we ingest afects
our consciousness, emotions and experiential patterns. If
one wants to live in higher consciousness, in peace and hap-
piness and love for all creatures, then he cannot eat meat,
fsh, shellfsh, fowl or eggs. by ingesting the grosser chem-
istries of animal foods, one introduces into the bodv and
mind anger, jealousv, fear, anxietv, suspicion and a terrible
fear of death, all of which are locked into the fesh of butch-
ered creatures.
4) Medical studies prove that a vegetarian diet is easier
to digest, provides a wider range of nutrients and imposes
fewer burdens and impurities on the bodv. Vegetarians are
less susceptible to all the major diseases that amict con-
temporarv humanitv, and thus live longer, healthier, more
productive lives. Tev have fewer phvsical complaints, less
frequent visits to the doctor, fewer dental problems and
smaller medical bills. Teir immune svstem is stronger, their
bodies purer and more refned, and their skin clearer, more
supple and smooth.
5) Finallv, there is the ecological reason. Planet Earth
is sufering. In large measure, the escalating loss of species,
destruction of ancient rainforests to create pasture lands
chApter 9: moderAte dIet ao
for livestock, loss of topsoil and the consequent increase of
water impurities and air pollution have all been traced to
the single fact of meat in the human diet. No single decision
that we can make as individuals or as a race can have such a
dramatic efect on the improvement of our planetarv ecol-
ogv as the decision to not eat meat. Manv conscious of the
need to save the planet for future generations have made this
decision for this reason and this reason alone.
a man fnds his friend outside an X-rated theater and
urges him not to sink into a low-minded sensual life.

Summary of the Tenth Restraint
Uphold the ethic of puritv, avoiding impuritv
in mind, bodv and speech. Maintain a clean,
healthv bodv. Keep a pure, uncluttered home
and workplace. Act virtuouslv. Keep good
companv, never mixing with adulterers,
thieves or other impure people. Keep awav
from pornographv and violence. Never use
harsh, angered or indecent language. Worship
devoutlv. Meditate dailv.
chApter 10: pUrIty ,:
1ui 1i×1u vis1v.i×1
Purity
Íaucha
ïïï¯ï
UrIty, ÍAUCHA, nUmber ten of the Ya mas,
IS the oUtcome of reStrAInIng oUr·
SelveS In All the other nIne. pUrIty IS the
nAtUrAl herItAge of men And women,
disciplined in mind and bodv, who think before thev speak,
speaking onlv that which is true, kind, helpful and necessarv.
People whose thoughts are pure—and this means being in
line with the yamas and niyamas—and whose bodies are
free from incompatible alien obstructions, are naturallv
happv, content and readv to perform japa. japa yoga lifs
the spiritual energies and annihilates pride and arrogance
bv awakening within the superconscious areas of the mind
an extraterrestrial intelligence, far surpassing the ordinarv
intellect one would encounter in the schools and universi-
ties of the present dav. To be pure in mind means to have
a bright, luminous aura flled with the pastel hues of the
primarv and secondarv colors under everv circumstance
and life situation. Tose who practice this restraint have
realized that thoughts create and manifest into situations,
actual phvsical happenings. Terefore, thev are careful what
thev think and to whom thev direct their thoughts.
A clean personal environment, wearing clean clothes,
bathing ofen, keeping the room spotless where vou medi-
tate, breathing clean air, letting fresh air pass through vour
house, is all verv important in the fulfllment of puritv.
Íaucha also includes partaking of clean food, which ideallv
is freshlv picked food, cooked within minutes of the pick-
ing. Tere are creative forces, preservation forces and forces
of dissolution. Te preservation force is in the continued
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon ,:
growing of a fruit or a leafy vegetable. It reaches its normal
size and if not picked remains on the plant and is preserved
bv the life of that plant. As soon as it is picked, the force of
dissolution, mumia, sets in. Terefore, the food should be
cooked and eaten as soon afer picking as possible, before
the mumia force gets strong. Mumia, as it causes the break-
down of the cells, is an impure force. When we constantlv
eat food that is on the breakdown, the bodv is sluggish, the
mind is sluggish and the tongue is loose, and we sav things
we don’t mean. Manv unhappv, depressed situations result
from people eating a predominance of frozen foods, pro-
cessed foods, canned foods, convenience foods, which are
all in the process of mumia.
Clean clothing is verv important. One feels invigorated
and happv wearing clean clothing. Even hanging cloth-
ing out in the sunlight for fve minutes a dav cleanses and
refreshes it. An incredible amount of bodv waste is elimi-
nated through the skin and absorbed bv the clothing we
wear. It is commonly thought that clothing does not need
to be cleaned unless it has been dirtied or soiled with mud,
dirt or stains. Verv little concern is given to the bodv odors
and wastes that are exuded through the pores, then caught
and held bv the fabric. Small wonder it’s so refreshing to put
on clean clothing. Te sun and fresh air can eliminate much
of the bodv waste and freshen up anv garment.
Keeping Pure Surroundings
Cleaning the house is an act of purifving one’s immediate
environment. Each piece of furniture, as well as the door-
wavs and the walls, catches and holds the emanations of the
human aura of each individual in the home, as well as each
of its visitors. Tis residue must be wiped awav through
dusting and cleaning. Tis regular attentiveness keeps each
room sparkling clean and actinic. Unless this is done, the
rooms of the home become overpowering to the conscious-
chApter 10: pUrIty ,,
ness of the individuals who live within them as their auras
pick up the old accumulated feelings of davs gone bv. Small
wonder that a dirtv room can depress vou, and one freshlv
cleaned can invigorate.
In these years, when both mother and father work in the
outside world, the house is ofen simplv where thev sleep and
eat. but if a home receives all of the daily attentions of clean-
ing it sparklv bright, both astrallv and phvsicallv, it becomes
a welcoming place and not an emptv shell. Te devas can
live within a home that is clean and well regulated, where
the routine of breakfast, lunch and dinner is upheld, where
earlv morning devotionals are performed and respected, a
home which the familv lives together within, eats together
within, talks together within, worships together within. Such
a home is the abode of the devas. Other kinds of homes are
the abodes of asuric forces and disincarnate entities bound
to Earth bv lower desires.
It is very important that the saµskâras are performed
properlv within a ßaucha abode, particularlv the antyesh†i,
or funeral, ceremonies so as to restore puritv in the home
afer a death. birth and death require the family to observe
a moratorium of at least thirtv-one davs during which thev
do not enter the temple or the shrine room. Such obligatorv
ritual customs are important to follow for those wishing to
restrain their desires and perfect ßaucha in bodv, mind and
speech, keeping good companv, keeping the mind pure and
avoiding impure thoughts.
Puritv and impuritv can be discerned in the human
aura. We see puritv in the brilliancv of the aura of one who
is restraining and disciplining the lower instinctive nature,
as outlined in these yamas and niyamas. His aura is bright
with white ravs from his soul lightening up the various hues
and colors of his moods and emotions. Impure people have
black shading in the colors of their aura as thev go through
their moods and emotions. black in the aura is from the
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon ,a
lower worlds, the worlds of darkness, of the tala chakras
below the mûlâdhâra.
Wholesome Company
It is unfortunate that at this time in the Kali yuga there are
more people on the Earth in important positions who have
risen into phvsical birth from the Narakaloka, the world
of darkness, than have descended from the Devaloka, the
world of light. Terefore, thev are strong as thev band
together in anger, corruption, deceit and contempt for
the Devaloka people, who live in the chakras above the
mûlâdhâra. It is important for the devaloka people to ferret
out who is good companv and who is not. Tev should not
presume that thev can efect anv sustainable changes in the
Narakaloka people. And thev need to know that the asuric
people, bound in anger, greed, jealousv, contempt, covet-
ousness and lust, can make and sustain a diference within
the devonic people, bringing them down into their world,
torturing and tormenting them with their callous, cruel
and insensitive feelings. To sustain ßaucha, it is important
to surround oneself with good, devonic companv, to have
the discrimination to know one tvpe of person from another.
Too manv foolish, sensitive souls, thinking their spiritualitv
could lif a soul from the world of darkness, have walked in
where even the Mahâdevas do not tread and the devas fear
to tread, onlv to fnd themselves caught in that verv world,
through the deceit and conniving of the cleverlv cunning.
Let’s not be foolish. Let’s discriminate between higher con-
sciousness and lower consciousness. Higher-consciousness
people should surround themselves with higher-conscious-
ness people to fulfll ßaucha.
Changing to a purer life can be so simple. You don’t
have to give up anvthing. Iust learn to like things that are
better. Tat is the spirit of puritv. When vou give up some-
thing because vou think vou should give it up, that creates
chApter 10: pUrIty ,,
strain. Instead, search for a better life; search for ßaucha.
From tamasic eating we go to rajasic eating, and because
sattvic food tastes better and makes us feel better, we also
leave much of the rajasic food behind. Are not all persons on
this planet driven bv desire: Yes, indeed. Ten let’s redirect
desire and let our desires perfect us. Let us learn to desire the
more tastv, sattvic foods, the more sublime sounds, the most
perfect things we can see, more than the gross, exciting and
reprehensible, the desires for which will fade awav when we
attach ourselves to something better. Let our desires perfect us.
Te ultra-democratic dream of life, libertv and the pursuit of
happiness we can use as a New-Age goal and pursue the hap-
piness of something better than what we are doing now that is
bad for us. Let’s go forward with the spirit of moving onward.
A devotee told me, “I gave up cofee because cofee is a
stimulant and a depressant. I stopped eating meat because
meat is a cholesterol-creating killer and forest decimator.”
Another approach would be to give up cofee because vou
have found a beverage that is better. Test all beverages. Some
have found that cofee gives vou indigestion and green tea
helps vou digest vour food, especiallv oilv foods and foods
that remain in vour stomach undigested through the night.
It also tastes good. others have found that freshly picked,
nutritious vegetables, especiallv when cooked within min-
utes of the picking, give more life and energv than eating
dead meat that has been refrigerated or preserved. Still
others have found that if vou kill an animal and eat it fresh,
it has more nutritive value than killing it, refrigerating it,
preserving it, then cooking it to death again!
be mature about it when you give something up. Te
immature spiritual person will want evervone else to give it
up, too. Te spirituallv mature person quietlv surrenders it
because it is simplv his personal choice and then goes on with
his life. Te spirituallv immature person will make a big issue
of giving anvthing up and want evervone to know about it.
Te boy’s tears show his remorse, hrî, at having
accidentally broken a neighbor’s window.

Summary of the First Observance
Allow vourself the expression of remorse,
being modest and showing shame for mis-
deeds. Recognize vour errors, confess and make
amends. Sincerelv apologize to those hurt bv
vour words or deeds. Resolve all contention
before sleep. Seek out and correct vour faults
and bad habits. Welcome correction as a means
to bettering vourself. Do not boast. Shun pride
and pretension.
CHAPTER 11: REMORSE AND MODESTY ,,
1ui iivs1 ovsivv.×ci
Remorse & Modesty
Hrî
kl
RÈ, THE fiRST OF THE TEN NiYamas, OR PRAC·
tIceS, IS remorSe: beIng modeSt And
ShowIng ShAme for mISdeedS, SeeKIng
THE guru’s grAce to be releASed from
sorrows through the understanding that he gives, based
on the ancient sampradâya, doctrinal lineage, he preaches.
Remorse could be the most misunderstood and diffcult to
practice of all of the niyamas, because we don’t have verv
many role models today for modesty or remorse. In fact, the
role for imitation in todav’s world is just the opposite. Tis is
refected in television, on flm, in novels, magazines, news-
papers and all other kinds of media. In today’s world, brash,
presumptuous, prideful—that’s how one must be. Tat’s the
role model we see everywhere. In today’s world, arrogant—
that’s how one must be. Tat’s the role model we see everv-
where. Terefore, to be remorseful or even to show modestv
would be a sign of weakness to one’s peers, familv and friends.
Modestv is portraved in the media as a trait of people
that are gauche, inhibited, undeveloped emotionallv or
not well educated. And remorse is portraved in the world
media as a characteristic of one who “doesn’t have his act
together,” is unable to rationalize awav wrongdoings, or who
is not clever enough to fnd a scapegoat to pin the blame on.
Tough modestv and remorse are the natural qualities of
the soul, when the soul does exhibit these qualities, there is
a natural tendencv to suppress them.
but let’s look on the brighter side. Tere is an old say-
ing, “Some people teach us what to do, and other people
teach us what not to do.” Te modern media, at least most
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon ,8
of it, is teaching us what not to do. Its behavior is based on
other kinds of philosophv—secular humanism, material-
ism, existentialism, crime and punishment, terrorism—in its
efort to report and record the stories of the dav. Sometimes
we can learn quite a lot bv seeing the opposite of what we
want to learn. Te proud and arrogant people portraved on
TV nearlv alwavs have their fall. Tis is alwavs portraved
extremely well and is very entertaining. In their heart of
hearts, people reallv do not admire the prideful person or
his displav of arrogance, so thev take jov in seeing him get
his just due. People, in their heart of hearts, do admire the
modest person, the truthful person, the patient person, the
steadfast person, the compassionate person who shows
contentment and the fullness of well-being on his face and
in his behavioral patterns.
We Hindus who understand these things know that
hrî, remorse, is to be practiced at everv opportunitv. One
of the most acceptable wavs to practice hrî, even in todav’s
societv, is to say in a heartfelt way, “I’m sorry.” everyone will
accept this. Even the most despicable, prideful, arrogant, self-
centered person will melt just a little under the two magic
words “I’m sorry.” when apologizing, explain to the person
vou hurt or wronged how vou have realized that there was
a better way and ask for his forgiveness. If the person is too
proud or arrogant to forgive, vou have done vour part and
can go vour wav. Te burden of the quandarv vou have put
him into now lies solelv with him. He will think about it, jus-
tifv how and whv and what he should not forgive until the
ofense melts from his mind and his heart sofens. It takes
as much time for a hardened heart to sofen as it does for a
piece of ice to melt in a refrigerator. Even when it does, his
pride mav never let him give vou the satisfaction of knowing
he has forgiven you. but you can tell. watch for sofening in
the eves when vou meet, a less rigid mouth and the tendencv
to suppress a wholesome smile.
CHAPTER 11: REMORSE AND MODESTY ,o
Body Language and Conscience
Tere is another wav to show remorse for misdeeds. Tat is
bv performing seva, religious service, for persons vou have
wronged. Give them gifs, cook them food. Some people
are unreachable bv words, too remote for an apologv, which
might even lead to an argument, and then the wrong would
perpetuate itself. be extra polite to such people. hold the
door open as thev walk through. Never miss an opportunitv
to be kind and serve. Sav kind words about them behind
their back. Te praise must be true and timelv. Mere fatterv
would be unacceptable. Tis kind of silent behavior shows
repentance, shows remorse, shows that vou have reconsid-
ered vour actions and found that thev need improvement,
and the improvement is shown bv vour actions now and
into the future.
Ofen people think that showing shame and modestv
and remorse for misdeeds is simplv hanging vour head. Well,
reallv, anvone can do this, but it’s not genuine if the head is
not pulled down bv the tightening of the strings of the heart,
if shame is not felt so deeplv that one cannot look another in
the eve. When the hanging of the head is genuine, evervone
will know it and seek to lif vou up out of the predicament.
but just to hang your head for a while and think you’re going
to get away with it in today’s world, no. In today’s world,
people are a little too perceptive, and will not admire vou,
as thev will suspect pretense.
Tere is an analogv in the Íaivite tradition that compares
the unfolding soul to wheat. When voung and growing, the
stalks of wheat stand tall and proud, but when mature their
heads bend low under the weight of the grains thev vield.
Similarlv, man is self-assertive, arrogant and vain onlv in
the earlv stages of his spiritual growth. As he matures and
vields the harvest of divine knowledge, he too bends his
head. body language has to truly be the language of the
body. It’s a dead giveaway. body language is the language
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon oo
of the mind being expressed through the bodv. Let there be
no doubt about this. To crv, expressing remorse—the crv-
ing should not be forced. Manv people can crv on cue. We
must not think that the soul of the observer is not percep-
tive enough to know the diference between real tears and a
glandular disturbance causing watering of the eves.
Hrî is regret that one has done things against the
dhar ma, or against conscience. Tere are three kinds of con-
science—one built on right knowledge, one built on semi-
right knowledge and one built on wrong knowledge. Te
soul has to work through these three gridworks within the
subconscious mind to give its message. Tose who have
been raised with the idea that an injustice should be settled
bv giving back another injustice might actuallv feel a little
guiltv when thev fail to do this. Tose who are in a quan-
darv of what to do, what is right and what is wrong, remain
in confusion because thev have onlv semi-right knowledge
in their subconscious mind.
We cannot confuse guilt and its messages with the mes-
sage that comes from the soul. Guilt is the message of the
instinctive mind, the chakras below the mûlâdhâra. Manv
people who live in the lower worlds of darkness feel guiltv
and satisfv that guilt through retaliation. Tis is the eve
for an eve-for-an-eve, tooth-for-a-tooth approach. Tis is
not right conscience; it is not the soul speaking. Tis is not
higher consciousness, and it is certainlv not the inner being
of light looking out of the windows of the chakras above the
mûlâdhâra. why, even domesticated animals feel guilty. It is
a qualitv of the instinctive mind.
True conscience is of the soul, an impulse rushing
through a mind that has been impregnated with right
knowledge, Vedic, Ågamic knowledge, or the knowledge
that is found in these yamas and niyamas, restraints and
practices. When the true knowledge of karma is understood,
reincarnation, saµsâra and Vedic dharma, then true remorse
CHAPTER 11: REMORSE AND MODESTY o:
is felt, which is a corrective mechanism of the soul. Tis
remorse immediatelv imprints upon the lower mind the
right knowledge of the dharma—how, where and whv the
person has straved and the methodologv of getting quicklv
and happilv back to the path and proceeding onward. Tere
is no guilt felt here, but there is a sense of spiritual respon-
sibilitv, and a driving urge to bring dharma, the sense of
spiritual dutv, more fullv into one’s life, thus flling up the
lack that the misdeeds manifested through adhering to
these twentv restraints and practices and the Vedic path
of dharma, which is alreadv known within the bedrock of
right knowledge, frmlv planted within the inner mind of
the individual.
Compensating for Misdeeds
Te soul’s response to wrong action comes of its own force,
unbidden, when the person is a free soul, not bound bv
manv materialistic duties—even while doing selfess ser-
vice—which can temporarilv veil and hold back the spon-
taneous actions of the soul if done for the expectant praise
that mav follow. Te held-back, spontaneous action of the
soul would, therefore, burst forth during personal times of
sâdhana, meditation or temple worship. Te bursting forth
would be totallv unbidden, and resolutions would follow in
the wake. For those immersed in heavv prârabdha karmas,
going through a period of their life cvcle when diffcult kar-
mic patterns are manifesting, it will be found that the soul’s
spontaneitv is triple-veiled even though the subconscious
mind is impregnated with right knowledge. To gain absolu-
tion and release, to gain peace of mind, one should perform
pilgrimage, spiritual retreat, the practice of mauna, recita-
tion of mantras through japa, deep meditation and, best of
all, the vâsanâ daha tantra. Tese practices will temporarilv
pierce the veils of mâyâ and let the light shine in, bringing
understanding, solutions and direction for future behavior.
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon o:
Having hurt another through wrongdoing, one has to
pav back in proportion to the injurv, not a rupee less and not
a rupee more. Te moment the healing is complete, the scar
will mysteriously vanish. Tis is the law. It is a mystical law.
And while there are anv remaining scars, which are memo-
ries impregnated with emotion, much work has to be done.
Each one must fnd a wav to be nice if he has been not nice,
sav kind words if previous words have been unkind, issue
forth good feelings if the feelings previouslv exuded were
nastv, inharmonious and unacceptable. Iust as a responsible
doctor or nurse must bring the healing to culmination, so
the wrongdoer must deal with his wrongdoing, his crime
against dharma, his crime against right knowledge, Vedic-
Ågamic precepts, his crime against the yamas and niyamas,
restraints and practices, which are in themselves right
knowledge—a digest of the Vedas, we might sav. He must
deal with his wrongdoings, his errors, within himself until
rightness, santosha, returns.
Tere are no magic formulas. Each one must fnd his
own wav to heal himself and others until the troublesome
situation disappears from his own memorv. Tis is whv the
practice called vâsanâ daha tantra, writing down memories
and burning them in a fre to release the emotion from the
deep subconscious, has proven to be a solution uncompa-
rable to anv other. Onlv in this wav will he know that, bv
whatever method he has applied, he has healed the one he
wronged. True forgiveness is the greatest eraser, the greatest
harmonizer. It is this process of misdeeds against dharma,
followed bv shame and remorse, as people interrelate with
one another, that moves them forward in their evolution
toward their ultimate goal of mukti.
Te Iapanese, unlike most of the rest of the world, have
a great sense of loss of face, and a Iapanese businessman
will resign if he has shamed his familv or his countrv. Tis
is hrî and is verv much ingrained in the Iapanese societv,
CHAPTER 11: REMORSE AND MODESTY o,
which is based on buddhist precepts. buddhism itself is the
outgrowth into the familv communitv from a vast monastic
order; whereas Hinduism is a conglomerate of manv smaller
religions, some of which are not outgrowths of a monastic
communitv. Terefore, hrî is an integral part of the culture
of Iapan. Tev have maintained this and other cultural pre-
cepts, as the buddhist monastic orders are still infuential
throughout Asia.
A materialist who loses face smiles and simplv puts on
another mask and continues as if nothing had ever hap-
pened. Te saving goes, “Change vour image and get on
with life.” No shame, repentance or reconciliation is shown
bv such people, as is so ofen portraved on American tele-
vision, and much worse, as it actuallv happens all the time
in public life.
Humility, Shame and Shyness
Te Hindu monastic has special disciplines in regard to
remorse. If he doesn’t, he is an impostor. If he is seen strug-
gling to observe it and unable to accomplish it all the time,
he is still a good monastic. If he shows no remorse, mod-
estv or shame for misdeeds for long periods of time, even
though he continues apparentlv in the performance of no
misdeeds, the abbot of the monasterv would know that he
is suppressing manv things, living a personal life, avoid-
ing confrontation and obscuring that which is obvious to
himself with a smile and the words, “Yes, evervthing is all
right with me. Te meditations are going fne. I get along
beautifullv with all of mv brothers.” You would know that
this is a “mission impossible,” and that it is time to efect
certain tests to break up the nest of the enjovable routine
and of keeping out of evervbodv’s wav, of not participating
creativelv in the entire communitv, but just doing one’s job
and keeping out of trouble. Te test would bring him out in
the open, into counseling sessions, so that he himself would
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon oa
see that his clever pride had led him to a spiritual standstill.
A monastery is no place to settle down and live. It is a place
to be on one’s toes and advance. One must alwavs live as if
on the eve of one’s departure.
Another side of hrî is being bashful, shv, unpretentious.
Te undeveloped person and the fullv developed, wise per-
son mav develop the same qualities of being bashful, shv,
unpretentious, cautious. In the former, these qualities are
the products of ignorance produced bv underexposure, and
in the latter, thev are the products of the wisdom or clev-
erness produced bv overexposure. Genuine modestv and
unpretentiousness are not what actors on the stage would
portrav, thev are qualities that one cannot act out, qualities
of the soul.
Shvness used to be thought of as a feminine qualitv, but
not anvmore, since the equalitv of men and women has been
announced as the way that men and women should be. both
genders should be aggressive, forceful, to meet and deal with
situations on equal terms. Tis is seen todav in the West, in
the East, in the North and the South. Tis is a façade which
covers the soul, producing stress in both men and women.
A basicallv shv man or woman, feeling he or she has to be
aggressive, works his or her wav into a stressful condition.
I long ago found that stress in itself is a byproduct of not
being secure in what one is doing. but this is the world today,
at this time in the Kali yuga. If everything that is happening
were reasonable and could be easilv understood, it certainlv
wouldn’t be the Kali Yuga.
If people are taught and believe that their spiritual pur-
suits are foremost, then, ves, thev should be activelv aggres-
sive—but as activelv passive and modest as well, because of
their spiritual pursuits. Obviouslv, if thev are performing
sâdhanas, thev will intuitivelv know the proper timing for
each action. Remorse, or modestv, certainlv does not mean
one must divorce oneself from the abilitv to move the forces
CHAPTER 11: REMORSE AND MODESTY o,
of the external world, or be a wimpv kind of impotent per-
son. It does mean that there is a way of being remorseful,
showing shame, being humble, of resolving situations
when thev do go wrong so that vou can trulv “get on with
life” and not be bound bv emotionallv saturated memories
of the past. Tose who are bound bv the past constantlv
remember the past and relive the emotions connected with
it. Tose who are free from the past remember the future
and move the forces of all three worlds for a better life for
themselves and for all mankind. Tis is the potent Vedic
hrî. Tis is true remorse, humilitv and modestv. Tis is hrî,
which is not a weakness but a spiritual strength. And all this
is made practical and permanent bv subconscious journal-
ing, vâsanâ daha tantra, which releases creative energv and
does not inhibit it.
Tree generations living at home, enjoying one another,
happy, fulflled and content in their simple life.

Summary of the Second Observance
Nurture contentment, seeking jov and serenitv
in life. be happy, smile and uplif others. live in
constant gratitude for vour health, vour friends
and vour belongings. Don’t complain about
what you don’t possess. Identify with the eternal
You, rather than mind, bodv or emotions. Keep
the mountaintop view that life is an opportunitv
for spiritual progress. Live in the eternal now.
CHAPTER 12: CONTENTMENT o,
1ui sico×u ovsivv.×ci
Contentment
Santosha
¯ï--ïï¯ï
ONTENTMENT, saNTOsha, IS the Second
Ni Yama. how do we prActIce content·
ment? SImply do not hArm otherS by
thoUght, word or deed. AS A prActI-
tioner of ahiµsâ, noninjurv, vou can sleep contentedlv at
night and experience santosha then and through the dav.
Contentment is a qualitv that evervone wants, and buvs
things to obtain—“oh, if I only had my house redecorated, I
would be content.” “A new wardrobe would content me, give
me joy and serenity.” “to be content, I must have a vacation
and get away from it all. Tere I can live the serene life and
have jovous experiences.”
Te dharmic wav is to look within and bring out the
latent contentment that is alreadv there bv doing nothing to
inhibit its natural expression, as santosha, the mood of the
soul, permeates out through everv cell of the phvsical bodv.
Contentment is one of the most diffcult qualities to obtain,
and is well summed up within our food blessing mantra,
from the Íukla Yajur Veda, Èsa Upanishad invocation, “Tat
is fullness. Creation is fullness. From that fullness fows this
world’s fullness. Tis fullness issues from that fullness, vet
that fullness remains full.” Tis jov we seek is the jov of full-
ness, lacking nothing.
Life is meant to be lived jovouslv. Tere is in much of the
world the belief that life is a burden, a feeling of penitence,
that it is good to sufer, good for the soul. In fact, spiritual
life is not that wav at all. Te existentialist would have vou
believe that depression, rage, fear and anguish are the fore-
most qualities of the human temper and expression. Te
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon o8
communists used to have us believe that jov and serenitv as
the outgrowth of religion are just an opiate of the people, a
narcotic of unrealitv. Te Semitic religions of the Near East
would have us believe that sufering is good for the soul, and
there is not much vou can do about it. Te Íaivite Hindu
perspective is that contentment is a refection of centered-
ness, and discontentment is a refection of externalized
consciousness and ramifed desire.
Maintaining jov and serenitv in life means being con-
tent with your surroundings, be they meager or lavish. be
content with vour monev, be it a small amount or a large
amount. be content with your health. bear up under ail-
ments and be thankful that thev are not worse than thev are.
protect your health if it is good. It is a valuable treasure. be
content with your friends. be loyal to those who are your
long-time, trusted companions. basically, contentment, san-
tosha, is freedom from desire gained bv redirecting the
forces of desire and making a beautiful life within what one
alreadv has in life.
Te rich seeking more riches are not content. Te
famous seeking more fame are not content. Te learned
seeking more knowledge are not content. being content with
what vou have does not mean vou cannot discriminate and
seek to progress in life. It doesn’t mean you should not use
vour willpower and fulfll vour plans.
It does mean you should not become upset while you are
striving toward vour goals, frustrated or unhappv if vou do
not get what vou want. Te best striving is to keep pushing
along the natural unfoldment of positive trends and events
in vour life, vour familv life and vour business. Contentment
is working within vour means with what is available to vou,
living within vour income, being grateful for what vou have,
and not unhappv over what vou lack.
Tere are manv frustrated souls on the path who tor-
ment themselves no end and walk around with long faces
CHAPTER 12: CONTENTMENT oo
because thev estimate thev are not unfolding spirituallv
fast enough. Tev have set goals of Self Realization for
themselves far bevond their abilities to immediatelv obtain.
If people say, “I am not going to do anything that will not
make me peaceful or that will threaten mv peace of mind,”
how will thev get anvwhere: Tat is not the idea of santosha.
True santosha is seeing all-pervasiveness of the one divine
power evervwhere. Te light within the eves of each person
is that divine power. With this in mind, vou can go anv-
where and do anvthing. Contentment is there, inside vou,
and needs to be brought out. It is a spiritual power. So, yes,
do what makes you content. but know that contentment
reallv transcends worrving about the challenges that face
vou. Santosha is being peaceful in anv situation. Te stronger
vou are in santosha, the greater the challenges vou can face
and still remain quiet on the inside, peaceful and content,
poised like a hummingbird hovering over a fower.
Keeping Peace in the Home
Santosha is the goal; dharma, good conduct, remains the
director of how vou should act and respond to fulfll vour
karma. Tis goal is attainable bv following the ten Vedic
restraints: not harming others bv thought, word or deed,
refraining from lving, not entering into debt, being tolerant
with people and circumstance, overcoming changeableness
and indecision, not being callous, cruel or insensitive to
other people’s feelings. Above all, never practice deception.
Don’t eat too much. Maintain a vegetarian diet for puritv
and claritv of mind. Watch carefullv what vou think and how
vou express it through words. All of these restraints must
be captured and practiced within the lifestvle before the
natural contentment, the santosha, the pure, serene nature,
of the soul can shine forth. Terefore, the practice to attain
santosha is to fulfll the yamas. Proceed with confdence;
failure is an impossibilitv.
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon ,o
i was asked by a cyberspace cadet among our internet
congregation, “Where do we let off steam? Mom works, dad
works, the kids are in school, and when everyone comes
home, everyone lets off a little steam, and everyone under-
stands.” My answer is don’t let off steam in the home. The
home is a sanctuary of the entire family. it should have an
even higher standard of propriety than the offce, the factory
or the corporate workplace. When we start being too casual
at home and letting off steam, we say things that perhaps we
shouldn’t. We may think the rest of the family understands,
but they don’t. feelings get hurt. We break up the vibra-
tion of the home. Young people also let off steam in school,
thus inhibiting their own education. They behave in a way
in the classroom that they would not in a corporate offce,
and who is hurt but themselves? it’s amazing how quickly
people shape up their behavior when they sign a contract,
when they get a job in a corporate offce. They read the
manual, they obey it and they are nice to everyone. This is
the way it should be within the home. The home should be
maintained at a higher standard than the corporate offce.
The wonderful thing about hinduism is that we don’t
let off steam at home; we let our emotions pour out within
the hindu temple. The hindu temple is the place where
we can relate to the Gods and the Goddesses and express
ourselves within ourselves. it’s just between ourselves and
the deity. in a hindu temple there may be, all at the same
time, a woman worshiper crying in a corner, not far away a
young couple laughing among themselves with their chil-
dren, and nearby someone else arguing with the Gods. The
hindu temple allows the individual to let off steam but it is
a controlled situation, controlled by the pûjâs, the ceremony,
the priesthood.
so as to not make more karma in this life by saying
things we don’t mean, having infections in our voice that
are hurtful to others, we must control the home, control
CHAPTER 12: CONTENTMENT ,:
ourselves in the workplace, keep the home at a higher vibra-
tion of culture and protocol than the workplace, and include
the temple in our lives as a place to release our emotions and
regain our composure.
it is making a lot of really bad karma that will come
back in its stronger reaction later on in life for someone,
the husband or wife or teenager, to upset the vibration of
the home because of stress at school or in the workplace. it
is counterproductive to work all day in a nice offce, con-
trol the emotions and be productive, and then go home
and upset the vibration within the home. after all, why is
someone working? it’s to create the home. Why is some-
one going to school? it’s to eventually create a home. it is
counterproductive to destroy that which one works all day
to create. That’s why i advise the professional mother, the
professional father, the professional son and the professional
daughter to use in the home the same good manners that
are learned in the workplace, and build the vibration of the
home even stronger than the vibration of the workplace, so
that there is something inviting to come home to.
We have seen so many times, professionals, men and
women, behave exquisitely in the workplace, but not so
exquisitely at home, upset the home vibration, eventually
destroying the home, breaking up the home. and we have
seen, through the years, a very unhappy person in retire-
ment, a very bitter person in retirement. no one wants him
around, no one wants to have him in their home. Therefore,
he winds up in some nursing home, and he dies forgotten.
The sanâtana dharma and Íaiva sama yam must be alive
in the home, must be alive in the offce, must be alive in the
temple, for us to have a full life. Where, then, do we vent
our emotions, where do we let off steam, if not in our own
home? The answer is, within the temple.
a well-to-do woman takes joy in giving food and
clothing to needy neighbors in a selfess act of dâna.

Summary of the Tird Observance
be generous to a fault, giving liberally without
thought of reward. Tithe, ofering one-tenth
of vour gross income (daßa mâµßa) as God’s
monev, to temples, ashrams and spiritual orga-
nizations. Approach the temple with oferings.
Visit gurus with gifs in hand. Donate religious
literature. Feed and give to those in need.
bestow your time and talents without seeking
praise. Treat guests as God.
chApter 13: gIvIng ,,
1ui 1uivu ovsivv.×ci
Giving
Dâna
¯ï-ï
IvIng, DÅNA, IS the thIrd greAt relIgIoUS
prActIce, or NiYama. It IS ImportAnt to
remember thAt gIvIng freely of one’S
goodS In fUlfillIng needS, mAKIng Some-
one happv or putting a smile on his face, mitigates selfsh-
ness, greed, avarice and hoarding. but the most important
factor is “without thought of reward.” Te reward of jov and
the fullness vou feel is immediate as the gif passes from
vour two hands into the outstretched hands of the receiver.
Dâna is ofen translated as “charity.” but charity in modern
context is a special kind of giving bv those who have to
those who have not. Tis is not the true spirit of dâna. Te
word fulfllment might describe dâna better. Te fulfllment
of giving that wells up within the giver as the gif is being
prepared and as the gif is being presented and released, the
fulfllment of the expectancv of the receiver or the surprise
of the receiver, and the fullness that exists aferwards are all
a part of dâna.
Daßamâµßa, tithing, too, is a worthv form of dâna—giv-
ing God’s monev to a religious institution to fulfll with it
God’s work. One who is reallv fulflling dâna gives daßa-
mâµßa, never goes to visit a friend or relative with emptv
hands, gives freelv to relatives, children, friends, neighbors
and business associates, all without thought of reward. Te
devotee who practices dâna knows fullv that “vou cannot
give anvthing awav.” Te law of karma will return it to vou
full measure at an appropriate and most needed time. Te
freer the gif is given, the faster it will return.
What is the proportionate giving afer daßamâµßa, ten
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon ,a
percent, has been deducted. It would be another two to fve
percent of one’s gross income, which would be equallv divided
between cash and kind if someone wanted to discipline his
dâna to that extent. Tat would be ffeen percent, approxi-
matelv one sixth, which is the makimai established in South
India by the chettiar community around the palani temple
and now practiced bv the Malaka Chettiars of Malavsia.
If one were to take a hard look at the true spirit of dâna
in todav’s societv, the rich giving to religious institutions
for a tax deduction are certainlv giving with a thought
of reward. Terefore, giving afer the tax deductions are
received and with no material benefts or rewards of anv
kind other than the fulfllment of giving is considered bv the
wise to be a true expression of dâna. Making something with
one’s own hands, giving in kind, is also a true expression of
dâna. Giving a gif begrudginglv in return for another gif
is, of course, mere barter. Manv families barter their wav
through life in this way, thinking they are giving. but such
gifs are cold, the fulfllment is emptv, and the law of karma
pavs discounted returns.
Hospitality and Fullness
Hospitalitv is a vital part of fulflling dâna. When guests
come, thev must be given hospitalitv, at least a mat to sit
on and a glass of water to drink. Tese are obligatorv gifs.
You must never leave vour guest standing, and vou must
never leave your guest thirsty. If a guest were to smell even
one whif from the kitchen of the scented curries of a meal
being prepared, he must be asked four times to stav for the
meal. He will politelv refuse three times and accept on the
fourth invitation. Tis is also an obligatorv giving, for the
guest is treated as God. God Íiva’s veiling grace hides Íiva
as He dresses in manv costumes. He is a dancer, vou know,
and dancers wear manv costumes. He will come as a guest
to vour home, unrecognizable. You might think it is vour
chApter 13: gIvIng ,,
dear friend from a far-of place. Tat, too, is Íiva in another
costume, and vou must treat that guest as Íiva. Giving to
Íiva Íiva’s own creation in vour mind brings the highest
rewards through the law of karma.
Even if vou think vou are giving creativelv, generouslv,
looking for no rewards, but vou are giving for a purpose, that
karma will still pav vou back with full interest and dividends.
Tis is a positive use of the law of karma. It pays higher
interest than anv bank. Tis is not a selfsh form of giving.
It is the giving of the wise, because you know the law of
karma, because vou know the sanâtana Dharma—the divine,
eternal laws. If you see a need that you can fll and have the
impulse to give but recoil from giving, later, when vou are in
need, there will be someone who has the impulse to give to
vou but will recoil from giving. Te wheels of karma grind
slowlv but exceedinglv well the grains of actions, be thev in
thought, emotion or those of a phvsical nature. So, one can
be quite selfsh and greedv about wanting to practice dâna
to accumulate the pu∫ya for the balance of this life, the life
in-between lives, in the astral world, and for a good birth in
the next incarnation. Te practice of dâna is an investment
in a better life, an investment that pavs great dividends.
We are not limited bv our povertv or wealth in practicing
giving. No matter how poor vou are, vou can still practice it.
You can give according to vour means, vour inspiration, vour
abilitv. When the fullness has reached its peak within vou
while preparing the gif, be it arranging a bouquet of freshlv
picked fowers, a trav of fruit, counting out coins, sorting
a pile of bills or putting zeros on a check that vou’re writ-
ing, then vou know that the gif is within vour means. Gifs
within vour means and from vour heart are the proper gifs.
Te Selfsh and Miserly
Te virtue of dâna deals with the pragmatic phvsical trans-
ference of cash or kind. It is the foundation and the life
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon ,o
blood of anv other form of religious giving, such as giving
of one’s time. many people rationalize, “I’ll give my time to
the temple. I’ll wash the pots, scrub the foor and tidy up.
but I can’t aford to give of my limited wealth proportion-
ate to what would be total fulfllment of giving.” basically,
thev have nothing better to do with their time, and to ease
their own conscience, thev volunteer a little work. Tere is
no merit, no pu∫ya, in this, onlv demerit, pâpa. No, it’s just
the other wav around. One who has perfected dâna in cash
and in kind and is satisfed within this practice, this niyama,
will then be able and willing to give of his time, to tithe ten
percent of his time, and then give time over and above that
to religious and other worthv causes. Shall we sav that the
perfection of dâna precedes seva, service:
What can be said of someone who is all wrapped up in
his personal self: concealing his personal ego with a pleas-
ant smile, gentle deeds, sof words, but who just takes care
of “number one”: For instance, if living with ten people, he
will cook for himself and not cook for the others. He gets
situations confused, entertains mental arguments within
himself and is alwavs worried about the progress in his
religious life. We would sav he is still trving to work on the
restraints—compassion, patience, sexual puritv, moderate
appetite—and has not vet arrived at number three on the
chart of the practices called niyamas. Modern psvchologv
would categorize him as self-centered, selfsh, egotistical. To
overcome this selfshness, assuming he gets the restraints in
order, doing things for others would be the practice, seeing
that evervone is fed frst before he eats, helping out in everv
wav he can, performing anonvmous acts of kindness at everv
opportunitv.
In an orthodox hindu home, the traditional wife will
follow the practice of arising in the morning before her
husband, preparing his hot meal, serving him and eating
onlv afer he is fnished; preparing his lunch, serving him
chApter 13: gIvIng ,,
and eating afer he is fnished; preparing his dinner, serving
him and eating afer he is fnished, even if he returns home
late. Giving to her husband is her fulfllment, three times
a dav. Tis is built into Hindu societv, into Íaivite culture.
Wives should be allowed bv their husbands to perform
giving outside the home, too, but manv are not. All too
ofen, thev are held down, embarrassed and treated almost
like domestic slaves—given no monev, given no things to
give, disallowed to practice dâna, to tithe and give creativelv
without thought of reward. Such domineering, miserlv and
ignorant males will get their just due in the courts of karma
at the moment of death and shortlv afer. Te divine law is
that the wife’s ßakti power, once released, makes her husband
magnetic and successful in his worldlv afairs, and their
wealth accumulates. He knows from tradition that to release
this ßakti he must alwavs fulfll all of the needs of his beloved
wife and give her generouslv evervthing she wants.
Many Ways of Giving
Tere are so manv wavs of giving. Arising before the Sun
comes up, greeting and giving namaskâra to the Sun is a
part of Íaivite culture. Dâna is built into all aspects of Hindu
life—giving to the holv man, giving to the astrologer, giv-
ing to the teacher, giving dakshi∫â to a swâmî or a satguru
for his support, over and above all giving to his institution,
over and above daßamâµßa, over and above giving to the
temple. If the satguru has satisfed vou with the fullness of
his presence, vou must satisfv vourself in equal fullness in
giving back. You can be happilv fat as these two fullnesses
merge within you. by giving to the satguru, vou give him the
satisfaction of giving to another, for he has no needs except
the need to practice dâna.
Great souls have alwavs taught that, among all the forms
of giving, imparting the spiritual teachings is the highest.
You can give monev or food and provide for the phvsical
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon ,8
aspects of the being, but if vou can fnd a wav to give the
dharma, the illumined wisdom of the traditions of the
sanâtana Dharma, then vou are giving to the spirit of the
person, to the soul. Manv Hindus buv religious literature to
give awav, because jñâna dâna, giving wisdom, is the highest
giving. Several groups in Malavsia and Mauritius gave awav
over ,o,ooo pieces of literature in a twentv-month period.
Another group in the United States gave awav ,oo,ooo
pieces of literature in the same period. Manv pieces of that
literature changed the lives of individuals and brought them
into a great fullness of soul satisfaction. An electric-shock
blessing would go out from them at the peak of their ful-
fllment and fll the hearts of all the givers. Giving through
education is a glorious fulfllment for the giver, as well as
for the receiver.
Wealthv men in India will feed twenty thousand people
in the hopes that one enlightened soul who was trulv hungrv
at that time might partake of this dâna and the ßakti that
arises within him at the peak of his satisfaction will prepare
for the giver a better birth in his next life. Tis is the great
spirit of anna yajñâ, feeding the masses.
Along with the gif comes a portion of the karma of the
giver. Tere was an astrologer who when given more than
his due for a jyotisha consultation would alwavs give the
excess to a nearbv temple, as he did not want to assume
anv additional karma bv receiving more than the worth of
his predictions. Another wise person said, “I don’t do the
antyesh†i saµskâra, funeral rites, because I can’t receive the
dâna coming from that source of sadness. It would afect my
familv.” Giving is also a wav of balancing karma, of express-
ing gratitude for blessings received. A devotee explained, “I
cannot leave the temple without giving to the hu∫∂i, ofer-
ing box, according to the fullness I have received as fullness
from the temple.” A gourmet once said, “I cannot leave the
restaurant until I give gratuity to the waiter equaling the
chApter 13: gIvIng ,o
satisfaction I felt from the service he gave.” Tis is dâna, this
is giving, in a diferent form.
Children should be taught giving at a verv voung age.
Tev don’t vet have the ten restraints, the yamas, to worrv
about. Tev have not been corrupted bv the impact of their
own prârabdha karmas. Little children, even babies, can
be taught dâna—giving to the temple, to holv ones, to one
another, to their parents. Tev can be taught worship, recita-
tion and, of course, contentment—told how beautiful thev
are when thev are quiet and experiencing the jov of serenitv.
Institutions should also give, according to their means, to
other institutions.
How Monks Fulfll Dâna
It is very important for sâdhus, sannyâsins, swâmîs, sâdhakas,
anv mendicant under vows, to perform dâna. True, thev are
giving all of their time, but that is fulfllment of their vrata.
True, thev are not giving daßamâµßa, because thev are not
emploved and have no income. For them, dâna is giving
the unexpected in unexpected wavs—serving tea for seven
davs to the tvrannical sâdhu that assisted them bv causing
an attack of â∫ava, of personal ego, within them, in thanks
to him for being the channel of their prârabdha karmas and
helping them in the next step of their spiritual unfoldment.
Dâna is making an unexpected wreath of sacred leaves and
fowers for one’s guru and giving it at an unexpected time.
Dâna is cooking for the entire group and not just for a few
or for oneself alone.
When one has reached an advanced stage on the spiri-
tual path, in order to go further, the law requires giving back
what one has been given. Hearing oneself speak the divine
teachings and being uplifed and fulflled bv flling up and
uplifing others allows the budding adept to go through
the next portal. Tose who have no desire to counsel oth-
ers, teach or pass on what thev have learned are still in the
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon 8o
learning stages themselves, traumaticallv dealing with one or
more of the restraints and practices. Te passing on of jñâna,
wisdom, through counseling, consoling, teaching sanâtana
Dharma and the onlv one fnal conclusion, monistic Íaiva
siddhânta, Advaita Èßvaravâda, is a fulfllment and comple-
tion of the cvcle of learning for everv monastic. Tis does
not mean that he mouths indiscriminatelv what he has been
told and memorized, but rather that he uses his philosophi-
cal knowledge in a timelv wav according the immediate
needs of the listener, for wisdom is the timelv application
of knowledge.
Te dâna sâdhana, of course, for sâdhakas, sâdhus, yogîs
and swâmîs, as thev have no cash, is to practice dâna in
kind, phvsical doing, until thev are fnallv able to release
the sanâtana Dharma from their own lips, as a natural out-
growth of their spiritualitv, spirit, ßakti, bolt-of-lightening
outpouring, because thev are so flled up. Tose who are
flled up with the divine truths, in whom when that fullness
is pressed down, compacted, locked in, it still oozes out and
runs over, are those who pass on the sanâtana Dharma. Tev
are the catalvsts not onlv of this adult generation, but the
one before it still living, and of children and the generations
vet to come.
chApter 13: gIvIng 8:
a man’s car stalls as a train approaches. he holds to
his faith, and Íiva, nearby, helps him escape to safety.

Summary of the Fourth Observance
cultivate an unshakable faith. believe frmly in
God, Gods, guru and vour path to enlighten-
ment. Trust in the words of the masters, the
scriptures and traditions. Practice devotion
and sâdhana to inspire experiences that build
advanced faith. be loyal to your lineage, one
with vour satguru. Shun those who trv to break
vour faith bv argument and accusation. Avoid
doubt and despair.
chApter 14: fAIth 8,
1ui ioUv1u ovsivv.×ci
Faith
A
-
stikya
¤ïˆ¯-ï+¯ï
AIth, ÅSTIKYA, IS the foUrth NiYama.
fAIth IS A SUbStAnce, A collectIon of
molecUleS, mInd molecUleS, emotIon
molecUleS—And Some Are even phySI·
cal—collected together, charged with the energies of the
Divine and the anxieties of the undivine, made into an
astral form of shape, color and sound. being a creation built
up over time, faith can just as readilv be destroved, as the
following phrases indicate: crisis of faith, loss of faith, dark
night of the soul, and just plain confused disappointment
leading to depression. because of faith, groups of people are
drawn together, cling together, remain together, intermarrv
and give birth, raising their children together in the sub-
stance of faith that their collective group is subconsciouslv
committed to uphold.
Anvone can strengthen another’s faith through encour-
agement, personal example, good natured humoring, praise,
fatterv, adulation, or take it awav bv the opposite methods.
Manv people with more faith than intellect are pawns in the
hands of those who hold great faith, or of those who have
little faith, or of those who have no faith at all. Terefore,
we can see that a clear intellectual understanding of the
philosophv is the bedrock to sustaining faith. Faith is on
manv levels and of manv facets. We have faith in a person, a
familv, a svstem of government, science, astronomv, astrol-
ogv. Faith in philosophv, religion, is the most tenuous and
delicate kind and, we must sav, the most rewarding of all
faiths, because once it is sustained in unbroken continuitv,
the pure soul of the individual begins to shine forth.
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon 8a
faith has eyes. It has three eyes. Te seer who is looking
at the world from the perspective of monistic Íaiva sid-
dhânta and sees clearlv the fnal conclusions for all mankind
has faith in his perception, because what he sees and has
seen becomes stronger in his mind as the vears go bv. We
have the faith of those who have two eves upraised. Tev
look at the seer as dakshi∫âmûrti, God Himself, and gain
strength from His everv word. Tere is also the faith of those
who have two eves lowered. Tev are reading the scriptures,
the teachings of all the seers, and building the aura of faith
within their inner psvche. Ten there are those who have
faith with their eves closed, blind faith. Tev know not, read
not and are not thinking, but are entranced bv the spiritual
leader in whom thev have faith as a personalitv. Tev are
nodding their head up and down on his everv word and
when questioned are not able to adequatelv explain even
one or two of his profound thoughts.
And then we have the others, who make up much of the
world population todav. Tev are also with eves closed, but
with heads down, shaking lef and right, lef and right. Tev
see mostlv the darker side of life. Tev are those who have
no faith at all or sufer a semi-permanent loss of faith, who
are disappointed in people, governments, svstems, philoso-
phies, religions. Teir leaders thev condemn. Tis is a sorrv
lot. Teir home is the halls of depression, discouragement
and confusion. Teir uplifment is jealousv and anger.
Faith Is on Many Levels
Faith extends to another level, too, of pleasure for the sake
of pleasure. Here we have the jet-set, the hedonists, the sen-
sualists, the pornographers and their customers. All these
groups have developed their own individual mindset and
mix and interrelate among themselves, as the astral mol-
ecules of this amorphous substance of thought, emotion
and belief that we call faith creates their attitudes toward
chApter 14: fAIth 8,
the world, other people and their possessions.
Te Hindu, therefore, is admonished bv the sapta ®ishis
themselves to believe frmlv in God, Gods, guru and the path
to enlightenment, lest he strav from the path of dharma—for
faith is a powerful force. It can be given; it can be taken away.
It is a national force, a community force, a group force, a
familv force. And it is more than that, as far as the sanâtana
Dharma is concerned, which can be translated as the “eter-
nal faith,” the most strengthening and illuminating of all,
for it gives courage to all to applv these twentv yamas and
niyamas, which represent the fnal conclusions of the deepest
deliverers of eternal wisdom who ever resided on this planet.
Some people have faith onlv when things are going right
and lose faith when things go wrong. Tese are the ones
who are looking up at their leaders, whom thev reallv do
not know, who are looking up at the scriptures, which thev
really do not understand. because their eyes are closed, they
are seeking to be sustained and constantlv uplifed bv others.
“Do mv sâdhana for me” is their plea. And when some incon-
sistencv arises or some expectation, unbeknownst to their
leader and mavbe never even recorded in the scriptures,
does not manifest, a crisis of faith occurs. Ten, more than
ofen, thev are of to another leader, another philosophv, to
inevitablv repeat the same experience. Devotees of this kind,
who are called “groupies” in rock and roll, go from group to
group, teacher to teacher, philosophv to philosophv. Fortu-
natelv for them, the rent is not expensive, the bhajanas are
long and the food is good. Te onlv embarrassing situation,
which has to be manipulated, is the tactic of leaving one
group without totallv closing the door, and manipulativelv
opening the door of another group.
When that uplifed face with eves closed has the spiritual
experience of the eves opening, the third eve fashing, he or
she would have then found at last his or her sampradâya,
traditional lineage of verbal teaching, and now be on the
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon 8o
unshakable path. Te molecules of faith have been con-
verted and secured. Tev shall never turn back, because thev
have seen through the third eve the beginning and ending
of the path, the traditional lineage ordained to carrv them
forth generation afer generation. Tese souls become the
articulate ones, masters of the philosophv. Teir faith is so
strong, thev can share their molecules with others and mold
others’ faith molecules into traditional standards of the whvs
and wherefores that we all need on this planet, of how we
should believe and think, where we go when we die, and all
the eternal truths of the ultimate attainments of mankind.
Stages of Evolution
Faith is the intellect of the soul at its various stages of
un foldment. Te soul comes forth from Lord Íiva as an
embrvo and progresses through three stages (avasthâ) of
existence: kevala avasthâ, sakala avasthâ and ßuddha avasthâ.
During kevala avasthâ, the soul is likened to a seed hidden
in the ground or a spark of the Divine hidden in a cloud of
unknowing called â∫ava, the primal fetter of individualitv,
the frst aspect of Lord Íiva’s concealing grace, tirodhâna
ßakti. Sakala avasthâ, the next stage in the soul’s journev, is
the period of bodilv existence, the cvclic evolution through
transmigration from bodv to bodv, under the additional
powers of mâyâ and karma, the second and third aspects of
the Lord’s concealing grace.
Te journev through sakala avasthâ is also in three stages.
Te frst is called irul pâda, “stage of darkness,” where the
soul’s impetus is toward pâßa-jñânam, knowledge and expe-
rience of the world. Te next period is marul pâda, “stage of
confusion,” where the soul begins to take account of its situ-
ation and fnds itself caught between the world and God, not
knowing which wav to turn. Tis is called paßu-jñânam, the
soul seeking to know its true nature. Te last period is arul
pâda, “stage of grace,” when the soul vearns for the grace of
chApter 14: fAIth 8,
God. Now it has begun its true religious evolution with the
constant aid of the Lord.
For the soul in darkness, irul, faith is primitive, illogi-
cal. In its childlike endeavors it clings to this faith. Tere is
no intellect present in this voung soul, onlv primitive faith
and instinctive mind and body. but it is this faith in the
unseen, the unknown, the words of the elders and its abilitv
to adjust to communitv without ruming evervone’s feathers
that matures the soul to the next pâda—marul, wherein faith
becomes faith in oneself, close friends and associates, faith
in one’s intellectual remembrance of the opinions of others,
even if thev are wrong.
It is not very quickly that the soul gets out of this syn-
drome, because it is here that the karmas are made that bind
the soul, surround the soul, the karmas of ignorance which
must be gone through for the wisdom to emerge. Someone
who is wise got that wav bv facing up to all the increments
of ignorance. Te marul pâda is verv binding and tenacious,
tenaciously binding. but as the external shell of â∫ava is
being built, the soul exercises itself in its own endeavor to
break through. Its “still small voice” falls on deaf ears.
Yoga brings the soul into its next experiential pattern.
Te soul comes to fnd that if he performs good and virtuous
deeds, life alwavs seems to take a positive turn. Whereas in
negative, unvirtuous acts he slowlv becomes lost in a fore-
boding abvss of confusion. Tus, in faith, he turns toward
the good and holv. A balance emerges in his life, called
iruvinaioppu.
Whether he is conscious of it or not, he is bringing the
three malas—â∫ava, karma and mâyâ—under control. Mâyâ
is less and less an enchanting temptress. Karma no longer
controls his state of mind, tormenting him through battering
experiences. And â∫ava, his self-centered nature, is easing
its hold, allowing him to feel a more universal compassion
in life. Tis grows into a state called malaparipakam, the
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon 88
ripening of the malas.
Tis will allow, at the right moment in his life, arul to set
in. Tis is known as the descent of grace, ßaktinipâta. Te
internal descent is recognized as a tremendous vearning for
Íiva. More and more, he wants to devote himself to all that is
spiritual and holv. Te outer descent of grace is the appear-
ance of a satguru. Tere is no question as to who he is, for
he sheds the same clear, spiritual vibration as that unknown
something the soul feels emanating from his deepest self. It
is when the soul has reached malaparipakam that the Lord’s
tirodhâna function, His concealing grace, has accomplished
its work and gives wav to anugraha, revealing grace, and the
descent of grace, ßaktinipâta, occurs.
At this stage, knowledge comes unbidden. Insights into
human afairs are mere readings of past experiences, for
those experiences that are being explained to others were
actuallv lived through bv the person himself. Tis is no mvs-
tery. It is the threshold of ßuddha avasthâ. Lord Íiva is at the
top, Lord ga∫eßa is at the bottom, and Lord Murugan is in
the heart of it, in the center.
Faith in Tradition
Te intellect in its capacitv to contain truth is a verv lim-
ited tool, while faith is a verv broad, accommodating and
embracing facultv. Te mvsterv of life and bevond life, of
Íiva, is reallv better understood through faith than through
intellectual reasoning. Te intellect is a memorv/reason
conglomerate from the lower nâ∂î/chakra complex. Its
refned abilitv to juggle information around is uncannv in
some instances. Nevertheless, the intellect is built upon what
we hear and remember, what we experience and remem-
ber, what we explain to others who are refned or gross in
reasoning faculties. What we remember of it all and the
portions that have been forgotten mav be greatlv benefcial
to those listening, or it mav be confusing, but it is certainlv
chApter 14: fAIth 8o
not Truth with a capital “T.”
Tere are two kinds of faith. Te frst kind is faith in
those masters, adepts, yogîs and ®ishis who have had similar
experiences and have spoken about them in similar wavs,
unedited bv the ignorant. We, therefore, can have faith that
some Truth was revealed from within themselves, from
some deep, inner or higher source. Te second aspect of
faith is in one’s own spiritual, unsought-for, unbidden fashes
of intuition, revelations or visions, which one remembers
even stronger as the months go bv, more vividlv than some-
thing read from a book, seen on television or heard from a
friend or a philosopher. Tese personal revelations create
a new, superconscious intellect when verifed bv what yogîs
and ®ishis and the sâdhus have seen and heard and whose
explanations centuries have preserved. Tese are the old
souls of the ßuddha avasthâ, being educated from within
out, building a new intellect from superconscious insights.
Teir faith is unshakable, undaunted, for it is themself. It is
just who thev are at this stage of the evolution, the matura-
tion, of their soul in the ßuddha avasthâ.
One of the aspects of faith is the acceptance of tradi-
tion rather than the questioning or doubting of traditions.
Another is trust in the process of spiritual unfoldment, so
that when one is going through an experience, one alwavs
believes that the process is happening, instead of think-
ing that todav’s negative experience is outside the process.
However, it is not possible for souls in the irul pâda, stage
of darkness, to trust in the process of anvthing except their
need for food, a few bodilv comforts and their gaining the
abilities to adjust transparentlv into a communitv without
committing too manv crimes for which thev would be
severelv punished. Tev gain their lessons through the
action-and-painful-reaction wavs.
It is diffcult and nearlv impossible for those in the
marul pâda, stage of confusion, to have faith in the process
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon oo
of spiritual unfoldment and trust in tradition, because thev
are developing their personal ego, manufacturing karmas,
good, bad and mixed, to sustain their phvsical existence
for hundreds of lives. Tev will listen to sermons with a
deaf ear and, afer thev are over, enjov the food and the
idle chatter the most. Tev will read books on philosophv
and rationalize their teachings as relevant onlv to the past.
Te great knowledge of the past tradition, even the wisdom
their grandparents might hold, is an encroachment on their
proud sovereigntv.
It is only when the soul reaches the maturity to enter
the arul pâda, the stage of grace, that the abilitv will come
from within to lean on the past and on tradition, perform
the present sâdhanas, live within dharma and carve a future
for themselves and others bv bringing the best of the past,
which is tradition, forward into the future. Tis transition is
a happv one. Truth now has a capital “T” and is alwavs told.
Te restraints, the yamas, trulv have been perfected and are
a vital part of the DNA svstem of individual living beings.
Now, as he enters the arul pâda, the niyamas, spiritual prac-
tices, stand out stronglv in his mind.
Te Sanskrit word âstikya means “that which is,” or
“that which exists.” Tus, for Hindus faith means believing
in what is. Åstikya refers to one who believes in what is, one
who is pious and faithful. We can see that these two words,
faith and âstikya, are similar in nature. Faith is the spiritual-
intellectual mind, developed through manv superconscious
insights blended together through cognition, not through
reason. Te insights do not have to be remembered, because
thev are frmlv impressed as saµskâras within the inner mind.
Tere is an old saving favored bv practical, experiential
intellectuals, “Seeing is believing.” A more profound adage
is “believing is seeing.” Te scientists and the educators of
todav live in the marul pâda. Tev see with their two eves
and pass judgments based on what thev currentlv believe.
chApter 14: fAIth o:
Te ®ishis of the past and the ®ishis of the now and those vet
to come in the future also are seers. Tere is a thin thread
through the history of china, japan, India, england and
all of Europe, Africa, the Americas, Polvnesia and all the
countries of the world connecting seers and what thev have
seen. Tis seeing is not with the two eyes. It is with the third
eve, the eve of the soul. One cannot erase through argument
or coercion that which has been seen. Te seer relates his
seeing to the soul of the one who hears. Tis is sampradâya.
Tis is guru-ßishya transference. Tis is Truth. Tis is ßuddha.
Tis is the end of this upadeßa.
hands raised in adoration during a pûjâ, a devotee
venerates Ga∫eßa in an act of Èßvarapûjana, worship.

Summary of the Fifh Observance
Cultivate devotion through dailv worship and
meditation. Set aside one room of vour home as
God’s shrine. Ofer fruit, fowers or food dailv.
Learn a simple pûjâ and the chants. Meditate
afer each pûjâ. Visit vour shrine before and
afer leaving the house. Worship in heartfelt
devotion, clearing the inner channels to God,
Gods and guru so their grace fows toward
vou and loved ones.
chApter 15: worShIp o,
1ui iii1u ovsivv.×ci
Worship
Èßvarapûjana
?◊¯¯ï¯ï-ï
orShIp, ÈÍVaraP¨ Jana, IS the fiFTH Ni Ya ma.
let US declAre, In the lASt AnAlySIS, thAt
hUmAn lIfe IS eIther worShIp or wAr·
ShIp, hIgher nAtUre or lower nAtUre.
we need say no more. but we will. Te brief explanation for
Èßvarapûjana is to cultivate devotion through dailv worship
and meditation. Te soul’s evolution from its conception is
based solelv on Èßvarapûjana, the return to the source. In
the irul pâda, the stage of darkness, its return to the source
is more imminent than actual. Te burning desire is there,
driven bv the instinctive feelings and emotions of living
within the seven chakras below the mûlâdhâra. Tere is a
natural seeking on the wav up. People here will worship
almost anything to get out of this predicament. bound in
blind faith, with the absence of a coherent intellect guided bv
reason, and the absence of a matured intellect developed bv
superconscious experience, thev struggle out of their shell
of ignorance, through worship, to a better life. Te small
thread of intuition keeps assuring them it is there, within
their reach if thev but strive. Tev call God, thev fear God,
seek to be close to Him and see Him as oh-so-far awav.
When thev are matured and stepping into adolescence
in the marul pâda, where confusion prevails, worship and
the trappings and traditions that go with it seem to be primi-
tive, unreasonable and can all well be dispensed with. It is
here that a voung ladv looks into the mirror and savs, “What
a fne person! I am more beautiful than all the other girls I
know.” A voung man mav likewise be conceited about his
looks or phvsique. Worship still exists, but is tied closelv to
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon oa
narcissism. It is only in the stage of grace, arul, and on its
doorstep that true worship arises, which is invoking and
opening up to the great beings, God, Gods and devas, in
order to commune with them.
Faith, âstikya, creates the attitudes for the action of
worship. We can see that from the soul’s conception to its
fullness of maturitv into the fnal merger with God Íiva
Himself, worship, communication, looking up, blending
with, is trulv monistic Íaiva siddhânta, the fnal conclusions
for all mankind. We can conclude that in sanâtana Dharma
faith is in what Is, and in the Abrahamic religions faith is
in what Is yet to be.
Worship could be defned as communication on a verv
high level: a trulv sophisticated form of “channeling,” as
New-Age people might sav; clairvovant or clairaudient
experience, as mvstics would describe it; or heart-felt love
interchanged between Deitv and devotee, as the ordinarv
person would describe it. Worship for the Hindu is on manv
levels and of many kinds. In the home, children worship
their father and mother as God and Goddess because thev
love them. Te husband worships his wife as a Goddess. Te
wife worships her husband as a god. In the shrine room, the
entire familv together worships images of Gods, Goddesses
and saints, beseeching them as their dear friends. Te fam-
ilv goes to the temple dailv, or at least once a week, attends
seasonal festivals and takes a far-of pilgrimage once a vear.
Worship is the binding force that keeps the Hindu familv
together. On a deeper level, external worship is internalized,
worshiping God within through meditation and contempla-
tion. Tis form of worship leads into yoga and profound
mvstical experiences.
Rites of Worship
Manv people are afraid to do pûjâ, specifc, traditional rites
of worship, because thev feel thev don’t have enough train-
chApter 15: worShIp o,
ing or don’t understand the mvstical principles behind it
well enough. to this concern I would say that the priesthood
in Hinduism is sincere, devout and dedicated. Most Hindus
depend on the priests to perform the pûjâs and sacraments
for them, or to train them to perform home pûjâ and give
them permission to do so through initiation, called dîkshâ.
However, simple pûjâs mav be performed bv anvone wishing
to invoke grace from God, Mahâdevas and devas.
Love and dedication and the outpouring from the high-
est chakras of spiritual energies of the lav devotee are ofen
greater than anv professional priest could summon within
himself. Devotees of this caliber have come up in Hindu
societv throughout the ages with natural powers to invoke
the Gods and manifest in the lives of temple devotees manv
wondrous miracles.
Tere is also an informal order of priests called pa∫∂ara,
which is essentiallv the self-appointed priest who is accepted
bv the communitv to perform pûjâs at a sacred tree, a simple
shrine or an abandoned temple. He mav start with the man-
tra Aum and learn a few more mantras as he goes along. His
effcaciousness can equal that of the most advanced Sanskrit
ßâstrî, performing in the grandest temple. Mothers, daugh-
ters, aunts, fathers, sons, uncles, all mav perform pûjâ within
their own home, and do, as the Hindu home is considered
to be nothing less than an extension of the nearbv temple.
In the hindu religion, unlike the western religions, there is
no one who stands between man and God.
Years ago, in the late 1950s, I taught beginning seekers
how to ofer the minimal, simplest form of pûjâ at a simple
altar with fresh water, fowers, a small candle, incense, a bell
and a stone. Tis brings together the four elements, earth,
air, fre and water—and vour own mind is âkâßa, the ffh
element. Te liturgv is simplv chanting “Aum.” Tis is the
generic pûjâ which anvone can do before proper initiation
comes from the right sources. People of anv religion can
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon oo
perform Hindu pûjâ in this wav.
All Hindus have guardian devas who live on the astral
plane and guide, guard and protect their lives. Te great
Mahâdevas in the temple that the devotees frequent send
their deva ambassadors into the homes to live with the
devotees. A room is set aside for these permanent unseen
guests, a room that the whole familv can enter and sit in and
commune inwardlv with these refned beings who are dedi-
cated to protecting the familv generation afer generation.
Some of them are their own ancestors. A token shrine in a
bedroom or a closet or a niche in a kitchen is not enough
to attract these Divinities. One would not host an honored
guest in one’s closet or have him or her sleep in the kitchen
and expect the guest to feel welcome, appreciated, loved. All
Hindus are taught from childhood that the guest is God, and
thev treat anv guest rovallv who comes to visit. Hindus also
treat God as God and devas as Gods when thev come to live
permanentlv in the home.
but liberal sects of hinduism teach that god and devas
are onlv fgments of one’s imagination. Tese sects are
responsible for producing a more materialistic and super-
fcial group of followers. Not so the deep, mvstical Hindu,
who dedicates his home to God and sets a room aside for
God. To him and the familv, thev are moving into God’s
house and living with God. Materialistic, superfcial Hindus
feel that God might be living, sometimes, mavbe, in their
house. Teir homes are fraught with confusion, deceptive
dealings, back-biting, anger, even rage, and their marriages
nowadavs ofen end in divorce.
Tev and all those who live in the lower nature are
restricted from performing pûjâ, because when and if thev
do pûjâ, the invocation calls up the demons rather than call-
ing down the devas. Te asuric beings invoked into the home
bv angrv people, and into the temple bv angrv priests, or bv
contentious, argumentative, sometimes rageful boards of
chApter 15: worShIp o,
directors, take great satisfaction in creating more confusion
and escalating simple misunderstandings into arguments
leading to angrv words, hurt feelings and more. With this
in mind, once anger is experienced, thirtv-one davs should
pass to close the door on the chakras below the mûlâdhâra
before pûjâ mav again be performed bv that individual.
Simple waving of incense before the icons is permissible,
but not the passing of fames, ringing of bells or the chanting
of anv mantra, other than the simple recitation of Aum.
Living in God’s Home
Te ideal of Èßvarapûjana, worship, is to alwavs be living with
God, living with Íiva, in God’s house, which is also vour
house, and regularlv going to God’s temple. Tis lavs the
foundation for fnding God within. How can someone fnd
God within if he doesn’t live in God’s house as a companion
to god in his daily life? Te answer is obvious. It would only
be a theoretical pretense, based mainly on egoism. If one
reallv believes that God is in his house, what kinds of atti-
tudes does this create: First of all, since familv life is based
around food, the familv would feed God in His own room
at least three times a dav, place the food lovinglv before His
picture, leave, close the door and let God and His devas eat
in peace. God and the devas do enjov the food, but thev do
so bv absorbing the prâ∫as, the energies, of the food. When
the meal is over, and afer the familv has eaten, God’s plates
are picked up, too. What is lef on God’s plate is eaten as
prasâda, as a blessing. God should be served as much as the
hungriest member of the familv, not just a token amount. Of
course, God, Gods and the devas do not alwavs remain in
the shrine room. Tev wander freelv throughout the house,
listening to and observing the entire familv, guests and
friends. Since the familv is living in God’s house, and God
is not living in their house, the voice of God is easilv heard
as their conscience.
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon o8
When we are living in God’s house, it is easv to see God
as pure energv and life within everv living form, the trees,
the fowers, the plants, the fre, the Earth, humans, animals
and all creatures. When we see this life, which is manifest
most in living beings, we are seeing God Íiva. Manv families
are too selfsh to set aside a room for God. Tough thev have
their personal libraries, rumpus rooms, two living rooms,
multiple bedrooms, their superfcial religion borders on a
new Indian religion. Teir shrine is a closet, or pictures of
God and Goddesses on the vanitv mirror of their dress-
ing table. Te results of such worship are nil, and their life
refects the chaos that we see in the world todav.
Te psvchologv and the decision and the religion is, “Do
we live with God, or does God occasionallv visit us:” Who
is the authoritv in the home, an unreligious, ignorant, domi-
neering elder: Or is it God Íiva Himself, or Lord Murugan
or Lord ga∫eßa, whom the entire familv, including elders,
bow down to because thev have resigned themselves to the
fact that thev are living in the âßrama of Mahâdevas: Tis
is religion. Tis is Èßvarapûjana.
It is ofen said that worship is not only a performance at
a certain time of dav in a certain place, but a state of being
in which everv act, morning to night, is done in Íiva con-
sciousness, in which life becomes an ofering to God. Ten
we can begin to see Íiva in evervone we meet. When we trv,
just trv—and we don’t have to be successful all the time—to
separate the life of the individual from his personalitv,
immediatelv we are in higher consciousness and can refect
contentment and faith, compassion, steadfastness and all
the higher qualities, which is sometimes not possible to do
if we are onlv looking at the external person. Tis practice,
of Èßvarapûjana sâdhana, can be performed all through the
dav and even in one’s dreams at night.
Meditation, too, in the Hindu wav is based on worship.
It is true that hindus do teach meditation techniques to
chApter 15: worShIp oo
those who have Western backgrounds as a mind-manipula-
tive experience. However, a Hindu adept, ®ishi or jñânî, even
an experienced elder, knows that meditation is a natural out-
growth of the charyâ, kriyâ and yoga paths. It is based on a
religious foundation, as trigonometrv is based on geometrv,
algebra and arithmetic.
If you are worshiping properly, if you take worship to
its pinnacle, vou are in perfect meditation. We have seen
manv devotees going through the form of worship with no
communication with the God thev are worshiping or even
the stone that the God uses as a temporarv bodv. Tev don’t
even have a smile on their face. Tev are going through the
motions because thev have been taught that meditation is
the ultimate, and worship can be dispensed with afer a cer-
tain time. Small wonder that when thev are in meditation,
their minds are confused and subconscious overloads harass
them. breathing is irregular, and if made regular has to be
forced. Teir materialistic outlook on life—of seeing God
evervwhere, vet not in those places thev rationalize God can
never possiblv be—contradicts their professed dedication to
the Hindu wav of life.
Yes, trulv, worship unreservedlv. Perfect this. Ten, afer
initiation, internalize that worship through yoga practices
given bv a satguru. Trough that same internal worship,
unreservedlv, vou will eventuallv attain the highest goal.
Tese are the Íaiva siddhânta conclusions of the seven ®ishis
who live within the sahasrâra chakra of all souls.
a teacher passes along the gif of scriptural learning to
four boys through recitation of holy scriptural texts.

Summary of the Sixth Observance
Eagerlv hear the scriptures, studv the teachings
and listen to the wise of vour lineage. Choose
a guru, follow his path and don’t waste time
exploring other wavs. Read, studv and, above
all, listen to readings and dissertations bv which
wisdom fows from knower to seeker. Avoid
secondarv texts that preach violence. Revere
and studv the revealed scriptures,
the Vedas and Ågamas.
chApter 16: ScrIptUrAl StUdy :o:
1ui six1u ovsivv.×ci
Scriptural Study
Siddhânta Írava∫a
l¯ï˝ï--ï˛¯ïºï
IDDHÅNTA ÍRAVAıA, ScrIptUrAl StUdy, the
SIxth NiYama, IS the end of the SeArch.
prIor to thIS end, prIor to findIng the
saTguru, WE ARE FREE TO STUDY ALL THE
scriptures of the world, of all religions, relate and interrelate
them in our mind, manipulate their meanings and justifv
their fnal conclusions. We are free to studv all of the sects
and sampradâyas, all denominations, lineages and teachings,
evervthing under the banner of Hinduism—the Íaivites,
the Vaish∫avites, the smârtas, ga∫apa tis, ay yap pans, Íâktas
and Murugans and their branches.
Scriptures within Hinduism are voluminous. Te meth-
ods of teaching are awesome in their multiplicitv. As for
teachers, there is one on every corner in India. Ask a simple
question of an elder, and he is dutv-bound to give a lengthv
response from the window he is looking out of, opened bv
the sampradâya he or his familv has subscribed to, mavbe
centuries ago, of one or another sect within this great pan-
theon we call Hinduism.
before we come to the fullness of siddhânta ßrava∫a,
we are also free to investigate psvchologies, psvchiatries,
pseudo-sciences, wavs of behavior of the human species,
existentialism, humanism, secular humanism, materialism
and the manv other modern “-isms,” which are so multi-
tudinous and still multiplving. Teir spokesmen are manv.
Libraries are full of them. All the “-isms” and “-ologies” are
there, and thev beckon, hands outstretched to receive, to
seduce, sometimes even seize, the seeker. Te seeker on the
path of siddhânta ßrava∫a who is at least relativelv successful
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon :o:
at the ten restraints must make a choice. He knows he has to.
He knows he must. He has just entered the consciousness
of the mûlâdhâra chakra and is becoming steadfast on the
upward climb.
Have full faith that when vour guru does appear, afer
vou have made vourself readv through the ten restraints
and the frst fve practices, vou will know in everv nerve
current of vour being that this is vour guide on the path
through the next fve practices: 1) siddhânta ßrava∫a, scrip-
tural studv—following one verbal lineage and not pursuing
anv others; 2) mati, cognition—developing a spiritual will
and intellect with a guru’s guidance; 3) vrata, sacred vows—
fulflling religious vows, rules, and observances faithfullv;
4) japa, recitation of holv mantras—here we seek initiation
from the guru to perform this practice; and 5) tapas, per-
forming austeritv, sâdhana, penance and sacrifce, also under
the guru’s guidance.
Siddhânta ßrava∫a is a discipline, an ancient traditional
practice in satguru lineages, to carrv the devotee from
one chakra in consciousness to another. Each sampradâya
defends its own teachings and principles against other sam-
pradâyas to maintain its pristine puritv and admonishes
followers from investigating anv of them. Such exploration
of other texts should all be done before seeking to fulfll
siddhânta ßrava∫a. Once under the direction of and having
been accepted bv a guru, anv further delving into extraneous
doctrines would be disapproved and disallowed.
Siddhânta ßrava∫a is more than just focusing on a
single doctrine. It is developing through scriptural study
an entirelv new mind fabric, subconsciouslv and consciouslv,
which will entertain an explanation for all future prârabdha
karmas and karmas created in this life to be experienced for
the duration of the phvsical life of the disciple. Siddhânta
ßrava∫a is even more. It lays the foundation for initiation
within the fabric of the nerve svstem of the disciple. Even
chApter 16: ScrIptUrAl StUdy :o,
more, it portravs anv diferences in his thinking, the guru’s
thought, the sampradâya’s principles, philosophv and under-
lving practices.
Transmitting Tradition
Siddhânta ßrava∫a literally means “scriptural listening.” It
is one thing to read the Vedas, Upanishads and Yoga Sûtras,
but it is quite another to hear their teachings from one who
knows, because it is through hearing that the transmission
of subtle knowledge occurs, from knower to seeker. And that
is whv listening is preferred over intellectual studv.
because sound is the frst creation, knowledge is trans-
ferred through sound of all kinds. It is important that one
listen to the highest truths of a sampradâya from one who
has realized them. Te words, of course, will be familiar.
Tev have been read bv the devotee literallv hundreds of
times, but to hear them from the mouth of the enlightened
®ishi is to absorb his unspoken realization, as he re-realizes
his realization while he reads them and speaks them out.
Tis is Íaiva siddhânta. Tis is true sampradâya—thought,
meaning and knowledge conveved through words spoken
bv one who has realized the Ultimate. Te words will be
heard, the meaning the satguru understands as meaning will
be absorbed bv the subconscious mind of the devotee, and
the superconscious, intuitive knowledge will impress the
subsuperconscious mind of the devotees who absorb it, who
milk it out of the satguru himself. Tis and onlv this changes
the life pattern of the devotee. Tere is no other wav. Tis
is whv one must come to the guru open, like a child, readv
and willing to absorb, and to go through manv tests. And
this is whv one must choose one’s guru wiselv and be readv
for such an event in one’s life.
Sampradâya actuallv means an orallv transmitted tra-
dition, unwritten and unrecorded in anv other wav. True,
satgurus of sampradâyas do write books nowadavs, make
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon :oa
tape recordings, videos and correspond. Tis is mini-sam-
pradâya, the bud of a fower before opening, the shell of an
egg before the bird hatches and fies of, the cocoon before
the butterfv emerges. Tis is mini-sampradâya—just a taste,
but it does lav a foundation within the ßishya’s mind of who
the guru is, what he thinks, what he represents, the begin-
ning and ending of his path, the sampradâya he represents,
carries forth and is bound to carrv forth to the next genera-
tion, the next and the next. but really potent sampradâya is
listening, actuallv listening to the guru’s words, his explana-
tions. It stimulates thought. once-remembered words take
on new meanings. Old knowledge is burnt out and replaced
with new. Tis is sampradâya.
Are vou readv for a satguru? Perhaps not. When vou are
readv, and he comes into vour life through a dream, a vision
or a personal meeting, the process begins. Te devotee takes
one step toward the guru—a simple meeting, a simple dream.
Te guru is bound to take nine steps toward the devotee, not
ten, not eleven or twelve, onlv nine, and then wait for the
devotee to take one more step. Ten another nine ensue.
Tis is the dance. Tis is sampradâya.
When a spiritual experience comes, a real awakening of
light, a fash of realization, a knowing that has never been
seen in print, or if it had been is long-since forgotten, it gives
great courage to the devotee to fnd that it had alreadv been
experienced and written about bv others within his chosen
sampradâya.
If all the temples were destroyed, the gurus would come
forth and rebuild them. If all the scriptures were destroyed,
the ®ishis would reincarnate and rewrite them. If all the gurus,
swâmîs, ®ishis, sâdhus, saints and sages were svstematicallv
destroved, thev would take births here and there around
the globe and continue as if nothing had ever happened. So
secure is the Eternal Truth on the planet, so unshakable, that
it forges ahead undaunted through the mouths of many. It
chApter 16: ScrIptUrAl StUdy :o,
forges ahead undaunted through the temples’ open doors. It
forges ahead undaunted in scriptures now lodged in nearlv
every library in the world. It forges ahead undaunted, mysti-
callv hidden from the unworthv, revealed onlv to the wor-
thv, who restrain themselves bv observing some or all of the
yamas and who practice a few niyamas.
Coming under a satguru of one lineage, all scripture,
temple and home tradition mav be taken awav from the
eyes of the experience of the newly accepted devotee. In
another tradition, scripture mav be taken awav and temple
worship allowed to remain, so that onlv the words of the guru
are heard. In still another tradition, the temple, the scripture
and the voice of the guru are alwavs there—but tradition-
allv onlv the scripture which has the approval of the satguru
and is totallv in accord with his principles, practices and the
underlving philosophv of the sampradâya.
Living One Path Perfectly
life is long; there are apparently many years ahead. but time
is short. One never knows when he is going to die. Te pur-
pose of sampradâya is to restrict and narrow down, to reach
out to an attainable goal. We must not consider our life and
expected longevitv as giving us the time and permission to
do investigative comparisons of one sampradâya to another.
Tis mav be done before making up one’s mind to follow a
traditional verbal lineage. Afer that, pursuing other paths,
even in passing, would be totallv unacceptable.
but it is also totally unacceptable to assume the attitude
of denigration of other paths, or to assume the attitude that
“our wav is the onlv wav.” Tere are fourteen currents in the
sushum∫â. Each one is a valid wav to escalate consciousness
into the chakra at the top of the skull and bevond. And at
everv point in time, there is a living guru, possessing a phvsi-
cal bodv, ordained to control one or more of these nâ∂îs,
currents, within the sushum∫â. All are valid paths. One
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon :oo
should not present itself as superseding another. Let here
be no mistake about this.
Te yamas and niyamas are the core of Hindu disciplines
and restraints for individuals, groups, communities and
nations. In fact, they outline various stages of the path in
the development of the soul, leading out of the marul pâda
into the arul pâda, from confusion into grace, leading to the
feet of the satguru, as the last fve practices indicate—sid-
dhânta ßrava∫a, mati, vrata, japa and tapas.
Since the sampradâyas are all based on Hinduism, which
is based on the Vedas, any teacher of Indian spirituality who
rejects the Vedas is therefore not a Hindu and should not be
considered as such. Anvbodv in his right mind will be able
to accept the last section of the Vedas, the Upanishads, and
see the truth therein. One at least has to accept that as the
basis of siddhânta ßrava∫a. If even that is rejected, we must
consider the teacher a promulgator of a new Indian religion,
neo-American religion, neo-European religion, neo-New-
Age religion, nonreligion, neo-sannyâsî religion, or some
other “neo-ism” or “neo-ologv.” Tis is not sampradâya.
Tis is not siddhânta ßrava∫a. Tis is what we speak against.
Tese are not the eternal paths. why? because they have not
been tried and tested. Tev are not based on traditional lin-
eages; nor have thev survived the ravages of time, changing
societies, wars, famine and the infltration of ignorance.
For sâdhakas, yogîs, swâmîs and mendicants who have
freed themselves from the world, permanentlv or for a
period of time according to their vows, these yamas and
niyamas are not onlv restraints and practices, but manda-
torv controls. Tev are not onlv practices, but obligatorv
disciplines, and once performed with this belief and attitude,
thev will surelv lead the mendicant to his chosen goal, which
can onlv be the height that his prârabdha karmas in this life
permit, unless those karmas are burned out under extreme
tapas under the guidance of a satguru.
chApter 16: ScrIptUrAl StUdy :o,
Some might still wonder, whv limit oneself to listening
to scripture of one particular lineage, especiallv if it has been
practicallv memorized: Te answer is that what has been
learned must be experienced personallv, and experience
comes in manv depths. Tis is the purpose of disregard-
ing or rejecting all other sampradâyas, -ism’s, -ologies and
sects, or denominations, and of limiting scriptural listen-
ing to just one sampradâya, so that each subtle increment
of the divine truths amplifed within it is realized through
personal experience. Tis and onlv this—experience, real-
ization, illumination—can be carried on to the next birth.
What one has merelv memorized is not transforming and
is forgotten perhaps shortlv afer death. Let there be no
mistake that siddhânta ßrava∫a, scriptural listening, is the
onlv wav; and when the seeker is readv, the guru will appear
and enter his life.
a sage blesses a young boy, bestowing upon him mati,
insightful cognition and spiritual understanding.

Summary of the Seventh Observance
Develop a spiritual will and intellect with
vour satguru’s guidance. Strive for knowledge
of God, to awaken the light within. Discover
the hidden lesson in each experience to develop
a profound understanding of life and vourself.
Trough meditation, cultivate intuition bv
listening to the still, small voice within, bv
understanding the subtle sciences, inner
worlds and mvstical texts.
chApter 17: cognItIon :oo
1ui sivi×1u ovsivv.×ci
Cognition
Mati
-ïl-ï
ognItIon, maTi, IS the Seventh NiYama.
cognItIon meAnS UnderStAndIng; bUt
deeper thAn UnderStAndIng, It IS See·
Ing throUgh to the other SIde of the
results that a thought, a word or an action would have in the
future, before the thought, word or action has culminated.
Mati is the development of a spiritual will and intellect
through the grace of a satguru, an enlightened master. Mati
can only come this way. It is a transference of divine energies
from the satguru to the ßishya, building a purifed intellect
honed down bv the guru for the ßishya, and a spiritual will
developed bv the ßishya bv following the religious sâdhanas
the guru has laid down until the desired results are attained
to the guru’s satisfaction. Sâdhana is alwavs done under a
guru’s direction. Tis is the worthv sâdhana that bears fruit.
Mati, cognition, on a higher level is the awakening of
the third eve, looking out through the heart chakra, seeing
through the mâyâ, the interacting creation, preservation and
dissolution of the molecules of matter. Mati is all this and
more, for within each one who is guided bv the guru’s pres-
ence lies the abilitv to see not onlv with the two eves but with
all three simultaneouslv. Te spiritual intellect described
herein is none other than wisdom, or a “wise dome,” if
vou will. Wisdom is the timelv application of knowledge,
not merelv the opinions of others, but knowledge gained
through deep observation.
Te guru’s guidance is supreme in the life of the dedi-
cated devotee who is open for training. Te verbal lineages
of the manv sampradâyas have withstood the tests of time,
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon ::o
turmoil, decav and ravage of external hostilitv. Te sam-
pradâyas that have sustained man and lifed him above the
substratum of ignorance are actuallv great nerve currents
within the sushum∫â of the awakened satguru himself. To
go further on the path of yoga, one will encounter within
his own sushum∫â current—within one of the fourteen
nâ∂îs within it—a satguru, a guru who preaches Truth. He
will meet this guru in a dream or in his phvsical bodv, and
through the guru’s grace and guidance will be allowed to
continue the upward climb. Tese fourteen currents, at
everv point in time on the surface of the Earth, have a sat-
guru attached to them, readv and waiting to open the portals
of the bevond into the higher chakras, the throat, the third
eve and the cranium.
to say, “I have awakened my throat chakra,” “I now live
in my third eye” or “I am developing my sahasrâra chakra,”
without being able to admit to being under a guru, a satguru
who knows and is personallv directing the devotee, is fool-
ishness, a matter of imagination. It is in the heart chakra,
the chakra of cognition, that seekers see through the veils
of ignorance, illusion, mâyâ’s interacting preservation, cre-
ation and destruction, and gain a unitv with and love for the
universe—all those within it, creatures, peoples and all the
various forms—feeling themselves a part of it.
Here, on this threshold of the anâhata chakra, there
are two choices. One is following the sampradâya of a
satguru for the next upward climb into the vißuddha, âjñâ
and sahasrâra. Te other is remaining guru-less, becoming
one’s own guru, and possiblv delving into various forms
of psvchism, astrologv, some forms of modern science,
psvchic crime-detection, tarot cards, pendulums, crvstal
gazing, psvchic healing, past-life reading or fortunetelling.
Tese psvchic abilities, when developed, can be an impedi-
ment, a deterrent, a barrier, a berlin wall to future spiritual
development. Tev develop the â∫ava, the ego, and are the
chApter 17: cognItIon :::
frst renunciations the satguru would ask a devotee to make
prior to being accepted.
Coming under a satguru, one performs according to
the guru’s direction with full faith and confdence. Tis
is whv scriptures sav a guru must be carefullv chosen, and
when one is found, to follow him with all vour heart, to obev
and fulfll his everv instruction better than he would have
expected vou to, and most importantlv, even better than vou
would have expected of vourself.
Psvchic abilities are not in themselves deterrents on the
path. Tev are permitted to develop later, afer Paraßiva,
nirvikalpa samâdhi, has been attained and fullv established
within the individual. but this, too, would be under the guru’s
grace and guidance, for these abilities are looked at as tools
to fulfll certain works assigned bv the guru to the devotee
to fulfll until the end of the life of the phvsical bodv.
It is the personal ego, the â∫ava, that is developed through
the practice of palmistrv, astrologv, tarot cards, fortunetell-
ing, past-life reading, crvstal gazing, crvstal heal ing, prâ∫a
transference, etc., etc., etc. Tis personal ego enhancement
is a gif from those who are healed, who are helped, who
are encouraged and who are in awe of the psvchic power
awakened in the heart chakra of this most perfect person of
the higher consciousness who doesn’t anger, displav fear or
exhibit anv lower qualities.
Untying the Bonds
Te three malas that bind us are: mâyâ, the ever-perpetuat-
ing dance of creation, preservation and dissolution; karma
(our prârabdha karma, brought with us to face in this life,
along with the karma we are creating now and will create in
the future); and â∫ava, the ego, ignorance or sense of separ-
ateness. Mâyâ can be understood, seen through and adjusted
to through the heart-chakra powers of cognition, content-
ment and compassion. Karmas can be harnessed through
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon :::
regular forms of disciplinarv practices of bodv, mind and
emotions, and the understanding of the law of karma itself
as a force that is sent out through thought, feeling and action
and most ofen returns to us through other peoples’ thought,
feeling and action. but it is the â∫ava mala, the mala of
personal ego, that is the binding chain which cannot be so
easily dealt with. It is the last to go. It is only at the point of
death, before the greatest mahâsamâdhi of the greatest ®ishi,
that the â∫ava mala chain is fnallv broken.
If we compare this â∫ava mala, personal ego, to an actual
mâlâ, a string of rudrâksha beads, the purpose on the path at
this stage, of mati, is to begin eliminating the beads, making
the chain shorter and shorter. Te mâlâ should be getting
shorter and shorter rather than our adding beads to it so
that it gets longer and longer. A warning: if the â∫ava mala—
svmbolicallv a garland of rudrâksha beads—has thirtv-six
beads and it steadilv grows to I,oo8 because of practices
and the adulation connected with them within the psvchic
realms of the pseudoscience of parapsvchologv—such as
bending spoons, telepathv, channeling and ectoplasmic
manifestations—this I,oo8 strand of rudrâksha beads could
become so heavv, so dangerous to the wearer, that eventu-
allv he would trip and fall on his nose. Te wise sav, “Pride
goes before a fall.” And the still wiser know that “spiritual
pride is the most diffcult pride to deal with, to eliminate, to
rise above in a lifetime.” Te spirituallv proud never open
themselves to a satguru. Te mvsticallv humble do.
Mati has also been interpreted as “good intellect, acute
intelligence, a mind directed toward right knowledge, or
Vedic knowledge.” Good intellect, in the context of a Hindu
seer, would be right knowledge based on siddhânta ßrava∫a,
scriptural studv. Acute intelligence, of course, means “see-
through” or panoramic intelligence which cognizes the
entire picture rather than onlv being aware of one of its
parts. “A mind directed toward right knowledge or Vedic
chApter 17: cognItIon ::,
knowledge” refers to the intellect developed through sid-
dhânta ßrava∫a. Te studv of the Vedas and other scriptures
purifes the intellect, as belief creates attitude, and attitude
creates action. An intellect based on truths of the sanâtana
Dharma is intelligent to the divine laws of the universe and
harnessed into fulflling them as a part of it. To this end, all
the prârabdha karmas of this life and the action-reaction
conglomerates formed in this life are directed. Te intellect,
like the emotions, is a force, disciplined or undisciplined,
propelled by right knowledge or wrong knowledge. It, of
itself, processes, logicallv or illogicallv, both kinds of knowl-
edge or their mix. What harnesses the intellect is siddhânta
ßrava∫a, studv of the teachings and listening to the wise of
an established, traditional lineage that has stood the test of
time, ravage and all attempts at conversion.
Te intellect is a neutral tool which can be used for bad
or for good purposes. but unlike the emotions, which are
warm, and also neutral, the intellect is cold. It is the fre of
the ku∫∂alinî force—impregnating the intellect, purifving it,
burning out the ignorance of wrong concepts, thought forms,
beliefs, connected attitudes, causing an aversion to certain
actions—that forges the purifed intellect and spiritual
will of cognition, known as mati. Mati, in summarv, is the
harnessing of the intellect bv the soul to live a spiritual life.
Purifying the Intellect
Tere are manv things which have their claim on people’s
minds. For manv it is the phvsical bodv. Te hvpochondriac
thinks about it all the time. Ten there is the emplover who
has bought the intellect of the emplovee. Te emotions
consume the intellect with hurt feelings and the rhetori-
cal questions that ensue, elated feelings and the continued
praise that is expected. And then there is television, the
modern vißvaguru that guides the intellect into confusion.
As a dream leads onlv to waking up, television leads onlv to
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon ::a
turning it of. Yes, there are manv things that claim the intel-
lect, manv more than we have spoken about alreadv.
Te intellect is guided bv the phvsical; the intellect is
guided bv the emotions, bv other people, and bv mechanical
devices. And the intellect is guided bv the intellect itself, like
a computer processing and reprocessing knowledge without
really understanding any of it. It is at the stage when anger
has subsided, jealousv is unacceptable behavior and fear is
a distant feeling, when memorv is intact, the processes of
reason are working well, the willpower is strong and the
integritv is stable, when one is looking out from the anâhata
chakra window of consciousness, when instinctive-intellec-
tual thought meets the superconscious of the purusha, the
soul, that the inner person lavs claim on the outer person.
Tere is a struggle, to be sure, as the “I Am” struggles to
take over the “was then.” It’s simple. Te last mala, the â∫ava
“mâlâ,” has to start losing its beads. Te personal ego must
go for universal cosmic identitv, satchidânanda, to be main-
tained. Tis, then, is the platform of the throat chakra, the
vißuddha chakra, of a true, all-pervasive, never-relenting spir-
itual identitv. Here guru and ßishya live in oneness in divine
communication. Even if never a word is spoken, the under-
standing in the devotee begins to grow and grow and grow.
Some people think of the intellect as informing the
superconscious or soul nature, instructing or educating it.
Some people even think that thev can command the Gods
to do their bidding. Tese are the people that also think that
their wife is a slave, that children are their servants, and who
cleverlv deceive their emplovers and governments through
learned arts of deception.
Tese are the prototvpes of the well-developed ignorant
person, even though he might feign humilitv and proclaim
religiousness. It is the religion that he professes, if he keeps
doing so, that will pull him out of this darkness. When the
frst beam of light comes through the mûlâdhâra chakra, he
::,
will start instructing his own soul as to what it should do for
him, vet he still habituallv dominates his wife, inhibiting her
own feelings as a woman, and his children, inhibiting their
feelings in experiencing themselves being voung.
but the soul responds in a curious way, unlike the
wife and children, or the emplover and government who
have been deceived through his wrong dealings. Te soul
responds bv creating a pin which pricks his conscience, and
this gnawing, antagonistic force within him he seeks to get
rid of. He hides himself in jealousv, in the sutala chakra, until
this becomes unacceptable. Te confusion of the talâtala
chakra is no longer his pleasure. He can’t hide there. So, he
hides himself in anger and resentment—a cozv place within
the vitala chakra—until this becomes unbearable. Ten he
hides himself in fear, in the atala chakra, fear of his own
purusha, his own soul, his own psvche, his own seeing, until
this becomes intolerable. Ten he hides himself in memorv
and reason, and the being puts down its roots. Te change
in this individual can onlv be seen bv the mellowness within
his eves and a new-born wisdom that is slowlv developing in
his conversations among those who knew him before.
Transmuting Willpower
Willpower is a prâ∫ic force which exudes out of the ma∫ipûra
chakra. Tis energv, when directed downward, can be used
up through excessive reason, excessive memorization, fear
and amplifcation of fears, anger, the perpetuation of resent-
ment without resolution, amplifed bv instinctive jealousies,
all of which eventuallv dissipate the semi-divine energv of
willpower and eventuallv close the ma∫ipûra chakra. but
when this same energv of willpower is upwardlv directed,
it pulls memorv into a purifed memorv, making it forget
what has to be forgotten, namelv wrong knowledge, and
remember what has to be remembered—siddhânta, the
fnal conclusions of the ®ishis who live within the sahasrâra
chApter 17: cognItIon
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon ::o
chakra, the siddhas who are contacted through great tapas.
Tere is no reason to believe that developing and unfold-
ing the ten petals of the ma∫ipûra chakra comes easilv. To
develop an indomitable will capable of the accomplishments
needed as a prerequisite to make the upward climb to the
anâhata, vißuddha, âjñâ and sahasrâra chakras, and to sustain
the benign attitudes of humilitv, is certainlv not an easv task.
but it comes naturally to one who has attained such in prior
lifetimes, an older soul, I would say. fulflling each task one
has begun, putting the cap back on the toothpaste tube afer
squeezing the toothpaste on the brush, the little things, and
perfecting the yamas and the niyamas, especiallv content-
ment, austeritv, giving, faith and regular worship, builds this
indomitable will. Tese are mini-sâdhanas one can perform
on his own without the guidance of a guru. Yes, it is the little
things that build the indomitable will that dominates the
external intellect, its memorv and reason abilities, and the
instinctive impulses of fear, anger and jealousv. Doing this
is just becoming a good person.
Willpower is the muscle of the mind. We lif weights,
exercise, run a mile, all to develop the muscles of the phvsi-
cal bodv. Te more we perform these practices, the more
muscular we become. Te process of strain reshapes the
cellular properties and the structure of the muscles. Inter-
mittent rest allows them to build up double. Strong muscles
appear on the bodv as a result. Te ma∫ipûra chakra is the
sun center of the phvsical bodv and of the astral bodv, the
place where all nerve currents of these two bodies meet and
merge. It emanates the power of life. It is the seat of fre, the
agni homa. It is the bridge between the ultimate illumination
and a prolonged, ongoing, intellectual processing of ideas,
coupled with instinctive willfulness. Let there be no mistake,
we must get bevond that bv transmuting this tool, willpower,
into mati, cognition, where its energies are usable vet benign.
Terefore, the more vou use vour personal, individual will-
chApter 17: cognItIon ::,
power in vour religious service, in vour business life, vour
personal life, vour home life, vour temple life, in fulflling
all the yamas and niyamas, the more willpower you have. It
is an accumulative, ever-growing bank account.
Of course, vou can lose some of it through lapses into
fear, anger and jealousv, just as in an economic depression
one loses money. but you can also court an infation by
seeking higher consciousness in the vißuddha chakra of
divine love through the anâhata chakra of direct cognition,
through understanding the oneness of a well-ordered, just
universe, both inner and outer.
a couple voice their wedding vows, vrata, promising life-
long fdelity in one of our most sacred rites of passage.

Summary of the Eighth Observance
Embrace religious vows, rules and observances
and never waver in fulflling them. Honor vows
as spiritual contracts with vour soul, vour com-
munitv, with God, Gods and guru. Take vows to
harness the instinctive nature. Fast periodicallv.
Pilgrimage vearlv. Uphold vour vows strictlv, be
thev chastitv, marriage, monasticism, nonaddic-
tion, tithing, lovaltv to a lineage, vegetarianism
or nonsmoking.
CHAPTER 18: SACRED VOWS ::o
1ui iicu1u ovsivv.×ci
Sacred Vows
Vrata
¯ï-ï
raTa, tAKIng SAcred vowS, IS the eIghth
NiYama And SomethIng every hIndU
mUSt do At one tIme or Another dUrIng
hIS lIfetIme. the brahmacharYa VraTa
is the frst, pledging to maintain virginitv until marriage. Te
vivâha vrata, marriage vows, would generallv be the next.
Taking a vow is a sacred trust between vourself, vour outer
self, vour inner self, vour loved ones and closest friends.
Even though thev mav not know of the vow vou mav have
taken, it would be diffcult to look them straight in the eve
if vou vourself know vou have let vourself down. A vow is
a sacred trust between vou and vour guardian devas, the
devas that surround the temple vou most frequent and the
Mahâdevas, who live within the Tird World—which vou
live in, too, in vour deep, innermost mind, in the radiant,
self-luminous bodv of vour soul.
Manv people make little promises and break them.
Tis is not a vrata, a sacred trust. A vrata is a sacred trust
with God, Gods and guru made at a most auspicious time
in one’s life. Vrata is a binding force, binding the external
mind to the soul and the soul to the Divine, though vrata is
sometimes defned generallv as following religious virtues
or observances, following the principles of the Vedas, of the
Hindu Dharma. Tere are vratas of manv kinds, on manv
diferent levels, from the simple promise we make to ourself
and our religious communitv and guru to perform the basic
spiritual obligations, to the most specifc religious vows.
Vratas give the strength to withstand the temptations of
the instinctive forces that naturallv come up as one goes on
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon ::o
through life—not to suppress them but to rechannel them
into a lifestvle fullv in accord with the yamas and niyamas.
Te yamas should be at least two-thirds perfected and the
niyamas two-thirds in efect before vratas are taken.
We must remember that the yamas are restraints, ten
clues as to what forces to restrain and how to restrain them.
Some people are better than others at accomplishing this,
depending on their prârabdha karmas, but the efort in trv-
ing is the important thing. Te practices, niyamas, on the
other hand, are progressive, according to the perfection of
the restraints. Commitment to the frst yama, noninjurv,
ahiµsâ, for example, makes the frst niyama, remorse, or
hrî, a possibilitv in one’s life. And satya, truthfulness, brings
santosha—contentment, jov and serenitv in life. Te frst fve
practices, niyamas, are tools to keep working with vourself,
to keep trving within the fve major areas thev outline.
If one wants to progress further, he does not have to take
on a guru—to studv scriptures or develop a spiritual will
or intellect—that would come naturallv, nor to take simple
vratas, to chant Aum as japa and to perform certain sâdhanas
and penance. Tese are all available. but a guru naturallv
comes into one’s life when the last fve yamas—steadfastness,
compassion, honestv, a moderate appetite, and puritv—give
rise to the last fve niyamas—siddhânta ßrava∫a (choice of
lineage), mati (cognition and developing a spiritual will with
the guru’s guidance), vrata (sacred vows before a guru), japa
(recitation afer initiation from guru) and tapas (austerities
performed under the careful guidance of a guru). We can
see that the last fve practices are taken on two levels: guru
involvement, and communitv and personal involvement.
Types of Vows
Manv people get together with modern-dav gurus and want
to rush ahead, and with feigned humilitv seek to “get on with
it” and “be their own person,” but feel thev need an initia-
CHAPTER 18: SACRED VOWS :::
tion to do so. Te gurus and swâmîs from India following a
traditional path put initiation before them. Most gurus and
swâmîs are dumbfounded bv the devotion thev see in these
souls, perhaps not realizing thev are stimulated bv drugs
and the desire to get something without earning it. Te
gurus presume thev are alreadv performing the yamas and
niyamas and have dropped out of some higher inner world
into Earth bodies. So, the initiations are given and vows
are taken, but then when the reaction to the action comes
within the mind of the devotee, and the swâmî begins to
teach on a diferent level to this chosen group, because afer
initiation a new form of teaching and dissemination of inner
knowledge occurs, and since it was onlv the initiation that
was sought for (and he or she does not believe in God and
the Gods and is not even part of the Hindu religion), once
the devotee feels the pressure of responsibilitv, he or she
responds bv leaving, and even defaming the guru.
Manv people think that initiation is like a graduation,
the end of study. Tis is not true. Initiation is the begin-
ning of studv, the beginning of sâdhana, the beginning of
learning. Terefore, think well before vou become initiated,
because vour lovaltv is expected, and vou are expected to
adhere to the teachings of the sampradâya, of the lineage,
into which vou are initiated. Tis does not mean vou can’t
attend temples or other religious activities of other sam-
pradâyas occasionallv, such as festivals, or listen to music
or chants of other traditions occasionallv, but this should
be minimized so that vour focus and concentration is upon
what vou were initiated into, because vou are expected to
advance on the path of that particular lineage.
Tere are certain simple vows in Hinduism which are
easy to take and ofen are taken, such as, “If I’m successful in
this business dealing, I will give twenty percent of the profts
to my temple.” or, “If my spouse comes back to me, I shall
alwavs obev the strî dharma principles (or purusha dharma),
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon :::
be dedicated and devoted always.” “If my dear mother, who
is so devoted to mv children, lives through her cancer opera-
tion (and Lord ga∫eßa, the doctors have said the chances
are not good), vou will see me at the temple everv Fridav
without fail. Tis is mv vrata, Lord ga∫eßa, and I say no
more.” We take vows to change our wavs, vows to meditate
dailv, vows to desist from lving, vows to not eat meat, vows
to remain celibate, vows to obev the guru and his tradition,
vows to follow these yamas and niyamas.
Perhaps the most obvious and important vow, which
can be taken most readilv and renewed once a vear on a
dav which vou consider vour most sacred dav—such as
Íivarâtri, ga∫eßa Chatûrthi, skanda shash†hî or dîpâvalî—
is the yama and niyama vrata. Tese twentv restraints and
practices are easv to memorize. Commit them to memorv.
Te vrata should go like this: “O Lord ga∫eßa, open the
portals of my wisdom that I might take this vrata with
open heart and clear mind. O Lord Murugan, give me the
will, fortitude and renewed strength everv step of the wav
to fulfll the vrata that I am taking. o lord Íiva, forgive me
if I fail, for these twenty restraints and practices are truly
bevond mv abilitv to perfectlv uphold. So, this frst vear,
Lord Íiva, I vow to fulfll these lofv ideals, to the best of mv
abilitv, at least ffy percent. I know I am weak. you know I
am weak. I know you will make me strong. I know that you
are drawing me ever patiently toward your holy feet. but,
Lord Íiva, next year I will faithfully renew this vrata, this
sacred vow, to these rules, these observances. And if I have
succeeded in fulflling mv meager ffv percent according to
mv conscience, that shall increase mv dedication and devo-
tion to vou, Lord Íiva, and I shall determine to fulfll the
yamas and niyamas in mv life and soul seventv-fve percent
or more.”
CHAPTER 18: SACRED VOWS ::,
Success and Failure
Manv people feel that when thev don’t fulfll their vrata
thev have failed. One practical example to the contrarv is
Mahatma Gandhi, who took a vow to be celibate but broke
it manv times, vet continued the efort and ultimatelv
conquered his instinctive nature. In taking a vrata, at the
moment it is heard bv priests, elders and all communitv
members, when one hears oneself taking it, and all three
worlds rejoice, a balanced scale has been created. Success is
on one side, failure on the other. One or the other will win
out. Tis is where the unreserved worship of Lord Murugan
will help overbalance the scale on the success side. but if the
scale teeters and wavers, the blessings and knowledge of the
elders of the communitv should be sought: the mothers and
fathers, the old aunties and uncles, the priests, the pandits
and sages, the ®ishis and gurus. Tis and this alone will
steady the balance. but if actual failure occurs, lord ga∫eßa
Himself will catch the fall in His four arms and trunk. He
will hold the devotee from going into the abvss of remorse
of the darkness of the lower worlds. He will speak soflv into
the right ear and encourage that the vrata be immediatelv
renewed, lest time elapse and the asura of depression take
over mind, bodv and emotion. Yes, the onlv failure is that
experienced bv the one who quits, gives up, turns his back on
the path and walks the other wav, into the realms of darkness,
bevond even the reach of the Gods. As Tiruvalluvar said, it
is better to strive to fulfll great aspirations, even if vou fail,
than to achieve minor goals in life. Yes, this is verv true.
On the evervdav level there are vratas or contracts
made with people of the outside world whom vou don’t
even know. buy a piece of property, and once you sign the
contract vou are bound to fulfll it. but a religious vrata is
a contract between vourself, the religious communitv, the
devas and the Gods and vour guru, if vou have one, all of
whom know that human failure is a part of life; but striving
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon ::a
is the fulfllment of life, and practice is the strengthening
efect that the exercise of the human and spiritual will have
over the baser elements.
Vows before the communitv, such as those of marriage
and celibacv and other vows where communitv support is
needed, are verv important. Other, more personal vows are
taken before the communitv, a temple priest, pandit, elder,
swâmî, guru, or satguru if help is needed to strengthen the
individual’s abilitv to fulfll them. For a certain tvpe of per-
son, a vow before Lord ga∫eßa, Lord Murugan, Lord Íiva or
all three is enough for him to gain strength and fulfll it. A
vow is never onlv to oneself. Tis is important to remember.
A vow is alwavs to God, Gods and guru, communitv and
respected elders.
One cannot make one’s vow privatelv, to one’s own indi-
vidual â∫ava, external personal ego, thinking that no one is
listening. Tis would be more of a promise to oneself, like a
New Year’s resolution, a change in attitude based on a new
belief, all of which has nothing to do with the yamas and
niyamas or religion.
In speaking about the yama and niyama vrata, there is
no diference in how the familv person upholds it and the
celibate monastic upholds it. Te families are in their home,
the monks are in their ma†ha, monastery. In regards to the
vrata of sexual puritv, for example, the familv man vows to
be faithful to his wife and to treat all other women as either
a mother or sister and to have no sexual thoughts, feelings
or fantasies toward them. Sadhâkas, yogîs and swâmîs vow
to look at all women as their mothers or sisters, and God
Íiva and their guru as their mother and father. Tere is no
diference.
CHAPTER 18: SACRED VOWS ::,
a hindu woman chants her mantra on a mâlâ of holy
beads, performing japa during her morning sâdhana.

Summary of the Ninth Observance
Chant vour holv mantra dailv, reciting the
sacred sound, word or phrase given bv vour
guru. bathe frst, quiet the mind and concen-
trate fullv to let japa harmonize, purifv and
uplif vou. Heed vour instructions and chant
the prescribed repetitions without fail. Live free
of anger so that japa strengthens vour higher
nature. Let japa quell emotions and quiet the
rivers of thought.
::, chApter 19: recItAtIon
1ui ×i×1u ovsivv.×ci
Recitation
Japa
¯ï¯ï
OW WE SHALL FOCUS ON japa, recItAtIon
OF HOLY maNTras, the nInth NiYama. HERE
AgAIn, A guru IS eSSentIAl, UnleSS only
the SImpleSt of mAntrAS Are recIted.
Te simplest of mantras is Aum, pronounced “AA, OO,
MMM.” Te AA balances the phvsical forces when pro-
nounced separatelv from the OO and the MMM, as the OO
balances the astral and mental bodies. Te MMM brings the
spiritual bodv into the foreground. And when pronounced
all together, AA-OO-MMM, all three bodies are harmonized.
Aum is a safe mantra which mav be performed without a
guru’s guidance bv anvone of anv religious background living
on this planet, as it is the primal sound of the universe itself.
All sounds blended together make the sound “Aum.” Te
overtone of the sounds of an entire city would be “Aum.” In
short, it harmonizes, purifes and uplifs the devotee.
One might ask whv a guru is important to perform such
a simple task as japa. It is the ßakti of the guru, of the Gods
and the devas that give power to the mantra. Two people, a
civilian and a policeman, could sav to a third person, “Stop
in the name of the law.” Te third person would onlv obev
one of them. Te one who had no authoritv would not be
listened to. In this example, the policeman had been initiated
and had full authoritv. Terefore, his mantra, “Stop in the
name of the law,” seven words, had the desired efect. Te
person who had not been initiated said the same words, but
nobodv paid anv attention to him. Now, this does not mean
one can choose a guru, studv with the guru, become accepted
bv the guru, feign humilitv, do all the right things and sav all
::8
the right words, become initiated, receive the mantra and
then be of into some kind of other activities or opt for a
more liberal path. Te guru’s disdain would diminish if not
cancel the benefts of the initiation, which obviouslv had
been deceptivelv achieved. Tis is whv siddhânta ßravana
(choosing vour path carefullv) and mati (choosing vour
guru carefullv, being loval to the sampradâya, to vour guru
and his successor or successors and training vour children to
be loval to the sampradâya) are the foundation of character
that the frst ffeen restraints and practices are supposed
to produce.
Mantra initiation is guru dîkshâ. Traditionallv, the familv
guru would give mantra dîkshâ to the mother and the father
and then to the voung people, making the guru part of the
familv itself. Tere is no wav that mantras can be sold and
be efective. Tere is no wav that the dîkshâ of mantra ini-
tiation, which permits japa, could be efective for someone
who was not striving to fulfll the frst seventeen of the yamas
and niyamas. Anv wise guru would test the devotee on these
before granting initiation. Tere is no wav a mantra can be
learned from a book and be efective. Terefore, approach
the guru cautiouslv and with a full heart. When asked if vou
are restraining vourself according to the ten yamas, know
that perfection is not expected, but efort is. And if vou are
practicing the frst seven niyamas, know that perfection is
not expected here either, but regular attentiveness to them
is. You, the guru, vour familv and vour friends will all know
when vou are on the threshold of mantra dîkshâ, which when
performed bv an established guru is called guru dîkshâ.
Yoga’s forgotten foundation
chApter 19: recItAtIon ::o
religious austerity, tapas, ranges from simple self-denial
to rigorous yogic ordeals and physical challenges.

Summary of the Tenth Observance
Practice austeritv, serious disciplines, penance
and sacrifce. be ardent in worship, meditation
and pilgrimage. Atone for misdeeds through
penance (prâyaßchitta), such as :o8 prostrations
or fasting. Perform self-denial, giving up cher-
ished possessions, monev or time. Fulfll severe
austerities at special times, under a satguru’s
guidance, to ignite the inner fres
of self-transformation.
chApter 20: AUSterIty And SAcrIfIce :,:
1ui 1i×1u ovsivv.×ci
Austerity & Sacrifce
Tapas
-ï¯ï¯ï
HE TENTH AND fiNAL NiYama IS AUSterIty,
performIng SÅDHANA, PENANCE, Tapas
And SAcrIfice. All relIgIonS of the
world hAve theIr formS of AUSterIty,
conditions which one has to live up to—or which indi-
viduals are unable to live up to who are too lazv or too
dull-minded to understand; and Hinduism is no exception.
Our austerities start within the home in the form of dailv
sâdhana. Tis is obligatorv and includes pûjâ, scriptural
reading and chanting of holv mantras. Tis personal vigil
takes about half an hour or more. Other sâdhanas include
pilgrimage to a far-of sacred place once a vear, visiting a
temple once a week, preferablv on Fridav or Mondav, attend-
ing festivals and fulflling saµskâras, rites of passage, for the
children especiallv, but all the familv members as well. To
atone for misdeeds, penance is obligatorv. We must quicklv
mitigate future efects of the causes we have set into action.
Tis is done through such acts as performing Io8 prostra-
tions before the God in the temple.
Tapas is even more austere. It may come early in a
lifetime or later in life, unbidden or provoked bv râja yoga
practices. It is the fre that straightens the twisted life and
mind of an individual, bringing him into pure being, giving
a new start in life, awakening higher consciousness and a
cosmic relationship with God and the Gods, friends, rela-
tives and casual acquaintances. Tapas in Hinduism is sought
for, feared, sufered through and loved. Its pain is greater
than the pains of parturition, but in the afermath is quicklv
forgotten, as the soul, in childlike puritv, shines forth in the
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon :,:
jovs of rebirth that follow in the new life.
Tapas is walking through fre, being scorched, burnt to
a crisp, crawling out the other side unburnt, without scars,
with no pain. Tapas is walking through the rain, completelv
drenched, and when the storm stops, not being wet. Tapas
is living in a hurricane, tossed about on a churning ocean
in a small boat, and when the storm subsides, being landed
on a peaceful beach unharmed but purifed. Tapas is a mind
in turmoil, insane unto its verv self. A psvchic surgerv is
being performed bv the Gods themselves. When the opera-
tion is over, the patient has been cut loose of the dross of all
past lives. Tapas is a landslide of mud, a psvchic earthquake,
coming upon the head and consuming the bodv of its victim,
smothering him in the dross of his misdeeds, beneath which
he is unable to breathe, see, speak or hear. He awakens from
this hideous dream resting on a mat in a garden hut, smell-
ing sweet jasmine, seeing pictures of Gods and devas adorn-
ing the mud walls and hearing the sound of a fute coming
from a distant source.
Trulv, tapas in its fullest form is sought for onlv bv the
renunciate under the guidance of a satguru, but this madness
ofen comes unbidden to anvone on this planet whose dross
of misdeeds spills over. Te onlv diference for the Hindu is
that he knows what is happening and how it is to be handled;
or at least the gurus know, the swâmîs know, the elders know,
the astrologers know. Tis knowledge is built into the Hindu
mind fow as grout is built into a stone wall.
A Lesson in Sacrifce
Sacrifce mav be the least-practiced austeritv, and the most
important. It is the act of giving up to a greater power a cher-
ished possession (be it monev, time, intelligence or a phvsi-
cal object) to manifest a greater good. Tere are manv wavs
to teach sacrifce. Mv satguru taught sacrifce bv cooking a
great feast for several hundred people, which took all dav
chApter 20: AUSterIty And SAcrIfIce :,,
to prepare. Teir mouths were watering. Tev had not eaten
all dav, so as to prepare their bodies to receive this prasâda
from the satguru. Te meal was scheduled to be served at
high noon. but Satguru yogaswami kept delaying, saying,
“We have not vet reached the auspicious moment. Let us
sing some more bhajanas and Natchintanai. be patient.” At
about 3vm, he said, “before we can partake of our prasâda, I
shall ask eleven strong men here to dig a deep, square hole
in the ground.” Tev stepped forward and he indicated the
spot where thev should dig. Shovels were obtained from
homes nearbv, and the digging commenced. All waited
patientlv for his will to be fulflled, the stomachs growling,
the mouths watering at the luscious fragrances of the hot
curries, the rasam and the freshlv-boiled rice, fve sweet-
smelling curries, mango chutnevs, dal, vogurt and delicious
sweet payasam. It was a real feast.
Finallv, just before dusk, the pit was completed, and
the great saint indicated that it was time to serve the food.
“Come, children, surround this pit,” he said. Two or three
hundred people stepped forward and surrounded the
ten- bv ten-foot hole. Women and children were sitting in
the front and the men standing in the back, all wondering
what he was going to sav and hoping he would not delav
anv longer with the feast. He said, “Now we shall serve our
prasâda.” He called forward two of the huskiest of the eleven
men, the strongest and biggest, and commanded, “Serve
the rice. bring the entire pot.” It was a huge brass pot con-
taining nearlv aoo pounds of rice. by this time, many had
lef, as thev had been cooking all morning and singing all
afernoon. Onlv the most devout had remained to see the
outcome. When the dav began, I,ooo had come. Te prepa-
rations were for a verv big crowd.
Now he said, “Pour the rice in the middle of the pit.”
banana leaves had been laid carefully at the bottom of the pit
to form a giant serving plate. Te crowd was aghast. “Pour
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon :,a
it into the pit:” “Don’t hesitate,” he commanded. Tough
stunned, the men obeved Yogaswami without question,
dropping the huge mass of steaming rice onto the middle
of the banana leaves. he told one man, “bring the eggplant
currv!” To another he said, “Go get the potato currv! We
must make this a full and auspicious ofering.”
As all the curries were neatlv placed around the rice,
evervone was wondering, “Are we to all eat together out
of the pit? Is this what the guru has in mind:” Ten the
kulambu sauce was poured over the middle of the rice. Five
pounds of salt was added on the side. Sweet mango and
ginger chutnevs were placed in the proper wav. One bv one,
each of the luscious preparations was placed in the pit, much
to the dismav of those gathered.
Giving Back to Mother Earth
Afer all the food had been served, the satguru stood up
and declared, “People, all of vou, participate. Come for-
ward.” Tev immediatelv thought, fnishing his sentence
in their minds, “to eat together this luscious meal vou have
been waiting for all dav as a familv of ßishyas.” but he had
something else in mind, and directed, “Pick up the eleven
shovels, shovel some dirt over this delicious meal and then
pass vour shovel on to the next person. We have fed our
Mother Earth, who has given so generouslv of her abun-
dance all these manv vears to this large Íaivite communitv.
Now we are sacrifcing our prasâda as a precious, heartfelt
gif. Mother Earth is hungrv. She gets little back; we take all.
Let this be a svmbol to the world and to each of us that we
must sacrifce what we want most.”
In this way, our satguru, Íiva Yogaswami, began the
frst Earth worship ceremonv in northern Sri Lanka. He
taught a lesson of tapas and sacrifce, of fasting and giving,
and giving and fasting. by now the hour was late, very late.
Afer touching his feet and receiving the mark of Íiva from
chApter 20: AUSterIty And SAcrIfIce :,,
him in the form of vibhûti, holv ash, on their forehead, the
devotees returned to their homes. It was too late to cook a
hot meal, lest the neighbors smell the smoke and know that
mischief was afoot. We are sure that a few, if not manv, sat-
isfed themselves with a few ripe bananas, while pondering
the singular lesson the satguru had taught.
let’s worship the earth. It is a being—intelligent and
alwavs giving. Our phvsical bodies are sustained bv her
abundance. When her abundance is withdrawn, our phvsical
bodies are no more. Te ecologv of this planet is an intricate
intelligence. Trough sacrifce, which results in tapas and
sâdhana, we nurture Mother Earth’s goodwill, friendliness
and sustenance. Instill in yourself appreciation, recognition.
We should not take advantage of all of this generositv, as a
predator does of those he prevs upon.
Yes, austerities are a vital part of all sects of Hinduism.
Tev are a call of the soul to bring the outer person into
the perfection that the soul is now, has alwavs been and
will alwavs be. Austerities should be assigned bv a guru, a
swâmî or a qualifed elder of the communitv. One should
submit to wise guidance, because these sâdhanas, penances,
tapas and sacrifces lif our consciousness so that we can
deal with, learn to live with, the perfection of the self-lumi-
nous, radiant, eternal being of the soul within. Austeritv is
the powerful bath of fre and bright ravs of showering light
that washes the soul clean of the dross of its manv past lives,
and of the current life, which have held it in the bondage
of ignorance, misgiving, unforgivingness and the self-per-
petuating ignorance of the truths of the sanâtana Dharma.
“As the intense fre of the furnace refnes gold to brilliance,
so does the burning sufering of austeritv purifv the soul to
resplendence” (Weaver’s Wisdom/Tirukural, 267).
conclUSIon :,, 137
Conclusion
Samâpanam
¯ï-ïï¯ï-ï-ï
E HAVE EXPLORED TOGETHER GURUDEVA’S
elUcIdAtIon of the twenty AncIent
vedIc toolS for Self-trAnSformAtIon,
prActIced throUgh the mIllennIA by
tens of millions of seekers. Teir challenges back then are no
diferent than ours in modern times. It is always challenging
to undertake the work of changing our habits, changing our
thoughts, changing our attitudes, reactions and modes of
action. Challenging, vet enormouslv rewarding when our
eforts bear fruit.
Success in fulflling the yamas and niyamas provides
the stabilitv in our life that sustained success in medita-
tion requires. Without this stabilitv, the ups and downs
of life are paramount, and signifcant advancement in our
spiritual life does not manifest. A tall building needs a solid
foundation to sustain an earthquake without toppling. So,
too, higher states of consciousness need the positive hab-
its of the yamas and niyamas to be sustained through the
challenges that inevitablv come to us in life. Te modern
exponent of ha†ha yoga B.K.s. iyengar cautioned, “Practice
of âsanas without the backing of yama and niyama is mere
acrobatics. Yama and niyama control the yogî’s passions and
emotions and keep him in harmonv with his fellow man.”
Sri Sri Anandamurthi taught, “In ancient times an aspirant
had to practice yamas and niyamas for twelve vears before
he was even initiated. Without them, sâdhana is an impos-
sibilitv.” Yogacharva Krpalvanand called yama and niyama
the “impenetrable fort of yoga,” and he warned, “If they are
neglected, manv hurdles crop up during sâdhana, and it
takes a verv long time to uproot those evils.”
yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon :,8
One of the misconceptions vou mav have intuited as
vou studied these lessons is that we can take refuge in the
higher practices of the niyamas and avoid the more dimcult
work of the yamas. Tis is a misconception widelv held, and
perfectlv fawed. We must stav focused on the dimcult work
of the yamas at the outset, make commitments to harness
our instinctive nature, our desires, our lazv patterns of life.
Onlv then can the life energies fow freelv into the niyamas,
bringing the positive spiritual practices into their maturitv.
Gurudeva has given us a great map of the mind in his
interpretations of the yamas and niyamas. Nowhere else will
vou fnd his pairing of the one with the other, of each yama
with a specifc niyama. He knew, from the deepest part of
human knowing, that the positive and the negative are inter-
twined, that the resolution of the lower nature allows for the
natural expression of the higher, just as a balloon suddenlv
soars skvward when it drops of its sandbags.
So, as vou carrv on in the work ahead, on the path ahead,
as vou work with the yamas and niyamas in vour life, don’t
settle for the easv path of worshiping unless vou have dealt
with the harder path of mastering patience; don’t be con-
tent with vour progress in contentment until vou are trulv
truthful in all vour dealings with others; don’t be satisfed
with vour charitibleness until even the thought of stealing
has been eliminated from vour heart; don’t practice japa in
earnest unless vou have become a vegetarian; don’t pursue
serious austerities without a good foundation in puritv.
As Gurudeva wrote in Dancing with Íiva, “Good con-
duct is a combination of avoiding unethical behavior and
performing virtuous, spiritualizing acts.” Now vou have
the pattern, in Hinduism’s code of conduct. Proceed with
confdence.
conclUSIon :,o
141 glossary
Glossary
Íabda Koßa˙
xabdk[aExa:
aadheenam: MjPdk; A Íaivite Hindu monastery and temple complex
in the South Indian Íaiva Siddhânta tradition. The aadheenam head
is called the guru mahâsannidhânam or aadheenakarthar.
Absolute: Lower case (absolute): real, not dependent on anything
else, not relative. Upper case (Absolute): Ultimate Reality, the un-
manifest, unchanging and transcendent Paraßiva. See: Paraßiva.
âchârya:
ÇŸòŸæ@
A highly respected teacher.
actinic: Spiritual, creating light. Adjective derived from the Greek aktis, “ray.” Of
or pertaining to consciousness in its pure, unadulterated state. Actinic force is the
superconscious mind and not a force which comes from the superconcious mind.
Commonly known as life, spirit, it can be seen as the light in man’s eyes; it is the
force that leaves man when he leaves his odic physical body behind. It is not opposite
to odic force, it is different than odic force as light is different than water but shines
through it. Actinic force flows freely through odic force. See: koßa.
advaita:
Çظ Ê ™
“Non-dual; not twofold.” Nonduality or monism. The doctrine that
Ultimate Reality consists of a one principle substance, or God. Opposite of dvaita,
dualism. See: dvaita-advaita, Vedânta.
Advaita Èßvaravâda:
ת ™ : ·∆ª∆Ÿª
“Nondual and Personal-God-as-Ruler doctrine,”
monistic theism. The philosophy of the Vedas and Íaiva Ågamas, which believes in
the ultimate oneness of all things and in the reality of the personal Deity.
Advaita Èßvaravâdin:
ת™ :·∆ª∆Ÿ⁄ª≤
A follower of Advaita Èßvaravâda.
Advaita Siddhânta:
ת ™ ⁄–ª Ÿ≥™
“Nondual perfect conclusions.” Íaivite philosophy
codified in the Ågamas which has at its core the nondual (advaitic) identity of God,
soul and world. with a strong emphasis on internal and external worship, yoga
sâdhanas and tapas. Advaita Siddhânta is a term used in South India to distinguish
Tirumular’s school from the pluralistic Siddhânta of Meykandar and Aghorasiva.
It is the philosophy of this contemporary Hindu catechism.
Ågama:
ÇŸíº
The tradition that which has “come down.” An enormous collection of
Sanskrit scriptures which, along with the Vedas, are revered as ßruti (revealed scrip-
ture). The primary source and authority for ritual, yoga and temple construction.
agni:
×⁄·≤
“Fire.” 1) One of the five elements, pañchabhûta. 2) God of the element
fire, invoked through Vedic ritual known as yajña, agnikâraka, homa and havana;
the divine messenger who receives prayers and oblations and conveys them to the
heavenly spheres. See: yajña.
ahiµsâ:
×⁄“ –Ÿ
“Noninjury,” nonviolence or nonhurtfulness. Not causing harm to
others, physically, mentally or emotionally. See: yama-niyama.
âjñâ chakra:
ן◊Ÿ·+˚
“Command wheel.” The third-eye center. See: chakra.
âkâßa:
ן+Ÿ¤
“Space.” The sky. Free, open space. Ether, the fifth and most subtle of
the five elements—earth, air, fire, water and ether. Empirically, the rarefied space
or ethereal fluid plasma that pervades the universes, inner and outer. Esoterically,
mind, the superconscious strata holding all that exists and all that potentially exists,
142
YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION
142
wherein all happenings are recorded and can be read by clairvoyants.
all-pervasive: Diffused throughout or existing in every part of the universe.
anâhata chakra:
×≤Ÿ“™·+˚
“Wheel of unstruck [sound].” The heart center. See:
chakra.
ânanda:
ן≤≥ª
“Bliss.” The pure joy—ecstasy or enstasy—of God-consciousness
or spiritual experience.
ânandamaya koßa:
ן≤≥ªº^+|¤
“Bliss body.” The body of the soul, which ultimately
merges with Íiva. See: koßa, soul.
â∫ava mala:
ןª∆ºƒ
“Impurity of smallness; finitizing principle.” God’s individual-
izing veil of duality that enshrouds the soul. It is the source of finitude and igno-
rance, the most basic of the three bonds (â∫ava, karma, mâyâ) which temporarily
limit the soul.
antyesh†i:
×≥·^‰⁄º
“Last rites.” Funeral.
anugraha ßakti:
×≤‹ ^˘ “¤⁄¬
“Graceful or favoring power.” revealing grace. God Íiva’s
power of illumination, through which the soul is freed from the bonds of â∫ava,
karma and mâyâ and ultimately attains liberation, moksha. Specifically, anugraha
descends on the soul as ßaktipâta, the dîkshâ (initiation) from a satguru. Anugraha
is a key concept in Íaiva Siddhânta. It comes when â∫ava mala, the shell of finitude
which surrounds the soul, reaches a state of ripeness, malaparipâka. See: grace,
ßaktinipâta.
ârjava:
ן·∆
“Steadfastness.” See: yama-niyama.
arul: mUs; “Grace.” The third of the three stages of the sakala avasthai when the soul
yearns for the grace of God, ßaktinipâta. At this stage the soul seeks pati-jñânam,
knowledge of God. See:pati-jñânam, sakala avasthâ, ßaktinipâta.
âsana:
ן–≤
“Seat; posture.” In ha†ha yoga, âsana refers to any of numerous poses
prescribed to balance and tune up the subtle energies of mind and body for medita-
tion and to promote health and longevity.
ash†âˆga yoga:
׺Ÿ- ^|^
“eight-limbed union.” The classical râja yoga system of
eight progressive stages to Illumination: 1) —yama: “Restraint.” Virtuous and moral
living 2) —niyama:

“Observance.” Religious practices which cultivate the qualities
of the higher nature. 3) —âsana: “Seat or posture.” 4) —prâ∫âyâma: “Mastering
life force.” Breath control. 5) —pratyâhâra: “Withdrawal.” Withdrawing conscious-
ness from the physical senses. 6) —dhâra∫â: “Concentration.” Guiding the flow
of consciousness. 7) —dhyâna: “Meditation.” 8) —samâdhi: “Enstasy,” “sameness,
contemplation/realization.” See: yoga.
âßrama:
ן·˘º
“Place of striving.” Hermitage; order of the life. Holy sanctuary; the
residence and teaching center of a sâdhu, saint, swâmî, ascetic or guru; often includes
lodging for students. Also names life’s four stages.
asteya:
×—™‰^
“Nonstealing.” See: yama-niyama.
âstikya:
ן⁄—™ª^
“Faith.” See: yama-niyama.
astral body: The subtle, nonphysical body (sûkshma ßarîra) in which the soul func-
tions in the astral plane, the inner world also called Antarloka. See: koßa, soul.
astral plane (or world): The subtle world, or Antarloka, spanning the spectrum of
consciousness from the vißuddha chakra in the throat to the pâtâla chakra in the
soles of the feet. In the astral plane, the soul is enshrouded in the astral body, called
sûkshma ßarîra. See: astral body, loka, three worlds.
asura:
×–‹ ª
“Evil spirit; demon.” (Opposite of sura: “deva; God.”) A being of the lower
astral plane, Naraka. Asuras can and do interact with the physical plane, causing
143 glossary
major and minor problems in people’s lives. Asuras do evolve and do not remain
permanently in this state.
atala chakra:
×™ƒ

·+˚
“Bottomless region.” The first chakra below the mûlâdhâra,
at the hip level. region of fear and lust. See: chakra, Narakaloka.
Aum:
F
or
×|º
Often spelled Om. The mystic syllable of Hinduism, associated
with Lord Ga∫eßa, placed at the beginning of sacred writings. In common usage in
several Indian languages, aum means “yes, verily” or “hail.” See: Pra∫ava.
aura: The luminous colorful field of subtle energy radiating within and around the
human body. The colors change according to the ebb and flow of one’s state of
consciousness, thoughts, moods and emotions.
avasthâ:
×∆—ªŸ
(Tamil: avasthai.) “Condition” or “state” of consciousness or experi-
ence. 1) Any of three stages of the soul’s evolution from the point of its creation to
final merger in the Primal Soul. 2) The states of consciousness as discussed in the
Mâ∫∂ûkya Upanishad: jâgrat (or vaißvânara), “wakefulness;” svapna (or taijasa),
“dreaming;” sushupti, “deep sleep;” and turîya, “the fourth” state, of superconscious-
ness. A fifth state, “beyond turîya,” is turîyâtîta. See: kevala avasthâ, sakala avasthâ,
ßuddha avasthâ.
awareness: Individual consciousness, perception, knowing; the witness of perception,
the “inner eye of the soul.” Sâkshin or chit in Sanskrit.
âyurveda:
ן^‹∆‰ª
“Science of life.” A holistic system of medicine and health native
to ancient India, seeking âyus, “longevity,” and ârogya, “diseaselessness,” to facilitate
spiritual progress. Focus is on balancing energies through methods suited to the
individual’s constitution, lifestyle and nature.
Ayyappan: Iag; gd; Popular God of a recently formed sect that focuses on pilgrimage
to the top of Sabarimalai, a sacred hill in Kerala.
Being: When capitalized, being refers to God’s essential divine
nature—Pure Consciousness, Absolute Reality and Primal Soul
(God’s nature as a divine Person). Lower case being refers to the
essential nature of a person, that within which never changes; ex-
istence. See: Íiva.
bhajana:
∫·≤
Spiritual song. Individual or group singing of de-
votional songs, hymns and chants.
bhûmikâ:
∫›⁄º+Ÿ
“Earth; ground; soil.” Preface; introduction to a book. From bhû,
“to become, exist; arise, come into being.”
Bodhinatha (Bodhinâtha):
∏|⁄∞≤Ÿª
“Lord of Wisdom.” The current preceptor of
the Nandinâtha Sampradâya’s Kailâsa Paramparâ, and Guru Mahâsannidhânam of
Kauai Aadheenam, ordained by Satguru, Sivaya Subramuniyaswami in 2001.
brahmachârî:
∏˘ “˜·Ÿª|
An unmarried male spiritual aspirant who practices con-
tinence, observes religious disciplines, including sâdhana, devotion and service
and who may be under simple vows. Also names one in the student stage, age , or
until marriage.
brahmachâri∫î:
∏˘“˜·Ÿ⁄ªª|
Feminine counterpart of brahmachârî.
brahmacharya:
∏˘“˜·^
See: yama-niyama.
144
YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION
144
chakra:
·+˚
“Wheel.” Any of the nerve plexes or centers of force and
consciousness located within the inner bodies of man. In the physical
body there are corresponding nerve plexuses, ganglia and glands.
The seven principal chakras are situated along the spinal cord from
the base to the cranial chamber. Additionally, seven chakras exist
below the spine. They are seats of instinctive consciousness, the
origin of jealousy, hatred, envy, guilt, sorrow, etc. They constitute the lower or
hellish world, called Naraka or pâtâla. Thus, there are 14 major chakras in all. The
seven upper chakras are: 1) mûlâdhâra (base of spine): memory, time and space;
2) svâdhish†hâna (below navel): reason; 3) ma∫ipûra (solar plexus): willpower; 4)
anâhata (heart center): direct cognition; 5) vißuddha (throat): divine love; 6) âjñâ
(third eye): divine sight; 7) sahasrâra (crown of head): illumination, Godliness.
The seven lower chakras are 1) atala (hips): fear and lust; 2) vitala (thighs): raging
anger; 3) sutala (knees): retaliatory jealousy; 4) talâtala (calves): prolonged mental
confusion; 5) rasâtala (ankles): selfishness; 6) mahâtala (feet): absence of conscience;
7) pâtâla (located in the soles of the feet): murder and malice. See: Narakaloka.
clairaudience: “Clear-hearing.” Psychic or divine hearing, divyaßravana. The ability
to hear the inner currents of the nervous system, the Aum and other mystic tones.
Hearing in one’s mind the words of inner-plane beings or earthly beings not physi-
cally present. Also, hearing the highe “eee” sound, or nâdanâ∂î ßakti, through the
day or while in meditation.
clairvoyance: “Clear-seeing.” Psychic or divine sight, divyad®ish†i. The ability to look
into the inner worlds and see auras, chakras, nâ∂îs, thought forms, nonphysical
people and subtle forces.
concentration: Uninterrupted and sustained attention. See: ash†aˆga yoga.
conscious mind: The external, everyday state of consciousness. See: mind.
consciousness: Chitta or chaitanya. 1) A synonym for mind-stuff, chitta; or 2) the
condition or power of perception, awareness, apprehension.
contemplation: Religious or mystical absorption beyond meditation.
cosmos: The universe, or whole of creation, especially with reference to its order,
harmony and completeness. See: loka, three worlds.
Dakshi∫âmûrti:
ª⁄’ªŸº›⁄™
“South-facing form.” Lord Íiva de-
picted sitting under a banyan tree, silently teaching four ®ishis at
His feet. See: Íiva.
dâna:
ªŸ≤
Generosity, giving. See: yama-niyama.
daßama bhâga vrata:
ª¤º∫Ÿ^∆˘ ™
“One-tenth-part vow.” A promise
that tithers make before God, Gods and their family or peers to
tithe regularly.
daßamâµßa:
ª¤º Ÿ¤
“One-tenth sharing.” The traditional Hindu practice of tithing,
giving one-tenth of one’s income to a religious institution.
dayâ:
ª^Ÿ
“Compassion.” See: yama-niyama.
Deity: “God.” The image or mûrti installed in a temple or the Mahådeva the mûrti
represents.
deva:
ª‰∆
“Shining one.” A being inhabiting the higher astral plane, in a subtle, non-
physical body. Deva is also used in scripture to mean “God or Deity.”
Devaloka:
ª‰∆ƒ|+
“Plane of radiant beings.” A synonym of Maharloka, the higher
astral plane, realm of anâhata chakra. See: loka.
145 glossary
devonic: Of or relating to the devas or their world.
dhâra∫â:
∞ŸªªŸ
“Concentration.” From dh®i, “to hold.” See: ash†aˆga yoga.
dharma:
∞º
From dh®i, “to sustain; carry, hold.” Hence dharma is “that which contains
or upholds the cosmos.” Dharma has manifold meanings, including: divine law,
ethics, law of being, way of righteousness, religion, duty, virtue, justice, goodness
and truth. Essentially, dharma is the orderly fulfillment of an inherent nature or
destiny. Relating to the soul, it is the mode of conduct most conducive to spiritual
advancement, the right and righteous path. There are four principal kinds of dharma,
known collectively as chaturdharma: “four religious laws.” 1) ®ita: “Universal law.”
The laws of being and nature that contain and govern all forms, functions and
processes, from galaxy clusters to the power of mental thought and perception.
2) var∫a dharma:

“Law of one’s kind.” Social duty. Var∫a can mean “race, tribe,
appearance, character, color, social standing, etc.” Obligations and responsibilities
within one’s nation, society, community, class, occupational subgroup and fam-
ily. 3) âßrama dharma: “Duties of life’s stages.” Human or developmental dharma,
fulfilling of the duties of the four stages of life—brahmachârî (student), g®ihastha
(householder), vânaprastha (elder advisor) and sannyâsa (religious solitaire). 4)
svadharma: “Personal obligations or duty.” One’s perfect individual pattern through
life, according to one’s own particular physical, mental and emotional nature, the
application of dharma, dependent on personal karma, reflected in one’s race, com-
munity, physical characteristics, health, intelligence, skills and aptitudes, desires
and tendencies, religion, sampradâya, family and guru.
dh®iti:
∞‡⁄™
“Steadfastness.” See: yama-niyama.
dhyâna:
·^Ÿ≤
“Meditation.” See: ash†aˆga yoga.
dîkshâ:
ª|’Ÿ
“Initiation.” Solemn induction by which one is entered into a new realm
of spiritual awareness and practice by a teacher or preceptor through bestowing of
blessings. Denotes initial or deepened connection with the teacher and his lineage
and is usually accompanied by ceremony.
Dîpâvalî:
ª|ºŸ∆ƒ|
“Row of Lights.” A very popular home and community festival in
October/November when Hindus of all denominations light oil or electric lights
and set off fireworks in a joyful celebration of the victory of good over evil and
light over darkness.
disincarnate: Having no physical body; of the astral plane; astral beings. See: astral
body, astral plane.
dvaita-advaita:
ª˝ ™ ת˝ ™
“dual-nondual; twoness-not twoness.” Among the most
important categories in the classification of Hindu philosophies. Dvaita and advaita
define two ends of a vast spectrum. —dvaita: The doctrine of dualism, according to
which reality is ultimately composed of two irreducible principles, entities, truths,
etc. God and soul, for example, are seen as eternally separate. —dualistic: Of or
relating to dualism, concepts, writings, theories which treat dualities (good-and-evil,
high-and-low, them-and-us) as fixed, rather than transcendable. —pluralism: A
form of nonmonism which emphasizes three or more eternally separate realities,
e.g., God, soul and world. —advaita: The doctrine of nondualism or monism, that
reality is ultimately composed of one whole principle, substance or God, with no
independent parts. In essence, all is God. —monistic theism: A dipolar view which
encompasses both monism and dualism.
dualism: See: dvaita-advaita.
146
YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION
146
ego: The external personality or sense of “I” and “mine.” Broadly,
individual identity. In Íaiva Siddhânta and other schools, the ego
is equated with the tattva of ahaµkâra, “I-maker,” which bestows
the sense of I-ness, individuality and separateness from God.
eminent: High; above others in stature, rank or achievement.
enlightenment: For Íaiva monists, Self Realization, samâdhi with-
out seed (nirvikalpa samâdhi); the ultimate attainment, sometimes referred to as
Paramâtma darßana, or as âtma darßana, “Self vision.”
existentialism: A philosophy that emphasizes the uniqueness and isolation of the
individual experience in a hostile or indifferent universe, regards human existence
as unexplainable, and stresses freedom of choice and responsibility for the conse-
quences of one’s acts.
existentialist: Pertaining to, or believing in, the philosophy of existentialism.
Ga∫eßa:
^ª‰ ¤
“Lord of Categories.” Or: “Lord of attendants (ga∫a),”
synonymous with Ga∫apati. Ga∫eßa is a Mahâdeva, the beloved
elephant-faced Deity honored by Hindus of every sect.
Ga∫eßa Chaturthî:
^ª‰ ¤ ·™‹ ª|
The birthday of Lord Ga∫eßa, a
ten-day festival of August-September that culminates in a parade
called Ga∫eßa Visarjana. It is a time of rejoicing, when all Hindus
worship together.
God: Supernal being. Either the Supreme God, Íiva, or one of the Mahâdevas, great
souls, who are among His creation.
Goddess: Female representation or manifestation of Divinity; Íakti or devî. Goddess
can refer to a female perception or depiction of a causal-plane being (Mahâdeva) in
its natural state, which is genderless, or it can refer to an astral-plane being residing
in a female astral body.
Gods: Mahâdevas, “great beings of light.” In Dancing with Íiva, the plural form of
God refers to extremely advanced beings existing in their self-effulgent soul bodies
in the causal plane.
Gorakshanatha (Gorakshanâtha):
^|ª’≤Ÿª
Profound siddha yoga master of the
Ådinâtha Sampradâya (ca 950). Expounder and foremost guru of Siddha Siddhânta
Íaivism. He traveled and extolled the greatness of Íiva throughout North India and
Nepal where he and his guru, Matsyendranatha, are still highly revered.
God Realization: Direct and personal experience of the Divine within oneself. It can
refer to either 1)savikalpa samâdhi (“enstasy with form”) in its various levels, from
the experience of inner light to the realization of Satchidânanda, pure consciousness,
or 2) nirvikalpa samâdhi (“enstasy without form”), union with the transcendent
Absolute, Paraßiva, the Self God, beyond time, form and space. In Yoga’s Forgotten
Foundation, the expression God Realization is used to name both of the above
samâdhis, whereas Self Realization refers only to nirvikalpa samâdhi.
grace: “Benevolence, love, giving,” from the Latin gratia, “favor,” “goodwill.” God’s
power of revealment, anugraha ßakti (“kindness, showing favor”), by which souls
are awakened to their true, divine nature. Grace in the unripe stages of the spiritual
journey is experienced by the devotee as receiving gifts or boons, often unbidden,
from God. The mature soul finds himself surrounded by grace. He sees all of God’s
actions as grace, whether they be seemingly pleasant and helpful or not. Grace is
not only the force of illumination or revealment. It also includes Íiva’s other four
147 glossary
powers—creation, preservation, destruction and concealment—through which He
provides the world of experience and limits the soul’s consciousness so that it may
evolve. More broadly, grace is God’s ever-flowing love and compassion, kâru∫ya,
also known as k®ipâ (“tenderness, compassion”) and prasâda (literally, “clearness,
purity”). The concealment power is known as veiling grace, God’s power to obscure
the soul’s divine nature, or tirodhâna ßakti, the particular energy of Íiva that binds
the three bonds of â∫ava, karma, mâyâ to the soul. It is a purposeful limiting of
consciousness to give the opportunity to the soul to grow and mature through
experience of the world.
gu∫a:
^‹ ª
“Strand; quality.” The three constituent principles of prak®iti, primal nature.
The three gu∫as are —sattva: Quiescent, rarified, translucent, pervasive, reflecting
the light of Pure Consciousness. —rajas: “Passion,” inherent in energy, movement,
action, emotion, life. —tamas: “Darkness,” inertia, density, the force of contraction,
resistance and dissolution.
guru:
^‹ ·
“Weighty one,” indicating an authority of great knowledge or skill. A teacher
or guide in any subject, such as music, dance, sculpture, but especially religion.
Often preceded by a qualifying prefix. Hence, kulaguru (family teacher), vînaguru
(vî∫a teacher) and satguru (spiritual preceptor). In astrology, guru names the planet
Jupiter, also known as B®ihaspati. According to the Advayatâraka Upanishad (14–18),
guru means “dispeller (gu) of darkness (ru).”
guru paramparâ:
^‹ ·ºª ºªŸ
“Preceptorial succession” (literally, “from one to another”).
A line of spiritual gurus in authentic succession of initiation; the chain of mystical
power and authorized continuity, passed from guru to guru. Cf: sampradâya.
guru-ßishya system:
^‹ ·⁄¤œ^
“Master-disciple system.”An important education system
of Hinduism whereby the teacher conveys his knowledge and tradition to a student.
Such knowledge, whether it be Vedic-Ågamic art, architecture or spirituality, is
imparted through the developing relationship between guru and disciple.
hat˙a yoga:
һ^|^
“Forceful yoga.” A system of physical and mental
exercise developed in ancient times as a means of rejuvenation by
®ishis and tapasvins, used today in preparing the body and mind
for meditation.
Ha†ha Yoga Pradîpikâ:
“ª^|^º˘ ª|⁄º+Ÿ
“Elucidation of ha†ha yoga.”
A 14th-century text of 389 verses by Svatmarama Yogin that de-
scribes the philosophy and practices of ha†ha yoga.
heart chakra: Anâhata chakra. Center of direct cognition. See: chakra.
hiµsâ:
⁄“–Ÿ
“Injury; harm; hurt.” Injuriousness, hostility—mental, verbal or physi-
cal. See: ahiµsâ.
Hindu:
⁄“≥ª‹
A follower of, or relating to, Hinduism. See: Hinduism.
Hinduism (Hindu Dharma):
⁄“≥ª‹ ∞º
India’s indigenous religious and cultural system,
followed today by nearly one billion adherents, mostly in India, but with the large
diaspora in many other countries. Also called Sanâtana dharma, “Eternal Religion”
and Vaidika dharma, “Religion of the Vedas.” It is a family of myriad faiths with
four primary denominations: Íaivism, Vaish∫avism, Íâktism and Smârtism.
homa:
“|º
“Fire-offering.” A ceremony of offering oblations to the Gods through the
medium of fire in a sanctified fire pit, homaku∫∂a, usually made of earthen bricks.
Homa rites are enjoined in the Vedas, Ågamas and Dharma and G®ihya Íâstras.
hrî:
“˚|
“Remorse; modesty.” See: yama-niyama.
148
YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION
148
i∂â nâ∂î:
:•Ÿ≤Ÿ•|
“Soothing channel.” The feminine psychic cur-
rent flowing along the spine. See: ku∫∂alinî, nâ∂î.
instinctive: “Natural” or “innate.” From the Latin instinctus, “impel-
ling, instigating.” The drives and impulses that order the animal
world and the physical and lower astral aspects of humans—for
example, self-preservation, procreation, hunger and thirst, as well
as the emotions of greed, hatred, anger, fear, lust and jealousy.
instinctive mind: Manas chitta. The lower mind, which controls the basic faculties
of perception, movement, as well as ordinary thought and emotion.
internalized worship: Yoga. Worship or contact with God and Gods via meditation
and contemplation rather than through external ritual.
intuition (to intuit): Direct understanding or cognition, which bypasses the process
of reason.
invocation (to invoke): A “calling or summoning,” as to a God, saint, etc., for bless-
ings and assistance. Also, a formal prayer or chant. See: mantra.
Iraivan: ,iwtd; “Worshipful one; divine one.” One of the most ancient Tamil
appellations for God. See: San Marga Sanctuary.
Iraivan Temple: See: San Marga Sanctuary.
irul: ,Us; “darkness.” The first of three stages of the sakala avasthai where the
soul’s impetus is toward pâßa-jñânam, knowledge and experience of the world.
See:pâßa-jñânam, sakala avasthâ.
iruvinaioppu: ,Utpidbahg; g[ “Balance.” The balance which emerges in the life of a
soul in the stage of marul, or paßu-jñânam, the second stage of the sakala avasthai,
when the soul turns toward the good and holy, becomes centered within himself,
unaffected by the ups and downs in life. See: marul, paßu-jñânam, sakala avasthâ.
Èßvarapûjana:
:·∆ªº›·≤
“Worship.” See: yama-niyama.
jagadâchârya:
·^ªŸ·Ÿ^
“World teacher.”
japa:
·º
“Recitation.” Concentrated repeating of a mantra, silently
or aloud, often counting on a mâlâ or strand of beads. A cure for
pride and arrogance, jealousy, fear and confusion.
jîva:
·|∆
“Living, existing.” From jîv, “to live.” The individual soul,
âtman, during its embodied state, bound by the three malas (â∫ava,
karma and mâyâ).
jñâna:
◊Ÿ≤
“Knowledge; wisdom.” The matured state of the soul. It is the wisdom that
comes as an aftermath of the ku∫∂alinî breaking through the door of Brahman into
the realization of Paraßiva, Absolute Reality. Jñâna is the awakened, superconscious
state (kâra∫a chitta) flowing into daily life situations.
jñâna dâna:
◊Ÿ≤ªŸ≤
“Gifts of wisdom.” The karma yoga of printing, sponsoring and
distributing Hindu religious literature, pamphlets and books, free of charge as a
way of helping others spiritually.
jñânî:
◊Ÿ≤|
“Sage.” Possessing jñâna. See: jñâna.
jyotisha:
-^|⁄™Œ
From jyoti, “light.” “The science of the lights (or stars),” Hindu
astrology, analyzing events and circumstances, delineating character and determin-
ing auspicious moments, according to the positions and movements of heavenly
bodies.
149 glossary
Kailasa (Kailâsa):
+ ƒŸ–
“Crystalline” or “abode of bliss.” The
Himalayan peak in Western Tibet; the earthly abode of Lord Íiva,
a pilgrimage destination for Hindus and Tibetan Buddhists.
Kailâsa Paramparâ:
+ ƒŸ–ºª ºªŸ
A spiritual lineage of 163 siddhas,
a major stream of the Nandinâtha Sampradâya, proponents of the
ancient philosophy of monistic Íaiva Siddhânta. The first of these
masters that history recalls was Maharishi Nandinatha (or Nandikesvara) 2,250
years ago, satguru to the great Tirumular, ca 200 bce , and seven other disciples
(as stated in the Tirumantiram). The lineage continued down the centuries and is
alive today—the first recent siddha known being the “rishi from the Himalayas,” so
named because he descended from those holy mountains. In South India, he initiated
Kadaitswami (ca 1810‒1875), who in turn initiated Chellappaswami (1840‒1915). Chel-
lappan passed the mantle of authority to Sage Yogaswami (1872‒1964), who in 1949
initiated Sivaya Subramuniyaswami (1927‒2001), who in 2001 ordained the current
preceptor, Satguru Bodhinatha Veylanswami (1942‒). See: Nâtha Sampradâya.
Kali Yuga:
+⁄ƒ^‹^
“dark Age.” The Kali Yuga is the last age in the repetitive cycle of
four phases of time our solar system passes through. It is comparable to the dark-
est part of the night, as the forces of ignorance are in full power and many subtle
faculties of the soul are obscured.
karma:

“Action,” “deed.” 1) any act or deed; 2) the principle of cause and effect; 3)
a consequence or “fruit of action” (karmaphala) or “after effect” (uttaraphala), which
sooner or later returns upon the doer. What we sow, we shall reap in this or future
lives. Selfish, hateful acts (pâpakarma or kukarma) will bring suffering. Benevolent
actions (pu∫yakarma or sukarma) will bring loving reactions. Karma is threefold:
sañchita, prârabdha and kriyamâna. —sañchita karma: “Accumulated actions.” The
sum of all karmas of this life and past lives. —prârabdha karma: “Actions begun;
set in motion.” That portion of sañchita karma that is bearing fruit and shaping
the events and conditions of the current life, including the nature of one’s bodies,
personal tendencies and associations. —kriyamâna karma: “Being made.”
karma yoga:
+º^|^
“union through action.” Selfless service.
Kauai Aadheenam: Monastery-temple complex founded by Sivaya Subramuniyas-
wami in 1970; international headquarters of Saiva Siddhanta Church.
koßa:
+|¤
“Sheath; vessel, container; layer.” Philosophically, five sheaths through which
the soul functions simultaneously in the various planes or levels of existence. The
koßas are —annamaya koßa: “Sheath composed of food.” The physical or odic body,
coarsest of sheaths in comparison to the faculties of the soul, yet indispensable for
evolution and Self Realization, because only within it can all fourteen chakras fully
function. See: chakra. —prâ∫amaya koßa: “Sheath composed of prâ∫a (vital force).”
The prâ∫ic or health body, or the etheric body or etheric double, coexisting within
the physical body as its source of life, breath and vitality, and is its connection with
the astral body. Prâ∫a moves in the prâ∫amaya koßa as five primary currents or
vayus, “vital airs or winds.” Prâ∫amaya koßa disintegrates at death along with the
physical body. See: prâ∫a —manomaya koßa: “Mind-formed sheath.” The lower
astral body, from manas, “thought, will, wish.” The instinctive-intellectual sheath of
ordinary thought, desire and emotion. The manomaya koßa takes form as the physical
body develops and is discarded in the inner worlds before rebirth. —vijñânamaya
koßa: “Sheath of cognition.” The mental or cognitive-intuitive sheath, also called
the actinodic sheath. It is the vehicle of higher thought, vijñâna—understanding,
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YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION
150
knowing, direct cognition, wisdom, intuition and creativity. —ânandamaya koßa:
“Body of bliss.” The intuitive-superconscious sheath or actinic-causal body. The
inmost soul form (svarûpa), the ultimate foundation of all life, intelligence and
higher faculties. Its essence is Parâßakti (Pure Consciousness) and Paraßiva (the
Absolute). It is the soul itself, a body of light, also called kâra∫a ßarîra, causal body,
and karmâßaya, holder of karmas of this and all past lives. Kâra∫a chitta, “causal
mind,” names the soul’s superconscious mind, of which Parâßakti (or Satchidânanda)
is the rarified substratum.
kevala avasthâ:
+ ∆ƒ ×∆—ªŸ
“Stage of oneness, aloneness.” (Tamil: avasthai.) In
Íaiva Siddhânta, the first of three stages of the soul’s evolution, a state beginning
with its emanation or spawning by Lord Íiva as an etheric form unaware of itself, a
spark of the divine shrouded in a cloud of darkness known as â∫ava. Here the soul
is likened to a seed hidden in the ground, yet to germinate and unfold its potential.
See: sakala avasthâ, ßuddha avasthâ.
kriyâ:
⁄+˚ ^Ÿ
“Action.” 1) doing of any kind. Specifically, religious action, especially
rites or ceremonies. 2) Involuntary physical movements occuring during meditation
that are pretended or caused by lack of emotional self-control or by the premature
or unharnessed arousal of the ku∫∂alinî. 3) Ha†ha yoga techniques for cleansing
the mucous membranes. 4) The second stage of the Íaiva path, religious action,
kriyâ pâda. See: pâda.
kriyâ mârga:
⁄+˚^ŸºŸ^
See kriyâ pâda.
kriyâ pâda:
⁄+˚^ŸºŸª
“Stage of religious action; worship.” The stage of worship and
devotion, second of four progressive stages of maturation on the Íaiva Siddhânta
path of attainment. See: pâda.
kshamâ:
’ºŸ
“Forebearance.” See: yama-niyama.
ku∫∂alinî:
+‹ º•⁄ƒ≤|
“She who is coiled; serpent power.” The primordial cosmic
energy in every individual which, at first, lies coiled like a serpent at the base of
the spine and eventually, through the practice of yoga, rises up the sushum∫â nâ∂î.
As it rises, the ku∫∂alinî awakens each successive chakra. Nirvikalpa samâdhi, en-
lightenment, comes as it pierces through the door of Brahman at the core of the
sahasrâra and enters! Ku∫∂alinî ßakti then returns to rest in any one of the seven
chakras. Íivasâyujya is complete when the ku∫∂alinî arrives back in the sahasrâra
and remains coiled in this crown chakra.
ku∫∂alinî yoga:
+‹ ‹ º ⁄ƒ≤|^|^
“uniting the serpent power.” Advanced meditative prac-
tices and sâdhana techniques, a part of râja yoga, performed to deliberately arouse
the ku∫∂alinî power and guide it up the spine into the crown chakra, sahasrâra. In
its highest form, this yoga is the natural result of sâdhanas and tapas well performed,
rather than a distinct system of striving and teaching in its own right.
liberal Hinduism: A synonym for Smårtism and the closely related
neo-Indian religion. See: neo-Indian religion, Smârtism.
liberation: Moksha, release from the bonds of pâßa, after which
the soul is liberated from saµsâra (the round of births and deaths).
In Íaiva Siddhânta, pâßa is the threefold bondage of â∫ava, karma
and mâyâ, which limit and confine the soul to the reincarnational
cycle so that it may evolve. Moksha is freedom from the fettering power of these
bonds, which do not cease to exist, but no longer have the power to fetter or bind
the soul.
151 glossary
loka:
ƒ|+
“World, habitat, realm, or plane of existence.” From loc, “to shine, be
bright, visible.” A dimension of manifest existence; cosmic region. Each loka re-
flects or involves a particular range of consciousness. The three primary lokas are
1) —Bhûloka: “Earth world.” The world perceived through the five senses, also
called the gross plane, as it is the most dense of the worlds. 2) —Antarloka: “Inner
or in-between world.” Known in English as the subtle or astral plane, the intermedi-
ate dimension between the physical and causal worlds, where souls in their astral
bodies sojourn between incarnations and when they sleep. 3) —Íivaloka: “World
of Íiva,” and of the Gods and highly evolved souls. The causal plane, also called
Kâra∫aloka, existing deep within the Antarloka at a higher level of vibration, it
is a world of superconsciousness and extremely refined energy. It is the plane of
creativity and intuition, the quantum level of the universe, where souls exists in
self-effulgent bodies made of actinic particles of light. It is here that God and Gods
move and lovingly guide the evolution of all the worlds and shed their ever-flowing
grace. See: three worlds.
Mahâdeva:
º“Ÿª‰ ∆
“Great shining one; God.” Referring either to
God Íiva or any of the highly evolved beings who live in the Íivaloka
in their natural, effulgent soul bodies.
mahâsamâdhi:
º“Ÿ–ºŸ⁄∞
“Great enstasy.” The death, or giving up
of the physical body, of a great soul, an event occasioned by tre-
mendous blessings. Also names the shrine in which the remains
of a great soul are entombed. See: cremation, death.
Mahâßivarâtri:
º“Ÿ⁄¤∆ªŸ⁄º
“Íiva’s great night.” Íaivism’s foremost festival, celebrated
on the night before the new moon in february-March. fasting and an all-night
vigil are observed as well as other disciplines: chanting, praying, meditating and
worshiping Íiva as the Source and Self of all that exists.
mahâtala chakra:
º“Ÿ™ƒ ·+˚
Sixth netherworld. region of consciencelessness. See:
chakra.
mala:
ºƒ
“Impurity.” An important term in Íaivism referring to three bonds, called
pâßa—â∫ava, karma, and mâyâ—which limit the soul, preventing it from knowing
its true, divine nature.
mâlâ:
ºŸƒŸ
“Garland.” A strand of beads for holy recitation, japa, usually made of
rudrâksha, tulasî, sandalwood or crystal. Also a flower garland.
malaparipakam: kyghpghfk; “ripening of bonds.” The state attained after the three
malas, â∫ava, karma and mâyâ, are brought under control during marul, the second
stage of the sakala avasthai. At this time, the Lord’s concealing grace, tirodhâna ßakti,
has accomplished its work, giving way to anugraha, His revealing grace, leading to
the descent of grace, ßaktinipâta. See: sakala avasthâ, ßaktinipâta.
ma∫ipûra chakra:
º⁄ªº›ª·+˚
“Wheeled city of jewels.” Solar-plexus center of will-
power. See: chakra.
mânsâhâra:
ºŸ–Ÿ“Ÿª
“Meat-eating.”
mânsâhârî:
ºŸ–Ÿ“Ÿª|
“Meat-eater.” One who follows a nonvegetarian diet. See: veg-
etarian.
mantra:
º≥º
“Mystic formula.” A sound, syllable, word or phrase endowed with
special power, usually drawn from scripture.
marul: kUs; “Confusion.” The second of the three stages of the sakala avasthai when
the soul is “caught” between the world and God and begins to seek knowledge of
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YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION
152
its own true nature, paßu-jñânam. See:paßu-jñânam, sakala avasthâ.
mati:
º⁄™
“Cognition, understanding; conviction.” See: yama-niyama.
mauna:
ºŸ≤
The discipline of remaining silent.
mâyâ:
ºŸæŸ
“She who measures;” or “mirific energy.” The substance emanated from
Íiva through which the world of form is manifested. Hence all creation is also
termed mâyâ. It is the cosmic creative force, the principle of manifestation, ever
in the process of creation, preservation and dissolution.
meditation: Dhyâna. Sustained concentration. Meditation describes a quiet, alert,
powerfully concentrated state wherein new knowledge and insights are awakened
from within as awareness focuses one-pointedly on an object or specific line of
thought.
mendicant: A beggar; a wandering monk who lives on alms.
mental body (sheath): The higher-mind layer of the subtle or astral body in which
the soul functions in the Maharloka of the Antarloka or subtle plane. In Sanskrit,
the mental body is vijñânamaya koßa, “sheath of cognition.” See: koßa, subtle body.
mental plane: Names the refined strata of the subtle world. In Sanskrit, it is called
Maharloka or Devaloka, realm of anâhata chakra. Here the soul is shrouded in the
mental or cognitive sheath, vijñânamaya koßa.
metaphysics: 1) The branch of philosophy dealing with first causes and nature of
reality. 2) The science of mysticism.
mind (three phases): A perspective of mind as instinctive, intellectual and
superconscious. —instinctive mind. Manas chitta, the seat of desire and governor
of sensory and motor organs. —intellectual mind. Buddhi chitta, the faculty of
thought and intelligence. —superconscious mind: Kâra∫a chitta, the strata of in-
tuition, benevolence and spiritual sustenance. Its most refined essence is Parâsakti,
or Satchidânanda, all-knowing, omnipresent consciousness, the One transcendental,
self-luminous, divine mind common to all souls.
mind (five states): A view of the mind in five parts. —conscious mind: Jâgrat chitta
(“wakeful consciousness”). The ordinary, waking, thinking state of mind. —subcon-
scious mind: Saµskâra chitta (“impression mind”). The part of mind “beneath” the
conscious mind, the storehouse or recorder of all experience (whether remembered
consciously or not)—the holder of past impressions, reactions and desires. Also,
the seat of involuntary physiological processes. —subsubconscious mind: Vâsanâ
chitta (“mind of subliminal traits”). The area of the subconscious mind formed
when two thoughts or experiences of the same rate of intensity are sent into the
subconscious at different times and, intermingling, give rise to a new and totally
different rate of vibration. —superconscious mind: Kâra∫a chitta. The mind of light,
the all-knowing intelligence of the soul. At its deepest level, the superconscious is
Parâßakti, or Satchidânanda, the Divine Mind of God Íiva. —subsuperconscious
mind: Anukâra∫a chitta. The superconscious mind working through the conscious
and subconscious states, which brings forth intuition, clarity and insight.
mitâhâra:
⁄º™Ÿ“Ÿª
“Measured eating; moderate appetite,” a requisite for good health
and success in yoga. An ideal portion per meal is one a ku∂ava, no more than
would fill the two hands held side by side and slightly cupped piled high. See:
yama-niyama.
moksha:
º|’
“Liberation.” Release from transmigration, saµsâra, the round of births
and deaths, which occurs after karma has been resolved and nirvikalpa samâdhi—
realization of the Self, Paraßiva—has been attained. Same as mukti.
153 glossary
monism: “Doctrine of oneness.” 1) The philosophical view that there is only one
ultimate substance or principle. 2) The view that reality is a unified whole without
independent parts. See: dvaita-advaita.
monistic theism: Advaita Èßvaravâda. The doctrine that reality is a one whole or exis-
tence without independent parts, coupled with theism, the belief that God exists as
a real, conscious, personal Supreme Being—two perspectives ordinarily considered
contradictory or mutually exclusive, since theism implies dualism.
mukti:
º‹⁄¬
“Release,” “liberation.” A synonym for moksha.
mûlâdhâra chakra:
º›ƒŸ∞Ÿª·+˚
“Root-support wheel.” Four-petaled psychic center
at the base of the spine; governs memory. See: chakra.
mûrti:
º›⁄™
“Form; manifestation, embodiment, personification.” An image, icon or
effigy of God or a God used during worship.
Murugan: KUfd; “Beautiful one,” a favorite name of Kârttikeya among the Tamils
of South India, Sri Lanka and elsewhere.
nâ∂î:
≤Ÿ•|
“Conduit; river.” A nerve fiber or energy channel of the
subtle (inner) bodies of man. It is said there are 72,000 nâ∂îs. These
interconnect the chakras. The three main nâ∂îs are i∂â, piˆgalâ
and sushum∫â. —I∂â, also known as chandra (moon) nâ∂î, is pink
in color. Its flows downward, ending on the left side of the body.
This current is feminine in nature and is the channel of physical-
emotional energy. —Piˆga¬â, also known as sûrya (sun) nâ∂î, is blue in color. It flows
upward, ending on the right side of the body. This current is masculine in nature
and is the channel of intellectual-mental energy. —Sushum∫â is the major nerve
current which passes through the spinal column from the mûlâdhâra chakra at the
base to the sahasrâra at the crown of the head. It is the channel of ku∫∂alinî.
Nama˙ Íivâya:
≤º· ⁄¤∆Ÿ^
“Adoration (homage) to Íiva.” The supreme mantra of
Íaivism, known as the Pañchâkshara, or “five syllables.”
namaskâra:
≤º—+Ÿª
“reverent salutations.” Traditional Hindu verbal greeting and
mudrâ where the palms are joined together and held before the heart or raised to
the level of the forehead. The mudrâ is also called añjali. It is a devotional gesture
made equally before a temple deity, holy person, friend or even momentary ac-
quaintance.
Nandinâtha Sampradâya:
≤⁄≥ª≤Ÿª–º˘ªŸ^
See: Nâtha Sampradâya.
Narakaloka:
≤ª+ƒ|+
Abode of darkness. Literally, “pertaining to man.” The nether
worlds. Equivalent to the Western term hell, a gross region of the Antarloka. Naraka
is a congested, distressful area where demonic beings and young souls may sojourn
until they resolve the darksome karmas they have created. Here beings suffer the
consequences of their own misdeeds in previous lives. Naraka is understood as
having seven regions, called tala, corresponding to the states of consciousness of
the seven lower chakras.
Natchintanai: ew; rpe; jid The collected songs of Sage Yogaswami (1872-1964) of
Jaffna, Sri Lanka, extolling the power of the satguru, worship of Lord Íiva, adher-
ance to the path of dharma and striving for the attainment of Self realization. See:
Kailâsa Paramparâ, Yogaswami.
Nâtha:
≤Ÿª
“Master, lord; adept.” An ancient Himalayan tradition of Íaiva-yoga
mysticism whose first historically known exponent was Nandikesvara (ca 250 bce).
Nâtha—Self-realized adept—designates the extraordinary ascetic masters (or
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YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION
154
devotees) of this school.
Nâtha Sampradâya:
≤Ÿª– º˘ ªŸ^
“Traditional doctrine of knowledge of masters,” a
philosophical and yogic tradition of Íaivism whose origins are unknown. This
oldest of Íaivite sampradâyas existing today consists of two major streams: the
Nandinâtha and the Ådinâtha. The Nandinâtha Sampradâya has had as exemplars
Maharishi Nandinatha and his disciples: Patanjali (author of the Yoga Sûtras) and
Tirumular (author of Tirumantiram). Among its representatives today are the suc-
cessive siddhars of the Kailâsa Paramparâ. The Ådinâtha lineage’s known exemplars
are Maharishi Adinatha, Matsyendranatha and Gorakshanatha, who founded a
well-known order of yogîs. See: Kailâsa Paramparâ.
neo: A prefix meaning new and different; modified.
neo-Indian religion: Navabhârata Dharma. A modern form of liberal Hinduism
that carries forward basic Hindu cultural values—such as dress, diet and the arts—
while allowing religious values to subside. It emerged after the British râj, when
India declared itself an independent, secular state. It was cultivated by the Macaulay
education system, implanted in India by the British, which aggressively undermined
Hindu thought and belief. Neo-Indian religion encourages Hindus to follow any
combination of theological, scriptural, sâdhana and worship patterns, regardless
of sectarian or religious origin. extending out of and beyond the Smârta system
of worshiping the Gods of each major sect, it incorporates holy icons from all
religions, including Jesus, Mother Mary and Buddha. Many Navabhâratis choose
to not call themselves Hindus but to declare themselves members of all the world’s
religions. See: Smârtism.
New Age: According to Webster’s New World Dictionary: “Of or pertaining to a cultural
movement popular in the 1980s [and 90s] characterized by a concern with spiritual
consciousness, and variously combining belief in reincarnation and astrology with
such practices as meditation, vegetarianism and holistic medicine.”
nirvikalpa samâdhi:
⁄≤⁄∆ +≈º–ºŸ⁄∞
“undifferentiated trance, enstasy (samâdhi)
without form or seed.” The realization of the Self, Paraßiva, a state of oneness beyond
all change or diversity; beyond time, form and space. See: samâdhi.
niyama:
⁄≤^º
“Restraint.” See: yama-niyama.
pada:
ºª
“A step, pace, stride; footstep, trace.”
pâda:
ºŸª
“The foot (of men and animals); quarter-part, section;
stage; path.” Names the major sections of the Ågamic texts and the
corresponding stages of practice and unfoldment on the path to
moksha. According to Íaiva Siddhânta, there are four pâdas, which
are successive and cumulative; i.e. in accomplishing each one the
soul prepares itself for the next. —charyâ pâda: “Good conduct stage.” Learning
to live righteously, serve selflessly, performing karma yoga. —kriyâ pâda: “Reli-
gious action; worship stage.” Stage of bhakti yoga, of cultivating devotion through
performing pûjâ and regular daily sâdhana. —yoga pâda: Having matured in the
charyâ and kriyâ pâdas, the soul now turns to internalized worship and râja yoga
under the guidance of a satguru. —jñâna pâda: “Stage of wisdom.” Once the soul
has attained Realization, it is henceforth a wise one who lives out the life of the
body, shedding blessings on mankind.
pa∫∂ara:
ºº•ª
An informal order of independent priests, often self-taught and
self-appointed, who emerge within a community to perform pûjâs at a sacred tree,
155 glossary
a simple shrine or a temple.
pandit (pa∫∂ita):
º⁄ º•™
(Also, pundit.) A Hindu religious scholar or theologian,
well versed in philosophy, liturgy, religious law and sacred science.
pâpa:
ºŸº
“Wickedness; sin, crime.” 1) Bad or evil. 2) Wrongful action. 3) Demerit
earned through wrong-doing. Each act of pâpa carries its karmic consequence, kar-
maphala, “fruit of action,” for which scriptures delineate specific penance for expia-
tion. Pâpa can produce disease, depression, loneliness and such, but can be dissolved
through penance (prâyaßchitta), austerity (tapas) and good deeds (suk®ityâ).
paramparâ:
ºªºªŸ
“Uninterrupted succession.” A lineage.
parârtha pûjâ:
ºªŸªº›·Ÿ
“Public liturgy and worship.” See: pûjâ.
Paraßiva:
ºª⁄¤∆
“Transcendent Íiva.” The Self God, Íiva’s first perfection, Absolute
Reality. Paraßiva is That which is beyond the grasp of consciousness, transcends
time, form and space and defies description. To merge with the Absolute in mystic
union is the ultimate goal of all incarnated souls, the reason for their living on this
planet, and the deepest meaning of their experiences. Attainment of this is called
Self Realization or nirvikalpa samâdhi.
pâßa:
ºŸ¤
“Tether; noose.” The whole of existence, manifest and unmanifest. That
which binds or limits the soul and keeps it (for a time) from manifesting its full
potential. Pâßa consists of the soul’s threefold bondage of â∫ava, karma and mâyâ.
See: Pati-paßu-pâßa.
paßu:
º¤‹
“Cow, cattle, kine; fettered individual.” Refers to animals or beasts, includ-
ing man. In philosophy, the soul. Íiva as lord of creatures is called Paßupati. See:
Pati-paßu-pâßa.
pâtâla chakra:
ºŸ™Ÿƒ ·+
“fallen” or “sinful region.” The seventh chakra below the
mûlâdhâra, centered in the soles of the feet. Corresponds to the seventh and low-
est astral netherworld beneath the earth’s surface, called Kâkola (“black poison”)
or Pâtâla. This is the realm in which misguided souls indulge in destruction for
the sake of destruction, of torture, and of murder for the sake of murder. Pâtâla
also names the netherworld in general, and is a synonym for Naraka. See: chakra,
loka, Narakaloka.
Patanjali (Patañjali):
º™··⁄ƒ
A Íaivite Nâtha siddha (ca 200 bce) who codified
the ancient yoga philosophy which outlines the path to enlightenment through
purification, control and transcendence of the mind.
Pati:
º⁄™
“Master; lord; owner.” A name for God Íiva indicating His commanding
relationship with souls as caring ruler and helpful guide. See: Pati-paßu-pâßa.
Pati-jñânam: gjp”hdk; “Knowledge of God,” sought for by the soul in the third stage
of the sakala avasthai, called arul. See:arul, sakala avasthâ, ßaktinipâta.
Pati-paßu-pâßa:
º⁄™ º¤‹ ºŸ¤
Literally: “master, cow and tether.” These are the three
primary elements of Íaiva Siddhânta philosophy: God, soul and world—Divinity,
man and cosmos—seen as a mystically and intricately interrelated unity. Pati is
God, envisioned as a cowherd. Paßu is the soul, envisioned as a cow. Pâßa is the all-
important force or fetter by which God brings souls along the path to Truth.
paßu-jñânam: gR”hdk; “Soul-knowledge.” The object of seeking in the second stage
of the sakala avasthai, called marul. See:marul, sakala avasthâ.
payasam: ghahrk; A cooked, milk-based pudding dessert often served at special
festive occasions, generally made from tapioca or rice.
penance: Prâyaßchitta. Atonement, expiation. An act of devotion (bhakti), auster-
ity (tapas) or discipline (suk®itya) undertaken to soften or nullify the anticipated
156
YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION
156
reaction to a past action.
pilgrimage: Tîrthayâtrâ. Journeying to a holy temple, near or far, performed by all
Hindus at least once each year. See: tîrthayâtrâ.
piˆgalâ:
⁄º^ƒŸ
“Tawny channel.” The masculine psychic current flowing along the
spine. See:nâ∂î.
prâ∫a:
º˘ Ÿª
Vital energy or life principle. Literally, “vital air,” from the root pra∫, “to
breathe.”Prâ∫a in the human body moves in the prâ∫amaya koßa as five primary life
currents known as vâyus, “vital airs or winds.” Prâ∫a sometimes denotes the power
or animating force of the cosmos, the sum total of all energy and forces.
Pra∫ava:
º˘ ª∆
“Humming.” The mantra Aum, denoting God as the Primal Sound. It
can be heard as the sound of one’s own nerve system, like the sound of an electrical
transformer or a swarm of bees. The meditator is taught to inwardly transform this
sound into the inner light which lights the thoughts, and bask in this blissful con-
sciousness. Pra∫ava is also known as the sound of the nâdanâ∂î ßakti. See: Aum.
prâ∫âyâma:
º˘ ŸªŸ^Ÿº
“Breath control.” Science of controlling prâ∫a through breath-
ing techniques in which the lengths of inhalation, retention and exhalation are
modulated. Prâ∫âyâma prepares the mind for meditation. See: ash†aˆga yoga.
prâ∫ic body: The subtle, life-giving sheath called prâ∫amaya koßa. See: koßa.
prârabdha karma:
º˘ Ÿªπ∞+º
“Action that has been unleashed or aroused.” See:
karma.
prasâda:
º˘ –Ÿª
“Clarity, brightness; grace.” 1) The virtue of serenity and gracious-
ness. 2) Food offered to the Deity or the guru, or the blessed remnants of such
food. 3) Any propitiatory offering.
pratyâhâra:
º˘ ·^Ÿ“Ÿª
“Withdrawal.” The drawing in of forces. In yoga, the withdrawal
from external consciousness. (Also a synonym for pralaya.) See: ash†aˆga yoga.
prâyaßchitta:
º˘Ÿ^⁄·¤
“Predominant thought or aim.” Penance. Acts of atonement.
See: penance.
protocol: Customs of proper etiquette and ceremony, especially in relation to reli-
gious or political dignitaries.
pûjâ:
º› ·Ÿ
“Worship, adoration.” An Ågamic rite of worship performed in the home,
temple or shrine, to the mûrti, ßrî pâdukâ, or other consecrated object, or to a person,
such as the satguru. Its inner purpose is to purify the atmosphere around the object
worshiped, establish a connection with the inner worlds and invoke the presence of
God, Gods or one’s guru. Åtmârtha pûjâ is done for oneself and immediate family,
usually at home in a private shrine. Parârtha pûjâ is public pûjâ, performed by
authorized or ordained priests in a public shrine or temple.
pujârî:
º‹ ·Ÿª|
“Worshiper.” A general term for Hindu temple priests, as well as anyone
performing pûjâ.
pu∫ya:
º‹ º^
“Holy; virtuous; auspicious.” 1) Good or righteous. 2) Meritorious ac-
tion. 3) Merit earned through right thought, word and action. Pu∫ya includes all
forms of doing good, from the simplest helpful deed to a lifetime of conscientious
beneficence. Pu∫ya produces inner contentment, deep joy, the feeling of security
and fearlessness. See: pâpa.
purusha:
º‹ ·Œ
“The spirit that dwells in the body/in the universe.” Person; spirit; man.
Metaphysically, the soul, neither male nor female. Also used in Yoga and Sâˆkhya for
the transcendent Self. A synonym for âtman. Purusha can also refer to the Supreme
Being or Soul, as it sometimes does in the Upanishads. In Íaiva cosmology, purusha
is the 25th of 36 tattvas, one level subtler than prak®iti.
157 glossary
purusha dharma:
º‹·Œ∞º
“A man’s code of duty and conduct.” See: dharma.
rajas:
ª·–
“Passion; activity.” See: gu∫a.
rasâtala chakra:
ª–Ÿ™ƒ ·+˚
“Subterranean region.” The fifth chakra
below the mûlâdhâra, centered in the ankles. Corresponds to the
fifth astral netherworld beneath the earth’s surface, called Âijîsha
(“expelled”) or rasâtala. region of selfishness, self-centeredness
and possessiveness. Rasâ means “earth, soil; moisture.” See: chakra,
Narakaloka.
reincarnation: “Re-entering the flesh.” Punarjanma; metempsychosis. The process
wherein souls take on a physical body through the birth process.
renunciation: See: sannyâsa.
restraints: See: yama-niyama.
revealing grace: See: anugraha ßakti, grace.
®ishi:
ª⁄Œ
“Seer.” A term for an enlightened being, emphasizing psychic perception
and visionary wisdom.
rudrâksha:
·ª˙ Ÿ’
“Eye of rudra; or red-eyed.” Refers to the third eye, or âjñâ chakra.
Marble-sized, multi-faced, reddish-brown seeds from the Eleocarpus ganitrus, or
blue marble tree, which are sacred to Íiva and a symbol of His compassion for
humanity.
sacrament: 1) Holy rite, especially one solemnized in a formal,
consecrated manner which is a bonding between the recipient
and God, Gods or guru. This includes rites of passage (saµskâra),
ceremonies sanctifying crucial events or stages of life. 2)Prasâda.
Sacred substances, grace-filled gifts, blessed in sacred ceremony or
by a holy person. See: saµskâra.
sâdhaka:
–Ÿ∞+
“Accomplished one; a devotee who performs sâdhana.” A serious
aspirant who has undertaken spiritual disciplines, is usually celibate and under
the guidance of a guru. He wears white and may be under vows, but is not a san-
nyâsin.
sâdhana:
–Ÿ∞≤
“Effective means of attainment.” Religious or spiritual disciplines,
such as pûjâ, yoga, meditation, japa, fasting and austerity.
sâdhu:
–Ÿ∞‹
“Virtuous one; straight, unerring.” A holy man dedicated to the search
for God. A sâdhu may or may not be a yogî or a sannyâsin, or be connected in any
way with a guru or legitimate lineage. Sâdhus usually have no fixed abode and travel
unattached from place to place, often living on alms.
sahasrâra chakra:
–“–˘Ÿª·+
“Thousand-spoked wheel.” The cranial psychic force
center. See: chakra.
Íaiva:
¤ ∆
Of or relating to Íaivism or its adherents, of whom there are about 400
million in the world today. Same as Íaivite. See: Íaivism.
Íaiva Ågamas:
¤ ∆ ן^º
The sectarian revealed scriptures of the Íaivas. Strongly
theistic, they identify Íiva as the Supreme Lord, immanent and transcendent. They
are in two main divisions: the 64 Kashmîr Íaiva Ågamas and the 28 Íaiva Siddhânta
Ågamas. The latter group are the fundamental sectarian scriptures of Íaiva Sid-
dhânta.
Íaiva Siddhânta:
¤ ∆⁄–ª Ÿ≥™
“Final conclusions of Íaivism.” The most widespread and
influential Íaivite school today, predominant especially among the Tamil people of
158
YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION
158
Sri Lanka and South India. It is the formalized theology of the divine revelations
contained in the twenty-eight Íaiva Ågamas. For Íaiva Siddhântins, Íiva is the
totality of all, understood in three perfections: Parameßvara (the Personal Creator
Lord), Parâßakti (the substratum of form) and Paraßiva (Absolute Reality which
transcends all). Souls and world are identical in essence with Íiva, yet also differ
in that they are evolving. A pluralistic stream arose in the middle ages from the
teachings of Aghorasiva and Meykandar. See: Íaivism.
Íaivism (Íaiva):
¤ ∆
The religion followed by those who worship Íiva as supreme God.
Oldest of the four sects of Hinduism. The earliest historical evidence of Íaivism is
from the 8,000-year-old Indus Valley civilization in the form of the famous seal of
Íiva as Lord Paßupati, seated in a yogic pose. There are many schools of Íaivism, six of
which are Íaiva Íiddhânta, Pâßupata Íaivism, Kashmîr Íaivism, Vîra Íaivism, Siddha
Siddhânta and Íiva Advaita. They are based firmly on the Vedas and Íaiva Ågamas,
and thus have much in common, including the following principle doctrines: 1) the
five powers of Íiva—creation, preservation, destruction, revealing and concealing
grace; 2) The three categories: Pati, paßu and pâßa (“God, souls and bonds”); 3) the
three bonds: â∫ava, karma and mâyâ; 4) the threefold power of Íiva: icçhâ ßakti,
kriyâ ßakti and jñâna ßakti; 5) the thirty-six tattvas, or categories of existence; 6)
the need for initiation from a satguru; 7) the power of mantra; 8) the four pâdas
(stages): charyâ (selfless service), kriyâ (devotion), yoga (meditation), and jñâna
(illumination); 9) the belief in the Pañchâkshara as the foremost mantra, and in
rudrâksha and vibhûti as sacred aids to faith; 10) the beliefs in satguru (preceptor),
Íivaliˆga (object of worship) and saˆgama (company of holy persons).
Íaivite (Íaiva):
¤ ∆
Of or relating to Íaivism or its adherents, of whom there are
about 400 million in the world today. See: Íaivism.
ßâkâhâra:
¤Ÿ+Ÿ“Ÿª
“Vegetarian diet.” From ßâka, “vegetable;” and âhâra, “eating;
taking food.” See: yama-niyama.
sakala avasthâ:
–+ƒ ×∆—ªŸ
“Stage of embodied being.” (Tamil: avasthai.) In Íaiva
Siddhânta, the second of three stages of the soul’s evolution, when it is engaged
in the world through the senses as it first develops a mental, then emotional and
astral body, and finally a physical body, entering the cycles of birth, death and
rebirth under the veiling powers of karma and mâya. Progress through sakala
avasthâ is measured in three stages: 1) irul, “darkness;” when the impetus is toward
pâßa, knowledge and experience of the world (pâßa-jñânam); 2) marul, “confusion;”
caught between the world and God, the soul begins to turn within for knowledge
of its own nature (paßu-jñânam); and 3) arul, “grace,” when the soul seeks to know
God (Pati-jñânam); and receive His grace. See:avasthâ.
Íâkta:
¤Ÿ¬
Of or relating to Íâktism. See: Íâktism.
Íakti:
¤⁄ª™
“Power, energy.” The active power or manifest energy of Íiva that per-
vades all of existence. Its most refined aspect is Parâßakti, or Satchidånanda, the
pure consciousness and primal substratum of all form. This pristine, divine energy
unfolds as icçhâ ßakti (the power of desire, will, love), kriyâ ßakti (the power of
action) and jñâna ßakti (the power of wisdom, knowing), represented as the three
prongs of Íiva’s trißûla, or trident. From these arise the five powers of revealment,
concealment, dissolution, preservation and creation. In Íaiva Siddhânta, Íiva is All,
and His divine energy, Íakti, is inseparable from Him. This unity is symbolized in
the image of Ardhanârîßvara, “half-female God.” In popular, village Hinduism, the
unity of Íiva and Íakti is replaced with the concept of Íiva and Íakti as separate
159 glossary
entities. Íakti is represented as female, and Íiva as male. In Hindu temples, art and
mythology, they are everywhere seen as the divine couple. Within the Íâkta religion,
the worship of the Goddess is paramount, in Her many fierce and benign forms.
Íakti is most easily experienced by devotees as the sublime, bliss-inspiring energy
that emanates from a holy person or sanctified Hindu temple. See: Íâktism.
ßaktinipâta:
¤⁄¬⁄≤ºŸ™
“descent of grace,” occuring during the advanced stage of
the soul’s evolution called arul, at the end of the sakala avasthai. Íaktinipâta is
two-fold: the internal descent is recognized as a tremendous yearning for Íiva;
the outer descent of grace is the appearance of a satguru. At this stage, the devotee
increasingly wants to devote himself to all that is spiritual and holy. Same as ßak-
tipâta. See: sakala avasthâ.
Íâktism (Íâkta):
¤Ÿ¬
“Doctrine of power.” The religion followed by those who wor-
ship the Supreme as the Divine Mother—Íakti or Devî—in Her many forms, both
gentle and fierce. Íâktism is one of the four primary sects of Hinduism. Íâktism’s
first historical signs are thousands of female statuettes dated ca 5500 bce recov-
ered at the Mehrgarh village in India. In philosophy and practice, Íâktism greatly
resembles Íaivism, both faiths promulgating, for example, the same ultimate goals
of advaitic union with Íiva and moksha. But Íâktas worship Íakti as the Supreme
Being exclusively, as the dynamic aspect of Divinity, while Íiva is considered solely
transcendent and is not worshiped. See: Íakti.
samâdhi:
–ºŸ⁄∞
“Enstasy,” “standing within one’s Self.” “Sameness; contemplation;
union, wholeness; completion, accomplishment.” Samâdhi is the state of true yoga,
in which the meditator and the object of meditation are one. Samâdhi is of two
levels. The first is savikalpa samâdhi (“enstasy with form” or “seed”), identification
or oneness with the essence of an object. Its highest form is the realization of the
primal substratum or pure consciousness, Satchidânanda. The second is nirvikalpa
samâdhi (“enstasy without form” or “seed”), identification with the Self, in which
all modes of consciousness are transcended and Absolute Reality, Paraßiva, beyond
time, form and space, is experienced.
samayam: rkak; “religion.”
sampradâya:
– º˘ ªŸ^
“Tradition,” “transmission;” a philosophical or religious doc-
trine or lineage. A living stream of tradition or theology within Hinduism, passed
on by oral training and initiation. Each sampradâya is often represented by many
paramparâs.
saµsâra:
– –Ÿª
“Flow.” The phenomenal world. The cycle of birth, death and rebirth;
the total pattern of successive earthly lives experienced by a soul.
saµskâra:
– —+Ÿª
“Impression, activator; sanctification, preparation.” 1) The imprints
left on the subconscious mind by experience (from this or previous lives), which
then color all of life, one’s nature, responses, states of mind, etc. 2) A sacrament or
rite done to mark a significant transition of life.
Sanâtana Dharma:
–≤Ÿ™≤∞º
“Eternal religion” or “Everlasting path.” It is a tradi-
tional designation for the Hindu religion. See: Hinduism.
San Mârga:
–≥ºŸ^
“True path.” The straight, spiritual path leading to the ultimate
goal, Self Realization, without detouring into unnecessary psychic exploration or
pointless development of siddhis. San Mârga also names the jñâna pâda.
San Marga Sanctuary: A meditation tîrtha at the foot of the extinct volcano, Mount
Waialeale, on Hawaii’s Garden Island, Kauai. Founded in 1970, it is among the
many public services of Saiva Siddhanta Church, one of America’s senior Hindu
160
YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION
160
religious institutions.
sannidhâna:
–⁄≤ ∞Ÿ≤
“Nearness; proximity; provost; taking charge of.” A title of
heads of monasteries: Guru Mahâsannidhâna. See: sânnidhya.
sânnidhya:
–Ÿ⁄≤ ·^
“(Divine) presence; nearness, indwelling.” The radiance and
blessed presence of ßakti within and around a temple or a holy person.
sannyâsa:
– ≥^Ÿ–
“Renunciation.” “Throwing down or abandoning.” Sannyâsa is the
repudiation of the dharma, including the obligations and duties, of the householder
and the acceptance of the even more demanding dharma of the renunciate.
sannyâsin:
– ≥^Ÿ⁄–≤
“Renouncer.” One who has taken sannyâsa dîkshâ. A Hindu
monk, swâmî, and one of a world brotherhood (or holy order) of sannyâsins. Some
are wanderers and others live in monasteries.
Sanskrit (Saµsk®ita):
– —+‚ ™
“Well-made,” “refined,” “perfected.” The classical sac-
erdotal language of ancient India, considered a pure vehicle for communication
with the celestial worlds. It is the primary language in which Hindu scriptures are
written, including the Vedas and Ågamas. employed today as a liturgical, literary
and scholarly language, but no longer as a spoken vernacular.
santosha:
–≥™|Œ
“Contentment.” See: yama-niyama.
sapta ®ishis:
–ºª⁄Œ
Seven inner-plane masters who help guide the karmas of man-
kind.
sârî: (Hindi,
–Ÿ•˛|
) The traditional garment of a Hindu woman.
ßâstrî:
¤Ÿ—º|
One who is knowledgeable in ßâstra, or scriptures.
satguru (sadguru):
–ª‹·
“True weighty one.” A spiritual preceptor of the highest at-
tainment and authority—one who has realized the ultimate Truth, Paraßiva, through
nirvikalpa samâdhi—a jîvanmukta able to lead others securely along the spiritual
path. He is always a sannyâsin, an unmarried renunciate. He is recognized and
revered as the embodiment of God, Sadâßiva, the source of grace and liberation.
sattva gu∫a:
–-∆^‹ ª
“Perfection of Being.” The quality of goodness or purity. See:
gu∫a.
satya:
–·^
“Truthfulness.” See: yama-niyama.
ßaucha:
¤|·
“Purity.” See: yama-niyama.
Self (Self God): God Íiva’s perfection of Absolute Reality, Paraßiva—That which
abides at the core of every soul. See: Paraßiva.
Self Realization: Direct knowing of the Self God, Paraßiva. Self Realization is known
in Sanskrit as nirvikalpa samâdhi; “enstasy without form or seed;” the ultimate
spiritual attainment (also called asamprajñata samâdhi). See: God Realization.
sevâ:
–‰∆Ÿ
“Service,” karma yoga, an integral part of the spiritual path, doing selfless,
useful work for others, such as volunteer work at a temple, without preference or
thought of reward or personal gain. Sevâ, or Sivathondu in Tamil, is the central
practice of the charyâ pâda.
siddha:
⁄–ª
A “perfected one’’ or accomplished yogî, a person of great spiritual at-
tainment or powers. See: siddhi.
siddhânta:
⁄–ª Ÿ≥™
“Final attainments;” “final conclusions.” ultimate understanding
in any field.
siddhânta ßrava∫a (or ßrâva∫a):
⁄–ªŸ≥™·˘ ∆ª
“Scriptural listening.” See: yama-ni-
yama.
siddhi:
⁄–⁄ª
“Power, accomplishment; perfection.” extraordinary powers of the
soul, developed through consistent meditation and deliberate, often uncomfort-
able and grueling tapas, or awakened naturally through spiritual maturity and
161 glossary
yogic sâdhana.
sin: Intentional transgression of divine law. Akin to the Latin sons, “guilty.” Hinduism
does not view sin as a crime against God, but as an act against dharma—moral
order—and one’s own self. Sin is an adharmic course of action which automatically
brings negative consequences.
ßishya:
⁄¤œ^
“A pupil or disciple,” especially one who has proven himself and been
accepted by a guru.
Íiva:
⁄¤∆
The “Auspicious,” “Gracious,” or “Kindly one.” Supreme Being of the Íaivite
religion. God Íiva is All and in all, simultaneously the creator and the creation, both
immanent and transcendent. As personal deity, He is Creator, Preserver and de-
stroyer. He is a one Being, perhaps best understood in three perfections: Parameßvara
(Primal Soul), Parâßakti (Pure Consciousness) and Paraßiva (Absolute reality).
Íivaloka:
⁄¤∆ƒ|+
“Realm of Íiva.” See: loka.
Íivarâtri:
⁄¤∆ªŸ⁄º
“Night of Íiva.” See: Mahâßivarâtri.
Skanda:
—+≥ª
“Quicksilver;” “leaping one.” One of Lord Kârttikeya’s oldest names,
and His form as scarlet-hued warrior God.
Skanda Shash†hî:
—+≥ªŒœª|
A six-day festival in October-November celebrating
Lord Kârttikeya’s, or Skanda’s, victory over the forces of darkness.
ßloka:
·ƒ|+
A verse, phrase, proverb or hymn of praise, usually composed in a speci-
fied meter. Especially a verse of two lines, each of sixteen syllables.
Smârta:
Ѽ٪@
“Of or related to sm®iti,” the secondary Hindu scriptures. See:
Smârtism.
Smârtism:
Ѽ٪@
Sect based on the secondary scriptures (sm®iti). The most liberal of
the four major Hindu denominations, an ancient Vedic brâhminical tradition (ca
700 bce) which from the 9th century onward was guided and deeply influenced
by the Advaita Vedânta teachings of the reformist Adi Sankara.
soul: The real being of man, as distinguished from body, mind and emotions. The
soul—known as âtman or purusha—is the sum of its two aspects, the form or body
of the soul and the essence of the soul.
ßraddhâ:
·˘ªŸ
“Faith; belief.”
strî dharma:
—º|∞º
“Womanly conduct.” See: dharma.
subconscious mind: Saµskâra chitta. See: mind (five states).
Subramuniyaswami: Rg; gpuKdpaRthkp Author of this book, 162nd satguru (1927–2001)
of the Nandinâtha Sampradâya’s Kailâsa Paramparâ. He was recognized worldwide
as one of foremost Hindu ministers of our times, contributing to the revival of
Hinduism in immeasurable abundance. He was simultaneously a staunch defender
of traditions, as the tried and proven ways of the past, and a fearless innovator, set-
ting new patterns of life for contemporary humanity. for a brief biography of this
remarkable seer and renaissance guru, see About the Author on page 183.
sub-subconscious mind: Vâsanâ chitta. See: mind (five states).
subsuperconscious mind: Anukâra∫a chitta. See: mind (five states).
ßuddha avasthâ:
¤‹ª ×∆—ªŸ
“Stage of purity.” (Tamil: avasthai.) In Íaiva Siddhânta,
the last of three stages of evolution, in which the soul is immersed in Íiva. Self
realization having been attained, the mental body is purified and thus reflects the
divine soul nature, Íiva’s nature, more than in the kevala or sakala state. Now the soul
continues to unfold through the stages of realization, and ultimately merges back
into its source, the Primal Soul. See: avasthâ, kevala avasthâ, sakala avasthâ.
superconscious mind: Kâra∫a chitta. See: mind (five states), mind (three phases).
162
YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION
162
sushum∫â nâ∂î:
–‹ Œ‹ ΩªŸ≤Ÿ•|
“Most gracious channel.” Central psychic nerve current
within the spinal column. See: ku∫∂alinî, nâ∂î.
sutala chakra:
–‹™ƒ ·+˚
“Great abyss.” region of obsessive jealousy and retaliation.
The third chakra below the mûlâdhâra, centered in the knees. Corresponds to the
third astral netherworld beneath the earth’s surface, called Saµhâta (“abandoned”)
or Sutala. See: chakra, Narakaloka.
sûtra:
–› º
“Thread.” An aphoristic verse; the literary style consisting of such maxims.
From 500 bce, this style was widely adopted by Indian philosophical systems and
eventually employed in works on law, grammar, medicine, poetry, crafts, etc.
svadharma:
—∆∞º
“One’s own way.” See: dharma.
svâdhish†hâna:
—∆Ÿ⁄∞ºŸ≤
“One’s own base.” See: chakra.
synonymous with Svarloka. See: loka.
swâmî:
—∆Ÿº|
“Lord; owner; self-possessed.” He who knows or is master of himself. A
respectful title for a Hindu monk, usually a sannyâsin, an initiated, orange-robed
renunciate, dedicated wholly to religious life. As a sign of respect, the term swâmî
is sometimes applied more broadly to include non-monastics dedicated to spiri-
tual work.
talâtala chakra:
™ƒŸ™ƒ ·+˚
“Lower region.” The fourth chakra be-
low the mûlâdhâra, centered in the calves. region of chronic mental
confusion and unreasonable stubbornness. Corresponds to the
fourth astral netherworld beneath the earth’s surface, called Tâmisra
(“darkness”) or Talâtala. This state of consciousness is born of the
sole motivation of self-preservation. See: chakra, Narakaloka.
tamas(ic):
™º–
“Force of inertia.” See: gu∫a.
Tamil: jkpH; The ancient Dravidian language of the Tamils, a Caucasoid people
of South India and Northern Sri Lanka, who have now migrated throughout the
world. The official language of the state of Tamil Nadu, India, spoken by 60 mil-
lion people.
tantra:
™≥º
“Loom, methodology.” 1) Most generally, a synonym for ßâstra,
“scripture.” 2) A synonym for the Ågamic texts, especially those of the
Íâkta fai th, a cl ass of Hi ndu scri pture provi di ng detai l ed i nstructi on on al l aspects of rel i gi on, mysti c knowl edge and sci ence. The tantras are al so associ ated wi th the Íai va tradi ti on. 3) Aspeci fi c method, techni que or spi ri tual practi ce wi thi n the Íai va and Íâkta tradi ti ons. 4) di sci pl i nes and techni ques wi th a strong emphasi s on worshi p of the f emi ni ne f orce, often i nvol vi ng sexual encounters, wi th the purported goal of transf ormati on and uni on wi th the di vi ne.
tapas:
™º–
“Heat, fire; ardor.” Purificatory spiritual disciplines, severe austerity,
penance and sacrifice. The endurance of pain, suffering, through the performance
of extreme penance, religious austerity and mortification.
tapasvin:
™º⁄—∆≤
One who performs tapas or is in the state of tapas. See: tapas.
That: When capitalized, this simple demonstrative refers uniquely to the Ultimate,
Indescribable or Nameless Absolute. The Self God, Paraßiva.
Third World: Íivaloka, “realm of Íiva,” or Kâra∫aloka. The spiritual realm or causal
plane of existence wherein Mahâdevas and highly evolved souls live in their own
self-effulgent forms. See: loka, three worlds.
three worlds: The three worlds of existence, triloka, are the primary hierarchical
divisions of the cosmos. 1) Bhûloka: “Earth world,” the physical plane. 2) Antar-
loka: “Inner or in-between world,” the subtle or astral plane. 3) Íivaloka: “World
of Íiva,” and of the Gods and highly evolved souls; the causal plane, also called
Kâra∫aloka.
tirodhâna ßakti:
⁄™ª|∞Ÿ≤¤⁄¬
“Concealing power.” Veiling grace, or God’s power to
obscure the soul’s divine nature. Tirodhâna ßakti is the particular energy of Íiva
163 glossary
that binds the three bonds of â∫ava, karma, mâyâ to the soul. It is a purposeful
limiting of consciousness to give the opportunity to the soul to grow and mature
through experience of the world.
Tirukural: jpUf; Fws; “Holy couplets.” A treasury of Hindu ethical insight and a
literary masterpiece of the Tamil language, written by Íaiva Saint Tiruvalluvar
(ca 200 bce) near present-day Chennai. One of the world’s earliest ethical texts,
the Tirukural could well be considered a bible on virtue for the human race. See:
Tiruvalluvar.
tîrthayâtrâ:
™|ª^ŸºŸ
“Journey to a holy place.” Pilgrimage. See: pilgrimage.
Tirumantiram: jpUke;jpuk; “Holy incantation.” The Nandinåtha Sampradåya’s old-
est Tamil scripture; written ca 200 bce by rishi Tirumular. It is the earliest of the
Tirumurai texts, and a vast storehouse of esoteric yogic and tantric knowledge. It
contains the mystical essence of râja yoga and siddha yoga, and the fundamental
doctrines of the 28 Íaiva Siddhânta Ågamas, which are the heritage of the ancient
pre-historic traditions of Íaivism. As the Ågamas themselves are now partially lost,
the 3,000-verseTirumantiram is a rare source of the complete Ågamanta (collection
of Ågamic lore). See: Tirumular, Tirumurai.
Tirumular: jpU|yh; An illustrious siddha yogî and ®ishi of the Nandinâtha Sam-
pradâya’s Kailâsa Paramparâ who came from the Himalayas (ca 200 bce) to Tamil
Nadu to compose the Tirumantiram. In this scripture he recorded the tenets of
Íaivism in concise and precise verse form, based upon his own realizations and the
supreme authority of the Íaiva Ågamas and the Vedas. Tirumular was a disciple of
Maharishi Nandinatha. See: Kailâsa Paramparâ, Tirumantiram.
Tirumurai: jpUKiw “Holy book.” A twelve-book collection of hymns and writings
of South Indian Íaivite saints, compiled by Saint Nambiyandar Nambi (ca 1000).
The first seven books are known as Devarams.
Tiruvalluvar: jpUts;Sth; “Holy weaver.” Tamil weaver and householder saint (ca
200 bce) who wrote the classic Íaivite ethical scripture Tirukural. He lived with
his wife Vasuki, famed for her remarkable loyalty and virtues, near modern-day
Chennai. See: Tirukural.
tithe (tithing): The spiritual discipline, often a vrata, of giving one tenth of one’s
gainful and gifted income to a religious organization of one’s choice, thus sustaining
spiritual education and upliftment on earth. The Sanskrit equivalent is daßamâµßa,
called makimai in the Tamil tradition.
Truth: When capitalized, ultimate knowing which is unchanging. Lower case (truth):
honesty, integrity; virtue.
upadeßa:
+ºª‰ ¤
“Advice; religious instruction.” Often given in
question-and-answer form from guru to disciple. The satguru’s
spiritual discourses.
Upanishad:
+º⁄≤Œª
“Sitting near devotedly.” The fourth and final
portion of the Vedas, expounding the secret, philosophical meaning
of the Vedic hymns. The Upanishads are a collection of profound
texts which are the source of Vedânta and have dominated Indian thought for thou-
sands of years. They are philosophical chronicles of ®ishis expounding the nature
of God, soul and cosmos, exquisite renderings of the deepest Hindu thought. The
number of Upanishads is given as .
164
YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION
164
Vaish∫ava:
∆ œª∆
Of or relating to Vish∫u; same as Vaish∫avite.
A follower of Lord Vish∫u or His incarnations. See: Vaish∫avism,
Vish∫u.
Vaish∫avism (Vaish∫ava):
∆œª∆
One of the four major religions,
or denominations of Hinduism, representing roughly half of the
world’s one billion Hindus. It gravitates around the worship of
Lord Vish∫u as Personal God, His incarnations and their consorts. Vaish∫avism
stresses the personal aspect of God over the impersonal, and bhakti (devotion) as
the true path to salvation.
Vaish∫avite: Of or relating to Vish∫u; same as Vaish∫ava. A follower of Vish∫u or
His incarnations. See: Vaish∫avism, Vishnu.
vâsanâ:
∆Ÿ–≤Ÿ
“Abode.” Subconscious inclinations. from vâs, “dwelling, residue,
remainder.” The subliminal inclinations and habit patterns which, as driving forces,
color and motivate one’s attitudes and future actions.
vâsanâ daha tantra:
∆Ÿ–≤Ÿª“™≥º
“Purification of the subconscious by fire.” Daha
means burning, tantra is a method, and vâsanâs are deep-seated subconscious
traits or tendencies that shape one’s attitudes and motivations. Vâsanâs can be ether
positive or negative. One of the best methods for resolving difficulties in life, of
dissolving troublesome vâsanâs, the vâsanâ daha tantra is the practice of burning
confessions, or even long letters to loved ones or acquaintances, describing pains,
expressing confusions and registering grievances and long-felt hurts. Also called
spiritual journaling, writing down problems and burning them in any ordinary fire
brings them from the subconscious into the external mind, releasing the supressed
emotion as the fire consumes the paper. This is a magical healing process. —mahâ
vâsanâ daha tantra: The special sâdhana of looking back over and writing about the
various aspects of one’s life in order to clear all accumulated subconscious burdens,
burning the papers as done in the periodic vâsana daha tantra. Ten pages are to be
written about each year. Other aspects of this tantra include writing about people
one has known (people check), all sexual experiences (sex check).
Veda:
∆‰ ª
“Wisdom.” Sagely revelations which comprise Hinduism’s most authorita-
tive scripture. They, along with the Ågamas, are ßruti, that which is “heard.” The
Vedas are a body of dozens of holy texts known collectively as the Veda, or as the
four Vedas: Âig, Yajur, Sâma and Atharva. In all they include over 100,000 verses, as
well as additional prose. The knowledge imparted by the Vedas ranges from earthy
devotion to high philosophy.
Vedânta:
∆‰ ªŸ≥™
“Ultimate wisdom” or “final conclusions of the Vedas.” Vedânta is the
system of thought embodied in the Upanishads (ca 1500-600 bce), which give forth
the ultimate conclusions of the Vedas. Through history there developed numerous
Vedânta schools, ranging from pure dualism to absolute monism.
Vedic-Ågamic: Simultaneously drawing from and complying with both of Hinduism’s
revealed scriptures (ßruti), Vedas and Ågamas, which represent two complimentary,
intertwining streams of history and tradition.
vegetarian: Íakâhâra. Of a diet which excludes meat, fish, fowl and eggs. Vegetarian-
ism is a principle of health and environmental ethics that has been a keystone of
Indian life for thousands of years. Vegetarian foods include grains, fruits, vegetables,
legumes and dairy products. Natural, fresh foods, locally grown, without insecticides
or chemical fertilizers, are preferred. The following foods are minimized: frozen
and canned foods, highly processed foods, such as white rice, white sugar and white
165 glossary
flour; and “junk” foods and beverages (those with abundant chemical additives,
such as artificial sweeteners, colorings, flavorings and preservatives, or prepared
with unwholesome ingredients).
veiling grace: Tirobhâva ßakti. The divine power that limits the soul’s perception by
binding or attaching the soul to the bonds of â∫ava, karma, and mâyâ— enabling
it to grow and evolve as an individual being.
vibhûti:
⁄∆∫›⁄™
“Resplendent, powerful.” Holy ash, prepared by burning cow dung
along with other precious substances, milk, ghee, honey, etc. It symbolizes purity
and is one of the main sacraments given at pûjâ in all Íaivite temples and shrines.
Vish∫u:
⁄∆œª‹
“All-pervasive.” Supreme Deity of the Vaish∫avite religion. God as
personal Lord and Creator, the All-Loving Divine Personality, who periodically
incarnates and lives a fully human life to reestablish dharma whenever necessary.
In Íaivism, Vish∫u is Íiva’s aspect as Preserver. See: Vaish∫avism.
vißuddha chakra:
⁄∆¤‹ ª·+
“Wheel of purity.” The fifth chakra. Center of divine
love. See: chakra.
Vißvaguru:
⁄∆·∆^‹·
“World as teacher.” The playful personification of the world as
the guru of those with no guru, headmaster of the school of hard knocks, where
students are left to their own devices and learn by their own mistakes rather than
by following a traditional teacher.
vitala chakra:
⁄∆™ƒ ·+˚
“region of negation.” region of raging anger and viciousness.
The second chakra below the mûlâdhâra, centered in the thighs. Corresponds to
the second astral netherworld beneath the earth’s surface, called Avîchi (“joyless”)
or Vitala. See: chakra, Narakaloka.
vivâha:
⁄∆∆Ÿ“
“Marriage.” See: saµskâras.
vrata:
∆˘™
“Vow, religious oath.” Often a vow to perform certain disciplines, such as
penance, fasting, specific mantra repetitions, worship or meditation.
yajña:
^◊
“Worship; sacrifice.” One of the most central Hindu
concepts—sacrifice and surrender through acts of worship, inner
and outer. 1) Primarily, yajña is a form of ritual worship especially
prevalent in Vedic times, in which oblations—ghee, grains, spices
and exotic woods—are offered into a fire according to scriptural
injunctions while special mantras are chanted. The element fire,
Agni, is revered as the divine messenger who carries offerings and prayers to the Gods.
Yajña requires four components, none of which may be omitted: dravya, sacrificial
substances; tyâga, the spirit of sacrificing all to God; devatâ, the celestial beings
who receive the sacrifice; and mantra, the empowering word or chant. 2) Manushya
yajña or often simply yajña, “homage to men,” is feeding guests and the poor, the
homeless and the student. Manushya yajña includes all acts of philanthropy, such
as tithing and charity. In Sri Lanka, yajña (Tamil, yagam) also refers to large, cer-
emonious mass feedings.
yama-niyama:
^º ⁄≤^º
The first two of the eight limbs of râja yoga, constituting
Hinduism’s fundamental ethical codes, the yamas and niyamas are the essential
foundation for all spiritual progress. Here are the ten traditional yamas and ten
niyamas. —yamas: 1) ahiµsâ: “Noninjury.” Not harming others by thought, word,
or deed. 2) satya: “Truthfulness.” Refraining from lying and betraying promises. 3)
asteya: “Nonstealing.” Neither stealing, nor coveting nor entering into debt. 4) brah-
macharya:

“Divine conduct.” Controlling lust by remaining celibate when single,
166
YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION
166
leading to faithfulness in marriage. 5) kshamâ:

“Patience.” Restraining intolerance
with people and impatience with circumstances. 6) dh®iti: “Steadfastness.” Over-
coming nonperseverance, fear, indecision and changeableness. 7) dayâ: “Compas-
sion.” Conquering callous, cruel and insensitive feelings toward all beings. 8) ârjava:
“Honesty, straightforwardness.” Renouncing deception and wrongdoing. 9) mitâhâra:
“Moderate appetite.” Neither eating too much nor consuming meat, fish, fowl or
eggs. 10) ßaucha: “Purity.” Avoiding impurity in body, mind and speech. —niyamas:
1) hrî: “Remorse.” Being modest and showing shame for misdeeds. 2)santosha:
“Contentment.” Seeking joy and serenity in life. 3) dâna: “Giving.” Tithing and giv-
ing generously without thought of reward. 4) âstikya:

“Faith.” Believing firmly in
God, Gods, guru and the path to enlightenment. 5) Èßvarapûjana: “Worship of the
Lord.” The cultivation of devotion through daily worship and meditation. 6) sid-
dhânta ßrava∫a: “Scriptural audition.” Studying the teachings and listening to the
wise of one’s lineage. 7) mati: “Cognition.” Developing a spiritual will and intellect
with the guru’s guidance. 8) vrata: “Sacred vows.” Fulfilling religious vows, rules
and observances faithfully. 9) japa: “Recitation.” Chanting mantras daily. 10) tapas:

“Austerity.” Performing sâdhana, penance, tapas and sacrifice. Patanjali lists the yamas
as: ahiµsâ, satya, asteya, brahmacharya and aparigraha (noncovetousness); and the
niyamas as: ßaucha, santosha, tapas, svâdhyâya (self-reflection, private scriptural
study) and Èßvarapra∫idhâna (worship). See: ash†aˆga yoga.
yoga:
^|^
“Union.” From yuj, “to yoke, harness, unite.” The philosophy, process,
disciplines and practices whose purpose is the yoking of individual consciousness
with transcendent or divine consciousness.
yoga pâda:
^|^ºŸª
The third of the successive stages in spiritual unfoldment in Íaiva
Siddhânta, wherein the goal is Self Realization. See: pâda.
Yogaswami (Yogaswâmî): nahfRthkp “Master of yoga.” Sri Lanka’s most renowned
contemporary spiritual master (1872‒1964), a Sivajñâni and Nâtha siddhar revered
by both Hindus and Buddhists. He was trained by Satguru Chellappaswami, from
whom he received guru dîkshâ. Sage Yogaswami was the satguru of Sivaya Subra-
muniyaswami. Yogaswami conveyed his teachings songs called Natchintanai, “good
thoughts.” See: Kailâsa Paramparâ.
yogî:
^|^|
One who practices yoga.
yoginî:
^|⁄^≤|
Feminine counterpart of yogî.
yuga:
^‹ ^
“Eon,” “age.” One of four ages which chart the duration of the world accord-
ing to Hindu thought: Satya (or K®ita), Tretâ, dvâpara and Kali. In the first period,
dharma reigns supreme, but as the ages revolve, virtue diminishes and ignorance
and injustice increases. At the end of the Kali Yuga, in which we are now, the cycle
begins again with a new Satya Yuga.
167 glossary
VoWelS 
Vowels marked like â are
sounded twice as long as
short vowels. The four
dipthongs, e, ai, o, au, are
always sounded long, but
never marked as such. 
Ç
a  as in about
ÇŸ Ÿ
â …tar, father
: ⁄
i  …fll, lily
: |
î …machine
+ ‹
u …full, bush
+ ›
û …allude
ª ‚
®i …merrily
â ·
®î …marine
ƒ‡
l®i …revelry
º ‰
e …prey
º‰
ai …aisle
× |
o …go, stone
× |
au …Haus
GuTTuRAl CoNSoNANTS
Sounded in the throat.
+
k …kite, seek
¬
kh …inkhorn
^
g …gamble
¤
gh …loghouse
¢
ˆ …sing
PAlATAl CoNSoNANTS
Sounded at the roof of
the mouth. 
·
ch …church
¤
çh …much harm
·
j …jump
=
jh …hedgehog

ñ …hinge
CeReBRAl CoNSoNANTS
Tongue turned up and
back against the roof of
the mouth. (Also known
as retrofex.) 
·
† …true
ª
†h …nuthook

∂ …drum
·
∂h …redhaired
ª
∫ …none
DeNTAl CoNSoNANTS
Sounded with the tip of
the tongue at the back of
the upper front teeth. 

t …tub
ª
th …anthill
ª
d …dot

dh …adhere

n …not
lABIAl CoNSoNANTS
Sounded at the lips. 
º
p …pot

ph …path

b …bear

bh …abhor
º
m …map
SeMIVoWelS
^
y …yet (palatal)
ª
r …road (cereb.)
ƒ
l …lull (dental) 

v …voice
(labial),but more like w
when following a conso-
nant, as in swâmî.

h …hear (guttural)
SIBIlANTS
¤
ß …sure (palatal)
Œ
sh …shut (cerebral)

s …saint (dental)
ANuSVÅRA
The dot over devanâgarî
letters represents the na-
sal of the type of letter it
precedes; e.g.:
×^
= aˆga.
It is transliterated as µ
or as the actual nasal (ˆ,
ñ, n, ∫, m). At the end
of words it is sometimes
º
(m).
VISÅRGA (:) ˙ 
Pronounced like huh
(with a short, stopping
sound), or hih, after i, î
and e.
ASPIRATeS 
The h following a conso-
nant indicates aspiration,
the addition of air, as in
nâtha or bhakti. Thus, th
should not be confused
with th in the word then.
Special Characters

jñ …a nasalized
sound, like gya or jya.
’ - + Œ
ksh 
CoNVeNTIoNS
1. As a rule, the root
forms of Sansk®it words
are used (without case
endings).
2.
·¤
is transliterated as
cçh, and
··
as cch.
3. Geographical and
personal names (e.g.,
Hardwar), are generally
marked with diacriticals
only as main lexicon
entries.
4. diacritical marks are
not used for Tamil words.
Sanskrit Pronunciation
Ucchâra∫am Saµsk®ita
oÅarNama< sa\sk&[ta
169 index
A
Abrahamic religions: contrast with
Hinduism, 94. See also Semitic reli-
gions
Absolution: obtaining, 61
Abuse: of credit, 12-15; mitigating, 35.
See also Violence
Acceptance: power of, 25; misconcep-
tions, 25-26. See also Forgiveness;
Kshamâ
Addiction: to credit, 13. See also Desire
Adversity: facing wisely, 29-30. See also
Karma
Ågamas: revealed scripture, 100. See
Scriptures
Aggressiveness: and spirituality, 64-65
Ahiµsâ (noninjury): and brahmacha-
rya, 2-3; and contentment, 67; essence
of Hinduism, 34; first & foremost
virtue, 2-3; and household pests, 33;
philosophical basis, 1-2; summary, 0;
and truthfulness, 6-7; and vegetarian-
ism, xx. See also Compassion
Åjñâ chakra: and satguru, 110. See also
Chakras; Third eye
Anâhata chakra: choice of paths, 110;
inner struggle, 114; willpower re-
quired, 116. See also Chakras; Cogni-
tion
Å∫ava: bondage of, 110-112; psychism
and, 110-112; rudrâksha-mâlâ anal-
ogy, 112, 114. See also Ego; Ignorance;
Malas
Anger: incompatible with brahmacha-
rya, 3; lower consciousness, ix, 17, 26,
45, 54; and meat-eating, 48; restricting
spiritual practice, 96-97; subsidence
of, 114; vitala chakra, 115; willpower
drained by, 117. See also Violence
Apology: and forgiveness, 58. See also
Remorse
Appetite: moderation in, 43-44, 46. See
also Mitâhâra
Årjava (honesty): in leadership, 39-40;
monastics’, 39; non-manipulation, 40;
in organizations, 40; simplicity, 40;
straightforwardness, 38; summary, 36;
with oneself, 37. See also Deception;
Satya
Arul: as compassion, 35
Arul pâda: stage of grace, 86-88, 90, 94,
106; and worship, 94. See Pâdas
Ash†âˆga yoga: first two limbs, vii-viii;
skyscraper analogy, viii
Asteya: and covetousness, 11; credit
and debt, 12-15; and dâna, 11-12;
environmental, 15; and gambling, 13-
14; summary, 10
Åstikya (faith): and avasthâs, 86, 88-
89; community force, 85; crisis of,
85; def., 90; groupies, 85; hedonism,
84; and malas, 87; nurturing, 85; and
pâdas, 86-87; perspectives on, 94; sub-
stance, 83; summary, 82; three eyes,
83-84; two kinds, 89; without under-
standing, 83-85; and worship, 93-94;
and yoga, 87
Astral plane: devas and asuras, 96-97.
See also Devaloka; Narakaloka; Psy-
chism
Asuras: avoiding influence of, 53-54;
protecting home from, 96; summoned
by anger, 96. See also Narakaloka
Attire: See Clothing
Attitudes: beliefs and, 2
Aum: how to chant, 127. See also Japa;
Mantras
Aura: effect on home, 52; psychic nâ∂îs
of, 19; purity/impurity shown in, 51-
53. See also Nâ∂îs
Austerity: disc., 131-135; and satya, 8;
summary, 130; Tirukural quote, 135;
and willpower, 116; wise guidance,
Index
Anukrama∫ikâ
Anau}a[maiNak[a
170
YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION
170
135. See Penance; Sacrifice; Sâdhana;
Tapas
Avasthâ: soul’s evolution through,
86-90
Åyurveda: food guidelines, 43
B
Beliefs: attitudes created by, 2, 113; and
nonviolence, 2
Birth: family retreat, 53. See also Rein-
carnation
Bliss: unfoldment and, ix, xi
Bondage, triple: See Malas
Brahmacharya: after age sixty, 20; anger
warning, 2-3; benefits, 17-18; and
God realization, 18; implementation,
19-20; and nâ∂îs, 19; vrata, 18, 20-21;
harnessing energies, 17; pseudo-
sannyâsins, 18; for strong families,
21-22; until marriage, 21. See also
Sexual purity
Brahmananda, Swami: on yama-
niyama, vii-viii
Bribery: nonparticipation, 38
Buddhism: monasticism in, 63
Business: guidelines, 11-14, 20. See
also Professionalism
C
Celibacy: until marriage, 18-19, 22; in
later life, 20-21; overview, 22. See also
Brahmacharya; Faithfulness
Chakras: higher and lower, 54, 93;
sushum∫â nâ∂îs and, 105; raising
consciousness, xi; restraint and, 46.
See Åjñâ chakra; Anâhata chakra;
Ma∫ipûra chakra; Mûlâdhâra chakra;
Sahasrâra chakra; Tala chakras; Vißud-
dha chakra. See also Consciousness;
Unfoldment
Chanting: See Japa
Character (good): Last five niayamas
rely on, 128; foundation for spiritual
striving, ix, xi, xiii-xvi; restraints
build, 29;
Chariot: analogy, ix, xiv
Charity: dâna vs., 73. See also Dâna;
Giving
Chemistry: diet & consciousness, 45,
48
Children: formative years, 79; parents’
critical influence, xiv, 5, 8, 38-39. See
also Family
Christianity: in India, 47. See Abraha-
mic religions
Cleanliness: spirituality and, 51-53.
See Íaucha
Clothing: cleanliness of, 51-52. See also
Modesty
Code of ethics: See Ethics, codes of
Cognition: See Mati
Communism: views of, 67
Community: and vows, 123-124. See
also Society
Companions: choosing well, 54
Compassion: See Dayâ
Confusion: See Marul pâda
Conscience: three kinds, 60
Consciousness: cleanliness and, 52-
53; diet and, 44-48; levels of, 45,
48, 54. See also Chakras; Energy;
Unfoldment;Willpower
Contentment: See Santosha
Counseling: by monastics, 80
Courage: faith and, 85
Covetousness: defined, 11; of another’s
spouse, 21. See also Asteya
Credit: use and abuse, 11-15
Cruelty: compassion vs., 33
D
Dâna (giving): asteya and, 11; barter
vs., 74; charity vs., 73; hospitality, 74-
75; jñâna dâna, 77-78; karmic law, 73,
75; mass feedings, 78; by monastics,
79-80; pu∫ya, 75-76; and seva, 76;
spirit of joy and fullness, 73; summary,
72; to temple, 78; tithing, 73-74. See
also Giving; Tithing
Dayâ (compassion): and ahiµsâ, 34;
171 index
basis, 33-34; defined, 33; old soul, 34;
spiritual outpouring, 34-35; sum-
mary, 32. See also Ahiµsâ
Death: ®ishi’s mahâsamâdhi, 112;
family retreat following, 53. See also
Reincarnation
Debt: discussion, 11-15
Decadence: and diet, 43
Deception: and children, 38-39; false
remorse, 59-60; in government, 39; of
guru, 120, 127-128; of oneself, 37; in
organizations, 40; refraining from, 5,
7. See also Honesty
Depression: avoiding, 123; environ-
ment and, 53; faith vs., 84; mumia
and, 52
Desire: contentment vs., 67-68; har-
nessing/redirecting, 55; restraining,
25, 46; spiritual goals, 68-69. See also
Addiction; Covetousness; Temptation;
Willpower
Devaloka: invoking forces of, 26;
Narakaloka and, 54. See also Astral
plane; Devas
Devas: guardian, 96; in the home, 53;
vows and, 119. See also Devaloka
Devotees: groupies vs., 85. See also
Íishyas
Devotion: cultivated through worship
&meditation, 93; mitigating intoler-
ance, 27
Dharma: contentment and, 69; faith
and, 85; remorse and, 61; in arul pâda,
90; vegetarianism, 48
Dh®iti (steadfastness): accepting
karma, 30; and character, 29; depend-
ability, 31; vs indecisiveness, 30; sum-
mary, 28; and willpower, 29. See also
Karma
Diet: See Appetite; Mitâhâra
Digestion: prâ∫âyâma exercise, 45-46.
See also Mitâhâra
Dîkshâ: See Initiation
Diplomacy: need for, 7
Discipline: Administered by guru, 8;
frugal eating, 44; in giving, 74; self, xi.
See also Sâdhana
Disciplines: Physical, 46. See Niyama
Disease: diet and, 48. See also Health
Dishonesty: karmic considerations, 38;
relationships eroded by, 39
Dualism: violence and, 2
E
earth: sacrifice to, 133-134. See also
Ecology
eating: guidelines, 46. See also Diges-
tion; Mitâhâra
ecology: care of, 135; humanity and,
44; and vegetarianism, 48-49. See also
Earth; Environment; Species
education: supporting, 78
eggs: not consuming, 45, 47-48. See
Vegetarianism
ego: monastics and, 79; psychism and,
110-111; rudrâksha-mâlâ analogy,
112. See also Å∫ava
eight: phases of sex, 19; eightfold celi-
bacy, 21
elders: vows and, 123-124
emotions: controlling, vii, xv; intellect
and, 113; promiscuity and, 17; releas-
ing, 70-71
energy: seeing Íiva as, 98; wise use of,
17-20. See also Consciousness; Trans-
mutation
enlightenment: brahmacharya and,
17-18; destiny of all souls, 1; persever-
ance and, 29. See also Samâdhi
enmity: beliefs conducive to, 2
environment: responsibility for, 15.
See also Ecology
ethics: codes of, x; environmental,
15, 48-49; yama-niyama, vii; and
vegetarianism, 47. See also Dharma;
Yama-niyama
evil: perception of, 2
exercise: and brahmacharya, 19-20; of
willpower, 116
existentialism: views of, 67
experience: faith and, 89-91; intellec-
tualization vs., 107. See also Karma
172
YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION
172
F
Face: loss of, 62
Faith: See Åstikya
Faithfulness: in marriage, 17, 20, 124
Family: daily meetings of, xiii; de-
stroyed by adultery, 22; mutual re-
spect in, 2; society and, 8; worshiping
together, 94. See also Children; Home;
Marriage; Parenting
Fasting: for health, 46
Faults: wise handling of, 7
Favors: indebtedness and, 40
Fear: atala chakra, 115; lower con-
sciousness, 45; meat-eating and, 48;
overcoming, 29; and untruthfulness,
5; willpower drained by, 115, 117
Feedings: mass, 78
Feelings: karma created by, 35
Fickleness: flexibility vs., 30
Fish: not consuming, 45, 47-48. See
Vegetarianism
Flexibility: fickleness vs., 30
Food: offering to God, 97; purity in, 51-
52, 55. See also Diet
Food-blessing mantra: excerpt, 67
Forbearance: monastics &, 27
Forgiveness: compassion and, 33; seek-
ing, 58, 62
Fowl: not consuming, 45, 47-48. See
Vegetarianism
Friends: See Companions
Fulfillment: giving as, 73-74; wife’s, 77
Fundamentalism: violence and, 2
G
Gambling: “Gambler’s Lament” (Vedic
quote), 14; nonparticipation in, 13-14
Gandhi, Mahatma: celibacy of, 20, 122
Ga∫eßa: functions of, 123
Giving: karmic law, 73, 75; to satguru,
77; for tax deductions, 74; gifts of
time, 75-76; wives’, 76-77. See also
Dâna
Goals: contentment and, 68
God and Gods: faith in, 85; living in
God’s house, 96-98; reality of, 96;
stage of, see Arul pada; and tapas, 132;
vows to, 119, 122-124; worship of, 94-
95, 99. See also God Íiva; Worship
God Realization: See Samâdhi
God Íiva: guests as, 74; seeing in all, 98.
See also God and Gods
Grace: concealing (veiling), 74, 86, 88;
descent of, 88; guru’s, 57, 109-111; in-
voking, 95; revealing, 88; stage of, see
Arul pada; and worship, 94
Guests: treated as God, 74, 96. See also
Hospitality
Guilt: instinctive quality, 60. See also
Remorse
Guru: approaching, 103, 128; and auster-
ity, 135; books written by, 104; choosing
wisely, 103, 111, 128; and cognition,
109; faith in, 85; first encounter, 102,
107, 120; guidance of, 109-111, 120, 127;
grace of, 57, 109-111; honesty with, 7, 39,
127-128; initiation by, 120-121, 127-128;
inner communication, 114; and japa/
mantra, 102, 127; mitigating karmas,
12; one step/nine steps, 104; role of, 7-8;
and sâdhana, 29; and sushum∫â nâ∂îs,
105-106, 110; television as, 113; and
vows, 119, 122-124; world as, 12. See also
Initiation; Sampradâya; Satguru
H
Habits: replacing unwanted, 54
Hamlet: quote from, 37
Hardship: See Adversity
Ha†ha Yoga Pradîpikâ: yamas and niya-
mas in, xiii
Healing: from misdeeds, 62
Health: diet and, 43-48; moderation
and, 43; treasure, 68
Hinduism: conglomerate, 63; ethi-
cal code of, vii, xiii; importance of
ahiµsâ, 34; liberal sects, 96; philo-
sophical basis for noninjury, 1-2;
based on Vedas, 106
Home: extension of temple, 95; God’s
173 index
house, 96-98; protecting vibration of,
70-71; purity of, 51-53. See also Fam-
ily; Household; Shrine room
Honesty: See Årjava
Hospitality: spiritual duty, 74. See also
Guests
Household: pest control, 33. See also
Home
Hrî (remorse): and aggressiveness, 64-
65; apologizing, 58; body language,
59-60; and Buddhism, 62-63; con-
science, 60; for deception, 38; feigned,
59-60; guilt vs., 60-61; and Kali Yuga,
64; media portrayal, 57-58; monas-
tics, 63-64; righting wrongs, 62; and
seva, 59; summary, 56; unveiling, 61;
vâsanâ daha tantra, 62. See also Mod-
esty; Penance; Repentance
Humility: feigned, 120, 127; monastic’s
vow, 30
Husband: wife and, 76-77. See Mar-
riage
I
Ignorance: and blind faith, 93; in
marul pâda, 87. See also Å∫ava
Illness: See Disease
Impatience: overcoming, 25-27
Indigestion: prâ∫âyâma, 45-46
Initiation: mantras and, 127; miscon-
ceptions, 127-128; readiness for, 102,
121, 128. See also Guru; Satguru
Instinctive mind: controlling, ix, xi,
119
Intellect: controlling, xiv; faith and, 83,
87-90, 93; harnessing, 113; purifying,
112-114. See also Mati
Intolerance: overcoming, 26-27. See
also Tolerance
Irul pâda: stage of darkness, 86-87, 89,
93. See Pâdas
Islam: effects on India, 47. See Abraha-
mic religions
Èßvarapûjana (worship): cultivating
devotion, 93; going through motions,
99; in the home, 94-98; internalizing,
94, 99; living in God’s house, 96-98;
and meditation, 98-99; pâdas, 93-94;
pûjâ, 94-95; state of being, 98; sum-
mary, 92. See also God and Gods;
Pûjâ; Shrine room; Temple
J
Japa (recitation): Aum, 127; effects of,
51; guru initiation, 127-128; and puri-
ty, 51; summary, 126. See also Mantras
Jealousy: lower consciousness, 45, 54;
meat-eating and, 48; subsidence of,
114; sutala chakra, 115; willpower
drained by, 115, 117
K
Kali Yuga: Narakaloka influence in, 54
Karma: burning, 106; contentment
and, 69; controlling through dharma,
70, 87; of deception, 38; harnessing,
111; giving and, 73, 75; monas-
tics and, 27, 79; mitigating, 12; in
marul pada, 87; steadfastness, 29; of
thoughts and feelings, 35; vegetari-
anism and, 48. See also Acceptance;
Adversity; Dh®iti; Forgiveness; Malas;
Problems
Kshamâ (patience): power of accep-
tance, 25-26; fostered by worship
&meditation, 26; monastics, 27; re-
straining desire, 25; summary, 64; and
willpower, 26-27; with oneself, 26. See
also Impatience
L
liberation (moksha): goal of life, 2
lineage: maintaining purity of, 102.
See Sampradâya
listening (scriptural): See Siddhânta
ßrava∫a
literature: distribution of, 78
longevity: diet and, 43-45. See also
174
YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION
174
Health
lust: controlling, 19-21
lying: See Deception. See also Satya
M
Macintosh: computers, for production
of this book, x, 181
Makimai: giving beyond tithing, 74.
See also Tithing
Malas: dealing with, 111-112; Íiva’s
concealing grace, 86-87. See Å∫ava;
Karma; Mâyâ
Manipulation: vs ârjava, 40
Ma∫ipûra chakra: two choices, 115;
willpower, 115-117. See also Chakras;
Willpower
Mantras: anger restricting, 97; discus-
sion, 127-128; policeman analogy,
127. See also Aum; Guru; Japa
Marie Antoinette: Let them eat cake, 43
Marriage: celibacy until, 17-19, 22;
faithfulness in, xii, 17, 20, 124; sexual
purity, 20-21. See also Family; Hus-
band; Wife
Marul pâda: stage of confusion, 86-90,
93, 106. See Pâdas
Materialism: worship and, 99
Mati (cognition): anâhata chakra, 110;
controlling malas, 111-112; develop-
ment of, 114-117; foundation of char-
acter, 128; harnessing the intellect,
112-113; knowing outcomes, 109;
and ku∫∂alinî, 113; and psychism,
110-112; and satguru, 109-111; and
siddhânta ßrava∫a, 112-113; sum-
mary, 108; and third eye, 109. See also
Anâhata chakra; Intellect
Mâyâ: bondage of, 110-111; piercing
the veil, 61. See also Malas
Meals: offering to God, 97. See also
Food
Meat: not consuming, 47-48; effects
on consciousness, 45. See Ahiµsâ;
Vegetarianism
Media: adharmic role models, 57-58;
dharmic enjoyment of, 19. See also
Movies; Television
Meditation: diet and, 43-44; worship
and, 94, 98-99; yama-niyama enables,
137. See also Sâdhana; Unfoldment
Memorization: practice vs., 27
Misdeeds: remorse for, 57-63; tapas
and, 132. See Penance
Mitâhâra (moderate diet): global
perspective, 44; and health, 43-44;
and higher consciousness, 44-45;
implementation, 46-47; rat experi-
ment; type of foods, 44, 47; summary,
42; vegetarianism, 47-49; where yoga
begins, xiii. See Vegetarianism
Moderate diet: See Mitâhâra
Modesty: in attire, 21; and effective-
ness, 64-65; media portrayal, 57-58;
wheat analogy, 59; monastics, 63-64;
spiritual strength, 65. See also Hrî ;
Pride
Moksha (liberation): goal of life, 2
Moment: eternity of, 25
Monastery: life in, 63-64
Monasticism: and remorse, 63
Monastics: ahiµsâ and, 2; conduct, 7,
39; and dâna, 79-80; karma and, 27;
power of, 3
Morality: basis for society, 22
Mother: essential role of, xiv. See also
Parenting
Movies: avoiding baseness, 19. See also
Media
Mûlâdhâra chakra: entrance into, 102,
114-115
Mumia: in preserved or unfresh foods, 52
Murugan: functions of, 123
N
Nâ∂îs: marriage and, 19-20; of
sushum∫â, 105, 110
Narakaloka: devaloka and, 54; lower
emotions and, 26. See also Astral
plane; Asuras; Tala chakras
Nature: See Ecology
Neo-Indian religion: Sanâtana
dharma vs., 40
175 index
Niyamas: relating to yamas, xiii; yamas
precede, 137-138. See Yama-niyama
Noninjury, nonviolence: See Ahiµsâ
Nonstealing: See Asteya
Nutrition: vegetarianism,48. See Diet
O
organizations: dishonest members, 40
overindulgence: counteracting, 46
P
Pâdas: soul’s evolution through, 86-90,
93; and yama-niyama, 106
Parenting: setting good examples, 5.
See Family; Mother
Parents: duties to children, 8
Past: resolving issues, 65. See Vâsanâ
daha tantra
Patanjali, Rishi: on yamas, vii; Yoga
Sûtras of, x, xii
Path: See Spiritual path
Patience: See Kshamâ
Penance (prâyaßchitta): obligatory, 131;
for untruthfulness, 8. See also Remorse;
Tapas
Perfection: deal with it, xv; realistic ap-
proach, 122, 128; of universe, 25
Perseverance: See Dh®iti
Pests: nonviolent control, 33
Physical body: controlling, xiv-xv; lan-
guage of, 59. See also Diet; Health
Pleasure: faith and, 84
Policeman: analogy, 127
Pornography: avoiding, 17, 19, 21
Poverty: avoiding, 13
Power: monastics’, 3; wife’s, 77
Practice: intellectualization vs., 26-27.
See also Willpower
Prâ∫âyâma: exercise for digestion,45-46
Prasâda: at each meal, 97
Prâyaßchitta: See Penance
Preceptor: See Guru; Satguru
Pride: â∫ava and, 112; modern glo-
rification of, 57; overcome through
japa, 51
Priests: pûjâs and sacraments, 94-95
Problems: positive approach to, 30, 37.
See also Karma
Professionalism: in the home, 70-71;
and success, vii
Progress: contentment and, 68
Promiscuity: avoiding, 19-20; contrib-
uting factors, 17; destructive effects,
20, 22; emotional context, 17; esoterics,
17-19; and lower world, 17; and mar-
riage, 20; modern acceptance of, 21;
and nâ∂îs, 19. See also Sexual purity
Prostration: as penance, 131
Psychism: and â∫ava, 110-112. See also
Third eye
Pûjâ: anger restricting, 96; daily home,
94-95. See also Temple; Worship
Pu∫ya: accumulating, 75
Purity: See Íaucha
R
Rats: dietary experiment, 45
Reason: faith and, 90
Recitation: See Japa
Reincarnation: giving and, 75
Religion: early stages, 114; meditation
and, 99. See also Abrahamic religions;
Buddhism; Hinduism
Remorse: See Hrî
Repentance: demonstrating, 59. See
also Remorse
Retaliation: lower consciousness, 60
Reverence: for all life, 34
Rights: of all species, 44; parental, 8
Robes: color-coding, 18
Rudrâksha mâlâ: analogy with â∫ava
mala, 112
S
Sacrifice: importance, 132; Yogaswa-
mi’s lesson, 132-135. See Austerity
Sâdhana(s): basic forms, 131; diet and,
44; guru’s guidance in, 109; simple
176
YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION
176
forms of, 116; for willpower, 29. See
also Tapas
Sahasrâra chakra: sapta ®ishis, 99, 115;
satguru needed, 110; sushum∫â cur-
rents, 110. See also Chakras; Samâdhi
Íaktinipâta: descent of grace, 88. See
also Grace
Samâdhi (God Realization): brah-
macharya, 18; psychic abilities and,
111. See also Enlightenment; Sahasrâra
chakra; Satguru; Spiritual path
Sampradâya: and books, 104; finding
one’s, 85; focus replaces search, 101-
102, 105, 107; Hinduism, 106; loyalty
to, 121, 128; oral teachings, 103-104;
vs. psychism, 110-111; sushum∫â cur-
rents, 105, 110; time-tested, 109-110;
validity of each, 105-106. See also
Satguru; Siddhânta ßrava∫a
Saµskâras: and ßaucha, 53
Santosha (contentment): and ahiµsâ,
1, 67; facing challenges, 69; joy of full-
ness, 67; perspectives, 67-68; protect-
ing the home, 70-71; redirecting desire,
68; and spiritual goals, 68-69; yamas
and, 69
Satchidânanda: maintaining con-
sciousness of, 114
Satguru: books/media, 104; choice of,
110-111; end of search, 101-102; gifts
to, 77; guided study, 105; and higher
chakras, 110; meeting one’s, 88, 104;
and mati, 109; oral teachings, 103;
role of, 7; sushum∫â nâ∂îs, 110; and
tapas, 132. See also Guru; Initiation;
Sampradâya; Siddhânta ßrava∫a
Satya (truthfulness): and ahiµsâ, 3,
6-8; children and, 5; focus on posi-
tive, 7; keeping promises, 6; layers of
untruthfulness, 5; quotations, 37;
summary, 4; and tapas, 8; withhold-
ing harmful information, 6-7. See also
Deception; Honesty
Íaucha (purity): of body & clothing,
51-52; brilliant aura, 53; of company,
54; of diet, 51-52; of home, 51-53;
honesty and, 6; implementation, 54-
55; and japa, 51; redirecting desire,
54-55; and saµskâras, 53; sexual, see
Sexual purity; summary, 50; yama-
niyama creates, 51
Scott, Sir Walter: on truthfulness, 37
Scriptures: faith in, 84-85; listening to,
see Siddhânta ßrava∫a; persistence of,
104. See Ågamas; Upanishads; Vedas
Seers: faith in, 84, 89-91
Selfishness: overcoming, 73, 76
Semitic religions: views of, 68. See also
Abrahamic religions
Seva: dâna and, 76
Sex: eight phases, 19; harnessing ener-
gies, 17; and nâ∂îs, 19; marital, 20-21;
premarital, 19. See also Pornography;
Promiscuity; Sexual purity
Sexual purity: basic assumption, 21;
in later life, 20-21; in marriage, 20-22;
summary, 16. See also Brahmacharya;
Sex
Shakespeare: on value of truthful-
ness, 37
Shellfish: not consuming, 47-48. See
Vegetarianism
Shrine room: family worshiping to-
gether, 94; minimal standards, 96-97.
See also Home; Temple; Worship
Shyness: aggressivness vs., 64
Siddhânta ßrava∫a (scriptural listen-
ing): defined, 103; focus replaces
search, 101-102, foundation of char-
acter, 128; harnessing intellect, 112-
113; and initiation, 102-103; and
mati, 112-113; media vs., 104; new
mind fabric, 102; power of, 103-104;
summary, 100; the only way, 107; and
Upanishads, 103, 106. See also Sam-
pradâya
Simplicity: honesty as, 40
Íishyas: relationship with guru, 8. See
also Devotees
Skyscraper: analogy, viii
Society: destroyed by promiscuity, 22;
family and, xiv, 8. See also Community
Soul(s): austerity and, 132, 135; destiny
of, 1; evolution of, xv-xvi, 86-91, 94;
faith and, 83; intellect and, 114; quali-
ties of, 64; spontaneity of, 61; young
177 index
and old, 34, 86-91. See also Unfold-
ment
Species: rights of all, 44. See also Ecol-
ogy
Speculation: financial, 13-14
Speech: controlling, 3
Spiritual path: challenges, 31; charac-
ter as foundation, xii; controlling de-
sires, 46; controlling instinctive mind,
ix; finding one’s sampradâya, 85-86;
guru’s guidance, 102; jñâna dâna, 79-
80; missteps vs. failure, 123; patience,
25; power of remorse, 61; practice vs.
intellectualization, 27; and psychism,
111. See also Guru
Stability: yama-niyama, 137
Steadfastness: See Dh®iti
Stealing: adultery as, 21; forms of,
11-14
Steps: one and nine, 104
Stress: gambling and, 13; wise handling
of, 70-71. See Karma
Subconscious mind: cleansing, 5. See
Vâsanâ daha tantra
Sugar: minimizing consumption, 47
Sun: namaskâra, 77
Sushum∫â: sampradâyas and, 105-106,
110
Swâmîs: self-styled, 18
T
Tala chakras: anger opens the door, 96-
97; guilt and, 60; irul pâda, 93; journey
through, 115; stealing and, 11; worlds
of darkness, 54. See also Chakras;
Narakaloka
Tapas : described, 131-132; guru’s guid-
ance, 107, 120, 132; burning karma,
106-107; and satya, 8; sought and
unsought, 132; summary, 130; wise
guidance, 135. See Austerity
Teaching(s): gifts of, 77; monastics
and, 80
Television: and confusion, 113. See also
Media
Temple: emotional release in, 70-71;
supporting, 78. See also Worship
Temples: persistence of, 104
Temptation: debt as, 14; vows strength-
en us, 119. See Desire
Third eye: and cognition, 109. See also
Åjñâ chakra; Astral plane; Psychism
Thoughts: karma created by, 35
Time: giving of, 76, 79
Tirukural: on asceticism, 30; on auster-
ity, 135; on avoiding poverty, 13; on
truthfulness, 6. See Tiruvalluvar
Tirumantiram: yamas and niyamas in,
x, xiii
Tirumular: Tirumantiram, xiii
Tiruvalluvar: on great aspirations, 123.
See Tirukural
Tithing: dâna and, 73-74; vow, 11-12.
See also Dâna
Tolerance: beliefs conducive to, 2. See
also Intolerance
Tradition: faith in, 89
Transmutation: of desire, 54-55. See
also Brahmacharya; Energy; Willpower
Trust: relationships and, 39
Truth: intellectualization vs., 88
Truthfulness: See Satya
Twain, Mark: quoted, 37
U
unfoldment: foundation for, xii, xv;
stages of, 86. See also Chakras; Con-
sciousness; Soul
universe: perfection of, 25; unity of, 1
Upanishads: scriptural authority of,
106; on steadfastness, 29; yamas and
niyamas in, xiii.See also Scriptures
V
Vâsanâ daha tantra: remorse and, 61-
62, 65. See Subconscious mind
Vedas: and food-blessing mantra, 67;
fundamental to Hinduism, 106; on
gambling, 14; revealed scripture, 100;
and siddhânta ßrava∫a, 103; study of,
178
YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION
178
103, 113; yama-niyama in, vii, 62. See
also Scriptures
Vegetarianism: defined, 47; higher con-
sciousness and, 45; reasons, 48-49; and
ahiµsâ, xx. See also Appetite; Mitâhâra
Violence: beliefs and, 2; obstacle to en-
lightenment, 1. See also Abuse; Anger
Virginity: See Brahmacharya
Vißuddha chakra: compassion and,
34; harmony with guru, 114; satguru
needed, 110.See also Chakras
Vows: See Vratas
Vratas: brahmacharya, 18-21; don’t give
up, 122-123; examples, 121-122; and
guru, 120-121; involvement of others,
124; sacred trust, 119; summary, 118;
tithing, 11-12; yama-niyama, 120,
122-124
W
Westerners: impatience for initiation,
120-121
Wheat: pride/modesty analogy, 59
Wife: husband and, 76; power of, 77.
See Marriage
Willpower: charioteer, xiv; contentment
and, 68; cultivating, 115-116; intellec-
tualization vs., 27; sâdhana, 29. See also
Desire; Energy; Practice; Steadfastness;
Unfoldment
Wisdom: truthfulness and, 5
Women: dharmic attitude toward, 124.
See Mother; Wife
Worry: contentment vs., 69
Worship: see Èßvarapûjana
Y
Yama-niyama: discussion, xii-xvi; core
of discipline, 106; faith and, 85, 90;
foundation for ash†âˆga yoga, xiii;
and initiation, 128; interrelatedness,
xiii, 12, 120; listed, xii-xiii; monastics
and, 106; preparation for vows, 120;
vow of, 122-124
Yamas: and santosha, 69
Yoga’s Forgotten Foundation: story of
dictation and production, ix-xi,
Yoga Sûtras: yamas and niyamas in, x,
xiii
Yoga: ash†âˆga yoga, viii; japa yoga, 51;
and soul’s evolution, 87; worship and,
94, 99
Yogaswami, Satguru Siva: sacrifice
taught by, 132-135
Invocation from the Ißa Upanishad,
Íukla Yajur Veda (cited on p. 67).
Âig Veda 10.34 (cited on p. 14); The
Vedic Experience (p. 50), Panikkar,
raimond (delhi, Motilal Banarsidass,
1989).
Íândilya Upanishad (cited on p. 29);
Thirty Minor Upanishads, Including
the Yoga Upanishads (p. 173-174), K.
Narayanasvami Aiyar (Oklahoma,
Santarasa Publications, 1980).
Tirukural, by Saint Tiruvalluvar (cited
on p. 6, 13, 30, 135); Weaver’s Wisdom,
Ancient Precepts for a Perfect Life,
Sivaya Subramuniyaswami (Hawaii,
Himalayan Academy, 1999).
Tirumantiram (cited on p. xix); Tiru-
mantiram, Holy Uterances of Saint
Tirumular, dr. B. Natarajan et al. (Ha-
waii, Saiva Siddhanta Church, 1982).
Scriptural Citations
The following are the scriptures and sourcebooks from which
quotations in Yoga’s Forgotten Foundation were drawn
179 index
181 colophon
Colophon
Antyavachanam
Antyavadanama<
oga’s ForgottEn Foundation was de-
sign ed and illustrated by the ÅCHÅR-
YAS and SWÅMÈS of the ÍAIVA SIddHÅNTA
yoga order at Kauai aadheenam, Kauai’s
hindu monastery on hawaii’s garden island. it was pro-
duced on macintosh g4 computers using adobe indesign
2, adobe photoshop 7 and adobe illustrator 10. Te text is
set in adobe’s minion family of fonts (with diacritical marks
added using fontographer): 11.5-point regular on 13.5-point
linespacing for the body of the book and 8.25 on 9.75 for the
glossary and index. sanskrit and tamil fonts are by ecologi-
cal linguistics and srikrishna patil. printing production was
supervised by tiru a. sothinathan of uma publications in
Kuala lumpur, with printing by four-color ofset press exe-
cuted at sampoorna printers sdn. bhd. on 85 gsm coated art
paper. ¶Te cover art is a watercolor by tiru s. rajam, 84, of
chennai, india. Te painting on the half-title page is by the
same artist. Te oil portrait of gurudeva on the back cover
was a gif by renowned artist sri indra sharma during a
sojourn on Kauai in 1997. Te watercolor paintings that ini-
tiate each chapter are the work of tiru a. manivelu, 62. Te
background patterns adorning the title pages were created
by the monastics using adobe photoshop. Te book’s index
was created by tirumati chamundi sabanathan of santa
rosa, california, using sonar bookends. sanskrit translation
of the chapter titles was provided by dr. sarasvati mohan of
campbell, california. ¶we know that gurudeva is smiling
down upon this book from the inner planes, pleased with its
production, happy that his original vision has been fulflled,
lending his blessings to all those who read his words and
strive to apply this earthy wisdom to their daily life. aum.
183 about the author
About the Author
o
nce in a great while on this Earth there arises a soul
who, by living his tradition rightly and wholly, per-
fects his path and a becomes a light to the world.
satguru sivaya subramuniyaswami (1927-2001) was such a being, a
shining example of awakening and wisdom, a leader recognized world-
wide as one of hinduism’s foremost ministers. ¶as a youth, he was
trained in classical eastern and western dance and in the disciplines
of yoga. becoming the premier danseur of the san francisco ballet by
age 19, he renounced the world at the height of his career and traveled
to india and sri lanka in quest of absolute truth. in the caves of Jalani
in 1949, he fasted and meditated until he burst into enlightenment.
soon thereafer, he met his satguru, sage yogaswami, who gave him
the name subramuniya, initiated him into the holy orders of san-
nyâsa and ordained him into his lineage with a tremendous slap on
the back, saying, “Tis sound will be heard in america! now go ’round
the world and roar like a lion. you will build palaces (temples) and
feed thousands.” while in sri lanka, he founded saiva siddhanta
church, the world’s frst hindu church, now active in many nations.
in late 1949 he sailed back to america and embarked on seven years
of ardent, solitary yoga and meditation which brought forth faculties
of clairvoyance and clairaudience, culminating in Cognizantability, a
collection of profound aphorisms and commentary on the states of
mind and esoteric laws of life. in 1957, subramuniyaswami, afection-
ately known as gurudeva, founded himalayan academy and opened
america’s frst hindu temple, in san francisco. he formed his monas-
tic order in 1960. in switzerland, 1968, he revealed Shûm, a mystical
language of meditation that names and maps inner areas of conscious-
ness. from 1967 to 1983 he led fourteen innersearch pilgrimages, guid-
ing hundreds of devotees to the world’s sacred temples and illumined
sages. in 1970 gurudeva established his world headquarters and mon-
astery-temple on Kauai, northernmost of the hawaiian islands. begin-
ning in the 1970s and continuing to 2001, he gave blessings to dozens
of groups to build temples in north america, australia, new Zealand,
europe and elsewhere, gifing deity images, usually of lord Ga∫eßa,
to 36 temples to begin the worship. over the years, he personally
guided groups of trustees through each stage of temple development.
he thus authenticated and legitimized the establishment of the temple
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YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION
184
as essential to any hindu community. his relentless drive to establish
hindu worship in the west was based on his revelatory mystic visions
of the gods not as symbolic depictions but as real beings who guide
and protect mankind, with whom we can commune most efectively
through consecrated temples. ¶in 1973, afer establishing Kadavul
temple, he clairvoyantly read from inner-plane libraries to bring forth
Lemurian scrolls and other esoteric writings to guide his monastic
order and revive the centrality of celibacy and sexual transmutation.
in 1975, following a powerful vision of lord Íiva, he conceived the san
marga iraivan temple on Kauai as the frst all-granite temple estab-
lished outside of india. in 1977 he intensifed requirements for his
western devotees to sever all prior religious, philosophical loyalties,
legalize their hindu name and formally enter hinduism through the
name-giving rite. in 1979 he published Holy orders of Sannyâsa, defn-
ing the ideals, vows and aspirations of hindu monasticism with un-
precedented clarity. Tat same year, he began publishing hinduism
today magazine. his international hindu renaissance tours in the
early ’80s revealed that hindus were not globally connected or orga-
nized. Tose in india knew little of their brothers and sisters in south
america. Tose in fiji had no knowledge of hindus in europe or
mauritius. seeing this need, gurudeva focused his journal on uniting
all hindus, regardless of nationality or sect, and inspiring and educat-
ing seekers everywhere. also in 1979, he produced the frst edition of
his hindu catechism, later to become dancing with Íiva. ¶his travels
in the 1980s brought him face to face with hundreds of thousands of
hindus, most notably in sri lanka, india, malaysia and mauritius, to
whom he spread a powerful message of courage and was instrumental
in regenerating pride of heritage. in the early ’80s he established the
antiquity and legitimacy of monistic Íaiva Siddhânta at international
conferences among pundits who had insisted that Siddhânta is solely
pluralistic. in 1985 gurudeva adopted apple’s macintosh-based pub-
lishing technology to supercharge his prolifc outreach through scrip-
tures, books, pamphlets, art, lessons and later through cds and the
world’s foremost hindu websites. ¶in 1986 he founded a branch mon-
astery in mauritius, whose government had invited him there to revive
a languishing hindu faith. Tat same year, new delhi’s world reli-
gious parliament named him one of fve modern-day Jagadâchâryas,
world teachers, for his international eforts in promoting a hindu
renaissance. also in 1986 he created Pañcha Ga∫apati, a fve-day
185 about the author
hindu festival celebrated around the time of christmas. in 1987 he
published god’s Money to explain tithing and how it is practiced by
members of his hindu church. Te year 1989 saw the culmination of
numerous books and pamphlets that later became part of the master
course trilogy. in 1991 in bangalore, he ceremoniously chipped the
frst stone of iraivan temple and established a small village where
crafsmen and their families could live and carve this architectural
gem by hand over the next ffeen years. in 1991 he produced the
Nandinâtha Sûtras, 365 aphorisms outlining the entire gamut of virtu-
ous hindu living. in 1994 gurudeva founded hindu heritage endow-
ment, now a multi-million-dollar public service trust that establishes
and maintains permanent sources of income for hindu institutions
worldwide. in 1995 he published the fnal edition of Íaiva Dharma
Íâstras, drawing on aspects of the american church system to make
his organization socially viable and structurally efective. Terein he
fnalized patterns for the future, including the extended family struc-
ture for his missions, and designated as his successors three of his
senior monastics: acharya Veylanswami, followed by acharya pala-
niswami and then acharya ceyonswami. ¶from 1977 to 2001
gurudeva nurtured a staunchly hindu, highly disciplined, global fel-
lowship of family initiates, monastics and students, training them to
follow the sâdhana mârga, the path of yogic striving and personal
transformation, and to assist him in his global mission. with this
competent team and a sophisticated infrastructure, his church nur-
tures its membership and local missions on fve continents and serves,
personally and through publications and the internet, the commu-
nity of hindus of all sects. it furthers the dual mission of hindu
solidarity and monistic Íaiva Siddhânta, vowing to protect, preserve
and promote the Íaivite hindu religion as expressed through three
pillars: temples, satgurus and scripture. Te recognized hereditary
guru of 2.5 million sri lankan hindus, gurudeva proclaimed his
church a Jafna-tamil-based organization which branched out from
the sri subramuniya ashram in alaveddy to meet the needs of the
growing hindu diaspora of this century. it gently oversees some 40
temples worldwide. missionaries and teachers within the family mem-
bership provide counseling and classes in Íaivism for children, youth
and adults. gurudeva’s numerous books present his unique and prac-
tical insights on hindu metaphysics, mysticism, culture, philosophy
and yoga. his Íaivite Hindu religion children’s course is taught in
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YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION
186
many temples and homes, preserving the teachings in fve languages
for thousands of youths. ¶in 1995, in delhi, the world religious par-
liament bestowed on him the title dharmachakra for his remarkable
publications. Te global forum of spiritual and parliamentary lead-
ers for human survival chose him as a hindu representative at its
momentus conferences. Tus, at oxford in 1988, moscow in 1990 and
rio de Janeiro in 1992, he joined religious, political and scientifc
leaders from all countries to discuss the future of human life on this
planet. at chicago’s historic centenary parliament of the world’s re-
ligions in september, 1993, he was elected one of three hindus to the
presidents’ assembly, a core group of 25 men and women voicing the
needs of world faiths. especially in the early ’90s he campaigned for
fair treatment of temple priests, namely the same respect enjoyed by
the clergy of other religions. from 1996 onward, gurudeva was a key
member of Vision Kauai 2020, a group of inspirers (including the
mayor, county council, business and education leaders) that meets to
fashion the island’s future based on spiritual values. in 1998 he re-
sponded to president clinton’s call for religious opinions on the eth-
ics of human cloning. Tat same year, he spearheaded the 125th an-
niversary of satguru yogaswami and his golden icon’s pilgrimage
around the world, ending in sri lanka. during these fnal years he
worked daily in the morning hours in refning the Shûm language as
his supreme gif to his monastic order. ¶in 1998 gurudeva began an
ardent campaign for the right of children to not be beaten by their
parents or their teachers, helping parents raise children with love
through positive discipline classes taught by his family devotees as
their primary community service. in 1999 he traveled to mauritius to
publicly inaugurate his spiritual park as a gif to the island nation. in
he published How to Become a Hindu, showing the way for seekers
to formally enter the faith, refuting the dogma that “you must be born
a hindu to be a hindu.” on august 25, 2000, he received the presti-
gious united nations u Tant peace award in new york (previously
bestowed on the dalai lama, nelson mandela, mikhail gorbachev,
pope John paul ii and mother teresa). he addressed 1,200 spiritual
leaders gathered for the un millennium peace summit, with the
message, “for peace in the world, stop the war in the home.” upon
his return to Kauai, 350 citizens and county and state ofcials gathered
to herald his accomplishments on the island and beyond. governor
benjamin cayetano wrote: “i am especially grateful for your eforts
187 about the author
to promote moral and spiritual values in hawaii. may our people
forever embrace the message of peace you have so eloquently sup-
ported in your gracious wisdom.” in november, 2000, gurudeva
launched hindu press international (hpi), a hinduism today daily
news summary for breaking news sent free via e-mail and posted on
the web. in 1999, 2000 and 2001 he conducted three innersearch
journeys, taking devotees to alaska, the caribbean and northern
europe, consecrating new temples in alaska, trinidad and denmark.
in 2001 he completed his golden legacy, the 3,000-page master course
trilogy of dancing, Living and Merging with Íiva—peerless volumes
of daily lessons on hindu philosophy, culture and yoga, respectively.
¶for ffy years, subramuniyaswami taught hinduism to hindus and
seekers from all faiths. Known as one of the strictest gurus in the
world, he was the 162nd successor of the Nandinâtha Kailâsa lineage
and satguru of Kauai aadheenam, his 458-acre temple-monastery
complex on the garden island of Kauai. from this verdant polynesian
aßrama on a river bank near the foot of an extinct volcano, his mo-
nastics continue to promote the dharma together through saiva sid-
dhanta church, himalayan academy and hindu heritage endow-
ment, perpetuating the mission given to gurudeva by his satguru.
¶gurudeva departed from this world as courageously as he had lived
in it. learning on october 9, 2001, that he had advanced, metastacized
intestinal cancer, confrmed by a host of specialists in three states, all
concurring that even the most aggressive treatment regimens would
not prove efective, he declined any treatment beyond palliative mea-
sures and decided to follow the indian yogic practice, called prâyo-
paveßa in sanskrit scripture, to abstain from nourishment and take
water only from that day on. he lef his body peacefully on the 32nd
day of his self-declared fast, at 11:54 pm on monday, chitra nakshatra,
november 12, 2001, surrounded by his twenty-three monastics.
gurudeva consoled them, “don’t be sad. when i am gone from this
world, i will be working with you on the inside twenty-four hours a
day.” Te rock-solid foundation for the continuance of his work is
Kauai aadheenam and its resident saiva siddhanta yoga order. Tis
group of twelve initiated swâmîs with lifetime vows and nine brah-
machârîs, celibate monks, come from six countries and include both
men born into the hindu religion and those who converted or ad-
opted hinduism—asians and westerners—made strong by decades
of gurudeva’s loving but strict personal guidance and insistence on
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YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION
188
110 percent performance. in the frst weeks of his fast, gurudeva seam-
lessly transferred his duties and responsibilities to his chosen succes-
sor, satguru bodhinatha Veylanswami, 59, a disciple for 37 years,
declaring, “bodhinatha is the new satguru now.” ever concerned for
others, even on his deathbed, just days before his great union, he
whispered in assurance, “everything that is happening is good. ev-
erything that is happening is meant to be.” he asked devotees world-
wide to carry his work and institutions forward with unstinting vigor,
to keep one another strong on the spiritual path, to live in harmony
and to work diligently on their personal spiritual sâdhanas. “you are
all over-qualifed to carry on.” ¶when notifed of gurudeva’s passing,
sita ram goel, one of india’s most infuential hindu writers and
thinkers, wrote, “he has done great work for hinduism, and the recent
reawakening of the hindu mind carries his stamp.” ma yoga shakti,
renowned yoga teacher, said, “for more than fve decades, subramu-
niyaswami, a highly enlightened soul of the west—a hanuman of
today, a reincarnation of Íiva himself—has watered the roots of hin-
duism with great zeal, faith, enthusiasm and whole-heartedness.” sri
shivarudra balayogi maharaj of india said, “by his life and by his
teaching, satguru sivaya subramuniyaswami has helped make hindu-
ism an even greater gif to humanity.” from Jafna, president of siva-
thondan nilayam arunasalam sellathurai swamigal wrote: “Te life,
mission and mandate of his holiness sivaya subramuniyaswami form
an epic chapter in his unending spiritual quest leading him to the
founding of the saiva siddhanta church and a monastic order in
hawaii—a magnifcent task! Tis will ever remain a monument to
his spiritual fervor, proclaiming worldwide, east and west, in trum-
pet tones that swamigal was a trailblazer of lord Íiva’s choice to
glorify the spiritual heritage and the essence of Íaiva Siddhânta.” ¶gu-
rudeva’s life was one of extraordinary accomplishments on so many
levels; but his greatest siddhi, to which thousands of devotees will
testify, was his incredible power to inspire others toward god, to
change their lives in ways that are otherwise impossible, to be a light
on their path, a mother and father and friend to all who drew near.
gurudeva lived so profoundly at the center of himself, so close to the
core of being, the heart of divinity, that everyone he met felt close to
him. he personifed the pure, blissful soul nature they sought and
sensed as the center of themselves.
189 about the author
Milestones of His 52-Year Ministry
Enumerating a Spiritual Master’s Many Gifts to Mankind
empowered by his self realization, his ordination as a satguru and the blessings
of gods and devas, gurudeva contributed to the revival of hinduism in immea-
surable abundance. he was simultaneously a staunch defender of traditions,
as the proven ways of the past, and a fearless innovator, rivaling the ®ishis of
Vedic times in instilling fresh understanding and setting new patterns of life for
contemporary humanity. here is a partial list of his trail-blazing mission and
accomplishments.
SPIrItuAl teAChInGS

bringing seekers new meaning to
life through The Master Course as a
path of self-transformation through
sâdhana, a self-initiated journey to
bravely, cheerfully face the karma one
has created in the past.

pioneering the language Shûm in
1968 to enhance seekers’ yogic eforts
and vigorously developing it from
1995 to 2001, as his choicest inner gif
to his monastics.

bringing the gods “out of exile” by
explaining and writing about the
mysteries of temple worship and the
three worlds of existence from his
own experience.

unfolding theological summations
for a religion in renaissance, such
as “four facts of hinduism,” “nine
beliefs,” “hinduism’s code of con-
duct,” the 365 nandinatha Sûtras, and
a hindu catechism and creed.

bringing forth Lemurian scrolls and
other esoteric writings from inner-
plane libraries to guide his monastic
order and revive the centrality of
celibacy and sexual transmutation.

translating and publishing
tiruvalluvar’s ethical masterpiece, the
tirukural, in modern, lucid english.
leAdInG the hIndu
renAISSAnCe

building hindu pride; convincing
hindus everywhere to stand up and
proclaim themselves hindus and stop
repeating equivocal slogans like, “i’m
not really a hindu. i am a universal-
ist—a christian, a Jew, a muslim and
a buddhist.”

proclaiming that hinduism is a great,
living religion, not a archeologic
relic of the past as of depicted by
western scholars—one that should be
presented by hindu writers, as he did
in his peerless publications.

teaching hinduism to hindus,
awakening their self-appreciation as a
world community, blessed inheritors
of a grand civilization and culture,
indeed, the religion best suited to the
new age.

rescuing the word Hinduism from
its fallen status as a dirty word and
restoring it to its age-old glory.

heralding sectarianism when the
prevailing trend was bland uniformity,
insisting that only if each denomina-
tion is strong and faithful to its
unique traditions will hinduism itself
be strong.

championing the centrality of tem-
ples, legitimizing their establishment,
and authenticating their purpose.
190
YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION
190
CorreCtIve CAMPAIGnS

dispelling myths and misinformation
about hinduism through hinduism
today for two decades.

promoting the Vedas and Ågamas as
the holy bible of hinduism, rather
than the mythological Purâ∫as and
the historical Bhagavad Gîtâ.

establishing rational mystical explana-
tions for hindu practice to displace
the Purâ∫ic “comic book” mentality.

reinstating ahiµsâ, noninjury, as
the cardinal ethic of hinduism when
militants were promoting righteous
retaliation, ofen by citing the Bhaga-
vad Gîtâ.

rejecting traditional stories that
glorify violence, such as many found
in the Periyapuranam.

repopularizing Íiva as a god of love
to be worshiped by all devotees, not
a fearsome being approached only
by ascetics. assuring hindus it is all
right, in fact necessary, to have lord
Íiva in the home.

speaking for the purity of hindu
monasticism and against the idea of
“married swâmîs” and mixed-gender
âßramas.

campaigning against the use of illegal
drugs by exposing the harmful efects
and karmic consequences.

combatting unethical christian
conversion by enhancing hindu edu-
cation, exposing the devious tactics
of evangelists and the immaturity of
faiths that consider theirs the only
true path and aggressively seek to
compel others to adopt it.

debunking the notion that “all
religions are one” and publishing a
comparative summary of the major
religions of the world, side by side
with prominent secular philosophies.

enjoining temple boards of trustees
to get along with each other, to
beware of detractors and to establish
teaching programs for the youth.
relIGIouS StAteSMAnShIP

providing a fearless, outspoken
hindu voice at interfaith conferences
and spiritual and political forums,
objecting to christian hegemony at
such gatherings, calling for equal
representation by other religions,
including the indigenous peoples,
and decrying the hypocrisy of scien-
tists who would speak as potential
saviors for earth’s problems when
science itself had caused many of the
predicaments.

defending advaitic Íaiva Siddhânta
at international conferences and with
pundits of south indian aadhee nams
to successfully afrm the legitimacy
and antiquity of the nondual theology
which so perfectly refected his own
realizations.

creating a method of ethical self-
conversion for seekers to formally
enter the hindu religion, insisting
that hinduism has always accepted
newcomers, refuting the notion that
“you must be born a hindu to be a
hindu.”

encouraging people to practice their
religion, whatever it may be, rather
than nonreligious paths such as mate-
rialism, communism, existentialism
and secular humanism.
PIoneerInG PAtternS

harnessing information technology
to drive hindu dharma into the
new millennium, including setting
up the frst macintosh publishing
network (1986) and founding the
frst major hindu website (1994). in
1997 he launched taKa, “today at
Kauai aadheenam,” to chronicle daily
activities at his Kauai and mauritius
centers. he observed, “now we have
computers and the internet—modern
technology capable of bringing the
spiritual beings and all religious
191 about the author
people of the world closely together
wherever they live. Tis one thing the
typewriter could not do, the pen and
paper could not do, the stylus and
olai leaf did not do.”

calling for the establishment of
schools, pâ†haßâlas, to train temple
priests outside of india.

promoting the idea of resident facili-
ties for the elderly to live together
close to temples in the west.

gifing deity icons, usually of Ga∫eßa,
to initiate the worship and remove
obstacles at 36 temples globally.

establishing perpetual funds to
fnance his own and others’ religious
endeavors through hindu heritage
endowment.

finding ways for hindus to meet
cultural dilemmas in the modern
age, such as devising a new festival,
Pañcha Ga∫apati, celebrated for fve
days around the time of christmas.

supporting cross-national marriages
within his congregation and to the
wider hindu world.

drawing from the american church
system to make his organization, and
other hindu institutions, socially
viable, legally strong and structurally
efective.

encouraging selfess, religious giving
of one’s time, resources and fnances,
and establishing tithing as a monthly
practice within his global congrega-
tion.

establishing innersearch travel study
as a means of self-discovery and
spiritual renewal for devotees and
students, with his last three journeys
consecrating new temples in alaska,
trinidad and denmark.

distinguishing outstanding leadership
with his hindu of the year award.

introducing to Kauai: toggenberg
goats, Jersey cows, the honey bee
industry and many species of exotic
fora.
revIvInG noble
trAdItIonS

bringing sacraments, saµskâras, back
into vogue through his writings and
by implementing them among his
congregation with reverence and
formal documentation.

campaigning for priests’ rights
and fair treatment, demanding they
receive the same respect enjoyed by
the clergy of other religions.

supporting and reviving the tradi-
tional arts, especially south indian
painting, with which he illustrated
his trilogy; indian dance, which he
and his followers learned and taught;
temple architecture, which he embod-
ied in iraivan temple; Vedic astrology,
which he used daily for its insights
into character of people and timing
of events; and âyurveda, which he
promoted in his publications and
encouraged as a natural healing
system for his followers.

rescuing the home shrine from
extinction—“out of the closet, into
the most beautiful room of the home.”
StrenGthenInG
MonAStICISM

garnering respect for hindu monas-
tics of every order when “swâmî bash-
ing” was common, proclaiming that
swâmîs and sâdhus are the ministers
of this noble faith and that genuine
gurus should be venerated, obeyed
and sought out for their wisdom.

creating a global enclave of several
hundred hindu leaders and regularly
calling on them for their wisdom
on critical issues, from abortion, to
cloning, to medical ethics and hindu
family life, publishing their collective
views in hinduism today.

breathing new life into the aad-
heenams of south india (temple-
monastery complexes), bringing new
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YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION
192
prominence to the Saˆkar âchârya
centers and to the seats of power of
all monastic lineages.

codifying in his Holy orders of San-
nyâsa the ideals, vows and aspirations
of hindu monasticism in unprec-
edented clarity and detail.
IMProvInG FAMIly lIFe

upholding the integrity of the family,
extolling the extended family, fnd-
ing ways to keep families close and
harmonious, declaring that divorce
is never a happy solution to marital
confict.

denouncing and taking action
against wife abuse as a despicable
act that no man has the right to
perpetrate.

insisting on “zero tolerance for
disharmonious conditions” within
his monasteries and the homes of
followers.

protecting children from abuse,
standing up for their right to not be
beaten by parents or teachers and
debunking the notion that corporal
punishment is a part of hindu
culture.

helping parents raise children with
love and respect through positive
discipline classes taught by his family
devotees as a primary service to the
community.

establishing a counter “women’s
liberation movement,” reminding
hindus that family well-being lies in
the hands of women, who with their
special ßakti are uniquely able raise
their children well and make their
husbands successful by not working
in the world, but following the tradi-
tional role of wife and mother.
SettInG StAndArdS
In leAderShIP

creating Kauai aadheenam, a temple-
monastery in hawaii so tra ditional
and spiritual—replete with two Íiva
temples, a large mon astic order
and a satguru pî†ha (seat of author-
ity), all amid religious art, sculpture,
traditional temple architecture and
liturgy—that it stands as the most
authoritative aadheenam in the west.

manifesting iraivan, the frst all-stone
Ågamic temple in the west.

initiating and nurturing a traditional
order of two dozen celibate Íaiva
monastics, molding them into an
efective, harmonious, traditional
multi-national team.

building two platforms: hindu soli-
darity, which he promoted through
hinduism today, and monistic Íaiva
Siddhânta, which he elucidated in his
eloquent and prolifc publications.

being always available: personally
greeting thousands of hindu visitors
to his aadheenam, speaking with
them about their lives, concerns and
aspirations.

fulflling the motto “Tink globally,
act locally,” joining monthly with
Kauai leaders in an island visioning
group to help manifest an enhanced
social and economic future.
193
Tere are a few unusual men who have
had enough of worldliness and choose to dance,
live and merge with Íiva as Hindu monks.
hese rare souls follow the path of the traditional
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that lead to self realization. Knowing god is their only goal
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with other ma†havâsis like themselves in monasteries, apart
from worldliness, to worship, meditate, serve and realize
the truths of the Vedas and Íaiva Ågamas. guided by sat-
guru bodhinatha Veylanswami, successor to satguru sivaya
subramuniyaswami, and headquartered at Kauai aadhee-
nam in hawaii, usa, on the beautiful garden island of
Kauai, the saiva siddhanta yoga order is among the world’s
foremost traditional Íaivite hindu monastic orders, accept-
ing candidates from every nation on earth. it is an advaitic
Íaiva Siddhânta order, a living stream of the ancient Nand-
inâtha Sampradâya, originally deriving from india, and in
recent centuries based in sri lanka. young men considering
the renunciate path who strongly believe they have found
their spiritual calling in this lineage are encouraged to write
to bodhinatha, sharing their personal history, spiritual aspi-
rations, thoughts and experiences. holy orders of sannyâsa
may be conferred on those who qualify afer ten to twelve
years of training. write to:
satguru bodhinatha Veylanswami
guru Mahâsannidhânam, Kauai aadheenam
107 Kaholalele road, Kapaa, hawaii 96746-9304 usa
e-mail: bodhi@hindu.org
world wide web: www.gurudeva.org
Te hindu heritage endowment
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ivasma&tama< yaaegasya maUlama<

First Edition Copyright © 2004 by Himalayan Academy Yoga’s Forgotten Foundation, Twenty Timeless Keys to Your Divine Destiny is published by Himalayan Academy. All rights are reserved. This book may be used to share the Hindu Dharma with others on the spiritual path, but reproduced only with the publisher’s prior written consent. Designed, typeset and edited by the sannyâsin swâmîs of the Saiva Siddhanta Yoga Order, 107 Kalolalele Road, Kapaa, Hawaii, 96746-9304, USA. Published by Himalayan Academy USA • India              Library of Congress Control Number 2003110985 ISbn 0-945497-91-1
Art Descriptions Chapter Art: The art opening each chapter is the work of A. Manivelu. Cover Art: Artist S. Rajam depicts Lord Íiva embracing the restraints and observances with ten pairs of seekers, one yama and one niyama as described in the text. Dakshi∫âmûrti: Opposite the half-title page is a photo of the twelvefoot-tall black granite statue of Lord Íiva as the silent sage, teacher of teachers. The statue is situated at Kauai’s Hindu Monastery at the north perimeter of Iraivan Temple. Half-title page: S. Rajam paints each of the twenty yamas and niyamas being practiced under a giant forest tree.

Twenty Timeless Keys To Your Divine Destiny ivasma&tama< yaaegasya maUlama< DyaanaaTa*\ saaEBaagyada: iva\xaita-k[alaaitata-saUktaya:
Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami

CONtENtS

v

Contents Vishayasûchî ivaSayasaUcaI
Foreword—Upakrama˙ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii Author’s Introduction—Granthakâra Bhûmikâ . . . . . . . . xi 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. The First Restraint, Noninjury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 The Second Restraint, truthfulness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 The Third Restraint, Nonstealing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 The Fourth Restraint, Sexual Purity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 The Fifth Restraint, Patience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 The Sixth Restraint, Steadfastness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 The Seventh Restraint, Compassion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 The Eighth Restraint, Honesty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 The Ninth Restraint, Moderate Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 The tenth Restraint, Purity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 The First Observance, Remorse and Modesty . . . . . 57 The Second Observance, Contentment . . . . . . . . . . .67 The Third Observance, Giving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 The Fourth Observance, Faith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 The Fifth Observance, Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 The Sixth Observance, Scriptural Study . . . . . . . . . 101 The Seventh Observance, Cognition . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 The Eighth Observance, Sacred Vows . . . . . . . . . . . 119 The Ninth Observance, Recitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 The tenth Observance, Austerity and Sacrifice . . . 131

Conclusion—Samâpanam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Glossary—Íabda Koßa˙ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Sanskrit Pronunciation—Ucchâra∫am Saµsk®ita. . . . . . 167 Index—Anukrama∫ikâ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Colophon—Antyavachanam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 About the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

FOREWORD

vii

Foreword Upakrama˙ opak==[ma:
UrUdevA trAveled by AIr often, And from tIme to tIme commented on how profeSSIonAlly the flIght crew hAd conDUCtED tHEMSELVES. HE WOULD ASK, “HOW often do you see a professional team of people misbehave on the job? You’re on a flight from San Francisco to Singapore. Do the stewardesses bicker in the aisle? Of course not. People at this level of business have control of their minds and emotions. If they didn’t, they would soon be replaced. when they are on the job, at least, they follow a code of conduct spelled out in detail by the corporation.” He would go on to say that it’s not unlike the moral code of any religion, outlining sound ethics for respect and harmony among humans. Those seeking to be successful in life strive to fulfill a moral code whether “on the job” or off. Does Hinduism and its scriptures on yoga have such a code? Yes: twenty ethical guidelines called yamas and niyamas, “restraints and observances.” These “do’s” and “don’ts” are a common-sense code recorded in the Upanishads, the final section of the 6,000to 8,000-year-old Vedas, mankind’s oldest body of scripture, and in other holy texts expounding the path of yoga. The yamas and niyamas have been preserved through the centuries as the foundation, the first and second stages, of the eight-staged practice of yoga. Yet, they are fundamental to all beings, expected aims of everyone in society, and assumed to be fully intact for anyone seeking life’s highest aim in the pursuit called yoga. Sage Patanjali (ca 200 ), raja yoga’s foremost propounder, told us, “These yamas are not limited by class, country, time (past, present or future) or situation. Hence they are called the universal great vows.” Yogic scholar

viii

Yoga’s forgotten foundation

Swami brahmananda Saraswati revealed the inner science of yama and niyama. They are the means, he said, to control the vitarkas, the cruel mental waves or thoughts, that when acted upon result in injury to others, untruthfulness, hoarding, discontent, indolence or selfishness. He stated, “For each vitarka you have, you can create its opposite through yama and niyama, and make your life successful.” today’s popular concept of yoga equates it with ha†ha yoga and the practice of the ha†ha yoga âsanas, or postures. Many who practice yoga do so solely for health benefits. However, others pursue it in hopes of reaping the spiritual benefits it offers. It is to these spiritual seekers who have higher consciousness as the goal of their yoga that this book is directed. Yoga is also known as ash†âˆga yoga because it consists of eight stages: yama, restraint; niyama, observance; âsana, seat or posture; prâ∫âyâma, mastering life force; pratyâhâra, withdrawal; dhara∫â, concentration; dhyâna, meditation; and samâdhi, God Realization. These two vital stages—yama, the restraints; and niyama, the observances—traditionally precede âsana, but they are omitted in most yoga classes today. We can liken these eight limbs to a tall building. The yamas are the first part of the foundation, like the cement, and the niyamas are the second part, like the steel. together they provide the support a skyscraper needs to stand. Åsana, prâ∫âyâma and pratyâhâra are like the lower floors, dhâra∫a, dhyâna, the middle ones, and samâdhi is the top floor. I remember years ago watching the transamerica building in San Francisco being erected. First the construction crew dug down quite a depth with huge equipment. Then massive steel pilings were driven, inches at a time, hundreds of feet into the earth. Then thousands of yards of concrete were poured. The long lineup of cement trucks created a traffic jam in the well-trafficked business district. From the concrete, the steel rose upward as a framework for the rest of the structure. This massive foundation was needed to keep this

FOREWORD

ix

famous modern pyramid from toppling in an earthquake. In spiritual life, without a foundation of good character and discipline, success in yoga will not be lasting. Sooner or later, the earthquakes in our personal life, the times of great stress and difficulty, will bring outbursts of anger or periods of discouragement, causing our higher consciousness to fall back to earth. to quote from gurudeva: “It is true that bliss comes from meditation, and it is true that higher consciousness is the heritage of all mankind. However, the ten restraints and their corresponding practices are necessary to maintain bliss consciousness.” We are a soul, a divine being, and it is important to reflect on that Divinity. However, we are living in a physical body, and, therefore, in addition to the soul, we also have an instinctive and intellectual nature. Gurudeva describes this as the three phases of the mind: instinctive, intellectual and superconscious. Making progress on the spiritual path requires learning to control the instinctive mind. This is where the yamas come into play. They give us a list of tendencies we need to control. The classical depiction of restraint is the charioteer pulling back on the reins of a team of horses to keep them under control. The practice of the niyamas develops a more cultured nature that takes joy in scriptural study, devotional practices and helping others. It focuses on expressing our soul nature in our outer actions. together the yamas and niyamas provide the foundation to support our yoga practice so that attainments in higher consciousness can be sustained. How Gurudeva Created this Book Yoga’s Forgotten Foundation was dictated by Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami during twenty-five afternoon editing sessions with two of his âchâryas at Kauai’s beachboy hotel between February 14 and March 26, 1990. Gurudeva was determined to capture the essence of these ancient guidelines and bring them forward to the world in answer to the

x

Yoga’s forgotten foundation

fallacy that “Hinduism has no code of ethics.” For many decades, he had known only of the five yamas and niyamas that are presented by Sage Patanjali in his Yoga Sûtras and brushed over in nearly all yoga texts as the first and second stages of ash†âˆga yoga. but those ten guidelines were not complete enough to encompass the broad scope of human conduct. In the late sixties, in fact, gurudeva presented his own unique 36-point code of virtuous, contemplative living, which included planting trees, perfecting an art or craft and leaving beauty where you pass (see Living with Íiva chapter 14, “Life the Great Experience”). So, finding that there was indeed an ancient and much more comprehensive set of twenty yamas and niyamas was like unearthing gold. His swamis discovered these in Rishi tirumular’s Tirumantiram, a 2,200-year-old yogic scripture written in ancient tamil, which gurudeva commissioned dr. b. natarajan to translate into English in 1978. Now they had only to be elucidated and brought into the Hindu mainstream through cogent commentary. From the outset, Gurudeva envisioned his dissertations being compiled into a book—the very book you now hold in your hands. Sitting with his monastic editing team from 4 to 7pm every day for five weeks, Gurudeva spoke out from the “inner sky” on each virtue and religious practice, responding to specific questions from the two âchâryas to draw forth his wisdom. gurudeva used to say, “I have good writers upstairs.” The answers were typed into the very first laptop computer we ever owned, a Sony typeCorder, which recorded the text on micro-cassette tapes, which were downloaded to desktop Macintoshes at the monastery the next day. At that time, there were lots of other projects in process for the Ganapati Kulam (the monastery group that produces publications), most importantly Dancing with Íiva, so all those hours of dictation were neatly set aside for some future date when they could be compiled, cleaned up

FOREWORD

xi

(it was horribly difficult to type on that stiff Sony keyboard) and brought back to the table for editing suggestions and for further input from Gurudeva. As unlikely as it would have seemed then, those precious manuscripts would lie untouched for a full ten years, until the turn of the millennium, when Gurudeva turned his attention to Living with Íiva, the third massive tome in his Master Course trilogy. In fact, gurudeva considered these yamas and niyamas the heart and core of that thousand-page masterpiece on Hinduism’s contemporary culture. He worked on Living with Íiva at his editing sessions every day for almost two years, beginning in 1999, driven inwardly to complete it. It was only after gurudeva’s passing into the Íivaloka in 2001 that the idea reemerged of a separate small book presenting this ancient and now fully illuminated “code of conduct.” I was inspired to extract and repurpose it to reach a broader audience as a handbook for spiritual life. like gurudeva, I was concerned that so many seekers are unaware of these guidelines for good character and selfdiscipline and therefore are not properly prepared for the practice of yoga, or even to live a wholesome, spiritual life.

Satguru bodhinatha veylanswami 163rd Jagadâchârya of the nandinâtha sampradâya’s Kailâsa Paramparâ guru Mahâsannidhânam Kauai aadheenam, Hawaii

IntrodUctIon

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Introduction Bhûmikâ BaUimak[a
elIgIon teAcheS US how to become better people, how to lIve AS SpIrItUAl beIngS on thIS eArth. thIS hAppenS throUgh lIvIng vIrtUoUSly, followIng the natural and essential guidelines of dharma. For Hindus, these guidelines are recorded in the yamas and niyamas, ancient scriptural injunctions for all aspects of human thought, attitude and behavior. In Indian spiritual life, these Vedic restraints and observances are built into the character of children from a very early age. For adults who have been subjected to opposite behavioral patterns, these guidelines may seem to be like commandments. However, even they can, with great dedication and effort, remold their character and create the foundation necessary for a sustained spiritual life. Through following the yamas and niyamas, we cultivate our refined, spiritual being while keeping the instinctive nature in check. We lift ourself into the consciousness of the higher chakras—of love, compassion, intelligence and bliss—and naturally invoke the blessings of the divine devas and Mahådevas. Yama means “reining in” or “control.” The yamas include such injunctions as noninjury (ahiµsâ), nonstealing (asteya) and moderation in eating (mitâhâra), which harness the base, instinctive nature. Niyama, literally “unleashing,” indicates the expression of refined, soul qualities through such disciplines as charity (dâna), contentment (santosha) and incantation (japa). It is true that bliss comes from meditation, and it is true that higher consciousness is the heritage of all mankind. However, the ten restraints and their corresponding

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practices are necessary to maintain bliss consciousness, as well as all of the good feelings toward oneself and others attainable in any incarnation. These restraints and practices build character. Character is the foundation for spiritual unfoldment. The fact is, the higher we go, the lower we can fall. The top chakras spin fast; the lowest one available to us spins even faster. The platform of character must be built within our lifestyle to maintain the total contentment needed to persevere on the path. These great ®ishis saw the frailty of human nature and gave these guidelines, or disciplines, to make it strong. They said, “Strive!” Let’s strive to not hurt others, to be truthful and honor all the rest of the virtues they outlined. The ten yamas are: ) ahiµsâ, “noninjury,” not harming others by thought, word or deed; 2) satya, “truthfulness,” refraining from lying and betraying promises; ) asteya, “nonstealing,” neither stealing nor coveting nor entering into debt; ) brahmacharya, “divine conduct,” controlling lust by remaining celibate when single, leading to faithfulness in marriage; ) kshamâ, “patience,” restraining intolerance with people and impatience with circumstances; ) dh®iti, “steadfastness,” overcoming nonperseverance, fear, indecision, inconstancy and changeableness; ) dayâ, “compassion,” conquering callous, cruel and insensitive feelings toward all beings; ) ârjava, “honesty, straightforwardness,” renouncing deception and wrongdoing; ) mitâhâra, “moderate appetite,” neither eating too much nor consuming meat, fish, fowl or eggs; ) ßaucha, “purity,” avoiding impurity in body, mind and speech. The niyamas are: ) hrî, “remorse,” being modest and showing shame for misdeeds; ) santosha, “contentment,” seeking joy and serenity in life; ) dâna, “giving,” tithing and giving generously without thought of reward; ) âstikya, “faith,” believing firmly in God, Gods, guru and the path to

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enlightenment; ) Èßvarapûjana, “worship of the Lord,” the cultivation of devotion through daily worship and meditation; ) siddhânta ßrava∫a, “scriptural listening,” studying the teachings and listening to the wise of one’s lineage; ) mati, “cognition,” developing a spiritual will and intellect with the guru’s guidance; ) vrata, “sacred vows,” fulfilling religious vows, rules and observances faithfully; ) japa, “recitation,” chanting mantras daily; ) tapas, “austerity,” performing sâdhana, penance, tapas and sacrifice. In comparing the yamas to the niyamas, we find the restraint of noninjury, ahiµsâ, makes it possible to practice hrî, remorse. truthfulness brings on the state of santosha, contentment. And the third yama, asteya, nonstealing, must be perfected before the third niyama, giving without any thought of reward, is even possible. Sexual purity brings faith in God, Gods and guru. Kshamâ, patience, is the foundation for Èßvarapûjana, worship, as is dh®iti, steadfastness, the foundation for siddhânta ßravana. The yama of dayâ, compassion, definitely brings mati, cognition. Årjava, honesty—renouncing deception and all wrongdoing—is the foundation for vrata, taking sacred vows and faithfully fulfilling them. Mitâhâra, moderate appetite, is where yoga begins, and vegetarianism is essential before the practice of japa, recitation of holy mantras, can reap its true benefit in one’s life. Íaucha, purity in body, mind and speech, is the foundation and the protection for all austerities. The twenty restraints and observances are the first two of the eight limbs of ash†âˆga yoga, constituting Hinduism’s fundamental ethical code. because it is brief, the entire code can be easily memorized and reviewed daily at the family meetings in each home. The yamas and niyamas are the essential foundation for all spiritual progress. They are cited in numerous scriptures, including the Íâ∫∂ilya and Varâha Upanishads, the Ha†ha Yoga Pradîpikâ by Gorakshanatha, the Tirumantiram of Rishi tirumular and the Yoga Sûtras

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of Sage Patanjali. All of these ancient texts list ten yamas and ten niyamas, with the exception of Patanjali’s classic work, which lists just five of each. Patanjali lists the yamas as: ahiµsâ, satya, asteya, brahmacharya and aparigraha (noncovetousness); and the niyamas as: ßaucha, santosha, tapas, svâdhyâya (self-reflection, scriptural study) and Èßvarapra∫idhâna (worship). In the hindu tradition, it is primarily the mother’s job to build character within the children, and thereby to continually improve society. Mothers can study and teach these guidelines to uplift their children as well as themselves. Each discipline focuses on a different aspect of human nature, its strengths and weaknesses. taken as a sum total, they encompass the whole of human experience and spirituality. You may do well in upholding some of these but not so well in others. That is to be expected. That defines the sâdhana, therefore, to be perfected. The yamas and niyamas and their function in our life can be likened to a chariot pulled by ten horses. The passenger inside the chariot is your soul. The chariot itself represents your physical, astral and mental bodies. The driver of the chariot is your external ego, your personal will. The wheels are your divine energies. The niyamas, or spiritual practices, represent the spirited horses, named Hrî, santosha, dâna, Åstikya, Èßvarapûjana, siddhânta Írava∫a, Mati, Vrata, Japa, and tapas. the yamas, or restraints, are the reins, called ahiµsâ, satya, asteya, Brahmacharya, Kshamâ, dh®iti, dayâ, Årjava, Mitâhâra and Íaucha. by holding tight to the reins, the charioteer, your will, guides the strong horses so they can run forward swiftly and gallantly as a dynamic unit. So, as we restrain the lower, instinctive qualities through upholding the yamas, the soul moves forward to its destination in the state of santosha. Santosha, peace, is the eternal satisfaction of the soul. At the deepest level, the soul is always in the state of santosha. but outwardly, the propensity of the soul

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is to be clouded by lack of restraint of the instinctive nature, lack of restraint of the intellectual nature, lack of restraint of the emotional nature, lack of restraint of the physical body itself. Therefore, hold tight the reins. The yamas, or restraints, must be well understood and accomplished before the niyamas can be earnestly undertaken. While we are worried about truthfulness, nonstealing, patience, compassion and being honest, how can we practice the niyamas—contentment, charity, worship, recitation of mantras? The answer is, we can’t. The niyamas follow the yamas. Once the yamas are safely tucked away, and our lifestyle, thinking style, speech style, emotional style reflect these ten restaints, then we can move on to the niyamas. Once you feel you have a minimal mastery of the yamas, then go on to the niyamas, the practices, in full vigor. The observances will strengthen the restraints, as the restraints will allow us to fulfill the observances. You must realize that throughout this process you are a self-effulgent soul, perfect in every way, incomprehensibly beautiful, as a shining one, but that the lifestyles, thinking styles, etc., at this time in the Kali Yuga are incomprehensibly complex, often demoralizing, and depression can set in at a moment’s notice. but always keep in mind your hereand-now perfection, already-done perfection. You don’t have to do a thing about it other than learn how to live with it, and manifest it in your daily life. Deal with it. These restraints and observances can adjust the outside view to the beautiful self-effulgent, shining inner you. It is important to realize that the yamas, restraints, are not out of the reach of the lowliest among us. No matter where we are in the scale of life, we all started from the beginning, at the bottom, didn’t we? This is our philosophy. This is our religion. This is the evolution of the soul. We improve, life after life, and these guidelines, yamas and niyamas, restraints and practices, are gifts from our

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®ishis, from God Íiva Himself through them, to allow us to judge ourself against these pillars of virtue as to how far we have progressed or strayed. In the early births, we are like children. We do not stray from anything. We run here and there and everywhere, disobey every rule, which when told of we cannot remember. We ignore any admonishment. As adolescents, we force our will on society, want to change it, because we don’t like the hold it has on us. Wanting to express themselves in most creative ways, rebellious youths separate themselves from other people, children and the adults. They do make changes, but not always for the best. As an adult, we see both—the past and the impending future of old age—and, heads down, we are concerned with accumulating enough to see life through to its uncertain end. When the accumulations have become adequate, we will look back at the undisciplined children, the headstrong, unruly adolescents and the self-possessed, concentrated adults and try to motivate all three groups. In our great religion, the sanâtana Dharma, known today as Hinduism, twenty precepts, the yamas and niyamas, restraints and observances, are the guidelines we use to motivate these three groups. These are the guidelines they use to motivate themselves, for each group is mystically independent of the others; so it seems.

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The Way of Yama-Niyama The being first, The Meaning-Central of Vedas all, The Light Divine, The Fire within that Light, He who shares Himself Half-and-Half with His Íakti And the Divine Justice thereof— Them, he in niyama’s path knows. Ten Virtues of Yama Purity, compassion, frugal food and patience Forthrightness, truth and steadfastness— These he ardently cherishes. Killing, stealing and lusting he abhors. Thus stands with virtues ten The one who niyama’s ways observes. Ten Attributes of Niyama Tapas, meditation, serenity, and holiness Charity, vows in Íaiva Way and siddhânta learning Sacrifice, Íiva pûjâ and thoughts pure— With these ten, the one in Niyama perfects his Ways. Tirumantiram, 555-557

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The Ten Yamas, Restraints for Proper Conduct from the Vedas 1. Noninjury, ahiµsâ: Not harming others by thought, word, or deed. 2. truthfulness, satya: Refraining from lying and betraying promises. 3. Nonstealing, asteya: Neither stealing, nor coveting nor entering into debt. 4. Divine conduct, brahmacharya: Controlling lust by remaining celibate when single, leading to faithfulness in marriage. 5. Patience, kshamâ: Restraining intolerance with people and impatience with circumstances. 6. Steadfastness, dh®iti: Overcoming nonperseverance, fear, indecision and changeableness. 7. Compassion, dayâ: Conquering callous, cruel and insensitive feelings toward all beings. 8. Honesty, straightforwardness, ârjava: Renouncing deception and wrongdoing. 9. Moderate appetite, mitâhâra: Neither eating too much nor consuming meat, fish, fowl or eggs. 10. Purity, ßaucha: Avoiding impurity in body, mind and speech.

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The Ten Niyamas, Observances For Spiritual Life from the Vedas 1. Remorse, hrî: being modest and showing shame for misdeeds. 2. Contentment, santosha: Seeking joy and serenity in life. 3. Giving, dâna: tithing and giving generously without thought of reward. 4. Faith, âstikya: believing firmly in God, Gods, guru and the path to enlightenment. 5. Worship of the Lord, Èßvarapûjana: The cultivation of devotion through daily worship and meditation. 6. Scriptural listening, siddhânta ßrava∫a: Studying the teachings and listening to the wise of one’s lineage. 7. Cognition, mati: Developing a spiritual will and intellect with the guru’s guidance. 8. Sacred vows, vrata: Fulfilling religious vows, rules and observances faithfully. 9. Recitation, japa: Chanting mantras daily. 10. Austerity, tapas: Performing sâdhana, penance, tapas and sacrifice.

One man is beating a small boy, while an onlooker rushes forward to intervene and stop the injury.


Summary of the First Restraint Practice noninjury, not harming others by thought, word or deed, even in your dreams. Live a kindly life, revering all beings as expressions of the One Divine energy. Let go of fear and insecurity, the sources of abuse. Knowing that harm caused to others unfailingly returns to oneself, live peacefully with God’s creation. Never be a source of dread, pain or injury. Follow a vegetarian diet.

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 f 

Noninjury Ahiµsâ Aih\saa
HE fiRSt Yama IS AHI˜SÅ, nonInjUry. to prActIce AHI˜SÅ, one hAS to prActIce saNTOsha, CONtENtMENt. tHE SÅDHANA IS to SeeK joy And SerenIty In lIfe, remaining content with what one has, knows, is doing and those with whom he associates. bear your karma cheerfully. Live within your situation contentedly. Hiµsâ, or injury, and the desire to harm, comes from discontent. The ®ishis who revealed the principles of dharma or divine law in Hindu scripture knew full well the potential for human suffering and the path which could avert it. to them a one spiritual power flowed in and through all things in this universe, animate and inanimate, conferring existence by its presence. to them life was a coherent process leading all souls without exception to enlightenment, and no violence could be carried to the higher reaches of that ascent. These ®ishis were mystics whose revelation disclosed a cosmos in which all beings exist in interlaced dependence. The whole is contained in the part, and the part in the whole. based on this cognition, they taught a philosophy of nondifference of self and other, asserting that in the final analysis we are not separate from the world and its manifest forms, nor from the Divine which shines forth in all things, all beings, all peoples. From this understanding of oneness arose the philosophical basis for the practice of noninjury and Hinduism’s ancient commitment to it. We all know that Hindus, who are one-sixth of the human race today, believe in the existence of God everywhere, as an all-pervasive, self-effulgent energy and consciousness.

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This basic belief creates the attitude of sublime tolerance and acceptance toward others. Even tolerance is insufficient to describe the compassion and reverence the Hindu holds for the intrinsic sacredness within all things. Therefore, the actions of all Hindus are rendered benign, or ahiµsâ. One would not want to hurt something which one revered. On the other hand, when the fundamentalists of any religion teach an unrelenting duality based on good and evil, man and nature or God and Devil, this creates friends and enemies. This belief is a sacrilege to Hindus, because they know that the attitudes which are the by-product are totally dualistic, and for good to triumph over that which is alien or evil, it must kill out that which is considered to be evil. The Hindu looks at nothing as intrinsically evil. to him the ground is sacred. The sky is sacred. The sun is sacred. His wife is a Goddess. Her husband is a God. Their children are devas. Their home is a shrine. Life is a pilgrimage to mukti, or liberation from rebirth, which once attained is the end to reincarnation in a physical body. When on a holy pilgrimage, one would not want to hurt anyone along the way, knowing full well the experiences on this path are of one’s own creation, though maybe acted out through others. Noninjury for Renunciates Ahiµsâ is the first and foremost virtue, presiding over truthfulness, nonstealing, sexual purity, patience, steadfastness, compassion, honesty and moderate appetite. The brahmachârî and sannyâsin must take ahiµsâ, noninjury, one step further. He has mutated himself, escalated himself, by stopping the abilities of being able to harm another by thought, word or deed, physically, mentally or emotionally. The one step further is that he must not harm his own self with his own thoughts, his own feelings, his own actions toward his own body, toward his own emotions, toward his own mind. This is very important to remember. And here, at

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this juncture, ahiµsâ has a tie with satya, truthfulness. The sannyâsin must be totally truthful to himself, to his guru, to the Gods and to Lord Íiva, who resides within him every minute of every hour of every day. but for him to truly know this and express it through his life and be a living religious example of the sanâtana Dharma, all tendencies toward hiµsâ, injuriousness, must always be definitely harnessed in chains of steel. The mystical reason is this. because of the brahmachârî’s or sannyâsin’s spiritual power, he really has more ability to hurt someone than he or that person may know, and therefore his observance of noninjury is even more vital. Yes, this is true. A brahmachârî or sannyâsin who does not live the highest level of ahiµsâ is not a brahmachârî. Words are expressions of thoughts, thoughts created from prâ∫a. Words coupled with thoughts backed up by the transmuted prâ∫as, or the accumulated bank account of energies held back within the brahmachârî and the sannyâsin, become powerful thoughts, and when expressed through words go deep into the mind, creating impressions, saµskâras, that last a long time, maybe forever. It is truly unfortunate if a brahmachârî or sannyâsin loses control of himself and betrays ahiµsâ by becoming hiµsâ, an injurious person—unfortunate for those involved, but more unfortunate for himself. When we hurt another, we scar the inside of ourself; we clone the image. The scar would never leave the sannyâsin until it left the person that he hurt. This is because the prâ∫as, the transmuted energies, give so much force to the thought. Thus the words penetrate to the very core of the being. Therefore, angry people should get married and should not practice brahmacharya.

a boy has broken a vase and is denying the mischief. mother watches, hoping he will learn to tell the truth.


Summary of the Second Restraint Adhere to truthfulness, refraining from lying and betraying promises. Speak only that which is true, kind, helpful and necessary. Knowing that deception creates distance, don’t keep secrets from family or loved ones. be fair, accurate and frank in discussions, a stranger to deceit. Admit your failings. Do not engage in slander, gossip or backbiting. Do not bear false witness against another.

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T S R

Truthfulness Satya satya
aTYa, trUthfUlneSS, IS the Second Yama. It SeemS thAt lIttle chIldren Are nAtUrAlly trUthfUl, open And honeSt. theIr lIveS Are UncomplIcAted, And they have no secrets. National studies show that children, even at an early age, learn to lie from their parents. They are taught to keep family secrets, whom to like, whom to dislike, whom to hate and whom to love, right within the home itself. Their minds become complicated and their judgments of what to say and what not to say are often influenced by the possibility of a punishment, perhaps a beating. Therefore, to fully encompass satya and incorporate it in one’s life as a teenager or an adult, it is quite necessary to dredge the subconscious mind and in some cases reject much of what mother or father, relatives and elders had placed into it at an early age. Only by rejecting the apparent opposites, likes and dislikes, hates and loves, can true truthfulness, which is a quality of the soul, burst forth again and be there in full force as it is within an innocent child. A child practices truthfulness without wisdom. Wisdom, which is the timely application of knowledge, guides truthfulness for the adult. to attain wisdom, the adult must be conversant with the soul nature. What is it that keeps us from practicing truthfulness? Fear, mainly. Fear of discovery, fear of punishment or loss of status. This is the most honest untruthfulness. The next layer of untruthfulness would be the mischievous person willing to take a chance of not being caught and deliberately inventing stories about another, deliberately lying when the truth would do just as well. The third and worst layer is calculated

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deception and breaking of promises. satya is a restraint, and as one of the ten restraints it ranks in importance as number two. When we restrain our tendencies to deceive, to lie and break promises, our external life is uncomplicated, as is our subconscious mind. Honesty is the foundation of truth. It is ecologically, psychologically purifying. However, many people are not truthful with themselves, to themselves, let alone to others. And the calculated, subconscious built-in program of these clever, cunning, twofaced individuals keeps them in the inner worlds of darkness. to emerge from those worlds, the practice of truthfulness, satya, is in itself a healing and purifying sâdhana. what is breaking a promise? breaking a promise is, for example, when someone confides in you, asks you to keep it to yourself and not to tell anyone, and then you tell. You have betrayed your promise. Confidences must be kept at all costs in the practice of satya. There are certainly times when withholding the truth is permitted. The Tirukural, Weaver’s Wisdom, explains that “Even falsehood is of the nature of truth if it renders good results, free from fault” (292). An astrologer, for instance, while reviewing a chart would refrain from telling of a heartbreak that might come to a person at a certain time in his life. This is wisdom. In fact, astrologers are admonished by their gurus to hold back information that might be harmful or deeply discouraging. A doctor might not tell his patient that he will die in three days when he sees the vital signs weakening. Instead, he may encourage positive thinking, give hope, knowing that life is eternal and that to invoke fear might create depression and hopelessness in the mind of the ill person. When pure truthfulness would injure or cause harm, then the first yama, ahiµsâ, would come into effect. You would not want to harm that person, even with the truth. but we must not look at this verse from the Tirukural as giving permission for deception. The spirit of the verse

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is wisdom, good judgment, not the subterfuge of telling someone you are going to Mumbai when your actual destination is Kalikot. That is not truthful. It would be much better to avoid answering the question at all in some way if one wanted to conceal the destination of his journey. This would be wisdom. You would not complicate your own subconscious mind by telling an untruth, nor be labeled deceptive in the mind of the informed person when he eventually discovers the actual truth. Honesty with Your Guru Some people use the excuse of truthfulness to nag their spouse about what they don’t like about him or her, or to gossip about other people’s flaws. This is not the spirit of satya. We do not want to expose others’ faults. Such confrontations could become argumentative and combative. no one knows one’s faults better than oneself. but fear and weakness often prevail, while motivation and a clear plan to correct the situation are absent. Therefore, to give a clear plan, a positive outlook, a new way of thinking, diverts the attention of the individual and allows internal healing to take place. This is wisdom. This is ahiµsâ, noninjury. This is satya, truthfulness. The wise devotee is careful to never insult or humiliate others, even under the pretext of telling the truth, which is an excuse that people sometimes use to tell others what they don’t like about them. Wise devotees realize that there is good and bad in everyone. There are emotional ups and downs, mental elations and depressions, encouragements and discouragements. Let’s focus on the positive. This is ahiµsâ and satya working together. The brahmachârî and the sannyâsin must be absolutely truthful with their satguru. They must be absolutely diplomatic, wise and always accentuate the good qualities within the sannyâsin and brahmachârî communities. The guru has the right to discuss, rebuke or discipline the uncomely

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qualities in raising up the brahmachârî and sannyâsin. Only he has this right, because it was given to him by the brahmachârîs and sannyâsins when they took him as their satguru. This means that brahmachârîs and sannyâsins cannot discipline one another, psychoanalyze and correct in the name of truthfulness, without violation of the number one yama—ahiµsâ, noninjury. Mothers and fathers have rights with their own children, as do gurus with their ßishyas. These rights are limited according to wisdom. They are not all-inclusive and should not inhibit free will and well-rounded growth within an individual. This is why a guru is looked upon as the mother and father by the mother and father and by the disciple who is sent to the guru’s âßrama to study and learn. It is the guru’s responsibility to mold the aspirant into a solid member of the monastic community, just as it is the mother’s and father’s duty to mold the youth to be a responsible, lookedup-to member of the family community. This is how society progresses. The practice, niyama, to strengthen one’s satya qualities is tapas, austerity—performing sâdhana, penance, tapas and sacrifice. If you find you have not been truthful, if you have betrayed promises, then put yourself under the tapas sâdhana. Perform a lengthy penance. Atone, repent, perform austerities. You will soon find that being truthful is much easier than what tapas and austerities will make you go through if you fail to restrain yourself. truthfulness is the fullness of truth. truth itself is fullness. May fullness prevail, truth prevail, and the spirit of satya and ahiµsâ permeate humanity.

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Two boys conspire to break the principle of asteya as one distracts a merchant while the other steals a book.


Summary of the Third Restraint Uphold the virtue of nonstealing, neither thieving, coveting nor failing to repay debt. Control your desires and live within your means. Do not use borrowed resources for unintended purposes or keep them past due. Do not gamble or defraud others. Do not renege on promises. Do not use others’ names, words, resources or rights without permission and acknowledgement.

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T  R

Nonstealing Asteya Astaeya
sTeYa IS the thIrd Yama, neiTher sTeaLinG, nor coveTinG nor enTerinG inTo debT. we All Know whAt SteAlIng IS. bUt now let’S define covetoUSneSS. It could well be defined as owning something mentally and emotionally but not actually owning it physically. This is not good. It puts a hidden psychological strain on all parties concerned and brings up the lower emotions from the tala chakras. It must be avoided at all cost. coveting is desiring things that are not your own. Coveting leads to jealousy, and it leads to stealing. The first impulse toward stealing is coveting, wanting. If you can control the impulse to covet, then you will not steal. Coveting is mental stealing. Of course, stealing must never ever happen. Even a penny, a peso, a rupee, a lira or a yen should not be misappropriated or stolen. Defaulting on debts is also a form of stealing. but avoiding debt in principle does not mean that one cannot buy things on credit or through other contractual arrangements. It does mean that payments must be made at the expected time, that credit be given in trust and be eliminated when the time has expired, that contracts be honored to the satisfaction of all parties concerned. Running one’s affairs on other peoples’ money must be restrained. to control this is the sâdhana of asteya. Brahmachârîs and sannyâsins, of course, must scrupulously obey these restraints relating to debt, stealing and covetousness. These are certainly not in their code of living. to perfect asteya, we must practice dâna, charity, the third niyama; we must take the dâßama bhâga vrata, promis-

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ing to tithe, pay dâßamâµßa, to our favorite religious organization and, on top of that, give creatively, without thought of reward. Stealing is selfishness. Giving is unselfishness. Any lapse of asteya is corrected by dâna. It is important to realize that one cannot simply obey the yamas without actively practicing the niyamas. to restrain one’s current tendencies successfully, each must be replaced by a positive observance. For each of the yamas, there is a positive replacement of doing something else. The niyamas must totally overshadow the qualities controlled by the yamas for the perfect person to emerge. It is also important to remember that doing what should not be done—and not doing what should be done—does have its consequences. These can be many, depending upon the evolution of the soul of each individual; but all such acts bring about the lowering of consciousness into the instinctive nature, and inevitable suffering is the result. Each Hindu guru has his own ways of mitigating the negative karmas that result as a consequence of not living up to the high ideals of these precepts. but the world is also a guru, in a sense, and its devotees learn by their own mistakes, often repeating the same lessons many, many times. Debt, Gambling and Grief I was asked, “Is borrowing money to finance one’s business in accord with the yama of nonstealing? When can you use other peoples’ money and when should you not?” When the creditors start calling you for their money back, sending demand notices indicating that they only extended you thirty days’, sixty days’ or ninety days’ credit, then if you fail to pay, or pay only a quarter or half of it just to keep them at arm’s length because you still need their money to keep doing what you are doing, this is a violation of this yama. There are several kinds of debt that are disallowed by this yama. One is spending beyond your means and accu-

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mulating bills you can’t pay. We are reminded of Tirukural verse 478 which says that the way to avoid poverty is to spend within your means: “A small income is no cause for failure, provided expenditures do not exceed it.” We can see that false wealth, or the mere appearance of wealth, is using other peoples’ money, either against their will or by paying a premium price for it. Many people today are addicted to abusing credit. It’s like being addicted to the drug opium. People addicted to O.P.M.—other people’s money—compulsively spend beyond their means. They don’t even think twice about handing over their last credit card to pay for that $500 sârî after all the other credit cards have been “maxed out.” When the bill arrives, it gets added to the stack of other bills that can’t possibly be paid. Another kind of debt is contracting resources beyond your ability to pay back the loan. This is depending on a frail, uncertain future. Opportunities may occur to pay the debt, but then again they may not. The desire was so great for the commodity which caused the debt that a chance was taken. Essentially, this is gambling with someone else’s money; and it is no way to run one’s life. Gambling and speculation are also forms of entering into debt. Speculation could be a proper form of acquiring wealth if one has the wealth to maintain the same standard of living he is accustomed to even if the speculation failed. Much of business is speculation; and high-risk speculations do come along occasionally; but one should never risk more than one can afford to lose. Gambling is different, because the games are fun, a means of entertainment and releasing stress; though even in the casinos one should not gamble more than he could afford to lose. However, unlike speculation, when one is in the excitement of gambling and begins to lose, the greed and desire to win it all back arises, and the flustered gambler may risk his and his family’s wealth and well-being. Stress builds.

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yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon

The disastrous consequences of gambling were admonished in the oldest scripture, the Âig Veda, in the famous fourteen-verse “Gambler’s Lament” (10.34. ve, p. 501). Verse ten summarizes: “Abandoned, the wife of the gambler grieves. Grieved, too, is his mother, as he wanders vaguely. Afraid and in debt, ever greedy for money, he steals in the night to the home of another.” This is not fun; nor is it entertainment. These are the grave concerns behind our sûtra in Living with Íiva that prohibits gambling for my ßishyas: “Íiva’s devotees are forbidden to indulge in gambling or games of chance with payment or risk, even through others or for employment. Gambling erodes society, assuring the loss of many for the gain of a few” (sûtra 76). Everyone really knows that the secret to winning at gambling is to own a casino. Compulsive gambling and reckless, unfounded speculation are like stealing from your own family, risking the family wealth. More than that, it is stealing from yourself, because the remorse felt when an inevitable loss comes could cause a loss of faith in your abilities and your judgment. And if the loss affects the other members of the family, their estimation and respect and confidence in your good judgment goes way down. Many people justify stealing by saying that life is unfair and therefore it’s OK to take from the rich. They feel it’s OK to steal from a rich corporation, for example: “They will never miss it, and we need it more.” Financial speculation can easily slide into unfair maneuvering, where a person is actually stealing from a small or large company, thereby making it fail. The credibility of the person will go down, and businesses will beware of this speculative investor who would bring a company to ruin to fatten his own pockets. Entering into debt is a modern convenience and a modern temptation. but this convenience must be honored within the time allotted. If you are paying a higher interest rate

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because of late or partial payments, you have abused your credit and your creditors. At the Global Forum for Human Survival in 1990 in Moscow, the participants began worrying about the kids, the next generation. “What are they going to think of us?” they asked. Is it fair to fulfill a need now, spoil the environment and hand the bill over to the next generation? No, it is not. This is another form of stealing. We can’t say, “We have to have chlorofluorocarbons now, and the next generation has to face the consequences.” The yamas and niyamas are thus not just a personal matter but also a national, communal and global matter. Yes, this takes asteya and all the restraints and observances to another dimension.

a brother guards his sister’s purity, brahmacharya, from a rogue who has approached her immodestly.


Summary of the Fourth Restraint Practice divine conduct, controlling lust by remaining celibate when single and faithful in marriage. before marriage, use vital energies in study, and after marriage in creating family success. Don’t waste the sacred force by promiscuity in thought, word or deed. be restrained with the opposite sex. Seek holy company. Dress and speak modestly. Shun pornography, sexual humor and violence.

livelihood. becAUSe It SetS the pattern for one’s entire life. and their children are emotionally sound. e-pornography. Those who are promiscuous and unreligious are susceptible to impulses of anger. and performing sâdhana. the vital energies are used before marriage in study rather than in sexual fantasy. but the doors of the lower world are also open. and such people tend to be promiscuous when single and therefore unfaithful in marriage. serving the community. the vital energies are concentrated on business. Gods. Even the virgin brahmachârî who believes firmly in God. petting or sexual intercourse. The rewards for maintaining this restraint are many. The doors of the higher world are open to them. experience jealousy and the other instinctive emotions. After marriage. guru or the path to enlightenment. For those who do not believe in God. have undefined fears. necking.chApter 4: SexUAl pUrIty 17 T F R Sexual Purity Brahmacharya baÂcaya* rahmacharYa. mature family relationships. Gods. IS A very ImportAnt reStrAInt Among the AncIent ÍaiVite ethIcAl prIncIpleS Known AS Yamas AND NiYamas. Following this principle. this is a difficult restraint to fulfill. improving oneself and one’s family. have long-lasting. SexUAl pUrIty. mentally firm and physically strong. They get a good start on life. emotionally and physically. Those who practice brahmacharya before marriage and apply its principles throughout married life are free from encumbrances—mentally. guru and the path to enlightenment and has a strict family must be watched and . masturbation. fulfilling one’s duties.

they might admit that they are simply yoga teachers dressed in orange robes. Having lost faith in himself because of breaking his vrata. Brahmacharya in Family Life The observance of brahmacharya is perhaps the most essential aspect of a sound. Without this careful attention. the virginity may easily be lost. In virgin boys .” Containing the sacred fluids within the body builds up a bank account through the years that makes the realization of God on the path to enlightenment a reality within the life of the individual who is single. an understood requirement to maintain this position in life. secretaries or close devotees—or with their former family. When brahmacharya is broken through sexual intercourse. Nowadays there are pseudo-sannyâsins who are married and call themselves swâmîs. This is why in Íaivism boys and girls are taught the importance of remaining celibate until they are married. but. spiritual culture. of course. physically. There is great power in the practice of brahmacharya. literally “Godly conduct. This applies as well to any single individual who has taken the celibacy vow. generation after generation. It should be perfectly clear that it is totally unacceptable for men or women who have taken up the celibate monastic life to live a double standard and surround themselves with those of the opposite sex—be they fellow âßramites.18 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon carefully guided to maintain his brahmacharya. emotionally and spiritually. this power goes away. There is a mystical reason. he must face the consequences and reaffirm his original intent. if pressed. It just goes away. personal aides. Brahmacharya for the monastic means complete sexual abstinence and is. his self-confidence must be rebuilt. bearing the title “swâmî” to attract the attention of the uninformed public for commercial reasons. known as brahmacharya vrata. If brahmacharya is compromised by the brahmachârî. This creates healthy individuals.

If the first sexual experience is premarital and virginity is broken. the astral nerve currents that extend out into and through their aura. one naturally wants to avoid arousing the sex instincts. the hooks straighten out and the nâ∂îs are tied one to another. lustful glances. glorification. rendezvous and finally intercourse. and they actually grow together. the hooks at the end of the nâ∂îs also straighten out. Youth ask. have small hooks at the end. “How should we regard members of the opposite sex?” Do not look at members of the opposite sex with any idea of sex or lust in mind. when either partner marries someone else. secret love talk. In cases such as this. boys must foster the inner attitude that all young women are their sisters and all older women are their mother. nor read books or magazines of this nature. avoid pornography on the Internet. to be successful in brahmacharya. or seeing one as more beautiful than another. they feel the need for intellectual stimuli and emotional stimuli to keep the marriage going. because their nâ∂îs don’t grow together in the same way. the psychic nâ∂îs. Get plenty of physical exercise.chApter 4: SexUAl pUrIty 19 and girls. Above all. be very careful to mix only with good company—those who think and speak in a cultured way—so that the mind and emotions are not led astray and vital energies needed for study used up. flirtation. but there is nothing to grow onto if the partners do not marry. Girls must foster the inner attitude that all young men are their brothers and all older men are their father. the relationship is never as close as when a virgin boy and girl marry. This is very important. Then. Do not attend movies that depict the base instincts of humans. When a boy and girl marry. Do not indulge in admiring those of the opposite sex. because exercise sublimates your instinctive . amorous longing. on tv and in any other media. This is done by understanding and avoiding the eight successive phases: fantasy.

flirtatious and loose in their thinking through life. they break the psychic. both for the single and married person. Brahmacharya means sexual continence. though not truly brahmacharya. If they break that faithfulness. It includes mental faithfulness. they will not be inclined to take the vrata in later life. Metaphysically. this creates a psychic tug and pull on the nerve system of both spouses that will continue until the affair ends and long afterwards. they control the forces of lust and regulate instinctive energies and thus prepare to take that vrata. the principle of the containment of the sexual force and mental and emotional impulses is the spirit of brahmacharya. They are working toward the stage when they will take their brahmacharya vrata after sixty years of age. . but if they are unfaithful. and all of their nâ∂îs are growing together over the years. sleeping in separate bedrooms. If one or the other of the partners does have an affair. Faithfulness in marriage means fidelity and much more. non-flirtatiousness and modesty toward the opposite sex.20 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon drives and directs excess energy and the flow of blood into all parts of the body. man and wife are. as was observed by Mahatma Gandhi in his later years and by other great souls throughout life. soul connections that are developing for their personal inner achievements. A married man. during their married life. Therefore. should not hire a secretary who is more magnetic or more beautiful than his wife. There is another form of sexual purity. in a sense. followed by faithful family people who have a normal sex life while raising a family. in the perfect family relationship. for instance. Thereafter they would live together as brother and sister. creating a one nervous system for their joint spiritual progress.

therefore. If they obey these principles and are on the path of enlightenment. when promiscuity is a way of life. is difficult to stop. Stealing or coveting another’s spouse. creates a force that. For those who have nothing to do with spirituality. nonstealing.chApter 4: SexUAl pUrIty 21 Rules for Serious People For virtuous individuals who marry. They must have faith in higher powers than themselves. their experiences with their partner are. these principles do apply. always dressing modestly. and emotional involvement is only with their spouse. touching another’s spouse or exciting the emotions. once generated. a normal sex life should be had between husband and wife. Married persons uphold sexual purity by observing the eightfold celibacy toward everyone but their spouse. . not in a sexually arousing way. they will again become celibate later in life. not telling dirty jokes—all of these simple customs are traditional ways of upholding sexual purity. sexual purity is nearly impossible. Without this. spiritual people. not viewing sexually oriented or pornographic videos. Never hugging. We are assuming a situation of a couple where everything they do and all that happens in their life is oriented toward spiritual life and spiritual goals and. individuals must believe firmly in the path to enlightenment. even mentally. free from lustful fantasies. In this day and age. For sexual purity. These are ideals for serious. and when their children are raised and the forces naturally become quiet. around age sixty. as they were when they were young. and no one else should be included in either one’s mind or emotions. these laws are meaningless. The yama of brahmacharya works in concert with asteya. there is great strength in married couples’ understanding and applying the principles of sexual purity. Yes. These principles persist through life. again. husband and wife take the brahmacharya vrata. live in separate rooms and prepare themselves for greater spiritual experiences.

physical. This is their dharmic duty. so that the sexual feelings the young person then begins to experience are free of mental fantasies and emotional involvement. If they don’t do it. they transfer the love they have for their parents to one another. When a virgin boy and girl marry. The boy’s attachment to his mother is transferred to his wife. and the girl’s attachment to her father is transferred to her husband. The generation that follows an era of promiscuity has a dearth of examples to follow and are even more unstable than their parents were when they began their promiscuous living. The principles of brahmacharya should be learned well before puberty. to create the next generation of stable families. She now becomes the mother. This is why the parents have to be in good shape. The world today has become increasingly unstable because of the mental. and morality is based on harnessing and controlling sexuality. Stability for human society is based on morality. This does not mean they love their parents any less. and the best way to maintain stability is through self-control. He now becomes the father. mental and/or physical. Once established in a young person. they create all kinds of uncomely karmas for themselves to be faced at a later time.22 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon One of the fastest ways to destroy the stability of families and societies is through promiscuity. emotional license that people have given to themselves. this control is expected to be carried out all through life. .

chApter 4: SexUAl pUrIty 23 .

Don’t argue.Kshamâ is epitomized by a mother’s patiently setting aside her urgent duties to tend to her daugher’s tears. Minimize stress by keeping worries at bay. dominate conversations or interrupt others. be patient with children and the elderly. let others behave according to their nature. .  Summary of the Fifth Restraint Exercise patience. be agreeable. don’t be in a hurry. restraining intolerance with people and impatience with circumstances. Remain poised in good times and bad. without adjusting to you.

Focusing on living in the eternity of the moment overcomes impatience. However. . accepting the perfection of the timing of the creation. accepting events as they are happening. Acceptance is developed in a person by understanding the law of karma and in seeing God Íiva and His work everywhere.chApter 5: pAtIence 25 T Ff R Patience Kshamâ #amaa AtIence. accepting people. One of the great spiritual powers that people can have is to accept things as they are. and on and on. This excellent spiritual practice can be performed now and again during the day by anyone. no future to work toward and no past to rely on. Patience is having the power of acceptance. tHE fiFtH YAMA. feeling intolerant and abusive with children because they are not behaving as adults. We must restrain our desires by regulating our life with daily worship and meditation. Daily worship and meditation are difficult to accomplish without a break in continuity. ImpAtIence IS A SIgn of deSIroUSneSS to fUlfiLL UNFULfilled desires. IS AS eSSentIAl to the SpIrItUAl pAth AS the SpIrItUAl pAth IS to ItSelf. often at the same time—being impatient before breakfast because it is not served on time. Everything has its timing and its regularity in life. having no time for any interruptions or delays from anything that seems irrelevant to what one really wants to accomplish. or KSHAMÅ. day after day. preservation and absorption of the entire universe. That forestalls impatience and intolerance. It produces the feeling that one has nothing to do. impatience and frustration come automatically in continuity.

words and deeds. May a great peace pervade the planet as the well-earned result of these practices. Let all people of the world restrain themselves and be patient through the practice of daily worship and meditation. Most people today are intolerant with one another and impatient with their circumstances. thoughts. confusions. putting all . Then they must suffer the backlash: have nightmares. without knowing. This is why meditation upon the truths of the sanâtana Dharma is so important. nothing is sacred to them. not fight it or try to avoid it or be discouraged because of it. they do. we must patiently deal with the situation. on their cycle-back. just stop for a moment and remember that you are on the upward path. in a former time by sending forth our energies. We know that we ourselves created our own situation. now facing a rare opportunity to take one more step upward by overcoming these feelings. invoke the demonic forces of the Narakaloka. malice and the other lower emotions. This is kshamâ in the raw. Patience cannot be acquired in depth in any other way. our own challenges. This can be corrected and must be corrected for spiritual unfoldment to continue through an unbroken routine of daily worship and meditation and a yearly routine of attending festivals and of pilgrimage. happenings and circumstances. Many people are masters of the façade of being patient with others but take their frustrations out on themselves. nothing holy. but through daily exercising anger. manifest through people. As these energies. The next time you find yourself becoming impatient. which retroactively invokes the divine forces from the Devaloka. separations and even perform heinous acts.26 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon Acceptance does not mean being resigned to one’s situation and avoiding challenges. This is pure kshamâ. It is also extremely important to maintain patience with oneself—especially with oneself. This breeds an irreverent attitude. tîrthayatra.

Èßvarapûjana. compressed them to be experienced in this one lifetime. as they have harnessed their karmas of this life and the lives before. meditation and deep self-inquiry. Therefore. One does not progress on the spiritual path by words. There is no cause for them. Sâdhakas and sannyâsins must be perfect in kshamâ. all the shoulds and should-nots. that moves you forward. unreserved worship. It is putting what you have learned into practice in these moments of experiencing impatience and controlling it through command of your spiritual will. cultivating devotion through daily worship and meditation.chApter 5: pAtIence 27 that you have previously learned into practice. are good. forbearing with people and patient under all circumstances. but unless used they will not propel you one inch further than you already are. When a test comes. ßlokas. prevail. the practice. that mitigates intolerance is devotion. intellectual nature should be caught up in daily devotion. if they are to succeed. niyama. Memorized precepts. . to harbor intolerance or experience any kind of impatience with people or circumstances. These steps forward can never be retracted. ideas or unused knowledge. Their instinctive.

Develop willpower. plan. indecision and changeableness. persistence and push. fear. overcoming nonperseverance. be firm in your decisions. Never carp or complain. purpose. Do not let opposition or fear of failure result in changing strategies. exemplifying dh®iti. Achieve your goals with a prayer. Overcome obstacles.  Summary of the Sixth Restraint Foster steadfastness. while the other is less productive. courage and industriousness. . Avoid sloth and procrastination.The worker on the left works steadily and energetically.

DHÂITI. will teach you. is suggested here to develop a spiritual will and intellect. with the help of relatives. In the Íândilya Upanishad. yoU hAve to USe yoUr wIllpower. nor to be successful in any other pursuit. They will teach what you should not do. wIllpower IS developed eASIly In A perSon who hAS An AdeqUAte memory and good reasoning faculties. and dh®iti. persistence and push.CHAPtER 6: StEADFAStNESS 29 T Sx R Steadfastness Dh®iti Da&ita tEADFAStNESS. to be SteAdfASt. This implies that during times of sorrow. Observe those who are steadfast. dh®iti has been described as preserving firmness of mind during the period of gain or loss of relatives. to be indecisive and changeable is not how we should be on the path to enlightenment. loss and temptation. we can persevere. preferably under a guru’s guidance. be decisive and bring forth the dh®iti strength within us . Then nothing is impossible within the circumference of our prârabdha karmas. feeling alone and neglected. and they. IS the SIxth YAMA. Daily sâdhana. difficult karmas. a plan. to be steadfast as we go through life. steadfastness. and much effort is required to accomplish this. All of these restraints build character. over time. when in mental pain and anguish. rests on the foundation of good character. Observe those who are not. It is impossible to be steadfast if we are not obeying the other restraints that the ®ishis of the Himalayas laid down for us as the fruits of their wisdom. Nonperseverance and fear must be overcome. we must have a purpose. You will learn from them. Character—the ability to “act with care”—is built slowly. too. preceptors and good-hearted friends.

And we can say that dh®iti itself is a “hard ship”—a ship that can endure and persevere on its course even when tossed about on the waves of a turbulent sea. Some might wonder why it is good to passively endure hardship. which means not panicking. to resent hardship. A person who is patient and . as all Hindus do. An essential part of steadfastness is overcoming changeableness. changing one’s mind after making a deliberate.30 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon and thus prevail. even of being weak-minded. This virtue is much like the monk’s vow of humility. The Tirukural reminds us. Courageous and fearless people who are just and honest prevail over all karmas—benevolent. to endure hardship and rise above it in consciousness is to overcome that karma forever. steadfastness. positive decision. Dh®iti. “It is the nature of asceticism to patiently endure hardship and to not harm living creatures” (261). is to have it return later at a most inconvenient time. to fight it. How can we discriminate between this and the strength of a person who changes his or her mind in wisdom because of changes of circumstance? A person who is changeable is fickle and unsure of himself. not being decisive. changing without purpose or reason. but making a firm. One translator of the Varuha Upanishad used the word courage to translate dh®iti. well-considered decision and not following it through would gain one the reputation of not being dependable. Changing one’s mind can be a positive thing. describes the mind that is willing to change for mature reasons based on new information but holds steady to its determinations through thick and thin in the absence of such good reasons. terrible and confused. No one wants a reputation like this. part of which is enduring hardship with equanimity. that any hardship coming to us we ourselves participated in setting into motion in the past. ease of mind. Changeableness means indecision. to persevere through hardship one must understand. Its decisions are based on wise discrimination.

steadfastness. has faith in God. not being preoccupied by feelings of responsibility. word or deed and who is compassionate and honest has the strong nature of one who is firm in dh®iti. He is the prevailer over obstacles. depended upon. The spiritual path brings lots of ups and downs. and the greatest challenges will come to the greatest souls. contentment. worships daily and manifests in his life a spiritual will and intellect. One firm in dh®iti can be leaned upon by others. who would not harm others by thought. enduring process. With this in mind. it becomes clear that steadiness and perseverance are absolutely essential on the spiritual path. It does not reach fruition in a year or two years. Gods and guru. In relaxed moments he experiences santosha. The spiritual path is a long. He is charitable.CHAPtER 6: StEADFAStNESS 31 truthful. duty or things left undone. .

Honor and assist those who are weak. See god everywhere.The man beating his dog has little compassion. impoverished. dayâ.  Summary of the Seventh Restraint Practice compassion. Oppose family abuse and other cruelties. be kind to people. plants and the Earth itself. cruel and insensitive feelings toward all beings. a friend urges him to cognize the cruelty of his actions. Foster sympathy for others’ needs and suffering. conquering callous. aged or in pain. Forgive those who apologize and show true remorse. animals. .

“What should we think about those who are cruel toward creatures. A callous person would tear the plant up by its roots. who casually kill flies and step on cockroaches?” Compassion is defined as conquering callous. When we find callous. which are gifts from the Gods. A compassionate person transcends even forgiveness by caring for the suffering of the person he has forgiven. pull one wing off a fly and. generation to generation. Compassion tempers all decisions. unasked-for. he is the boon-giver. cruel and insensitive feelings toward all beings. as a child. compASSIon.chApter 7: compASSIon 33 T Sv R Compassion Dayâ dyaa AYÅ. mature this cruelty on through life until he maimed a fellow human. Compassion is just the opposite to all this. boons. contentment. The compassionate person is like a god. forgiveness as a boon even for the most heinous misdeeds. SometImeS It IS KInd to be crUel. absolution. IS the Seventh Yama. A compassionate person would seek to keep pests away rather than killing them. intuiting that the plant has feelings of its own. A cruel person would. Dayâ comes from deep sâdhana. unless corrected. cruel and insensitive people in . And so it is with the grace of a compassionate person. It is the outgrowth of the unfolded soul. scriptural study and listening to the wise. prolonged santosha. A compassionate person would tell a plant verbally if he was going to pick from it. the maturing of higher consciousness. And At other tImeS It IS crUel to be KInd. A devotee asked. thIS StAtEMENt HAS COME FORWARD FROM religion to religion. gives clemency. This is a quality built on steadfastness. come unexpectedly.

discarded. It really can’t be taught. higher consciousness. of brahmacharya and of kshamâ. compassion. It is an outpouring of spiritual energy that comes through the person despite his thoughts or his personal feelings or his reason or good judgment. What is the difference between ahiµsâ and dayâ. Compassion is a very advanced spiritual quality. we should not take them into our inner circles. in fact. one can’t command compassion. word or deed is a cardinal law of Hinduism and cannot be avoided. Ahiµsâ. One must have sufficient memory to remember the various points of reason and enough willpower to follow them through to be able to psychically look into the core of existence to gain the reverence for all life. animate or inanimate. among the yamas and niyamas. before compassion comes love. ignored or replaced by the more subtle concept of compassion. you know he is very advanced spiritually—probably an old soul. Love is the outgrowth of understanding. It is. Compassion and bliss are a one big package. could be considered the only explicit commandment Hinduism gives.34 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon our midst. one might ask? There is a distinct difference. Compassion is the outgrowth of love. Not harming others by thought. this . It is the outgrowth of truthfulness. Dayâ goes with ânanda. based in the vißuddha chakra of divine love. and of noninjury. intellectual giving. It is an overflowing of soulfulness. It is a total flow of spiritual. Compassion is the outgrowth of being forgiving. Understanding is the outgrowth of reason. coming unbidden to the receiver. It is a product of asteya. compassion by no means is foolishness or pretense. but make them feel they must improve before admittance onto the spiritual path. Compassion comes from the heart. all living organisms. The person experiencing compassion is often turned around emotionally and mentally as he is giving this clemency. comes spontaneously. material. When you see it exhibited in someone.

hurt you or caused you to have bad thoughts and feelings against them. go out of your way to say good words. but. give a gift and have good feelings toward them. “recently I was going through some suffering and had bad thoughts and bad feelings for those who caused that suffering.chApter 7: compASSIon 35 boon of absolution. Arul means grace in the ancient tamil language. Have compassion. saying. This is a spiritual outpouring through a person. and only they can change themselves. being extra-special nice means accepting them for who they are. you can mitigate and change that karma by being extra-special nice to those who abused you. . Rishi tirumular used the word arul for this yama. yes. be extra-special nice. They are who they are. Don’t have critical thoughts or try to change them. despite his own instinctive or intellectual inclinations. Now that I’m feeling better. can I erase those bad thoughts and feelings?” Thoughts and bad feelings you have sent into the future are bound to come back to you. A devotee once e-mailed me.

Two students are cheating on a test while a peer admonishes them to follow ârjava. renouncing deception and wrongdoing. face and accept your faults without blaming them on others. be frank with yourself. Act honorably even in hard times. Pay your taxes. Do not bribe or accept bribes.  Summary of the Eighth Restraint Maintain honesty. deceive or circumvent to achieve an end. do an honest day’s work. be straightforward in business. Do not cheat. Obey the laws of your nation and locale. . honesty.

” The adage. Honesty begins within one’s own heart and soul and works its way out from there into dealing with other people. Polonius wisely said in Shakespeare’s Hamlet.CHAPtER 8: HONEStY 37 T E R Honesty Arjava Aaja*va ONEStY. and you are twisting their thoughts to your own selfish ends. middleaged and elderly alike. “Say what you mean. wise in human nature. tHE moSt ImportAnt rUle of honeSty IS to be honeSt to oneSelf. and mean what you say” should be heard again and again by the youth.” to be deceptive and not straightforward is thieving time from those you are deceiving. to deceive oneself is truly the ultimate of wrongdoing. to be Able to fAce Up to oUr problemS And AdmIt thAt we have been the creator of them. ÅRjAVA. “This above all: to your own self be true. discontent.” Another philosopher. “The advantage of telling the truth is that you don’t have to remember what you said. to deceive oneself is truly ignorance in its truest form. someone to blame something on. a gift from the Gods. “Oh what a tangled web we weave when first we practice to deceive. IS the eIghth Yama. endeavor- .” Mark twain observed. noted. They are giving you their heart and mind. as the night the day. They are always looking for a scapegoat. are now and have been dishonest with themselves. but you cannot watch a liar. to be able to then reason them through. to be honest with oneself brings peace of mind. Sir Walter Scott once said. and it must follow. is a boon. They blame others for their own faults and predicaments. “You can watch a thief. Those who are frustrated. you cannot then be false to any man. make soulfully honest decisions toward their solutions.

You pay your taxes. There are those who feel it is sufficient to be honest and straightforward with their friends and family. They may experience several abortions before obtaining a new physical body and then be an unwanted child. embarrassment no end would fall on both parties involved in the crime. ravage humankind. someone is watching. though maybe not the total trust. beatings. steal or participate in fraud and other forms of manipulation. and a smidgen of respect from those who have discovered and exposed your deception. but feel justified to be dishonest with business associates. your own conscience is watching. someone knows. bribe. cheat. governments and strangers.38 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon ing to play them out. if they perfect the art. in favors or in kind. to participate in bribery is to go into a deceptive. These two-faced persons—honest to . Many parents. not to do. Deception is the cruelest of acts. birth. You observe the laws. the taker and the nation. to show remorse. They are not building good citizens. teach their children to be deceptive and cunning in order to get on in the world. bribery corrupts the giver. illegal partnership between the briber and the bribed. A deceptive person is an insidious disease to society. Obviously they have no knowledge of the laws of karma and no desire to obtain a better. to take what they have. or even a similar. They may suffer child abuse. be modest and show shame for misdeeds is the way to win back the faith. to be straightforward is the solution. These are the most despicable people. neglect. There is no law in any legal code of any government that says bribery is acceptable. if bribery were the alternative. If and when discovered. You don’t fudge. we are told. for your personal gain. They are creating potential criminals who will eventually. and even if not discovered. It would be better not to have. family and with your government. corporations. and to live the simple life. Årjava is straightness with neighbors. perhaps even be killed at a young age. no matter how difficult it is.

They are the protectors. to whom to go or what scripture to read. primal qualification—honesty. And finally the country fails and goes into war or succumbs to innumerable internal problems. Countries that have weak leadership and unstable governments that allow wrongdoing to become a way of life. yogî or swâmî. the stabilizers.CHAPtER 8: HONEStY 39 immediate friends and relatives. wrongdoing and outright lies and who shows no shame for misdeeds. ârjava. The rays of their auras radiate out through all areas of life. No satguru would accept a monastic candidate who persists in patterns of deception. These persons are training their sons and daughters to be like themselves and pull down humanity rather than uplift mankind. yes. Honesty in Monastic Life We can say that sâdhakas. but dishonest and deceptive and involved in wrongdoings with business associates and in public life—deserve the punishment that only the lords of karma are able to deal out. Human relations. this gives birth to argument. because they are involved in wrongdoing. suspicion. the sympathizers. They have the solution to all human problems and all human ills. The breaking of the yama of ârjava is the severing of that trust. which each shares and expresses. We see this happening all . deception to be the way of thinking. People become angry because they are involved in wrongdoing. the consolers. which thereby provokes the destruction or demise of the relationship. People begin to distrust one another. are participating in dividing the masses in this very way. yogîs and swâmîs upholding their vows are the prism of honesty. hate. derive their strength from trust. honesty is the primal qualification. especially the guru-disciple relationship. confusion and retaliation. to be a sâdhaka. they suspect others of being involved in wrongdoings. anger. When the relationship falls into distrust. or they know where to find those solutions. the uplifters.

There are many religious organizations today that have deceptive. there is no need to be deceptive or participate in wrongdoing. and do deliver what you promise. A strong democratic country is constantly showing up politicians who take bribes and presidents who are involved in deception and wrongdoing. Årjava means not complicating things. virus-like persons to maintain the spirituality and fulfill the original intent of the founders. not ramifying concerns and anxieties. successful corporate monopolies deem honesty as the first necessary qualification for an employee. It is up to the heads of those organizations to weed out the deceptive. It is easier to remember the truth than remember lies—white lies. Don’t use the emotion involved in the situation to motivate or manipulate for personal gain in another situation.40 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon over the world. It is all political. This is to say. who set a poor example for the masses as to how things should be. Årjava could well be interpreted as simplicity. When his deception and wrongdoing are discovered. gray lies or black lies. . An honest life is a simple life. This is the sanâtana dharma way. When our wants which produce our needs are simple. It’s as simple as that. Higher-consciousness governments are able to maintain their economy and feed their people. A simple life is an honest life. If the neo-Indian religion is teaching differently. when a situation occurs. he is irrevocably terminated. dishonest. as many commentators have done. Don’t owe people favors. Lower-consciousness governments are not. Even large. It is easier to be straightforward than conniving and deceptive. handle the situation within the situation itself. dishonest people within them who connive wrongdoings. Don’t promise what you can’t deliver. corruptive. and these religious groups are failing and reaping the rewards of failing through loss and confusion. pay no attention. and it has no kinship to dharma. and don’t allow people to owe you favors.

CHAPtER 8: HONEStY 41 .

Enjoy fresh.at a cafe two men enjoy a rice and curry meal on banana leaves. in a disturbed atmosphere or when upset. never between meals. Eat at regular times. avoiding rich or fancy fare. Drink in moderation. wholesome vegetarian foods that vitalize the body. while the other overeats. only when hungry. neither eating too much nor consuming meat. Follow a simple diet.  Summary of the Ninth Restraint be moderate in appetite. . Avoid junk food. shellfish. fowl or eggs. One follows mitâhâra. fish. at a moderate pace.

for thousands of years.” Nearly everyone who heard that imperious insult.” According to âyurveda. health and wellness of being. not eating too much is the greatest thing you can do for health if you want a long life. moderAte AppetIte. Decadence is a form of decay that the masses have railed against century upon century. which is a dance of decay. All this and more shows us that mitâhâra is a restraint that we must all obey and which is one of the most difficult. SImIlArly. It is the behavior of people who gain wealth and luxuries from the miseries of others. completely lost their heads. The body knows no wisdom as to shoulds and should-nots. That is why. It would eat and drink itself to death if it had its way. Gorging oneself has always been a form of decadence in every culture and is considered unacceptable behavior. including its authoress. let them eat cake. given its own instinctive intelligence. empires. And miTasÅYaN is is sleeping little. happy mind. beIng economIcAl or frUgAl. Decadence. has been the downfall of many governments. made the famous decadent statement just before the french revolution: “If the people have no bread. miTaVYaYiN IS lIttle or moderAte SpendIng. to avoid the emptiness of “sick-being.chApter 9: moderAte dIet 43 T N R Moderate Diet Mitâhara imataahr ITÅHÅRA. queen of france. millennium after millennium. sâdhus and meditators have eaten . ease in meditation and a balanced. yogîs. Marie Antoinette. IS the tENtH Yama. It is the mind that controls the body and emotions and must effect this restraint for its own preservation. kingdoms and principalities.

The Hindu view is that we are part of ecology. apart from smoking and drugs. and you will have rich. and you can be wealthier. we will be able to better feed everyone on the planet. dredged-upfrom-the-past karmic experiences that will ruin your marriage. you save on doctor bills. happy and holy. We won’t have such extreme inequalities of excessive diet and inadequate diet. If all are following mitâhâra. We will have global moderation. bird. a fish. For the twenty-first century. There is almost nothing. an intricate part of the planet. cockroach. dead. having to digest so much food and run it through its system. dead foods. Our ®ishis may have anticipated that the economy of mitâhâra makes it a global discipline—eating frugally. not squandering your wealth to overindulge yourself. A lot of money is wasted in the average family on food that could go toward many other things the family needs or wants.44 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon moderately. processed. fewer will be hungry. you will be healthy. Diet and Good Health by following mitâhâra you can be healthier. finely processed. not using the wealth of a nation to pamper the nation’s most prosperous. that hurts the body more than excessive eating. snake. then you are not following mitâhâra. the incongruity of gluttony and malnutrition. and excessive eating has to be defined in both the amount of food and the quality of food. mitâhâra has still another meaning. not using the resources of the Earth to satiate excessive appetites. If you are healthier. wreak havoc on your children and send you early to the funeral pyre. If you are regularly eating rich. a small animal or an elephant. Our physical body is a species here with rights equal to a flea. Overeating repels one from spiritual sâdhana. because the body becomes slothful and lazy. and because this also helps in sâdhana and meditation. Eating is meant to nourish the body with vitamins .

realizing that a long. and if our goal is higher consciousness. we have to provide the chemistry that evokes it.chApter 9: moderAte dIet 45 and minerals to keep it functioning. fish. anger. and chemistry affects consciousness. On the purer side are those in higher consciousness. Food is chemistry. We recently heard of a Western science lab study that fed two groups of rats different portions of food. Other diets create a different chemistry. It is not meant for mere personal. The most obvious group is those ruled by lower consciousness. willpower. healthy life could be attained by not eating so much. It’s as simple as that. sensual pleasure. good judgment. fowl and eggs opens the doors to lower consciousness. jealousy and the subsequent remorseful emotions that follow. Eating meat. This so impressed the scientists that they immediately dropped their own calorie input and lost many pounds. A vegetarian diet helps your system all day long. A vegetarian diet helps to open the inner man to the outer person and brings forth higher consciousness. A slothful person naturally does not have the inclination to advance himself through education and meditation. which affects your endocrine glands and your entire system all day long. which proliferates deceit and dishonesty and the confusion in life that these bring. People on this planet are divided in two groups. Those who were allowed to have any amount of food they could eat lived a normal rat life span. universal love. and is unable to do anything but a simple. along with fear. compassion and more. routine job. Those who were given half that much lived twice as long. Take Charge of Your Body There is a wonderful breathing exercise you can perform to aid the digestion and elimination of food by stimulating . ruled by the powers of reason and memory. as delineated by states of consciousness. A vegetarian diet creates the right chemistry for spiritual life.

then compensate by fasting occasionally and performing physical disciplines. About three repetitions is generally enough to conquer indigestion or constipation. whether it be sweets or rich. They used the words restrain and moderate rather than suppress or eliminate. exotic foods or overly spiced foods. That is a central process of spiritual unfoldment—to control and moderate such desires. Then relax your stomach and again breathe in naturally and then out quickly by pulling the stomach in to force the air out of the lungs. whose energies are in the intellect and may not be addressing their digestive needs adequately. take charge of your own body and see that it is working right. varieties of soft drinks or exotic imported coffee. cashew nuts. is healthy and you are eating right. moderate those appetites. We must remember that to restrain and moderate desire allows the energy which is restrained and moderated to enliven higher chakras. then do it again. The ®ishis of yore taught us to restrain desire.46 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon the internal fire. and out through your nose very fast while pulling the stomach in. licorice. Most people have certain cravings and desires which they permit themselves to indulge in. It is especially good for those who are rather sedentary and do a lot of intellectual work. If you do overindulge. giving rise to creativity and intuition that will actually better mankind. Then rest for a minute and do it again. The ®ishis have given us great knowledge to help us know . If you find you overindulge in jelly beans. one’s own household and the surrounding community. Do this for one minute. then rest for one minute. breathe in through your nose a normal breath. chocolate. This prâ∫âyâma amplifies the heat of the body and stimulates the fire that digests food and eliminates waste. Then you are controlling the entire desire nature of the instinctive mind in the process. Discovering and moderating such personal preferences and desires is part of the spiritual path.

fresh foods. Though Muslim and Christian colonization radically undermined and eroded this ideal. I have heard people define vegetarian as a diet which excludes the meat of animals but does permit fish and eggs. is not spiritual life. A vegetarian diet does not include meat. and one following a vegetarian diet is a ßâkâhârî. such as arti- . In the early stages seekers often become obsessed with finding the perfect diet. yogurt. They have to find out what is right for them. exclude all dairy products. vegetables. Study your body and your diet and find out what works for you. and “junk” foods and beverages—those with abundant chemical additives. A subtle sense of guilt persists among Hindus who eat meat. but remember that eating right. milk. fish. even certain vegetarian foods are minimized: frozen and canned foods. but it should balance out to a simple routine of eating to live. known as vegans. fowl or eggs.chApter 9: moderAte dIet 47 what to do. The term for meat-eating is mânsâhâra.” ßâka means “vegetable. That is a stage they have to go through in learning. not living to eat. Find out what foods give you indigestion and stop eating those things. fruits. but what really is vegetarianism? It is living only on foods produced by plants. locally grown without insecticides or chemical fertilizers are preferred. white sugar and white flour. Åhâra means “food” or “diet. shellfish. and the meat-eater is called mânsâhârî. such as white rice. with the addition of dairy products.” and mânsa means “meat” or “flesh. Reasons for Vegetarianism Vegetarianism has for thousands of years been a principle of health and environmental ethics throughout India. it remains to this day a cardinal ethic of Hindu thought and practice. in itself. Vegetarian foods include grains. cheese and butter.” Amazingly. and there exists an ongoing controversy on this issue. legumes. Natural. For good health. highly processed foods. The strictest vegetarians. The Sanskrit for vegetarianism is ßâkâhâra.

emotions and experiential patterns. anxiety. fear. If one wants to live in higher consciousness. shellfish. destruction of ancient rainforests to create pasture lands . the escalating loss of species. as the first duty to God and God’s creation as defined by Vedic scripture. fish. there is the ecological reason. In the past fifty years millions of meat-eaters have made the decision to stop eating the flesh of other creatures. less frequent visits to the doctor. and thus live longer. They have fewer physical complaints. fewer dental problems and smaller medical bills. suspicion and a terrible fear of death. 4) Medical studies prove that a vegetarian diet is easier to digest. 2) Some abjure meat-eating because of the karmic consequences. knowing that by involving oneself. one introduces into the body and mind anger. their bodies purer and more refined. 3) Spiritual consciousness is another reason. In large measure. more supple and smooth. in the cycle of inflicting injury. jealousy.48 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon ficial sweeteners. 5) Finally. provides a wider range of nutrients and imposes fewer burdens and impurities on the body. colorings. by ingesting the grosser chemistries of animal foods. all of which are locked into the flesh of butchered creatures. Their immune system is stronger. There are five major motivations for such a decision. even indirectly. and what we ingest affects our consciousness. then he cannot eat meat. Vegetarians are less susceptible to all the major diseases that afflict contemporary humanity. 1) Many become vegetarian purely to uphold dharma. flavorings and preservatives. Food is the source of the body’s chemistry. Planet Earth is suffering. fowl or eggs. pain and death by eating other creatures. and their skin clearer. more productive lives. healthier. one must in the future experience in equal measure the suffering caused. in peace and happiness and love for all creatures.

No single decision that we can make as individuals or as a race can have such a dramatic effect on the improvement of our planetary ecology as the decision to not eat meat. . loss of topsoil and the consequent increase of water impurities and air pollution have all been traced to the single fact of meat in the human diet.chApter 9: moderAte dIet 49 for livestock. Many conscious of the need to save the planet for future generations have made this decision for this reason and this reason alone.

Maintain a clean. Keep away from pornography and violence. Never use harsh. avoiding impurity in mind. Keep a pure. Meditate daily.  Summary of the Tenth Restraint Uphold the ethic of purity. angered or indecent language. . uncluttered home and workplace. Worship devoutly. healthy body. never mixing with adulterers. Keep good company. body and speech. thieves or other impure people. Act virtuously.a man finds his friend outside an X-rated theater and urges him not to sink into a low-minded sensual life.

luminous aura filled with the pastel hues of the primary and secondary colors under every circumstance and life situation. IS the oUtcome of reStrAInIng oUrSelveS In All the other nIne. helpful and necessary. japa yoga lifts the spiritual energies and annihilates pride and arrogance by awakening within the superconscious areas of the mind an extraterrestrial intelligence. wearing clean clothes. ÍAUCHA. A clean personal environment.chApter 10: pUrIty 51 T T R Purity Íaucha xaaEca UrIty. nUmber ten of the Yamas. letting fresh air pass through your house. disciplined in mind and body. pUrIty IS the nAtUrAl herItAge of men And women. keeping the room spotless where you meditate. cooked within minutes of the picking. are naturally happy. actual physical happenings. speaking only that which is true. Those who practice this restraint have realized that thoughts create and manifest into situations. People whose thoughts are pure—and this means being in line with the yamas and niyamas—and whose bodies are free from incompatible alien obstructions. far surpassing the ordinary intellect one would encounter in the schools and universities of the present day. to be pure in mind means to have a bright. The preservation force is in the continued . is all very important in the fulfillment of purity. content and ready to perform japa. kind. There are creative forces. which ideally is freshly picked food. Íaucha also includes partaking of clean food. Therefore. bathing often. they are careful what they think and to whom they direct their thoughts. breathing clean air. who think before they speak. preservation forces and forces of dissolution.

as well as each of its visitors. then caught and held by the fabric.52 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon growing of a fruit or a leafy vegetable. Therefore. An incredible amount of body waste is eliminated through the skin and absorbed by the clothing we wear. the food should be cooked and eaten as soon after picking as possible. as well as the doorways and the walls. When we constantly eat food that is on the breakdown. depressed situations result from people eating a predominance of frozen foods. Clean clothing is very important. Unless this is done. before the mumia force gets strong. This regular attentiveness keeps each room sparkling clean and actinic. and we say things we don’t mean. canned foods. Each piece of furniture. the force of dissolution. dirt or stains. sets in. processed foods. the mind is sluggish and the tongue is loose. which are all in the process of mumia. the rooms of the home become overpowering to the conscious- . As soon as it is picked. as it causes the breakdown of the cells. the body is sluggish. Small wonder it’s so refreshing to put on clean clothing. This residue must be wiped away through dusting and cleaning. is an impure force. convenience foods. Mumia. catches and holds the emanations of the human aura of each individual in the home. mumia. One feels invigorated and happy wearing clean clothing. Keeping Pure Surroundings Cleaning the house is an act of purifying one’s immediate environment. Very little concern is given to the body odors and wastes that are exuded through the pores. It reaches its normal size and if not picked remains on the plant and is preserved by the life of that plant. It is commonly thought that clothing does not need to be cleaned unless it has been dirtied or soiled with mud. The sun and fresh air can eliminate much of the body waste and freshen up any garment. Even hanging clothing out in the sunlight for five minutes a day cleanses and refreshes it. Many unhappy.

a home which the family lives together within. His aura is bright with white rays from his soul lightening up the various hues and colors of his moods and emotions. as outlined in these yamas and niyamas. keeping good company. It is very important that the saµskâras are performed properly within a ßaucha abode. but if a home receives all of the daily attentions of cleaning it sparkly bright. worships together within. particularly the antyesh†i. ceremonies so as to restore purity in the home after a death. it becomes a welcoming place and not an empty shell. where the routine of breakfast. eats together within. In these years. and one freshly cleaned can invigorate. where early morning devotionals are performed and respected. lunch and dinner is upheld. Small wonder that a dirty room can depress you. keeping the mind pure and avoiding impure thoughts. Other kinds of homes are the abodes of asuric forces and disincarnate entities bound to Earth by lower desires. the house is often simply where they sleep and eat. mind and speech. or funeral. Such obligatory ritual customs are important to follow for those wishing to restrain their desires and perfect ßaucha in body. talks together within. black in the aura is from the . Impure people have black shading in the colors of their aura as they go through their moods and emotions. We see purity in the brilliancy of the aura of one who is restraining and disciplining the lower instinctive nature. The devas can live within a home that is clean and well regulated. Purity and impurity can be discerned in the human aura. when both mother and father work in the outside world. Such a home is the abode of the devas.chApter 10: pUrIty 53 ness of the individuals who live within them as their auras pick up the old accumulated feelings of days gone by. birth and death require the family to observe a moratorium of at least thirty-one days during which they do not enter the temple or the shrine room. both astrally and physically.

Therefore. When you give up something because you think you should give it up. to have the discrimination to know one type of person from another. corruption. Let’s discriminate between higher consciousness and lower consciousness. the world of darkness. the worlds of darkness. You don’t have to give up anything. Higher-consciousness people should surround themselves with higher-consciousness people to fulfill ßaucha. have walked in where even the Mahâdevas do not tread and the devas fear to tread. Wholesome Company It is unfortunate that at this time in the Kali yuga there are more people on the Earth in important positions who have risen into physical birth from the Narakaloka. They should not presume that they can effect any sustainable changes in the Narakaloka people. That is the spirit of purity. through the deceit and conniving of the cleverly cunning. the world of light. that creates . of the tala chakras below the mûlâdhâra. deceit and contempt for the Devaloka people.54 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon lower worlds. it is important to surround oneself with good. Just learn to like things that are better. jealousy. covetousness and lust. they are strong as they band together in anger. only to find themselves caught in that very world. too many foolish. devonic company. bringing them down into their world. bound in anger. cruel and insensitive feelings. It is important for the devaloka people to ferret out who is good company and who is not. than have descended from the Devaloka. torturing and tormenting them with their callous. Let’s not be foolish. thinking their spirituality could lift a soul from the world of darkness. to sustain ßaucha. Changing to a purer life can be so simple. who live in the chakras above the mûlâdhâra. contempt. sensitive souls. And they need to know that the asuric people. greed. can make and sustain a difference within the devonic people.

Are not all persons on this planet driven by desire? Yes. too. I stopped eating meat because meat is a cholesterol-creating killer and forest decimator. Let’s go forward with the spirit of moving onward. others have found that freshly picked. especially oily foods and foods that remain in your stomach undigested through the night. the desires for which will fade away when we attach ourselves to something better. Instead. From tamasic eating we go to rajasic eating. we also leave much of the rajasic food behind. sattvic foods. indeed. preserving it. The immature spiritual person will want everyone else to give it up. nutritious vegetables. Let our desires perfect us. it has more nutritive value than killing it. test all beverages. Let us learn to desire the more tasty. the more sublime sounds. and because sattvic food tastes better and makes us feel better. “I gave up coffee because coffee is a stimulant and a depressant. The ultra-democratic dream of life. liberty and the pursuit of happiness we can use as a New-Age goal and pursue the happiness of something better than what we are doing now that is bad for us. . more than the gross. The spiritually mature person quietly surrenders it because it is simply his personal choice and then goes on with his life. refrigerating it. especially when cooked within minutes of the picking. A devotee told me.chApter 10: pUrIty 55 strain. Then let’s redirect desire and let our desires perfect us. then cooking it to death again! be mature about it when you give something up. It also tastes good. the most perfect things we can see.” Another approach would be to give up coffee because you have found a beverage that is better. Some have found that coffee gives you indigestion and green tea helps you digest your food. search for a better life. give more life and energy than eating dead meat that has been refrigerated or preserved. Still others have found that if you kill an animal and eat it fresh. The spiritually immature person will make a big issue of giving anything up and want everyone to know about it. exciting and reprehensible. search for ßaucha.

Resolve all contention before sleep. being modest and showing shame for misdeeds. Recognize your errors. Sincerely apologize to those hurt by your words or deeds. Seek out and correct your faults and bad habits. hrî. Shun pride and pretension. Welcome correction as a means to bettering yourself. . at having accidentally broken a neighbor’s window. confess and make amends. Do not boast.  Summary of the First Observance Allow yourself the expression of remorse.The boy’s tears show his remorse.

prideful—that’s how one must be. the role for imitation in today’s world is just the opposite. in novels. Though modesty and remorse are the natural qualities of the soul. Therefore. because we don’t have very many role models today for modesty or remorse. based on the ancient sampradâya. or who is not clever enough to find a scapegoat to pin the blame on. In fact. magazines. arrogant— that’s how one must be. SeeKIng tHE guru’s grAce to be releASed from sorrows through the understanding that he gives. family and friends. This is reflected in television. doctrinal lineage.” is unable to rationalize away wrongdoings. undeveloped emotionally or not well educated. Remorse could be the most misunderstood and difficult to practice of all of the niyamas. OR PRACtIceS. when the soul does exhibit these qualities. tHE fiRSt OF tHE tEN NiYamas. on film. “Some people teach us what to do. presumptuous. at least most . That’s the role model we see everywhere. There is an old saying. IS remorSe: beIng modeSt And ShowIng ShAme for mISdeedS. and other people teach us what not to do.” The modern media. Modesty is portrayed in the media as a trait of people that are gauche. newspapers and all other kinds of media. And remorse is portrayed in the world media as a characteristic of one who “doesn’t have his act together. to be remorseful or even to show modesty would be a sign of weakness to one’s peers. In today’s world. but let’s look on the brighter side.CHAPtER 11: REMORSE AND MODEStY 57 T F Ov Remorse & Modesty Hrî îI RÈ. That’s the role model we see everywhere. brash. In today’s world. he preaches. there is a natural tendency to suppress them. inhibited.

is to say in a heartfelt way.58 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon of it. but you can tell. We Hindus who understand these things know that hrî. Even the most despicable. watch for softening in the eyes when you meet. the compassionate person who shows contentment and the fullness of well-being on his face and in his behavioral patterns. a less rigid mouth and the tendency to suppress a wholesome smile. materialism.” when apologizing. . Sometimes we can learn quite a lot by seeing the opposite of what we want to learn. Its behavior is based on other kinds of philosophy—secular humanism. is teaching us what not to do. the truthful person. the patient person. existentialism. even in today’s society. selfcentered person will melt just a little under the two magic words “I’m sorry. Even when it does. This is always portrayed extremely well and is very entertaining. so they take joy in seeing him get his just due. “I’m sorry. He will think about it.” everyone will accept this. One of the most acceptable ways to practice hrî. The burden of the quandary you have put him into now lies solely with him. explain to the person you hurt or wronged how you have realized that there was a better way and ask for his forgiveness. In their heart of hearts. justify how and why and what he should not forgive until the offense melts from his mind and his heart softens. in their heart of hearts. arrogant. you have done your part and can go your way. If the person is too proud or arrogant to forgive. crime and punishment. People. the steadfast person. is to be practiced at every opportunity. terrorism—in its effort to report and record the stories of the day. prideful. It takes as much time for a hardened heart to soften as it does for a piece of ice to melt in a refrigerator. The proud and arrogant people portrayed on tV nearly always have their fall. do admire the modest person. his pride may never let him give you the satisfaction of knowing he has forgiven you. remorse. people really do not admire the prideful person or his display of arrogance.

In today’s world. This kind of silent behavior shows repentance. which might even lead to an argument. There is an analogy in the Íaivite tradition that compares the unfolding soul to wheat. Mere flattery would be unacceptable. the stalks of wheat stand tall and proud. arrogant and vain only in the early stages of his spiritual growth. Similarly. cook them food. Often people think that showing shame and modesty and remorse for misdeeds is simply hanging your head. but when mature their heads bend low under the weight of the grains they yield.CHAPtER 11: REMORSE AND MODEStY 59 Body Language and Conscience There is another way to show remorse for misdeeds. but it’s not genuine if the head is not pulled down by the tightening of the strings of the heart. for persons you have wronged. shows that you have reconsidered your actions and found that they need improvement. anyone can do this. and will not admire you. too remote for an apology. When young and growing. As he matures and yields the harvest of divine knowledge. no. religious service. When the hanging of the head is genuine. man is self-assertive. Never miss an opportunity to be kind and serve. Say kind words about them behind their back. he too bends his head. everyone will know it and seek to lift you up out of the predicament. if shame is not felt so deeply that one cannot look another in the eye. Well. really. body language is the language . shows remorse. It’s a dead giveaway. The praise must be true and timely. but just to hang your head for a while and think you’re going to get away with it in today’s world. be extra polite to such people. and then the wrong would perpetuate itself. Some people are unreachable by words. Give them gifts. people are a little too perceptive. and the improvement is shown by your actions now and into the future. body language has to truly be the language of the body. That is by performing seva. hold the door open as they walk through. as they will suspect pretense.

This is not higher consciousness. Guilt is the message of the instinctive mind. It is a quality of the instinctive mind. There are three kinds of conscience—one built on right knowledge. Many people can cry on cue. saµsâra and Vedic dharma. This is the eye for an eye-for-an-eye. The soul has to work through these three gridworks within the subconscious mind to give its message. why. then true remorse . even domesticated animals feel guilty. or the knowledge that is found in these yamas and niyamas. tooth-for-a-tooth approach. the chakras below the mûlâdhâra. or against conscience. Many people who live in the lower worlds of darkness feel guilty and satisfy that guilt through retaliation. Hrî is regret that one has done things against the dharma. true conscience is of the soul. When the true knowledge of karma is understood. This is not right conscience. Those who have been raised with the idea that an injustice should be settled by giving back another injustice might actually feel a little guilty when they fail to do this. reincarnation.60 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon of the mind being expressed through the body. Let there be no doubt about this. it is not the soul speaking. restraints and practices. what is right and what is wrong. Those who are in a quandary of what to do. and it is certainly not the inner being of light looking out of the windows of the chakras above the mûlâdhâra. one built on semiright knowledge and one built on wrong knowledge. Vedic. an impulse rushing through a mind that has been impregnated with right knowledge. expressing remorse—the crying should not be forced. We cannot confuse guilt and its messages with the message that comes from the soul. remain in confusion because they have only semi-right knowledge in their subconscious mind. to cry. We must not think that the soul of the observer is not perceptive enough to know the difference between real tears and a glandular disturbance causing watering of the eyes. Ågamic knowledge.

which is a corrective mechanism of the soul. unbidden. and resolutions would follow in the wake. deep meditation and. when the person is a free soul. to gain peace of mind. solutions and direction for future behavior. not bound by many materialistic duties—even while doing selfless service—which can temporarily veil and hold back the spontaneous actions of the soul if done for the expectant praise that may follow. These practices will temporarily pierce the veils of mâyâ and let the light shine in. where and why the person has strayed and the methodology of getting quickly and happily back to the path and proceeding onward. Compensating for Misdeeds The soul’s response to wrong action comes of its own force. firmly planted within the inner mind of the individual. the vâsanâ daha tantra. This remorse immediately imprints upon the lower mind the right knowledge of the dharma—how. best of all. For those immersed in heavy prârabdha karmas. The held-back. the sense of spiritual duty. going through a period of their life cycle when difficult karmic patterns are manifesting. to gain absolution and release. more fully into one’s life. but there is a sense of spiritual responsibility. spontaneous action of the soul would. bringing understanding.CHAPtER 11: REMORSE AND MODEStY 61 is felt. which is already known within the bedrock of right knowledge. one should perform pilgrimage. burst forth during personal times of sâdhana. it will be found that the soul’s spontaneity is triple-veiled even though the subconscious mind is impregnated with right knowledge. spiritual retreat. The bursting forth would be totally unbidden. therefore. and a driving urge to bring dharma. recitation of mantras through japa. the practice of mauna. thus filling up the lack that the misdeeds manifested through adhering to these twenty restraints and practices and the Vedic path of dharma. meditation or temple worship. There is no guilt felt here. .

one has to pay back in proportion to the injury. VedicÅgamic precepts. by whatever method he has applied. much work has to be done. It is a mystical law. returns. he has healed the one he wronged. not a rupee less and not a rupee more. . There are no magic formulas. The Japanese. restraints and practices. that moves them forward in their evolution toward their ultimate goal of mukti. And while there are any remaining scars. Just as a responsible doctor or nurse must bring the healing to culmination. Each one must find his own way to heal himself and others until the troublesome situation disappears from his own memory. which are memories impregnated with emotion. his errors. issue forth good feelings if the feelings previously exuded were nasty. which are in themselves right knowledge—a digest of the Vedas. This is hrî and is very much ingrained in the Japanese society. This is why the practice called vâsanâ daha tantra. as people interrelate with one another. It is this process of misdeeds against dharma. the greatest harmonizer. followed by shame and remorse. unlike most of the rest of the world. Only in this way will he know that. He must deal with his wrongdoings. has proven to be a solution uncomparable to any other. have a great sense of loss of face. his crime against right knowledge. This is the law. we might say. his crime against the yamas and niyamas. writing down memories and burning them in a fire to release the emotion from the deep subconscious. so the wrongdoer must deal with his wrongdoing. within himself until rightness. Each one must find a way to be nice if he has been not nice. The moment the healing is complete. inharmonious and unacceptable.62 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon Having hurt another through wrongdoing. his crime against dharma. true forgiveness is the greatest eraser. santosha. say kind words if previous words have been unkind. the scar will mysteriously vanish. and a Japanese businessman will resign if he has shamed his family or his country.

If he is seen struggling to observe it and unable to accomplish it all the time. into counseling sessions. whereas Hinduism is a conglomerate of many smaller religions. “Change your image and get on with life. buddhism itself is the outgrowth into the family community from a vast monastic order. The test would bring him out in the open. of not participating creatively in the entire community. A materialist who loses face smiles and simply puts on another mask and continues as if nothing had ever happened. he is still a good monastic. and much worse. Therefore. They have maintained this and other cultural precepts.” No shame.” You would know that this is a “mission impossible. Shame and Shyness The Hindu monastic has special disciplines in regard to remorse. as the buddhist monastic orders are still influential throughout Asia. as is so often portrayed on American television. repentance or reconciliation is shown by such people. If he shows no remorse. I get along beautifully with all of my brothers. living a personal life. The meditations are going fine. so that he himself would . some of which are not outgrowths of a monastic community.CHAPtER 11: REMORSE AND MODEStY 63 which is based on buddhist precepts. everything is all right with me. he is an impostor. avoiding confrontation and obscuring that which is obvious to himself with a smile and the words. modesty or shame for misdeeds for long periods of time. The saying goes. “Yes. the abbot of the monastery would know that he is suppressing many things. Humility. If he doesn’t.” and that it is time to effect certain tests to break up the nest of the enjoyable routine and of keeping out of everybody’s way. as it actually happens all the time in public life. hrî is an integral part of the culture of Japan. even though he continues apparently in the performance of no misdeeds. but just doing one’s job and keeping out of trouble.

This is a façade which covers the soul. to meet and deal with situations on equal terms. wise person may develop the same qualities of being bashful. they are qualities that one cannot act out. works his or her way into a stressful condition. they will intuitively know the proper timing for each action. forceful. Another side of hrî is being bashful. shy. or modesty. yes. qualities of the soul. and in the latter. both genders should be aggressive. since the equality of men and women has been announced as the way that men and women should be. in the East.64 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon see that his clever pride had led him to a spiritual standstill. A basically shy man or woman. Shyness used to be thought of as a feminine quality. but this is the world today. in the North and the South. This is seen today in the West. then. these qualities are the products of ignorance produced by underexposure. Remorse. at this time in the Kali yuga. unpretentious. if they are performing sâdhanas. A monastery is no place to settle down and live. certainly does not mean one must divorce oneself from the ability to move the forces . cautious. One must always live as if on the eve of one’s departure. they should be actively aggressive—but as actively passive and modest as well. because of their spiritual pursuits. they are the products of the wisdom or cleverness produced by overexposure. unpretentious. It is a place to be on one’s toes and advance. feeling he or she has to be aggressive. but not anymore. Obviously. If people are taught and believe that their spiritual pursuits are foremost. it certainly wouldn’t be the Kali Yuga. shy. producing stress in both men and women. The undeveloped person and the fully developed. I long ago found that stress in itself is a byproduct of not being secure in what one is doing. Genuine modesty and unpretentiousness are not what actors on the stage would portray. If everything that is happening were reasonable and could be easily understood. In the former.

Those who are bound by the past constantly remember the past and relive the emotions connected with it. And all this is made practical and permanent by subconscious journaling. being humble. which is not a weakness but a spiritual strength. vâsanâ daha tantra. of resolving situations when they do go wrong so that you can truly “get on with life” and not be bound by emotionally saturated memories of the past. This is true remorse. This is the potent Vedic hrî. It does mean that there is a way of being remorseful. Those who are free from the past remember the future and move the forces of all three worlds for a better life for themselves and for all mankind. or be a wimpy kind of impotent person. humility and modesty. . which releases creative energy and does not inhibit it.CHAPtER 11: REMORSE AND MODEStY 65 of the external world. showing shame. This is hrî.

Identify with the eternal You. smile and uplift others. body or emotions. rather than mind. live in constant gratitude for your health. happy. Keep the mountaintop view that life is an opportunity for spiritual progress. fulfilled and content in their simple life. seeking joy and serenity in life. your friends and your belongings. . be happy. Don’t complain about what you don’t possess. enjoying one another. Live in the eternal now.Three generations living at home.  Summary of the Second Observance Nurture contentment.

” “to be content. word or deed.CHAPtER 12: CONtENtMENt 67 T S Ov Contentment Santosha santaaeSa ONtENtMENt. Contentment is one of the most difficult qualities to obtain. noninjury. rage.” This joy we seek is the joy of fullness. spiritual life is not that way at all. how do we prActIce contentment? SImply do not hArm otherS by thoUght. permeates out through every cell of the physical body. Èsa Upanishad invocation. I would be content. IS the Second NiYama. and is well summed up within our food blessing mantra. From that fullness flows this world’s fullness. as santosha. Creation is fullness. from the Íukla Yajur Veda. The . saNTOsha. There I can live the serene life and have joyous experiences. you can sleep contentedly at night and experience santosha then and through the day. I must have a vacation and get away from it all. give me joy and serenity. and buys things to obtain—“oh. Life is meant to be lived joyously. lacking nothing. In fact. if I only had my house redecorated. yet that fullness remains full. This fullness issues from that fullness. Contentment is a quality that everyone wants. the mood of the soul. fear and anguish are the foremost qualities of the human temper and expression. a feeling of penitence. good for the soul. that it is good to suffer. “That is fullness. The existentialist would have you believe that depression. There is in much of the world the belief that life is a burden. AS A prActItioner of ahiµsâ.” “A new wardrobe would content me.” The dharmic way is to look within and bring out the latent contentment that is already there by doing nothing to inhibit its natural expression.

living within your income. and not unhappy over what you lack. be content with your friends. There are many frustrated souls on the path who torment themselves no end and walk around with long faces . The famous seeking more fame are not content.68 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon communists used to have us believe that joy and serenity as the outgrowth of religion are just an opiate of the people. contentment. being content with what you have does not mean you cannot discriminate and seek to progress in life. protect your health if it is good. The learned seeking more knowledge are not content. and discontentment is a reflection of externalized consciousness and ramified desire. be it a small amount or a large amount. The rich seeking more riches are not content. and there is not much you can do about it. basically. Contentment is working within your means with what is available to you. a narcotic of unreality. It does mean you should not become upset while you are striving toward your goals. santosha. It is a valuable treasure. your family life and your business. bear up under ailments and be thankful that they are not worse than they are. trusted companions. be content with your money. It doesn’t mean you should not use your willpower and fulfill your plans. The Íaivite Hindu perspective is that contentment is a reflection of centeredness. frustrated or unhappy if you do not get what you want. is freedom from desire gained by redirecting the forces of desire and making a beautiful life within what one already has in life. be loyal to those who are your long-time. The Semitic religions of the Near East would have us believe that suffering is good for the soul. Maintaining joy and serenity in life means being content with your surroundings. be they meager or lavish. The best striving is to keep pushing along the natural unfoldment of positive trends and events in your life. be content with your health. being grateful for what you have.

. overcoming changeableness and indecision. Proceed with confidence. Contentment is there.” how will they get anywhere? That is not the idea of santosha. the greater the challenges you can face and still remain quiet on the inside. Watch carefully what you think and how you express it through words. never practice deception. They have set goals of Self Realization for themselves far beyond their abilities to immediately obtain. So. Above all. peaceful and content. Therefore. If people say. word or deed. It is a spiritual power. true santosha is seeing all-pervasiveness of the one divine power everywhere. “I am not going to do anything that will not make me peaceful or that will threaten my peace of mind. inside you. All of these restraints must be captured and practiced within the lifestyle before the natural contentment. Keeping Peace in the Home Santosha is the goal. and needs to be brought out. not entering into debt. dharma. being tolerant with people and circumstance. of the soul can shine forth. the pure. cruel or insensitive to other people’s feelings. The light within the eyes of each person is that divine power. not being callous. refraining from lying. good conduct. the santosha. Maintain a vegetarian diet for purity and clarity of mind. Don’t eat too much. yes. serene nature. poised like a hummingbird hovering over a flower.CHAPtER 12: CONtENtMENt 69 because they estimate they are not unfolding spiritually fast enough. remains the director of how you should act and respond to fulfill your karma. With this in mind. failure is an impossibility. This goal is attainable by following the ten Vedic restraints: not harming others by thought. the practice to attain santosha is to fulfill the yamas. The stronger you are in santosha. Santosha is being peaceful in any situation. but know that contentment really transcends worrying about the challenges that face you. do what makes you content. you can go anywhere and do anything.

and who is hurt but themselves? it’s amazing how quickly people shape up their behavior when they sign a contract. it’s just between ourselves and the deity. not far away a young couple laughing among themselves with their children. having inflections in our voice that are hurtful to others. The wonderful thing about hinduism is that we don’t let off steam at home. when they get a job in a corporate office. When we start being too casual at home and letting off steam. This is the way it should be within the home. thus inhibiting their own education. we must control the home. and everyone understands. control . The hindu temple allows the individual to let off steam but it is a controlled situation. everyone lets off a little steam. all at the same time. They read the manual. a woman worshiper crying in a corner. the ceremony. and nearby someone else arguing with the Gods. We may think the rest of the family understands. controlled by the pûjâs.” My answer is don’t let off steam in the home. They behave in a way in the classroom that they would not in a corporate office. we let our emotions pour out within the hindu temple. The home is a sanctuary of the entire family. Young people also let off steam in school. feelings get hurt. We break up the vibration of the home. the priesthood. in a hindu temple there may be. so as to not make more karma in this life by saying things we don’t mean. but they don’t. it should have an even higher standard of propriety than the office. we say things that perhaps we shouldn’t.70 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon i was asked by a cyberspace cadet among our internet congregation. “Where do we let off steam? Mom works. the kids are in school. The home should be maintained at a higher standard than the corporate office. they obey it and they are nice to everyone. The hindu temple is the place where we can relate to the Gods and the Goddesses and express ourselves within ourselves. and when everyone comes home. dad works. the factory or the corporate workplace.

must be alive in the office. a very bitter person in retirement. eventually destroying the home. but not so exquisitely at home. . the husband or wife or teenager. so that there is something inviting to come home to. then. behave exquisitely in the workplace. must be alive in the temple.CHAPtER 12: CONtENtMENt 71 ourselves in the workplace. through the years. after all. no one wants to have him in their home. the professional father. and he dies forgotten. Therefore. and then go home and upset the vibration within the home. professionals. for us to have a full life. it is making a lot of really bad karma that will come back in its stronger reaction later on in life for someone. We have seen so many times. That’s why i advise the professional mother. why is someone working? it’s to create the home. it is counterproductive to work all day in a nice office. within the temple. the professional son and the professional daughter to use in the home the same good manners that are learned in the workplace. to upset the vibration of the home because of stress at school or in the workplace. and we have seen. men and women. Why is someone going to school? it’s to eventually create a home. breaking up the home. keep the home at a higher vibration of culture and protocol than the workplace. he winds up in some nursing home. do we vent our emotions. upset the home vibration. and include the temple in our lives as a place to release our emotions and regain our composure. The sanâtana dharma and Íaiva samayam must be alive in the home. it is counterproductive to destroy that which one works all day to create. Where. a very unhappy person in retirement. if not in our own home? The answer is. where do we let off steam. no one wants him around. control the emotions and be productive. and build the vibration of the home even stronger than the vibration of the workplace.

Feed and give to those in need. offering one-tenth of your gross income (daßamâµßa) as God’s money. Approach the temple with offerings. treat guests as God.a well-to-do woman takes joy in giving food and clothing to needy neighbors in a selfless act of dâna. to temples. giving liberally without thought of reward. tithe.  Summary of the Third Observance be generous to a fault. . Donate religious literature. bestow your time and talents without seeking praise. ashrams and spiritual organizations. Visit gurus with gifts in hand.

IS the thIrd greAt relIgIoUS prActIce. is a worthy form of dâna—giving God’s money to a religious institution to fulfill with it God’s work.” The law of karma will return it to you full measure at an appropriate and most needed time. and the fullness that exists afterwards are all a part of dâna. neighbors and business associates. but the most important factor is “without thought of reward. the faster it will return. It IS ImportAnt to remember thAt gIvIng freely of one’S goodS In fUlfillIng needS. Dâna is often translated as “charity. mitigates selfishness. The word fulfillment might describe dâna better. mAKIng Someone happy or putting a smile on his face. greed.chApter 13: gIvIng 73 T T Ov Giving Dâna dana IvIng. DÅNA. The devotee who practices dâna knows fully that “you cannot give anything away. ten . The fulfillment of giving that wells up within the giver as the gift is being prepared and as the gift is being presented and released. gives freely to relatives. One who is really fulfilling dâna gives daßamâµßa. all without thought of reward.” The reward of joy and the fullness you feel is immediate as the gift passes from your two hands into the outstretched hands of the receiver. Daßamâµßa.” but charity in modern context is a special kind of giving by those who have to those who have not. tithing. children. friends. too. never goes to visit a friend or relative with empty hands. What is the proportionate giving after daßamâµßa. This is not the true spirit of dâna. avarice and hoarding. or NiYama. the fulfillment of the expectancy of the receiver or the surprise of the receiver. The freer the gift is given.

but such gifts are cold. If one were to take a hard look at the true spirit of dâna in today’s society. is also a true expression of dâna. He is a dancer. for the guest is treated as God. Hospitality and Fullness Hospitality is a vital part of fulfilling dâna. This is also an obligatory giving. giving after the tax deductions are received and with no material benefits or rewards of any kind other than the fulfillment of giving is considered by the wise to be a true expression of dâna. you know. and you must never leave your guest thirsty. the rich giving to religious institutions for a tax deduction are certainly giving with a thought of reward. That would be fifteen percent. and the law of karma pays discounted returns. When guests come. He will come as a guest to your home. Making something with one’s own hands. and dancers wear many costumes. You must never leave your guest standing. Many families barter their way through life in this way. Therefore. at least a mat to sit on and a glass of water to drink. which would be equally divided between cash and kind if someone wanted to discipline his dâna to that extent. It would be another two to five percent of one’s gross income. God Íiva’s veiling grace hides Íiva as He dresses in many costumes. mere barter. they must be given hospitality. giving in kind. approximately one sixth. of course.74 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon percent. unrecognizable. Giving a gift begrudgingly in return for another gift is. which is the makimai established in South India by the chettiar community around the palani temple and now practiced by the Malaka Chettiars of Malaysia. thinking they are giving. These are obligatory gifts. He will politely refuse three times and accept on the fourth invitation. he must be asked four times to stay for the meal. If a guest were to smell even one whiff from the kitchen of the scented curries of a meal being prepared. You might think it is your . the fulfillment is empty. has been deducted.

The wheels of karma grind slowly but exceedingly well the grains of actions. counting out coins. your ability. in the astral world. You can give according to your means. It is the foundation and the life . If you see a need that you can fill and have the impulse to give but recoil from giving. a tray of fruit. When the fullness has reached its peak within you while preparing the gift. be they in thought. Giving to Íiva Íiva’s own creation in your mind brings the highest rewards through the law of karma. because you know the law of karma. there will be someone who has the impulse to give to you but will recoil from giving. be it arranging a bouquet of freshly picked flowers. too. looking for no rewards. Gifts within your means and from your heart are the proper gifts. This is not a selfish form of giving. that karma will still pay you back with full interest and dividends. you can still practice it. when you are in need. It is the giving of the wise. is Íiva in another costume. That. The practice of dâna is an investment in a better life. then you know that the gift is within your means. because you know the sanâtana Dharma—the divine. sorting a pile of bills or putting zeros on a check that you’re writing. but you are giving for a purpose. Even if you think you are giving creatively. an investment that pays great dividends. eternal laws. So. No matter how poor you are. and for a good birth in the next incarnation. The Selfish and Miserly The virtue of dâna deals with the pragmatic physical transference of cash or kind.chApter 13: gIvIng 75 dear friend from a far-off place. generously. later. one can be quite selfish and greedy about wanting to practice dâna to accumulate the pu∫ya for the balance of this life. your inspiration. the life in-between lives. We are not limited by our poverty or wealth in practicing giving. This is a positive use of the law of karma. emotion or those of a physical nature. and you must treat that guest as Íiva. It pays higher interest than any bank.

and to ease their own conscience. I’ll wash the pots. preparing his hot meal. Shall we say that the perfection of dâna precedes seva. In an orthodox hindu home. patience. the traditional wife will follow the practice of arising in the morning before her husband. to overcome this selfishness. helping out in every way he can. in this. many people rationalize. preparing his lunch.76 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon blood of any other form of religious giving. There is no merit. seeing that everyone is fed first before he eats. only demerit. No. We would say he is still trying to work on the restraints—compassion.” basically. doing things for others would be the practice. but who just takes care of “number one”? For instance. if living with ten people. it’s just the other way around. moderate appetite—and has not yet arrived at number three on the chart of the practices called niyamas. such as giving of one’s time. he will cook for himself and not cook for the others. they have nothing better to do with their time. He gets situations confused. service? What can be said of someone who is all wrapped up in his personal self: concealing his personal ego with a pleasant smile. “I’ll give my time to the temple. this niyama. to tithe ten percent of his time. egotistical. sexual purity. but I can’t afford to give of my limited wealth proportionate to what would be total fulfillment of giving. no pu∫ya. Modern psychology would categorize him as self-centered. soft words. performing anonymous acts of kindness at every opportunity. serving him and eating only after he is finished. assuming he gets the restraints in order. serving him . entertains mental arguments within himself and is always worried about the progress in his religious life. selfish. will then be able and willing to give of his time. they volunteer a little work. gentle deeds. scrub the floor and tidy up. pâpa. and then give time over and above that to religious and other worthy causes. One who has perfected dâna in cash and in kind and is satisfied within this practice.

to tithe and give creatively without thought of reward. Such domineering. preparing his dinner. Great souls have always taught that. over and above daßamâµßa. into Íaivite culture. greeting and giving namaskâra to the Sun is a part of Íaivite culture. Many Ways of Giving There are so many ways of giving. This is built into Hindu society. over and above all giving to his institution. even if he returns home late. given no things to give. All too often. by giving to the satguru. giving to the astrologer. giving dakshi∫â to a swâmî or a satguru for his support. three times a day. but many are not. over and above giving to the temple. makes her husband magnetic and successful in his worldly affairs. disallowed to practice dâna. you must satisfy yourself in equal fullness in giving back. for he has no needs except the need to practice dâna. The divine law is that the wife’s ßakti power. you give him the satisfaction of giving to another. Giving to her husband is her fulfillment. You can give money or food and provide for the physical . If the satguru has satisfied you with the fullness of his presence. among all the forms of giving. giving to the teacher. Dâna is built into all aspects of Hindu life—giving to the holy man. serving him and eating after he is finished. they are held down. once released. too.chApter 13: gIvIng 77 and eating after he is finished. imparting the spiritual teachings is the highest. He knows from tradition that to release this ßakti he must always fulfill all of the needs of his beloved wife and give her generously everything she wants. embarrassed and treated almost like domestic slaves—given no money. Arising before the Sun comes up. Wives should be allowed by their husbands to perform giving outside the home. miserly and ignorant males will get their just due in the courts of karma at the moment of death and shortly after. You can be happily fat as these two fullnesses merge within you. and their wealth accumulates.

but if you can find a way to give the dharma. Many pieces of that literature changed the lives of individuals and brought them into a great fullness of soul satisfaction. Another wise person said. as he did not want to assume any additional karma by receiving more than the worth of his predictions. is the highest giving. then you are giving to the spirit of the person. There was an astrologer who when given more than his due for a jyotisha consultation would always give the excess to a nearby temple.” A gourmet once said. because I can’t receive the dâna coming from that source of sadness. Along with the gift comes a portion of the karma of the giver.” Giving is also a way of balancing karma. Another group in the United States gave away . An electric-shock blessing would go out from them at the peak of their fulfillment and fill the hearts of all the givers. This is the great spirit of anna yajñâ. according to the fullness I have received as fullness from the temple. to the soul. of expressing gratitude for blessings received. the illumined wisdom of the traditions of the sanâtana Dharma. Wealthy men in India will feed twenty thousand people in the hopes that one enlightened soul who was truly hungry at that time might partake of this dâna and the ßakti that arises within him at the peak of his satisfaction will prepare for the giver a better birth in his next life. as well as for the receiver. A devotee explained. Many Hindus buy religious literature to give away. It would affect my family. Giving through education is a glorious fulfillment for the giver. “I don’t do the antyesh†i saµskâra. pieces of literature in a twenty-month period. Several groups in Malaysia and Mauritius gave away over . giving wisdom. “I cannot leave the restaurant until I give gratuity to the waiter equaling the . because jñâna dâna. “I cannot leave the temple without giving to the hu∫∂i. funeral rites. offering box. feeding the masses.78 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon aspects of the being. pieces of literature in the same period.

to worry about. Dâna is cooking for the entire group and not just for a few or for oneself alone. to other institutions. contentment—told how beautiful they are when they are quiet and experiencing the joy of serenity. Children should be taught giving at a very young age. even babies. to holy ones.chApter 13: gIvIng 79 satisfaction I felt from the service he gave. sâdhakas. true. but that is fulfillment of their vrata. because they are not employed and have no income. Little children. this is giving. For them. in thanks to him for being the channel of their prârabdha karmas and helping them in the next step of their spiritual unfoldment. dâna is giving the unexpected in unexpected ways—serving tea for seven days to the tyrannical sâdhu that assisted them by causing an attack of â∫ava. they are giving all of their time. they are not giving daßamâµßa. of course. teach or pass on what they have learned are still in the . to their parents. How Monks Fulfill Dâna It is very important for sâdhus.” This is dâna. can be taught dâna—giving to the temple. sannyâsins. the yamas. They don’t yet have the ten restraints. within them. in order to go further. to one another. any mendicant under vows. Dâna is making an unexpected wreath of sacred leaves and flowers for one’s guru and giving it at an unexpected time. in a different form. swâmîs. recitation and. Hearing oneself speak the divine teachings and being uplifted and fulfilled by filling up and uplifting others allows the budding adept to go through the next portal. to perform dâna. of personal ego. They have not been corrupted by the impact of their own prârabdha karmas. Those who have no desire to counsel others. according to their means. Institutions should also give. They can be taught worship. true. When one has reached an advanced stage on the spiritual path. the law requires giving back what one has been given.

until they are finally able to release the sanâtana Dharma from their own lips. yogîs and swâmîs. consoling. through counseling. The dâna sâdhana. Advaita Èßvaravâda. ßakti. compacted. They are the catalysts not only of this adult generation. wisdom. because they are so filled up. monistic Íaiva siddhânta. sâdhus. for wisdom is the timely application of knowledge. and of children and the generations yet to come. but the one before it still living. locked in. it still oozes out and runs over. of course. teaching sanâtana Dharma and the only one final conclusion. as they have no cash. is a fulfillment and completion of the cycle of learning for every monastic. are those who pass on the sanâtana Dharma. Those who are filled up with the divine truths. spirit.80 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon learning stages themselves. is to practice dâna in kind. but rather that he uses his philosophical knowledge in a timely way according the immediate needs of the listener. bolt-of-lightening outpouring. as a natural outgrowth of their spirituality. for sâdhakas. This does not mean that he mouths indiscriminately what he has been told and memorized. traumatically dealing with one or more of the restraints and practices. The passing on of jñâna. in whom when that fullness is pressed down. . physical doing.

chApter 13: gIvIng 81 .

a man’s car stalls as a train approaches.  Summary of the Fourth Observance cultivate an unshakable faith. trust in the words of the masters. and Íiva. Avoid doubt and despair. helps him escape to safety. Practice devotion and sâdhana to inspire experiences that build advanced faith. one with your satguru. be loyal to your lineage. nearby. Shun those who try to break your faith by argument and accusation. the scriptures and traditions. believe firmly in God. . Gods. guru and your path to enlightenment. he holds to his faith.

faith can just as readily be destroyed. because of faith. we can see that a clear intellectual understanding of the philosophy is the bedrock to sustaining faith. good natured humoring. groups of people are drawn together. or of those who have little faith. praise. mInd molecUleS. color and sound. Therefore. the pure soul of the individual begins to shine forth. Faith in philosophy. remain together. astronomy. personal example. IS the foUrth NiYama. cling together. we must say. A collectIon of molecUleS. raising their children together in the substance of faith that their collective group is subconsciously committed to uphold. a system of government. as the following phrases indicate: crisis of faith. Many people with more faith than intellect are pawns in the hands of those who hold great faith. made into an astral form of shape. We have faith in a person. the most rewarding of all faiths. intermarry and give birth. because once it is sustained in unbroken continuity. or take it away by the opposite methods. flattery. Faith is on many levels and of many facets. or of those who have no faith at all. religion. science. Faith . dark night of the soul. emotIon molecUleS—And Some Are even phySIcal—collected together. being a creation built up over time. fAIth IS A SUbStAnce.chApter 14: fAIth 83 T F Ov Astikya Aaˆstakya AIth. is the most tenuous and delicate kind and. charged with the energies of the Divine and the anxieties of the undivine. Anyone can strengthen another’s faith through encouragement. ÅSTIKYA. loss of faith. and just plain confused disappointment leading to depression. a family. adulation. astrology.

but are entranced by the spiritual leader in whom they have faith as a personality. too. read not and are not thinking. the hedonists. They are also with eyes closed. who make up much of the world population today. the teachings of all the seers. blind faith. This is a sorry lot. the sensualists. because what he sees and has seen becomes stronger in his mind as the years go by. Faith Is on Many Levels Faith extends to another level. who are disappointed in people.84 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon faith has eyes. discouragement and confusion. Then there are those who have faith with their eyes closed. left and right. They see mostly the darker side of life. We have the faith of those who have two eyes upraised. the pornographers and their customers. and building the aura of faith within their inner psyche. philosophies. shaking left and right. of pleasure for the sake of pleasure. Their leaders they condemn. It has three eyes. religions. governments. And then we have the others. There is also the faith of those who have two eyes lowered. God Himself. Their home is the halls of depression. The seer who is looking at the world from the perspective of monistic Íaiva siddhânta and sees clearly the final conclusions for all mankind has faith in his perception. They are reading the scriptures. but with heads down. and gain strength from His every word. systems. They are nodding their head up and down on his every word and when questioned are not able to adequately explain even one or two of his profound thoughts. All these groups have developed their own individual mindset and mix and interrelate among themselves. They look at the seer as dakshi∫âmûrti. Here we have the jet-set. They are those who have no faith at all or suffer a semi-permanent loss of faith. emotion and belief that we call faith creates their attitudes toward . They know not. Their upliftment is jealousy and anger. as the astral molecules of this amorphous substance of thought.

another philosophy. the third eye flashing. unbeknownst to their leader and maybe never even recorded in the scriptures. because their eyes are closed. The only embarrassing situation. does not manifest. the bhajanas are long and the food is good. guru and the path to enlightenment. more than often. Devotees of this kind. who are looking up at the scriptures. a family force. for it gives courage to all to apply these twenty yamas and niyamas. Gods. Then. who are called “groupies” in rock and roll. When that uplifted face with eyes closed has the spiritual experience of the eyes opening. they are off to another leader. “Do my sâdhana for me” is their plea. philosophy to philosophy. it can be taken away. Some people have faith only when things are going right and lose faith when things go wrong. a group force.chApter 14: fAIth 85 the world. traditional lineage of verbal teaching. a crisis of faith occurs. And when some inconsistency arises or some expectation. and now be on the . and manipulatively opening the door of another group. And it is more than that. a community force. It can be given. the rent is not expensive. they are seeking to be sustained and constantly uplifted by others. which has to be manipulated. which represent the final conclusions of the deepest deliverers of eternal wisdom who ever resided on this planet. whom they really do not know. is admonished by the sapta ®ishis themselves to believe firmly in God. The Hindu. go from group to group. he or she would have then found at last his or her sampradâya. lest he stray from the path of dharma—for faith is a powerful force. These are the ones who are looking up at their leaders. which can be translated as the “eternal faith. as far as the sanâtana Dharma is concerned. It is a national force. is the tactic of leaving one group without totally closing the door. therefore. which they really do not understand.” the most strengthening and illuminating of all. teacher to teacher. Fortunately for them. other people and their possessions. to inevitably repeat the same experience.

The soul comes forth from Lord Íiva as an embryo and progresses through three stages (avasthâ) of existence: kevala avasthâ. the first aspect of Lord Íiva’s concealing grace.86 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon unshakable path. The last period is arul pâda. “stage of confusion. “stage of grace. the soul seeking to know its true nature. masters of the philosophy. the next stage in the soul’s journey.” when the soul yearns for the grace of . They shall never turn back. under the additional powers of mâyâ and karma. because they have seen through the third eye the beginning and ending of the path.” where the soul’s impetus is toward pâßa-jñânam. This is called paßu-jñânam. knowledge and experience of the world. The next period is marul pâda. During kevala avasthâ. Sakala avasthâ. the second and third aspects of the Lord’s concealing grace. “stage of darkness. the traditional lineage ordained to carry them forth generation after generation. they can share their molecules with others and mold others’ faith molecules into traditional standards of the whys and wherefores that we all need on this planet. the soul is likened to a seed hidden in the ground or a spark of the Divine hidden in a cloud of unknowing called â∫ava. Stages of Evolution Faith is the intellect of the soul at its various stages of unfoldment. The first is called irul pâda. tirodhâna ßakti. Their faith is so strong. The journey through sakala avasthâ is also in three stages. the cyclic evolution through transmigration from body to body. of how we should believe and think. where we go when we die. These souls become the articulate ones.” where the soul begins to take account of its situation and finds itself caught between the world and God. and all the eternal truths of the ultimate attainments of mankind. The molecules of faith have been converted and secured. not knowing which way to turn. the primal fetter of individuality. sakala avasthâ and ßuddha avasthâ. is the period of bodily existence.

A balance emerges in his life. but it is this faith in the unseen. Now it has begun its true religious evolution with the constant aid of the Lord. illogical. is easing its hold. the unknown. tenaciously binding. Whether he is conscious of it or not. the karmas of ignorance which must be gone through for the wisdom to emerge. tormenting him through battering experiences. wherein faith becomes faith in oneself. Whereas in negative. The marul pâda is very binding and tenacious. called iruvinaioppu. Yoga brings the soul into its next experiential pattern. This grows into a state called malaparipakam. Thus. because it is here that the karmas are made that bind the soul. Its “still small voice” falls on deaf ears. faith is primitive. And â∫ava. his self-centered nature. he is bringing the three malas—â∫ava. life always seems to take a positive turn. surround the soul. only primitive faith and instinctive mind and body. even if they are wrong. close friends and associates. the .chApter 14: fAIth 87 God. irul. he turns toward the good and holy. the soul exercises itself in its own endeavor to break through. Someone who is wise got that way by facing up to all the increments of ignorance. Karma no longer controls his state of mind. the words of the elders and its ability to adjust to community without ruffling everyone’s feathers that matures the soul to the next pâda—marul. It is not very quickly that the soul gets out of this syndrome. unvirtuous acts he slowly becomes lost in a foreboding abyss of confusion. in faith. Mâyâ is less and less an enchanting temptress. The soul comes to find that if he performs good and virtuous deeds. There is no intellect present in this young soul. faith in one’s intellectual remembrance of the opinions of others. For the soul in darkness. allowing him to feel a more universal compassion in life. but as the external shell of â∫ava is being built. In its childlike endeavors it clings to this faith. karma and mâyâ—under control.

has accomplished its work and gives way to anugraha. revealing grace. for he sheds the same clear. The outer descent of grace is the appearance of a satguru. and Lord Murugan is in the heart of it. It is the threshold of ßuddha avasthâ. At this stage. in the center. It is when the soul has reached malaparipakam that the Lord’s tirodhâna function. occurs. for those experiences that are being explained to others were actually lived through by the person himself. More and more. Faith in Tradition The intellect in its capacity to contain truth is a very limited tool. and the descent of grace. This is no mystery. of Íiva. arul to set in. ßaktinipâta. What we remember of it all and the portions that have been forgotten may be greatly beneficial to those listening. but it is certainly . is really better understood through faith than through intellectual reasoning. Lord ga∫eßa is at the bottom. he wants to devote himself to all that is spiritual and holy. at the right moment in his life. accommodating and embracing faculty. ßaktinipâta. knowledge comes unbidden. the intellect is built upon what we hear and remember. what we experience and remember. This is known as the descent of grace. The mystery of life and beyond life. while faith is a very broad. Nevertheless. There is no question as to who he is. Insights into human affairs are mere readings of past experiences. Its refined ability to juggle information around is uncanny in some instances. This will allow. spiritual vibration as that unknown something the soul feels emanating from his deepest self. The internal descent is recognized as a tremendous yearning for Íiva. or it may be confusing. Lord Íiva is at the top.88 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon ripening of the malas. His concealing grace. The intellect is a memory/reason conglomerate from the lower nâ∂î/chakra complex. what we explain to others who are refined or gross in reasoning faculties.

more vividly than something read from a book. stage of confusion. of their soul in the ßuddha avasthâ. building a new intellect from superconscious insights. stage of darkness. yogîs and ®ishis who have had similar experiences and have spoken about them in similar ways. instead of thinking that today’s negative experience is outside the process. from some deep. unbidden flashes of intuition. revelations or visions. unedited by the ignorant. so that when one is going through an experience. for it is themself. It is difficult and nearly impossible for those in the marul pâda. We.chApter 14: fAIth 89 not truth with a capital “t. therefore. The second aspect of faith is in one’s own spiritual. it is not possible for souls in the irul pâda. However. to trust in the process of anything except their need for food. It is just who they are at this stage of the evolution. inner or higher source. can have faith that some truth was revealed from within themselves.” There are two kinds of faith. which one remembers even stronger as the months go by. These are the old souls of the ßuddha avasthâ. superconscious intellect when verified by what yogîs and ®ishis and the sâdhus have seen and heard and whose explanations centuries have preserved. the maturation. a few bodily comforts and their gaining the abilities to adjust transparently into a community without committing too many crimes for which they would be severely punished. adepts. Their faith is unshakable. unsought-for. to have faith in the process . seen on television or heard from a friend or a philosopher. These personal revelations create a new. The first kind is faith in those masters. undaunted. Another is trust in the process of spiritual unfoldment. one always believes that the process is happening. One of the aspects of faith is the acceptance of tradition rather than the questioning or doubting of traditions. being educated from within out. They gain their lessons through the action-and-painful-reaction ways.

because they are developing their personal ego. one who is pious and faithful. stand out strongly in his mind. Faith is the spiritualintellectual mind. that the ability will come from within to lean on the past and on tradition. The Sanskrit word âstikya means “that which is. They will listen to sermons with a deaf ear and. perform the present sâdhanas. bad and mixed.” Thus. forward into the future. live within dharma and carve a future for themselves and others by bringing the best of the past. not through reason.” The scientists and the educators of today live in the marul pâda. manufacturing karmas. which is tradition. after they are over. as he enters the arul pâda. the stage of grace. developed through many superconscious insights blended together through cognition. Åstikya refers to one who believes in what is.” or “that which exists. “Seeing is believing. good. truth now has a capital “t” and is always told. It is only when the soul reaches the maturity to enter the arul pâda. are similar in nature. even the wisdom their grandparents might hold. spiritual practices.” A more profound adage is “believing is seeing. for Hindus faith means believing in what is. . There is an old saying favored by practical. because they are firmly impressed as saµskâras within the inner mind. The great knowledge of the past tradition. The restraints. is an encroachment on their proud sovereignty. They see with their two eyes and pass judgments based on what they currently believe. Now. We can see that these two words. experiential intellectuals.90 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon of spiritual unfoldment and trust in tradition. enjoy the food and the idle chatter the most. to sustain their physical existence for hundreds of lives. faith and âstikya. They will read books on philosophy and rationalize their teachings as relevant only to the past. truly have been perfected and are a vital part of the DNA system of individual living beings. the yamas. The insights do not have to be remembered. the niyamas. This transition is a happy one.

India. This is sampradâya. . This is the end of this upadeßa. This is truth. This is ßuddha. the Americas.chApter 14: fAIth 91 The ®ishis of the past and the ®ishis of the now and those yet to come in the future also are seers. Africa. the eye of the soul. It is with the third eye. Polynesia and all the countries of the world connecting seers and what they have seen. This is guru-ßishya transference. One cannot erase through argument or coercion that which has been seen. The seer relates his seeing to the soul of the one who hears. japan. england and all of Europe. This seeing is not with the two eyes. There is a thin thread through the history of china.

worship. Set aside one room of your home as God’s shrine. clearing the inner channels to God. Gods and guru so their grace flows toward you and loved ones. Worship in heartfelt devotion. Meditate after each pûjâ.hands raised in adoration during a pûjâ. . Offer fruit. Visit your shrine before and after leaving the house. flowers or food daily. Learn a simple pûjâ and the chants. a devotee venerates Ga∫eßa in an act of Èßvarapûjana.  Summary of the Fifth Observance Cultivate devotion through daily worship and meditation.

its return to the source is more imminent than actual.” A young man may likewise be conceited about his looks or physique. In the lASt AnAlySIS. When they are matured and stepping into adolescence in the marul pâda. The small thread of intuition keeps assuring them it is there. In the irul pâda. IS the fiFtH NiYama. seek to be close to Him and see Him as oh-so-far away. People here will worship almost anything to get out of this predicament. The soul’s evolution from its conception is based solely on Èßvarapûjana. the stage of darkness. the return to the source. There is a natural seeking on the way up. let US declAre. and the absence of a matured intellect developed by superconscious experience. thAt hUmAn lIfe IS eIther worShIp or wArShIp. but is tied closely to . through worship. bound in blind faith. where confusion prevails. The brief explanation for Èßvarapûjana is to cultivate devotion through daily worship and meditation. worship and the trappings and traditions that go with it seem to be primitive. they struggle out of their shell of ignorance. hIgher nAtUre or lower nAtUre. unreasonable and can all well be dispensed with. we need say no more. The burning desire is there. It is here that a young lady looks into the mirror and says. They call God. within their reach if they but strive. but we will. they fear God. driven by the instinctive feelings and emotions of living within the seven chakras below the mûlâdhâra.chApter 15: worShIp 93 T Ff Ov Worship Èßvarapûjana W◊rpaUjana orShIp. “What a fine person! I am more beautiful than all the other girls I know. ÈÍVaraP¨ Jana. to a better life. Worship still exists. with the absence of a coherent intellect guided by reason.

the entire family together worships images of Gods. specific. because they feel they don’t have enough train- . children worship their father and mother as God and Goddess because they love them. The family goes to the temple daily. Worship could be defined as communication on a very high level: a truly sophisticated form of “channeling. traditional rites of worship. looking up. We can conclude that in sanâtana Dharma faith is in what Is. clairvoyant or clairaudient experience. and on its doorstep that true worship arises. creates the attitudes for the action of worship. and in the Abrahamic religions faith is in what Is yet to be. blending with.94 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon narcissism. Faith.” as New-Age people might say. external worship is internalized. the final conclusions for all mankind. which is invoking and opening up to the great beings. communication. Worship for the Hindu is on many levels and of many kinds. Rites of Worship Many people are afraid to do pûjâ. as the ordinary person would describe it. arul. as mystics would describe it. It is only in the stage of grace. In the home. In the shrine room. attends seasonal festivals and takes a far-off pilgrimage once a year. beseeching them as their dear friends. or at least once a week. The wife worships her husband as a god. God. The husband worships his wife as a Goddess. in order to commune with them. or heart-felt love interchanged between Deity and devotee. worship. âstikya. We can see that from the soul’s conception to its fullness of maturity into the final merger with God Íiva Himself. On a deeper level. Gods and devas. This form of worship leads into yoga and profound mystical experiences. worshiping God within through meditation and contemplation. Goddesses and saints. Worship is the binding force that keeps the Hindu family together. is truly monistic Íaiva siddhânta.

sons. However. unlike the western religions. earth. incense. In the hindu religion. called dîkshâ. His efficaciousness can equal that of the most advanced Sanskrit ßâstrî. He may start with the mantra Aum and learn a few more mantras as he goes along. fire and water—and your own mind is âkâßa. aunts. Devotees of this caliber have come up in Hindu society throughout the ages with natural powers to invoke the Gods and manifest in the lives of temple devotees many wondrous miracles. Mothers. flowers. There is also an informal order of priests called pa∫∂ara.chApter 15: worShIp 95 ing or don’t understand the mystical principles behind it well enough. in the late 1950s. a bell and a stone. The liturgy is simply chanting “Aum. Years ago. People of any religion can . a small candle. air. as the Hindu home is considered to be nothing less than an extension of the nearby temple. or to train them to perform home pûjâ and give them permission to do so through initiation. Mahâdevas and devas. there is no one who stands between man and God. to this concern I would say that the priesthood in Hinduism is sincere. all may perform pûjâ within their own home. the fifth element. simplest form of pûjâ at a simple altar with fresh water. which is essentially the self-appointed priest who is accepted by the community to perform pûjâs at a sacred tree. Love and dedication and the outpouring from the highest chakras of spiritual energies of the lay devotee are often greater than any professional priest could summon within himself. I taught beginning seekers how to offer the minimal. Most Hindus depend on the priests to perform the pûjâs and sacraments for them. simple pûjâs may be performed by anyone wishing to invoke grace from God. a simple shrine or an abandoned temple.” This is the generic pûjâ which anyone can do before proper initiation comes from the right sources. fathers. devout and dedicated. and do. This brings together the four elements. uncles. daughters. performing in the grandest temple.

the invocation calls up the demons rather than calling down the devas. maybe. deceptive dealings. back-biting. and their marriages nowadays often end in divorce. All Hindus have guardian devas who live on the astral plane and guide. Hindus also treat God as God and devas as Gods when they come to live permanently in the home. loved. Materialistic. One would not host an honored guest in one’s closet or have him or her sleep in the kitchen and expect the guest to feel welcome. appreciated. A room is set aside for these permanent unseen guests. All Hindus are taught from childhood that the guest is God. superficial Hindus feel that God might be living. or by contentious.96 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon perform Hindu pûjâ in this way. to him and the family. in their house. because when and if they do pûjâ. a room that the whole family can enter and sit in and commune inwardly with these refined beings who are dedicated to protecting the family generation after generation. They and all those who live in the lower nature are restricted from performing pûjâ. The asuric beings invoked into the home by angry people. Some of them are their own ancestors. mystical Hindu. who dedicates his home to God and sets a room aside for God. A token shrine in a bedroom or a closet or a niche in a kitchen is not enough to attract these Divinities. even rage. anger. guard and protect their lives. sometimes. These sects are responsible for producing a more materialistic and superficial group of followers. The great Mahâdevas in the temple that the devotees frequent send their deva ambassadors into the homes to live with the devotees. they are moving into God’s house and living with God. argumentative. Not so the deep. and they treat any guest royally who comes to visit. and into the temple by angry priests. but liberal sects of hinduism teach that god and devas are only figments of one’s imagination. sometimes rageful boards of . Their homes are fraught with confusion.

God. not just a token amount. in God’s house. but they do so by absorbing the prâ∫as. leave. ringing of bells or the chanting of any mantra. Gods and the devas do not always remain in the shrine room. other than the simple recitation of Aum. hurt feelings and more. the family would feed God in His own room at least three times a day. too. what kinds of attitudes does this create? First of all. based mainly on egoism. close the door and let God and His devas eat in peace. What is left on God’s plate is eaten as prasâda. but not the passing of flames. which is also your house. and after the family has eaten. guests and friends. It would only be a theoretical pretense. God and the devas do enjoy the food. Of course. This lays the foundation for finding God within. Simple waving of incense before the icons is permissible. worship. . take great satisfaction in creating more confusion and escalating simple misunderstandings into arguments leading to angry words. and regularly going to God’s temple. as a blessing. God should be served as much as the hungriest member of the family. the energies. of the food. Since the family is living in God’s house. place the food lovingly before His picture. living with Íiva. Living in God’s Home The ideal of Èßvarapûjana. When the meal is over. thirty-one days should pass to close the door on the chakras below the mûlâdhâra before pûjâ may again be performed by that individual. How can someone find God within if he doesn’t live in God’s house as a companion to god in his daily life? The answer is obvious. With this in mind. since family life is based around food. once anger is experienced. is to always be living with God. If one really believes that God is in his house. the voice of God is easily heard as their conscience. God’s plates are picked up.chApter 15: worShIp 97 directors. and God is not living in their house. listening to and observing the entire family. They wander freely throughout the house.

domineering elder? Or is it God Íiva Himself. humans. It is true that hindus do teach meditation techniques to . “Do we live with God. it is easy to see God as pure energy and life within every living form. or pictures of God and Goddesses on the vanity mirror of their dressing table. we are seeing God Íiva. the plants. is done in Íiva consciousness. but a state of being in which every act.98 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon When we are living in God’s house. When we try. immediately we are in higher consciousness and can reflect contentment and faith. Their shrine is a closet. This practice. the flowers. Many families are too selfish to set aside a room for God. two living rooms. just try—and we don’t have to be successful all the time—to separate the life of the individual from his personality. an unreligious. including elders. too. Though they have their personal libraries. or Lord Murugan or Lord ga∫eßa. This is Èßvarapûjana. The psychology and the decision and the religion is. the Earth. the fire. It is often said that worship is not only a performance at a certain time of day in a certain place. When we see this life. animals and all creatures. steadfastness and all the higher qualities. or does God occasionally visit us?” Who is the authority in the home. in which life becomes an offering to God. their superficial religion borders on a new Indian religion. compassion. bow down to because they have resigned themselves to the fact that they are living in the âßrama of Mahâdevas? This is religion. The results of such worship are nil. rumpus rooms. which is manifest most in living beings. of Èßvarapûjana sâdhana. which is sometimes not possible to do if we are only looking at the external person. can be performed all through the day and even in one’s dreams at night. and their life reflects the chaos that we see in the world today. ignorant. morning to night. Meditation. the trees. Then we can begin to see Íiva in everyone we meet. whom the entire family. in the Hindu way is based on worship. multiple bedrooms.

Then. after initiation. Yes. We have seen many devotees going through the form of worship with no communication with the God they are worshiping or even the stone that the God uses as a temporary body. breathing is irregular. a Hindu adept. even an experienced elder. Through that same internal worship. If you are worshiping properly. and worship can be dispensed with after a certain time. their minds are confused and subconscious overloads harass them. yet not in those places they rationalize God can never possibly be—contradicts their professed dedication to the Hindu way of life. internalize that worship through yoga practices given by a satguru. and if made regular has to be forced. Perfect this. ®ishi or jñânî. truly. It is based on a religious foundation. However. .chApter 15: worShIp 99 those who have Western backgrounds as a mind-manipulative experience. They are going through the motions because they have been taught that meditation is the ultimate. kriyâ and yoga paths. They don’t even have a smile on their face. you are in perfect meditation. Their materialistic outlook on life—of seeing God everywhere. if you take worship to its pinnacle. you will eventually attain the highest goal. These are the Íaiva siddhânta conclusions of the seven ®ishis who live within the sahasrâra chakra of all souls. Small wonder that when they are in meditation. as trigonometry is based on geometry. unreservedly. worship unreservedly. knows that meditation is a natural outgrowth of the charyâ. algebra and arithmetic.

a teacher passes along the gift of scriptural learning to four boys through recitation of holy scriptural texts. follow his path and don’t waste time exploring other ways. . listen to readings and dissertations by which wisdom flows from knower to seeker. Read. above all.  Summary of the Sixth Observance Eagerly hear the scriptures. the Vedas and Ågamas. Avoid secondary texts that preach violence. study and. Choose a guru. study the teachings and listen to the wise of your lineage. Revere and study the revealed scriptures.

We are free to study all of the sects and sampradâyas.” which are so multitudinous and still multiplying. prIor to thIS end. pseudo-sciences. WE ARE FREE tO StUDY ALL tHE scriptures of the world. materialism and the many other modern “-isms. Their spokesmen are many. secular humanism. before we come to the fullness of siddhânta ßrava∫a. the seeker. The seeker on the path of siddhânta ßrava∫a who is at least relatively successful . As for teachers. All the “-isms” and “-ologies” are there. IS the end of the SeArch. The methods of teaching are awesome in their multiplicity. everything under the banner of Hinduism—the Íaivites. manipulate their meanings and justify their final conclusions. and he is duty-bound to give a lengthy response from the window he is looking out of. humanism. all denominations. of all religions. the smârtas. Íâktas and Murugans and their branches. ways of behavior of the human species. ga∫apatis. psychiatries. ayyappans. and they beckon. Libraries are full of them. existentialism. ScrIptUrAl StUdy. the Vaish∫avites. the SIxth NiYama. Ask a simple question of an elder. sometimes even seize. of one or another sect within this great pantheon we call Hinduism.chApter 16: ScrIptUrAl StUdy 101 T Sx Ov Scriptural Study Siddhânta Írava∫a isa˝anta˛vaNa IDDHÅNTA ÍRAVAıA. hands outstretched to receive. Scriptures within Hinduism are voluminous. lineages and teachings. there is one on every corner in India. relate and interrelate them in our mind. opened by the sampradâya he or his family has subscribed to. we are also free to investigate psychologies. prIor to findIng the saTguru. to seduce. maybe centuries ago.

cognition—developing a spiritual will and intellect with a guru’s guidance. He knows he has to.102 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon at the ten restraints must make a choice. 3) vrata. sâdhana. Such exploration of other texts should all be done before seeking to fulfill siddhânta ßrava∫a. rules. and 5) tapas. sacred vows— fulfilling religious vows. Siddhânta ßrava∫a is even more. Siddhânta ßrava∫a is a discipline. Even . penance and sacrifice. recitation of holy mantras—here we seek initiation from the guru to perform this practice. also under the guru’s guidance. 4) japa. Once under the direction of and having been accepted by a guru. to carry the devotee from one chakra in consciousness to another. which will entertain an explanation for all future prârabdha karmas and karmas created in this life to be experienced for the duration of the physical life of the disciple. performing austerity. Siddhânta ßrava∫a is more than just focusing on a single doctrine. after you have made yourself ready through the ten restraints and the first five practices. subconsciously and consciously. He knows he must. Each sampradâya defends its own teachings and principles against other sampradâyas to maintain its pristine purity and admonishes followers from investigating any of them. you will know in every nerve current of your being that this is your guide on the path through the next five practices: 1) siddhânta ßrava∫a. He has just entered the consciousness of the mûlâdhâra chakra and is becoming steadfast on the upward climb. 2) mati. It lays the foundation for initiation within the fabric of the nerve system of the disciple. Have full faith that when your guru does appear. any further delving into extraneous doctrines would be disapproved and disallowed. scriptural study—following one verbal lineage and not pursuing any others. It is developing through scriptural study an entirely new mind fabric. and observances faithfully. an ancient traditional practice in satguru lineages.

because it is through hearing that the transmission of subtle knowledge occurs. from knower to seeker. but it is quite another to hear their teachings from one who knows. make . ready and willing to absorb. of course. This and only this changes the life pattern of the devotee. They have been read by the devotee literally hundreds of times. who milk it out of the satguru himself. And that is why listening is preferred over intellectual study. There is no other way. the meaning the satguru understands as meaning will be absorbed by the subconscious mind of the devotee. unwritten and unrecorded in any other way. will be familiar. the guru’s thought. satgurus of sampradâyas do write books nowadays. and to go through many tests. It is important that one listen to the highest truths of a sampradâya from one who has realized them. but to hear them from the mouth of the enlightened ®ishi is to absorb his unspoken realization. This is why one must come to the guru open. The words will be heard. meaning and knowledge conveyed through words spoken by one who has realized the Ultimate. And this is why one must choose one’s guru wisely and be ready for such an event in one’s life. Upanishads and Yoga Sûtras. true. intuitive knowledge will impress the subsuperconscious mind of the devotees who absorb it. and the superconscious. the sampradâya’s principles. knowledge is transferred through sound of all kinds. This is true sampradâya—thought. it portrays any differences in his thinking. The words. Transmitting Tradition Siddhânta ßrava∫a literally means “scriptural listening. as he re-realizes his realization while he reads them and speaks them out. This is Íaiva siddhânta.chApter 16: ScrIptUrAl StUdy 103 more. like a child.” It is one thing to read the Vedas. philosophy and underlying practices. Sampradâya actually means an orally transmitted tradition. because sound is the first creation.

not ten. It . and he comes into your life through a dream. When a spiritual experience comes. swâmîs. the process begins. a knowing that has never been seen in print. the gurus would come forth and rebuild them. If all the gurus. the bud of a flower before opening. but it does lay a foundation within the ßishya’s mind of who the guru is. Then another nine ensue. but really potent sampradâya is listening. Old knowledge is burnt out and replaced with new. they would take births here and there around the globe and continue as if nothing had ever happened. the shell of an egg before the bird hatches and flies off. videos and correspond. The devotee takes one step toward the guru—a simple meeting. or if it had been is long-since forgotten. it gives great courage to the devotee to find that it had already been experienced and written about by others within his chosen sampradâya. ®ishis. a real awakening of light. sâdhus. a vision or a personal meeting. If all the scriptures were destroyed. what he thinks. This is sampradâya. This is sampradâya. This is mini-sampradâya. The guru is bound to take nine steps toward the devotee. If all the temples were destroyed. a flash of realization.104 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon tape recordings. the cocoon before the butterfly emerges. the beginning and ending of his path. carries forth and is bound to carry forth to the next generation. once-remembered words take on new meanings. This is the dance. Are you ready for a satguru? Perhaps not. what he represents. So secure is the Eternal truth on the planet. When you are ready. the next and the next. only nine. actually listening to the guru’s words. the sampradâya he represents. saints and sages were systematically destroyed. a simple dream. This is mini-sampradâya—just a taste. that it forges ahead undaunted through the mouths of many. and then wait for the devotee to take one more step. so unshakable. the ®ishis would reincarnate and rewrite them. his explanations. It stimulates thought. not eleven or twelve.

ordained to control one or more of these nâ∂îs. temple and home tradition may be taken away from the eyes of the experience of the newly accepted devotee.chApter 16: ScrIptUrAl StUdy 105 forges ahead undaunted through the temples’ open doors. The purpose of sampradâya is to restrict and narrow down. possessing a physical body. revealed only to the worthy. One never knows when he is going to die. but it is also totally unacceptable to assume the attitude of denigration of other paths. In still another tradition.” There are fourteen currents in the sushum∫â. there is a living guru. And at every point in time. After that. One . mystically hidden from the unworthy. It forges ahead undaunted. It forges ahead undaunted in scriptures now lodged in nearly every library in the world. This may be done before making up one’s mind to follow a traditional verbal lineage. so that only the words of the guru are heard. even in passing. to reach out to an attainable goal. Living One Path Perfectly life is long. Coming under a satguru of one lineage. the scripture and the voice of the guru are always there—but traditionally only the scripture which has the approval of the satguru and is totally in accord with his principles. or to assume the attitude that “our way is the only way. there are apparently many years ahead. We must not consider our life and expected longevity as giving us the time and permission to do investigative comparisons of one sampradâya to another. all scripture. In another tradition. the temple. within the sushum∫â. currents. who restrain themselves by observing some or all of the yamas and who practice a few niyamas. practices and the underlying philosophy of the sampradâya. but time is short. would be totally unacceptable. All are valid paths. scripture may be taken away and temple worship allowed to remain. Each one is a valid way to escalate consciousness into the chakra at the top of the skull and beyond. pursuing other paths.

For sâdhakas. japa and tapas.106 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon should not present itself as superseding another. which is based on the Vedas. from confusion into grace. This is what we speak against. any teacher of Indian spirituality who rejects the Vedas is therefore not a Hindu and should not be considered as such. They are not based on traditional lineages. unless those karmas are burned out under extreme tapas under the guidance of a satguru. which can only be the height that his prârabdha karmas in this life permit. Since the sampradâyas are all based on Hinduism. swâmîs and mendicants who have freed themselves from the world. these yamas and niyamas are not only restraints and practices. The yamas and niyamas are the core of Hindu disciplines and restraints for individuals. neo-American religion. One at least has to accept that as the basis of siddhânta ßrava∫a. why? because they have not been tried and tested. This is not siddhânta ßrava∫a. groups. . permanently or for a period of time according to their vows. yogîs. we must consider the teacher a promulgator of a new Indian religion. they outline various stages of the path in the development of the soul. vrata. Anybody in his right mind will be able to accept the last section of the Vedas. neo-NewAge religion. leading to the feet of the satguru. In fact. but mandatory controls. leading out of the marul pâda into the arul pâda. changing societies. the Upanishads. mati. as the last five practices indicate—siddhânta ßrava∫a. nonreligion. or some other “neo-ism” or “neo-ology. neo-sannyâsî religion. nor have they survived the ravages of time.” This is not sampradâya. If even that is rejected. Let here be no mistake about this. and once performed with this belief and attitude. These are not the eternal paths. famine and the infiltration of ignorance. they will surely lead the mendicant to his chosen goal. and see the truth therein. wars. They are not only practices. neo-European religion. but obligatory disciplines. communities and nations.

Let there be no mistake that siddhânta ßrava∫a. This is the purpose of disregarding or rejecting all other sampradâyas. and of limiting scriptural listening to just one sampradâya. and experience comes in many depths. This and only this—experience. is the only way. so that each subtle increment of the divine truths amplified within it is realized through personal experience. realization. -ism’s. illumination—can be carried on to the next birth. why limit oneself to listening to scripture of one particular lineage. What one has merely memorized is not transforming and is forgotten perhaps shortly after death. -ologies and sects. . and when the seeker is ready. especially if it has been practically memorized? The answer is that what has been learned must be experienced personally. or denominations.chApter 16: ScrIptUrAl StUdy 107 Some might still wonder. scriptural listening. the guru will appear and enter his life.

a sage blesses a young boy. cultivate intuition by listening to the still.  Summary of the Seventh Observance Develop a spiritual will and intellect with your satguru’s guidance. by understanding the subtle sciences. bestowing upon him mati. small voice within. . Through meditation. Strive for knowledge of God. Discover the hidden lesson in each experience to develop a profound understanding of life and yourself. to awaken the light within. insightful cognition and spiritual understanding. inner worlds and mystical texts.

an enlightened master. for within each one who is guided by the guru’s presence lies the ability to see not only with the two eyes but with all three simultaneously. on a higher level is the awakening of the third eye. IS the Seventh NiYama. or a “wise dome. It IS SeeIng throUgh to the other SIde of the results that a thought. building a purified intellect honed down by the guru for the ßishya. but knowledge gained through deep observation. cognition.chApter 17: cognItIon 109 T Sv Ov Cognition Mati maita ognItIon. . and a spiritual will developed by the ßishya by following the religious sâdhanas the guru has laid down until the desired results are attained to the guru’s satisfaction. seeing through the mâyâ. the interacting creation. This is the worthy sâdhana that bears fruit. a word or an action would have in the future. Mati. The guru’s guidance is supreme in the life of the dedicated devotee who is open for training. Wisdom is the timely application of knowledge. bUt deeper thAn UnderStAndIng. Mati can only come this way. The spiritual intellect described herein is none other than wisdom. cognItIon meAnS UnderStAndIng. not merely the opinions of others. It is a transference of divine energies from the satguru to the ßishya. word or action has culminated. Sâdhana is always done under a guru’s direction. Mati is the development of a spiritual will and intellect through the grace of a satguru. preservation and dissolution of the molecules of matter. maTi. before the thought. Mati is all this and more. The verbal lineages of the many sampradâyas have withstood the tests of time. looking out through the heart chakra.” if you will.

He will meet this guru in a dream or in his physical body. and gain a unity with and love for the universe—all those within it. tarot cards. mâyâ’s interacting preservation. astrology. a matter of imagination. These fourteen currents. have a satguru attached to them. “I have awakened my throat chakra. some forms of modern science. past-life reading or fortunetelling. to say. and possibly delving into various forms of psychism. a satguru who knows and is personally directing the devotee. when developed. The sampradâyas that have sustained man and lifted him above the substratum of ignorance are actually great nerve currents within the sushum∫â of the awakened satguru himself.” without being able to admit to being under a guru.” “I now live in my third eye” or “I am developing my sahasrâra chakra. is foolishness. These psychic abilities. can be an impediment. âjñâ and sahasrâra. on this threshold of the anâhata chakra. a barrier. psychic healing. one will encounter within his own sushum∫â current—within one of the fourteen nâ∂îs within it—a satguru. there are two choices. the chakra of cognition. creation and destruction. that seekers see through the veils of ignorance. Here. becoming one’s own guru. It is in the heart chakra. ready and waiting to open the portals of the beyond into the higher chakras. and are the . One is following the sampradâya of a satguru for the next upward climb into the vißuddha. to go further on the path of yoga. illusion. crystal gazing. a deterrent. the throat. creatures. a berlin wall to future spiritual development. peoples and all the various forms—feeling themselves a part of it. decay and ravage of external hostility. The other is remaining guru-less.110 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon turmoil. pendulums. at every point in time on the surface of the Earth. the third eye and the cranium. psychic crime-detection. and through the guru’s grace and guidance will be allowed to continue the upward climb. a guru who preaches truth. the ego. They develop the â∫ava.

karma (our prârabdha karma. for these abilities are looked at as tools to fulfill certain works assigned by the guru to the devotee to fulfill until the end of the life of the physical body. and most importantly. brought with us to face in this life. ignorance or sense of separateness. to obey and fulfill his every instruction better than he would have expected you to. etc. nirvikalpa samâdhi. but this. who are helped.chApter 17: cognItIon 111 first renunciations the satguru would ask a devotee to make prior to being accepted. the ever-perpetuating dance of creation. would be under the guru’s grace and guidance. that is developed through the practice of palmistry. fortunetelling. one performs according to the guru’s direction with full faith and confidence. crystal gazing. prâ∫a transference. the ego. has been attained and fully established within the individual. This personal ego enhancement is a gift from those who are healed. It is the personal ego. This is why scriptures say a guru must be carefully chosen. who are encouraged and who are in awe of the psychic power awakened in the heart chakra of this most perfect person of the higher consciousness who doesn’t anger. and â∫ava. Psychic abilities are not in themselves deterrents on the path. seen through and adjusted to through the heart-chakra powers of cognition. contentment and compassion. along with the karma we are creating now and will create in the future). etc. past-life reading. even better than you would have expected of yourself. display fear or exhibit any lower qualities. Karmas can be harnessed through . Coming under a satguru. They are permitted to develop later.. preservation and dissolution. tarot cards. Mâyâ can be understood. etc. Untying the Bonds The three malas that bind us are: mâyâ. crystal healing. and when one is found.. to follow him with all your heart. the â∫ava. too. astrology. after Paraßiva.

“Pride goes before a fall. that is the binding chain which cannot be so easily dealt with. in the context of a Hindu seer. a mind directed toward right knowledge.” The spiritually proud never open themselves to a satguru. to rise above in a lifetime. The wise say. to an actual mâlâ. of mati.” And the still wiser know that “spiritual pride is the most difficult pride to deal with. The mâlâ should be getting shorter and shorter rather than our adding beads to it so that it gets longer and longer. to eliminate. “A mind directed toward right knowledge or Vedic . of course. If we compare this â∫ava mala. personal ego. It is the last to go. before the greatest mahâsamâdhi of the greatest ®ishi. acute intelligence. strand of rudrâksha beads could become so heavy. scriptural study. mind and emotions. feeling and action and most often returns to us through other peoples’ thought. Acute intelligence. that the â∫ava mala chain is finally broken. a string of rudrâksha beads. A warning: if the â∫ava mala— symbolically a garland of rudrâksha beads—has thirty-six beads and it steadily grows to . telepathy. the mala of personal ego. feeling and action. is to begin eliminating the beads. but it is the â∫ava mala. so dangerous to the wearer.” Good intellect. making the chain shorter and shorter. means “seethrough” or panoramic intelligence which cognizes the entire picture rather than only being aware of one of its parts.112 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon regular forms of disciplinary practices of body. and the understanding of the law of karma itself as a force that is sent out through thought. the purpose on the path at this stage. or Vedic knowledge. It is only at the point of death. that eventually he would trip and fall on his nose. channeling and ectoplasmic manifestations—this . The mystically humble do. Mati has also been interpreted as “good intellect. would be right knowledge based on siddhânta ßrava∫a. because of practices and the adulation connected with them within the psychic realms of the pseudoscience of parapsychology—such as bending spoons.

burning out the ignorance of wrong concepts. which are warm. Then there is the employer who has bought the intellect of the employee. Mati. As a dream leads only to waking up. all the prârabdha karmas of this life and the action-reaction conglomerates formed in this life are directed. purifying it. to this end. known as mati. The emotions consume the intellect with hurt feelings and the rhetorical questions that ensue. Purifying the Intellect There are many things which have their claim on people’s minds. The intellect. The hypochondriac thinks about it all the time. both kinds of knowledge or their mix. What harnesses the intellect is siddhânta ßrava∫a. study of the teachings and listening to the wise of an established. the intellect is cold. like the emotions. ravage and all attempts at conversion. but unlike the emotions. and also neutral.chApter 17: cognItIon 113 knowledge” refers to the intellect developed through siddhânta ßrava∫a. It. The intellect is a neutral tool which can be used for bad or for good purposes. elated feelings and the continued praise that is expected. disciplined or undisciplined. is the harnessing of the intellect by the soul to live a spiritual life. the modern vißvaguru that guides the intellect into confusion. traditional lineage that has stood the test of time. connected attitudes. It is the fire of the ku∫∂alinî force—impregnating the intellect. And then there is television. logically or illogically. is a force. of itself. beliefs. in summary. processes. thought forms. The study of the Vedas and other scriptures purifies the intellect. propelled by right knowledge or wrong knowledge. An intellect based on truths of the sanâtana Dharma is intelligent to the divine laws of the universe and harnessed into fulfilling them as a part of it. television leads only to . as belief creates attitude. causing an aversion to certain actions—that forges the purified intellect and spiritual will of cognition. and attitude creates action. For many it is the physical body.

like a computer processing and reprocessing knowledge without really understanding any of it. the willpower is strong and the integrity is stable. the â∫ava “mâlâ. The personal ego must go for universal cosmic identity. that will pull him out of this darkness.114 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon turning it off. the vißuddha chakra. when memory is intact. instructing or educating it. by other people. he . The intellect is guided by the physical. the processes of reason are working well. many more than we have spoken about already. Even if never a word is spoken. jealousy is unacceptable behavior and fear is a distant feeling. There is a struggle. The last mala. Some people think of the intellect as informing the superconscious or soul nature. Yes. there are many things that claim the intellect. when one is looking out from the anâhata chakra window of consciousness. that children are their servants. Some people even think that they can command the Gods to do their bidding. When the first beam of light comes through the mûlâdhâra chakra. even though he might feign humility and proclaim religiousness. that the inner person lays claim on the outer person. This. and who cleverly deceive their employers and governments through learned arts of deception. satchidânanda. It is at the stage when anger has subsided. when instinctive-intellectual thought meets the superconscious of the purusha. These are the prototypes of the well-developed ignorant person. as the “I Am” struggles to take over the “was then. and by mechanical devices. if he keeps doing so. And the intellect is guided by the intellect itself. never-relenting spiritual identity. the understanding in the devotee begins to grow and grow and grow. is the platform of the throat chakra. Here guru and ßishya live in oneness in divine communication. the soul. of a true.” It’s simple.” has to start losing its beads. to be maintained. It is the religion that he professes. then. to be sure. These are the people that also think that their wife is a slave. all-pervasive. the intellect is guided by the emotions.

chApter 17: cognItIon 115 will start instructing his own soul as to what it should do for him. inhibiting her own feelings as a woman. anger. his own soul. namely wrong knowledge. and this gnawing. his own psyche. Then he hides himself in memory and reason. until this becomes intolerable. but when this same energy of willpower is upwardly directed. The soul responds by creating a pin which pricks his conscience. antagonistic force within him he seeks to get rid of. He hides himself in jealousy. the perpetuation of resentment without resolution. The confusion of the talâtala chakra is no longer his pleasure. So. and remember what has to be remembered—siddhânta. all of which eventually dissipate the semi-divine energy of willpower and eventually close the ma∫ipûra chakra. making it forget what has to be forgotten. yet he still habitually dominates his wife. in the sutala chakra. He can’t hide there. and the being puts down its roots. but the soul responds in a curious way. the final conclusions of the ®ishis who live within the sahasrâra . his own seeing. The change in this individual can only be seen by the mellowness within his eyes and a new-born wisdom that is slowly developing in his conversations among those who knew him before. unlike the wife and children. he hides himself in anger and resentment—a cozy place within the vitala chakra—until this becomes unbearable. can be used up through excessive reason. in the atala chakra. amplified by instinctive jealousies. or the employer and government who have been deceived through his wrong dealings. This energy. Then he hides himself in fear. until this becomes unacceptable. and his children. fear of his own purusha. inhibiting their feelings in experiencing themselves being young. excessive memorization. Transmuting Willpower Willpower is a prâ∫ic force which exudes out of the ma∫ipûra chakra. it pulls memory into a purified memory. when directed downward. fear and amplification of fears.

cognition. Doing this is just becoming a good person. and the instinctive impulses of fear. willpower. Therefore. its memory and reason abilities. putting the cap back on the toothpaste tube after squeezing the toothpaste on the brush. to develop an indomitable will capable of the accomplishments needed as a prerequisite to make the upward climb to the anâhata. into mati. austerity. but it comes naturally to one who has attained such in prior lifetimes. anger and jealousy. The process of strain reshapes the cellular properties and the structure of the muscles. we must get beyond that by transmuting this tool. Yes. the agni homa. an older soul. where its energies are usable yet benign. coupled with instinctive willfulness. the more you use your personal. giving. especially contentment. âjñâ and sahasrâra chakras. We lift weights. It emanates the power of life. The ma∫ipûra chakra is the sun center of the physical body and of the astral body. These are mini-sâdhanas one can perform on his own without the guidance of a guru. It is the seat of fire. Strong muscles appear on the body as a result. Intermittent rest allows them to build up double. There is no reason to believe that developing and unfolding the ten petals of the ma∫ipûra chakra comes easily. Let there be no mistake. run a mile. ongoing. all to develop the muscles of the physical body. the place where all nerve currents of these two bodies meet and merge. the little things.116 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon chakra. individual will- . intellectual processing of ideas. it is the little things that build the indomitable will that dominates the external intellect. fulfilling each task one has begun. The more we perform these practices. builds this indomitable will. exercise. is certainly not an easy task. It is the bridge between the ultimate illumination and a prolonged. faith and regular worship. Willpower is the muscle of the mind. and to sustain the benign attitudes of humility. and perfecting the yamas and the niyamas. the more muscular we become. the siddhas who are contacted through great tapas. vißuddha. I would say.

both inner and outer. just as in an economic depression one loses money. in your business life. It is an accumulative. you can lose some of it through lapses into fear. but you can also court an inflation by seeking higher consciousness in the vißuddha chakra of divine love through the anâhata chakra of direct cognition. through understanding the oneness of a well-ordered. just universe. your home life. ever-growing bank account.chApter 17: cognItIon 117 power in your religious service. your personal life. Of course. anger and jealousy. your temple life. . the more willpower you have. in fulfilling all the yamas and niyamas.

monasticism. Uphold your vows strictly. Pilgrimage yearly. rules and observances and never waver in fulfilling them. . take vows to harness the instinctive nature. Fast periodically. nonaddiction. Gods and guru. vrata. loyalty to a lineage.  Summary of the Eighth Observance Embrace religious vows. your community. marriage. Honor vows as spiritual contracts with your soul. with God. promising lifelong fidelity in one of our most sacred rites of passage.a couple voice their wedding vows. vegetarianism or nonsmoking. be they chastity. tithing.

Vratas give the strength to withstand the temptations of the instinctive forces that naturally come up as one goes on . the devas that surround the temple you most frequent and the Mahâdevas. self-luminous body of your soul. in your deep. Vrata is a binding force. your loved ones and closest friends. Even though they may not know of the vow you may have taken. of the Hindu Dharma. to the most specific religious vows. though vrata is sometimes defined generally as following religious virtues or observances. your outer self. Many people make little promises and break them. A vow is a sacred trust between you and your guardian devas. the brahmacharYa VraTa is the first. pledging to maintain virginity until marriage. in the radiant. The vivâha vrata. a sacred trust. binding the external mind to the soul and the soul to the Divine. tAKIng SAcred vowS. who live within the Third World—which you live in. it would be difficult to look them straight in the eye if you yourself know you have let yourself down. Gods and guru made at a most auspicious time in one’s life. There are vratas of many kinds. IS the eIghth NiYama And SomethIng every hIndU mUSt do At one tIme or Another dUrIng hIS lIfetIme. A vrata is a sacred trust with God. This is not a vrata. taking a vow is a sacred trust between yourself. your inner self. following the principles of the Vedas. innermost mind.CHAPtER 18: SACRED VOWS 119 T E Ov Sacred Vows Vrata va=ta raTa. marriage vows. would generally be the next. too. from the simple promise we make to ourself and our religious community and guru to perform the basic spiritual obligations. on many different levels.

ten clues as to what forces to restrain and how to restrain them. are tools to keep working with yourself. to chant Aum as japa and to perform certain sâdhanas and penance. Some people are better than others at accomplishing this. brings santosha—contentment. nor to take simple vratas. And satya. and with feigned humility seek to “get on with it” and “be their own person. depending on their prârabdha karmas. We must remember that the yamas are restraints. Commitment to the first yama. The yamas should be at least two-thirds perfected and the niyamas two-thirds in effect before vratas are taken. compassion. We can see that the last five practices are taken on two levels: guru involvement. a moderate appetite. These are all available.” but feel they need an initia- . to keep trying within the five major areas they outline. truthfulness. The first five practices. are progressive. but the effort in trying is the important thing. If one wants to progress further. for example. or hrî.120 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon through life—not to suppress them but to rechannel them into a lifestyle fully in accord with the yamas and niyamas. mati (cognition and developing a spiritual will with the guru’s guidance). according to the perfection of the restraints. joy and serenity in life. remorse. ahiµsâ. he does not have to take on a guru—to study scriptures or develop a spiritual will or intellect—that would come naturally. honesty. a possibility in one’s life. niyamas. on the other hand. Types of Vows Many people get together with modern-day gurus and want to rush ahead. but a guru naturally comes into one’s life when the last five yamas—steadfastness. and community and personal involvement. noninjury. japa (recitation after initiation from guru) and tapas (austerities performed under the careful guidance of a guru). and purity—give rise to the last five niyamas—siddhânta ßrava∫a (choice of lineage). niyamas. The practices. makes the first niyama. vrata (sacred vows before a guru).

Initiation is the beginning of study. The gurus and swâmîs from India following a traditional path put initiation before them. or listen to music or chants of other traditions occasionally. Most gurus and swâmîs are dumbfounded by the devotion they see in these souls. because your loyalty is expected. . he or she responds by leaving. I shall always obey the strî dharma principles (or purusha dharma). and since it was only the initiation that was sought for (and he or she does not believe in God and the Gods and is not even part of the Hindu religion). This is not true. the end of study.” or. So. “If I’m successful in this business dealing. and even defaming the guru. the initiations are given and vows are taken. into which you are initiated. because after initiation a new form of teaching and dissemination of inner knowledge occurs. This does not mean you can’t attend temples or other religious activities of other sampradâyas occasionally. There are certain simple vows in Hinduism which are easy to take and often are taken. of the lineage. think well before you become initiated. I will give twenty percent of the profits to my temple. the beginning of learning. once the devotee feels the pressure of responsibility. and the swâmî begins to teach on a different level to this chosen group. such as. the beginning of sâdhana. The gurus presume they are already performing the yamas and niyamas and have dropped out of some higher inner world into Earth bodies. because you are expected to advance on the path of that particular lineage. such as festivals. “If my spouse comes back to me.CHAPtER 18: SACRED VOWS 121 tion to do so. Many people think that initiation is like a graduation. perhaps not realizing they are stimulated by drugs and the desire to get something without earning it. and you are expected to adhere to the teachings of the sampradâya. but this should be minimized so that your focus and concentration is upon what you were initiated into. but then when the reaction to the action comes within the mind of the devotee. Therefore.

These twenty restraints and practices are easy to memorize. I vow to fulfill these lofty ideals. vows to remain celibate. but. forgive me if I fail.” “If my dear mother. open the portals of my wisdom that I might take this vrata with open heart and clear mind. you will see me at the temple every Friday without fail. skanda shash†hî or dîpâvalî— is the yama and niyama vrata. Lord Íiva. next year I will faithfully renew this vrata. this sacred vow. give me the will. This is my vrata. o lord Íiva.” . lives through her cancer operation (and Lord ga∫eßa. that shall increase my dedication and devotion to you. vows to desist from lying. I know I am weak. at least fifty percent. this first year. ga∫eßa Chatûrthi. vows to obey the guru and his tradition. and I shall determine to fulfill the yamas and niyamas in my life and soul seventy-five percent or more. O Lord Murugan. vows to not eat meat. Lord ga∫eßa. I know you will make me strong. So. vows to follow these yamas and niyamas. to these rules. to the best of my ability. The vrata should go like this: “O Lord ga∫eßa. Lord Íiva. vows to meditate daily. which can be taken most readily and renewed once a year on a day which you consider your most sacred day—such as Íivarâtri. the doctors have said the chances are not good). and I say no more. Commit them to memory. And if I have succeeded in fulfilling my meager fifty percent according to my conscience. for these twenty restraints and practices are truly beyond my ability to perfectly uphold. you know I am weak. these observances. fortitude and renewed strength every step of the way to fulfill the vrata that I am taking.122 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon be dedicated and devoted always. Lord Íiva. Perhaps the most obvious and important vow. who is so devoted to my children.” We take vows to change our ways. I know that you are drawing me ever patiently toward your holy feet.

than to achieve minor goals in life. the ®ishis and gurus. Yes. at the moment it is heard by priests. Success is on one side. it is better to strive to fulfill great aspirations. but striving . this is very true. buy a piece of property. As tiruvalluvar said. turns his back on the path and walks the other way. One or the other will win out. beyond even the reach of the Gods. the pandits and sages. lord ga∫eßa Himself will catch the fall in His four arms and trunk.CHAPtER 18: SACRED VOWS 123 Success and Failure Many people feel that when they don’t fulfill their vrata they have failed. On the everyday level there are vratas or contracts made with people of the outside world whom you don’t even know. Yes. This is where the unreserved worship of Lord Murugan will help overbalance the scale on the success side. the only failure is that experienced by the one who quits. who took a vow to be celibate but broke it many times. elders and all community members. One practical example to the contrary is Mahatma Gandhi. the priests. but a religious vrata is a contract between yourself. He will hold the devotee from going into the abyss of remorse of the darkness of the lower worlds. the blessings and knowledge of the elders of the community should be sought: the mothers and fathers. but if the scale teeters and wavers. the old aunties and uncles. the religious community. and once you sign the contract you are bound to fulfill it. lest time elapse and the asura of depression take over mind. gives up. into the realms of darkness. all of whom know that human failure is a part of life. when one hears oneself taking it. a balanced scale has been created. This and this alone will steady the balance. but if actual failure occurs. the devas and the Gods and your guru. yet continued the effort and ultimately conquered his instinctive nature. body and emotion. failure on the other. and all three worlds rejoice. He will speak softly into the right ear and encourage that the vrata be immediately renewed. even if you fail. In taking a vrata. if you have one.

more personal vows are taken before the community. Gods and guru. Vows before the community. This is important to remember. guru. external personal ego. the monks are in their ma†ha. a temple priest. monastery. This would be more of a promise to oneself. yogîs and swâmîs vow to look at all women as their mothers or sisters. pandit. feelings or fantasies toward them. and God Íiva and their guru as their mother and father. a change in attitude based on a new belief. Lord Murugan. The families are in their home. thinking that no one is listening. There is no difference. Lord Íiva or all three is enough for him to gain strength and fulfill it. are very important. or satguru if help is needed to strengthen the individual’s ability to fulfill them. for example. community and respected elders. the family man vows to be faithful to his wife and to treat all other women as either a mother or sister and to have no sexual thoughts. For a certain type of person. elder. . such as those of marriage and celibacy and other vows where community support is needed. like a New Year’s resolution. In regards to the vrata of sexual purity. a vow before Lord ga∫eßa. Other. swâmî. to one’s own individual â∫ava. Sadhâkas. A vow is never only to oneself. there is no difference in how the family person upholds it and the celibate monastic upholds it. and practice is the strengthening effect that the exercise of the human and spiritual will have over the baser elements. all of which has nothing to do with the yamas and niyamas or religion.124 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon is the fulfillment of life. One cannot make one’s vow privately. A vow is always to God. In speaking about the yama and niyama vrata.

CHAPtER 18: SACRED VOWS 125 .

Live free of anger so that japa strengthens your higher nature. word or phrase given by your guru.  Summary of the Ninth Observance Chant your holy mantra daily. purify and uplift you. performing japa during her morning sâdhana. bathe first.a hindu woman chants her mantra on a mâlâ of holy beads. quiet the mind and concentrate fully to let japa harmonize. Let japa quell emotions and quiet the rivers of thought. reciting the sacred sound. . Heed your instructions and chant the prescribed repetitions without fail.

do all the right things and say all . It is the ßakti of the guru. recItAtIon OF HOLY maNTras. And when pronounced all together. the policeman had been initiated and had full authority.” The third person would only obey one of them. purifies and uplifts the devotee. “Stop in the name of the law. The one who had no authority would not be listened to. it harmonizes. his mantra. All sounds blended together make the sound “Aum.chApter 19: recItAtIon 127 T N Ov Recitation Japa japa OW WE SHALL FOCUS ON japa. had the desired effect. The MMM brings the spiritual body into the foreground. Therefore. study with the guru. The simplest of mantras is Aum. A guru IS eSSentIAl. become accepted by the guru. feign humility. pronounced “AA. as it is the primal sound of the universe itself.” seven words. Now. could say to a third person. as the OO balances the astral and mental bodies. “Stop in the name of the law. HERE AgAIn. this does not mean one can choose a guru.” In short. two people. a civilian and a policeman. of the Gods and the devas that give power to the mantra.” The AA balances the physical forces when pronounced separately from the OO and the MMM. MMM. Aum is a safe mantra which may be performed without a guru’s guidance by anyone of any religious background living on this planet. the nInth NiYama. OO. but nobody paid any attention to him. UnleSS only the SImpleSt of mAntrAS Are recIted. The person who had not been initiated said the same words. all three bodies are harmonized. One might ask why a guru is important to perform such a simple task as japa. In this example. AA-OO-MMM.” The overtone of the sounds of an entire city would be “Aum.

There is no way a mantra can be learned from a book and be effective. And if you are practicing the first seven niyamas. approach the guru cautiously and with a full heart. but effort is. . which obviously had been deceptively achieved. but regular attentiveness to them is. receive the mantra and then be off into some kind of other activities or opt for a more liberal path. to your guru and his successor or successors and training your children to be loyal to the sampradâya) are the foundation of character that the first fifteen restraints and practices are supposed to produce. know that perfection is not expected. being loyal to the sampradâya. which permits japa. This is why siddhânta ßravana (choosing your path carefully) and mati (choosing your guru carefully. traditionally. the guru. You. could be effective for someone who was not striving to fulfill the first seventeen of the yamas and niyamas. become initiated. Mantra initiation is guru dîkshâ. your family and your friends will all know when you are on the threshold of mantra dîkshâ. Any wise guru would test the devotee on these before granting initiation.128 Yoga’s forgotten foundation the right words. When asked if you are restraining yourself according to the ten yamas. Therefore. making the guru part of the family itself. There is no way that mantras can be sold and be effective. the family guru would give mantra dîkshâ to the mother and the father and then to the young people. The guru’s disdain would diminish if not cancel the benefits of the initiation. There is no way that the dîkshâ of mantra initiation. which when performed by an established guru is called guru dîkshâ. know that perfection is not expected here either.

chApter 19: recItAtIon 129 .

under a satguru’s guidance.religious austerity. be ardent in worship. Perform self-denial. Atone for misdeeds through penance (prâyaßchitta). money or time. . to ignite the inner fires of self-transformation. such as 108 prostrations or fasting. meditation and pilgrimage. giving up cherished possessions. tapas. serious disciplines.  Summary of the Tenth Observance Practice austerity. penance and sacrifice. Fulfill severe austerities at special times. ranges from simple self-denial to rigorous yogic ordeals and physical challenges.

Other sâdhanas include pilgrimage to a far-off sacred place once a year. Its pain is greater than the pains of parturition. bringing him into pure being. Our austerities start within the home in the form of daily sâdhana. This personal vigil takes about half an hour or more. Tapas is even more austere. unbidden or provoked by râja yoga practices. awakening higher consciousness and a cosmic relationship with God and the Gods. in childlike purity. PENANCE. scriptural reading and chanting of holy mantras. This is obligatory and includes pûjâ. All relIgIonS of the world hAve theIr formS of AUSterIty. penance is obligatory. giving a new start in life. for the children especially. but in the aftermath is quickly forgotten. suffered through and loved. This is done through such acts as performing  prostrations before the God in the temple. Tapas in Hinduism is sought for. shines forth in the .chApter 20: AUSterIty And SAcrIfIce 131 T T Ov Austerity & Sacrifice Tapas tapasa< HE tENtH AND fiNAL NiYama IS AUSterIty. visiting a temple once a week. to atone for misdeeds. It may come early in a lifetime or later in life. It is the fire that straightens the twisted life and mind of an individual. friends. conditions which one has to live up to—or which individuals are unable to live up to who are too lazy or too dull-minded to understand. Tapas And SAcrIfice. but all the family members as well. preferably on Friday or Monday. We must quickly mitigate future effects of the causes we have set into action. and Hinduism is no exception. as the soul. performIng SÅDHANA. feared. rites of passage. attending festivals and fulfilling saµskâras. relatives and casual acquaintances.

not being wet. smelling sweet jasmine. and when the storm stops. It is the act of giving up to a greater power a cherished possession (be it money. tossed about on a churning ocean in a small boat. or at least the gurus know. time. Tapas is walking through the rain. There are many ways to teach sacrifice. a psychic earthquake. crawling out the other side unburnt. Tapas is walking through fire. the patient has been cut loose of the dross of all past lives.132 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon joys of rebirth that follow in the new life. When the operation is over. tapas in its fullest form is sought for only by the renunciate under the guidance of a satguru. seeing pictures of Gods and devas adorning the mud walls and hearing the sound of a flute coming from a distant source. speak or hear. the swâmîs know. A Lesson in Sacrifice Sacrifice may be the least-practiced austerity. completely drenched. Tapas is a mind in turmoil. see. Tapas is living in a hurricane. Tapas is a landslide of mud. burnt to a crisp. coming upon the head and consuming the body of its victim. the astrologers know. being scorched. the elders know. with no pain. but this madness often comes unbidden to anyone on this planet whose dross of misdeeds spills over. truly. smothering him in the dross of his misdeeds. A psychic surgery is being performed by the Gods themselves. and when the storm subsides. which took all day . My satguru taught sacrifice by cooking a great feast for several hundred people. being landed on a peaceful beach unharmed but purified. insane unto its very self. The only difference for the Hindu is that he knows what is happening and how it is to be handled. and the most important. without scars. He awakens from this hideous dream resting on a mat in a garden hut. This knowledge is built into the Hindu mind flow as grout is built into a stone wall. intelligence or a physical object) to manifest a greater good. beneath which he is unable to breathe.

The crowd was aghast. the strongest and biggest. The preparations were for a very big crowd. children. Let us sing some more bhajanas and Natchintanai.” It was a huge brass pot containing nearly  pounds of rice.” At about 3. two or three hundred people stepped forward and surrounded the ten. “Come. and commanded. saying. yogurt and delicious sweet payasam. the rasam and the freshly-boiled rice.” They stepped forward and he indicated the spot where they should dig. as they had been cooking all morning and singing all afternoon. just before dusk. “We have not yet reached the auspicious moment.” banana leaves had been laid carefully at the bottom of the pit to form a giant serving plate. and the great saint indicated that it was time to serve the food. and the digging commenced. They had not eaten all day. “Pour the rice in the middle of the pit. He said. All waited patiently for his will to be fulfilled. “Now we shall serve our prasâda. surround this pit.” he said. Their mouths were watering.” He called forward two of the huskiest of the eleven men. be patient. dal.by ten-foot hole. square hole in the ground. bring the entire pot. Women and children were sitting in the front and the men standing in the back. “Pour . all wondering what he was going to say and hoping he would not delay any longer with the feast. the stomachs growling. five sweetsmelling curries. “before we can partake of our prasâda. . “Serve the rice. the pit was completed. he said. The meal was scheduled to be served at high noon. by this time. I shall ask eleven strong men here to dig a deep.chApter 20: AUSterIty And SAcrIfIce 133 to prepare. It was a real feast. mango chutneys. but Satguru yogaswami kept delaying. so as to prepare their bodies to receive this prasâda from the satguru. Shovels were obtained from homes nearby. When the day began. many had left. Finally. Only the most devout had remained to see the outcome. Now he said. the mouths watering at the luscious fragrances of the hot curries. had come.

He taught a lesson of tapas and sacrifice. and giving and fasting.” They immediately thought. Íiva Yogaswami. who has given so generously of her abundance all these many years to this large Íaivite community. very late. everyone was wondering. “Are we to all eat together out of the pit? Is this what the guru has in mind?” Then the kulambu sauce was poured over the middle of the rice. shovel some dirt over this delicious meal and then pass your shovel on to the next person. Now we are sacrificing our prasâda as a precious.” but he had something else in mind.” he commanded. of fasting and giving. We have fed our Mother Earth. dropping the huge mass of steaming rice onto the middle of the banana leaves. began the first Earth worship ceremony in northern Sri Lanka.” As all the curries were neatly placed around the rice. After touching his feet and receiving the mark of Íiva from . finishing his sentence in their minds. “bring the eggplant curry!” to another he said. She gets little back. the satguru stood up and declared. we take all. heartfelt gift. “Go get the potato curry! We must make this a full and auspicious offering. One by one. “Pick up the eleven shovels. he told one man. our satguru. Giving Back to Mother Earth After all the food had been served. Come forward. Though stunned. participate. Sweet mango and ginger chutneys were placed in the proper way. Five pounds of salt was added on the side.134 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon it into the pit?” “Don’t hesitate. by now the hour was late. and directed. much to the dismay of those gathered. all of you.” In this way. Mother Earth is hungry. each of the luscious preparations was placed in the pit. Let this be a symbol to the world and to each of us that we must sacrifice what we want most. the men obeyed Yogaswami without question. “to eat together this luscious meal you have been waiting for all day as a family of ßishyas. “People.

We are sure that a few. learn to live with. . which have held it in the bondage of ignorance. The ecology of this planet is an intricate intelligence. We should not take advantage of all of this generosity. recognition. while pondering the singular lesson the satguru had taught. austerities are a vital part of all sects of Hinduism. unforgivingness and the self-perpetuating ignorance of the truths of the sanâtana Dharma. our physical bodies are no more. Our physical bodies are sustained by her abundance. satisfied themselves with a few ripe bananas. Yes. penances. the devotees returned to their homes. as a predator does of those he preys upon. if not many. and of the current life. friendliness and sustenance. They are a call of the soul to bring the outer person into the perfection that the soul is now. the perfection of the self-luminous. let’s worship the earth. Through sacrifice. which results in tapas and sâdhana. tapas and sacrifices lift our consciousness so that we can deal with. eternal being of the soul within. When her abundance is withdrawn. radiant. so does the burning suffering of austerity purify the soul to resplendence” (Weaver’s Wisdom/Tirukural. Austerities should be assigned by a guru. lest the neighbors smell the smoke and know that mischief was afoot.chApter 20: AUSterIty And SAcrIfIce 135 him in the form of vibhûti. a swâmî or a qualified elder of the community. One should submit to wise guidance. It is a being—intelligent and always giving. It was too late to cook a hot meal. Instill in yourself appreciation. Austerity is the powerful bath of fire and bright rays of showering light that washes the soul clean of the dross of its many past lives. misgiving. “As the intense fire of the furnace refines gold to brilliance. because these sâdhanas. has always been and will always be. 267). on their forehead. holy ash. we nurture Mother Earth’s goodwill.

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Their challenges back then are no different than ours in modern times. A tall building needs a solid foundation to sustain an earthquake without toppling. reactions and modes of action.” Yogacharya Krpalvanand called yama and niyama the “impenetrable fort of yoga.” . too. It is always challenging to undertake the work of changing our habits.” and he warned. Without them. “In ancient times an aspirant had to practice yamas and niyamas for twelve years before he was even initiated. Yama and niyama control the yogî’s passions and emotions and keep him in harmony with his fellow man. the ups and downs of life are paramount. higher states of consciousness need the positive habits of the yamas and niyamas to be sustained through the challenges that inevitably come to us in life. The modern exponent of ha†ha yoga B. Success in fulfilling the yamas and niyamas provides the stability in our life that sustained success in meditation requires. prActIced throUgh the mIllennIA by tens of millions of seekers. yet enormously rewarding when our efforts bear fruit. and it takes a very long time to uproot those evils.s. “Practice of âsanas without the backing of yama and niyama is mere acrobatics. many hurdles crop up during sâdhana.conclUSIon 137 137 Conclusion Samâpanam samaapanama< E HAVE ExPLORED tOGEtHER GURUDEVA’S elUcIdAtIon of the twenty AncIent vedIc toolS for Self-trAnSformAtIon. changing our attitudes. iyengar cautioned. sâdhana is an impossibility. So. Without this stability. Challenging. “If they are neglected.” Sri Sri Anandamurthi taught. and significant advancement in our spiritual life does not manifest. changing our thoughts.K.

don’t be satisfied with your charitibleness until even the thought of stealing has been eliminated from your heart. Gurudeva has given us a great map of the mind in his interpretations of the yamas and niyamas. As Gurudeva wrote in Dancing with Íiva. that the positive and the negative are intertwined. don’t pursue serious austerities without a good foundation in purity. spiritualizing acts. of each yama with a specific niyama. our desires. on the path ahead. “Good conduct is a combination of avoiding unethical behavior and performing virtuous. So. and perfectly flawed. We must stay focused on the difficult work of the yamas at the outset. as you carry on in the work ahead. as you work with the yamas and niyamas in your life.138 yogA’S forgotten foUndAtIon One of the misconceptions you may have intuited as you studied these lessons is that we can take refuge in the higher practices of the niyamas and avoid the more difficult work of the yamas. Only then can the life energies flow freely into the niyamas. Proceed with confidence. from the deepest part of human knowing. bringing the positive spiritual practices into their maturity. in Hinduism’s code of conduct. He knew. don’t practice japa in earnest unless you have become a vegetarian. Nowhere else will you find his pairing of the one with the other. This is a misconception widely held. don’t settle for the easy path of worshiping unless you have dealt with the harder path of mastering patience.” Now you have the pattern. . that the resolution of the lower nature allows for the natural expression of the higher. make commitments to harness our instinctive nature. our lazy patterns of life. just as a balloon suddenly soars skyward when it drops off its sandbags. don’t be content with your progress in contentment until you are truly truthful in all your dealings with others.

conclUSIon 139 .

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which believes in the ultimate oneness of all things and in the reality of the personal Deity. Adjective derived from the Greek aktis. .” An enormous collection of Sanskrit scriptures which. Vedânta. the unmanifest. mind. the fifth and most subtle of the five elements—earth.” Nonduality or monism. physically. Commonly known as life. See: yajña. Free. 2) God of the element fire. open space.” nonviolence or nonhurtfulness. air. mentally or emotionally. dualism.” Of or pertaining to consciousness in its pure. “ray. Esoterically.” The sky. Empirically. the superconscious strata holding all that exists and all that potentially exists. yoga sâdhanas and tapas. âkâßa: ÇŸéŸÀ “Space. soul and world. the rarefied space or ethereal fluid plasma that pervades the universes.” The third-eye center. or God. The philosophy of the Vedas and Íaiva Ågamas. agni: Ç⁄ì≤ “Fire. fire.” 1) One of the five elements. ahiµsâ: Ç⁄“Ä–Ÿ “Noninjury. The primary source and authority for ritual. not relative. Actinic force flows freely through odic force. pañchabhûta. Upper case (Absolute): Ultimate Reality. The aadheenam head is called the guru mahâsannidhânam or aadheenakarthar. Advaita Siddhânta is a term used in South India to distinguish Tirumular’s school from the pluralistic Siddhânta of Meykandar and Aghorasiva. advaita: Çظʙ “Non-dual.” Íaivite philosophy Ê codified in the Ågamas which has at its core the nondual (advaitic) identity of God. âchârya: ÇŸòŸæ@ A highly respected teacher. It is not opposite to odic force. along with the Vedas. unchanging and transcendent Paraßiva. Not causing harm to others.” Ê monistic theism. the divine messenger who receives prayers and oblations and conveys them to the heavenly spheres. See: yama-niyama. Advaita Èßvaravâda: Çظ™ Ñ@Õ∆¿∆ŸÆ “Nondual and Personal-God-as-Ruler doctrine. not twofold. it can be seen as the light in man’s eyes. A Íaivite Hindu monastery and temple complex in the South Indian Íaiva Siddhânta tradition. actinic: Spiritual. See: koßa. Advaita Siddhânta: Çظ™ ⁄–ØÛŸ≥™ “Nondual perfect conclusions. are revered as ßruti (revealed scripture). invoked through Vedic ritual known as yajña. Ether. inner and outer. agnikâraka. Actinic force is the superconscious mind and not a force which comes from the superconcious mind. creating light. Opposite of dvaita. not dependent on anything else. Advaita Èßvaravâdin: Çظʙ Ñ@Õ∆¿∆Ÿ⁄Æ≤Î A follower of Advaita Èßvaravâda. water and ether. it is different than odic force as light is different than water but shines through it. See: Paraßiva. Absolute: Lower case (absolute): real. yoga and temple construction.glossary 141 Glossary Íabda Koßa˙ xabdk[aExa: aadheenam: MjPdk. Ågama: ÇŸíº The tradition that which has “come down. spirit. homa and havana. it is the force that leaves man when he leaves his odic physical body behind. with a strong emphasis on internal and external worship. See: chakra. unadulterated state. See: dvaita-advaita. The doctrine that Ultimate Reality consists of a one principle substance. âjñâ chakra: ÇŸ◊Ÿòé˚ “Command wheel. It is the philosophy of this contemporary Hindu catechism.

” 8) —samâdhi: “Enstasy. God Íiva’s ˘ power of illumination. anâhata chakra: Ç≤Ÿ“™òé˚ “Wheel of unstruck [sound]. It is the source of finitude and ignorance. ßaktinipâta. ânanda: ÇŸ≤≥Æ “Bliss. moksha. ßaktinipâta. Also names life’s four stages. Naraka.” In ha†ha yoga. causing . through which the soul is freed from the bonds of â∫ava. See: grace. the inner world also called Antarloka. soul.”) A being of the lower astral plane. Asuras can and do interact with the physical plane. âsana: ÇŸ–≤ “Seat.142 YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION wherein all happenings are recorded and can be read by clairvoyants.” Religious practices which cultivate the qualities of the higher nature. spanning the spectrum of consciousness from the vißuddha chakra in the throat to the pâtâla chakra in the soles of the feet. demon.” See: yama-niyama. ascetic or guru.” Virtuous and moral living 2) —niyama: “Observance. astral plane (or world): The subtle world. mâyâ) which temporarily limit the soul.” Withdrawing consciousness from the physical senses. saint. In the astral plane. loka. swâmî. âstikya: ÇŸ⁄—™èæ “Faith. the most basic of the three bonds (â∫ava. posture. contemplation/realization. 5) —pratyâhâra: “Withdrawal.” 4) —prâ∫âyâma: “Mastering life force. ash†âˆga yoga: Ç{ŸóÓæËí “eight-limbed union. the soul is enshrouded in the astral body.” The pure joy—ecstasy or enstasy—of God-consciousness or spiritual experience. asteya: Ç—™‰æ “Nonstealing.” Breath control. See: koßa.” The third of the three stages of the sakala avasthai when the soul yearns for the grace of God.” Hermitage. the shell of finitude which surrounds the soul. ßaktinipâta. arul: mUs. âßrama: ÇŸÃ˘º “Place of striving. See: chakra. astral body: The subtle. often includes lodging for students.” The classical râja yoga system of eight progressive stages to Illumination: 1) —yama: “Restraint. 6) —dhâra∫â: “Concentration. soul. âsana refers to any of numerous poses prescribed to balance and tune up the subtle energies of mind and body for meditation and to promote health and longevity. called sûkshma ßarîra. Holy sanctuary. See:pati-jñânam. reaches a state of ripeness. finitizing principle. 3) —âsana: “Seat or posture. which ultimately merges with Íiva. antyesh†i: Ç≥´æ‰⁄{ “Last rites. nonphysical body (sûkshma ßarîra) in which the soul functions in the astral plane. ârjava: ÇŸú@∆ “Steadfastness. three worlds. 7) —dhyâna: “Meditation.” See: yoga.” revealing grace.” Guiding the flow of consciousness. ânandamaya koßa: ÇŸ≤≥ƺæéËÀ “Bliss body.” The body of the soul.” “sameness. karma. “Grace. anugraha descends on the soul as ßaktipâta. the residence and teaching center of a sâdhu. asura: Ç–‹¿ “Evil spirit.” See: yama-niyama.” The heart center. anugraha ßakti: Ç≤‹í“À⁄# “Graceful or favoring power. knowledge of God. See: astral body.” Funeral.” God’s individualizing veil of duality that enshrouds the soul.” (Opposite of sura: “deva. God.” See: yama-niyama. all-pervasive: Diffused throughout or existing in every part of the universe. malaparipâka. Specifically. or Antarloka. It comes when â∫ava mala. sakala avasthâ. order of the life. karma and mâyâ and ultimately attains liberation. See: koßa. the dîkshâ (initiation) from a satguru. Anugraha is a key concept in Íaiva Siddhânta. At this stage the soul seeks pati-jñânam. â∫ava mala: ÇŸ®∆ºƒ “Impurity of smallness.

. See: Íiva. ground. In common usage in several Indian languages. and Guru Mahâsannidhânam of Kauai Aadheenam. aura: The luminous colorful field of subtle energy radiating within and around the human body. come into being.” Preface.” and ârogya. lifestyle and nature. introduction to a book. that within which never changes.” svapna (or taijasa). “deep sleep.” See: Pra∫ava. seeking âyus. Ayyappan: Iag.glossary 143 major and minor problems in people’s lives. See: chakra. Being: When capitalized. exist. brahmachârî: ∏˘“˜òŸ¿¤ An unmarried male spiritual aspirant who practices continence. bhûmikâ: ∫›⁄ºéŸ “Earth. Absolute Reality and Primal Soul (God’s nature as a divine Person). arise. Lower case being refers to the essential nature of a person. being refers to God’s essential divine nature—Pure Consciousness. “longevity. ordained by Satguru. Asuras do evolve and do not remain permanently in this state. existence. observes religious disciplines. Aum: F or Ç˺ΠOften spelled Om. See: kevala avasthâ. avasthâ: Ç∆—¨Ÿ (Tamil: avasthai. brahmacharya: ∏˘“˜òæ@ See: yama-niyama. The mystic syllable of Hinduism. aum means “yes.” sushupti. atala chakra: Ç™ƒ òé˚ “Bottomless region. “diseaselessness.” The current preceptor of the Nandinâtha Sampradâya’s Kailâsa Paramparâ. Narakaloka. associated with Lord Ga∫eßa. hymns and chants.” Sâkshin or chit in Sanskrit. age . placed at the beginning of sacred writings. at the hip level. “wakefulness. Sivaya Subramuniyaswami in 2001.) “Condition” or “state” of consciousness or experience. moods and emotions.” is turîyâtîta. soil. knowing. âyurveda: ÇŸæ‹∆@‰Æ “Science of life.” The first chakra below the mûlâdhâra. “to become. The colors change according to the ebb and flow of one’s state of consciousness. devotion and service and who may be under simple vows. a sacred hill in Kerala. A fifth state. including sâdhana. bhajana: ∫ú≤ Spiritual song. of superconsciousness. thoughts.” to facilitate spiritual progress. 2) The states of consciousness as discussed in the Mâ∫∂ûkya Upanishad: jâgrat (or vaißvânara).gd. verily” or “hail. the witness of perception. From bhû.” and turîya.” Bodhinatha (Bodhinâtha): ∏Ë⁄∞≤Ÿ¨ “Lord of Wisdom. awareness: Individual consciousness. Individual or group singing of devotional songs. Focus is on balancing energies through methods suited to the individual’s constitution. “the fourth” state. “dreaming. the “inner eye of the soul. “beyond turîya. Also names one in the student stage. brahmachâri∫î: ∏˘“˜òŸ⁄¿®¤ Feminine counterpart of brahmachârî. ßuddha avasthâ. or until marriage.” A holistic system of medicine and health native to ancient India. region of fear and lust. sakala avasthâ. Popular God of a recently formed sect that focuses on pilgrimage to the top of Sabarimalai. perception. 1) Any of three stages of the soul’s evolution from the point of its creation to final merger in the Primal Soul.

there are 14 major chakras in all. concentration: Uninterrupted and sustained attention. especially with reference to its order.” Devaloka: Ɖ∆ƒËé “Plane of radiant beings. 7) sahasrâra (crown of head): illumination. the higher astral plane. the Aum and other mystic tones. guilt.” Lord Íiva depicted sitting under a banyan tree. 6) âjñâ (third eye): divine sight. or whole of creation. See: yama-niyama. daßamâµßa: ÆÀºŸÀ “One-tenth sharing. . Additionally. The ability to hear the inner currents of the nervous system. Gods and their family or peers to tithe regularly. divyaßravana. deva: Ɖ∆ “Shining one. dayâ: ÆæŸ “Compassion. 3) ma∫ipûra (solar plexus): willpower. chakras. clairvoyance: “Clear-seeing. 5) rasâtala (ankles): selfishness. 4) talâtala (calves): prolonged mental confusion. hearing the highe “eee” sound. In the physical body there are corresponding nerve plexuses. cosmos: The universe. Also.” Psychic or divine hearing. through the day or while in meditation. Godliness. conscious mind: The external. See: loka. They are seats of instinctive consciousness. giving. divyad®ish†i. 1) A synonym for mind-stuff. consciousness: Chitta or chaitanya. or nâdanâ∂î ßakti. They constitute the lower or hellish world. chitta. three worlds. The seven upper chakras are: 1) mûlâdhâra (base of spine): memory. Thus. everyday state of consciousness. Deity: “God. See: ash†aˆga yoga. The seven lower chakras are 1) atala (hips): fear and lust.144 YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION chakra: òé˚ “Wheel. seven chakras exist below the spine. 4) anâhata (heart center): direct cognition. dâna: ÆŸ≤ Generosity. 2) vitala (thighs): raging anger. envy. awareness.” See: yama-niyama.” A synonym of Maharloka. The seven principal chakras are situated along the spinal cord from the base to the cranial chamber. Deva is also used in scripture to mean “God or Deity.” The image or mûrti installed in a temple or the Mahådeva the mûrti represents. See: mind. ganglia and glands.” A promise ˘ that tithers make before God. hatred. 3) sutala (knees): retaliatory jealousy. See: Narakaloka. harmony and completeness. nonphysical body. silently teaching four ®ishis at His feet. 2) svâdhish†hâna (below navel): reason. time and space. Ä giving one-tenth of one’s income to a religious institution. Dakshi∫âmûrti: Æ⁄’®Ÿº›⁄™@ “South-facing form. daßama bhâga vrata: ÆÀº∫Ÿí∆™ “One-tenth-part vow. Hearing in one’s mind the words of inner-plane beings or earthly beings not physically present. See: loka. realm of anâhata chakra. clairaudience: “Clear-hearing. 5) vißuddha (throat): divine love. etc. called Naraka or pâtâla. nonphysical people and subtle forces.” The traditional Hindu practice of tithing. The ability to look into the inner worlds and see auras. 6) mahâtala (feet): absence of conscience. contemplation: Religious or mystical absorption beyond meditation. sorrow. in a subtle.” A being inhabiting the higher astral plane.” Psychic or divine sight. thought forms. See: Íiva. nâ∂îs. apprehension. 7) pâtâla (located in the soles of the feet): murder and malice. the origin of jealousy.” Any of the nerve plexes or centers of force and consciousness located within the inner bodies of man. or 2) the condition or power of perception.

” 1) ®ita: “Universal law. dharma: ∞º@ From dh®i. soul and world. g®ihastha (householder). known collectively as chaturdharma: “four religious laws. social standing. dhyâna: ±æŸ≤ “Meditation.” See: ash†aˆga yoga. sampradâya.” Solemn induction by which one is entered into a new realm of spiritual awareness and practice by a teacher or preceptor through bestowing of blessings. them-and-us) as fixed. dependent on personal karma. —pluralism: A form of nonmonism which emphasizes three or more eternally separate realities. community.” Obligations and responsibilities within one’s nation. entities. hold. high-and-low.. God and soul.” See: ash†aˆga yoga. goodness and truth. family and guru. community. —dvaita: The doctrine of dualism. —dualistic: Of or relating to dualism. justice. astral plane. the right and righteous path. —advaita: The doctrine of nondualism or monism. religion. “to sustain. etc. society. There are four principal kinds of dharma. it is the mode of conduct most conducive to spiritual advancement.” Hence dharma is “that which contains or upholds the cosmos. according to one’s own particular physical. theories which treat dualities (good-and-evil. Essentially. 4) svadharma: “Personal obligations or duty. tribe. twoness-not twoness. way of righteousness. law of being.” The laws of being and nature that contain and govern all forms. all is God. are seen as eternally separate. concepts. the application of dharma. disincarnate: Having no physical body. Dvaita and advaita define two ends of a vast spectrum. carry. intelligence. e. functions and processes. dualism: See: dvaita-advaita. Relating to the soul. fulfilling of the duties of the four stages of life—brahmachârî (student). reflected in one’s race. of the astral plane. —monistic theism: A dipolar view which encompasses both monism and dualism. appearance. Denotes initial or deepened connection with the teacher and his lineage and is usually accompanied by ceremony. Var∫a can mean “race. dîkshâ: Ƥ’Ÿ “Initiation. Dîpâvalî: Ƥ¥Ÿ∆ƒ¤ “Row of Lights. color. dh®iti: ∞‡⁄™ “Steadfastness. substance or God. virtue. 3) âßrama dharma: “Duties of life’s stages. dvaita-advaita: Æ˝Ê™ ÇÆ˝Ê™ “dual-nondual. “to hold. writings. religion. God. according to which reality is ultimately composed of two irreducible principles. health.” Among the most important categories in the classification of Hindu philosophies. desires and tendencies.” Dharma has manifold meanings.” Social duty. 2) var∫a dharma: “Law of one’s kind.g.” A very popular home and community festival in October/November when Hindus of all denominations light oil or electric lights and set off fireworks in a joyful celebration of the victory of good over evil and light over darkness. character. truths. that reality is ultimately composed of one whole principle. vânaprastha (elder advisor) and sannyâsa (religious solitaire). duty. for example. ethics. . dhâra∫â: ∞Ÿ¿®Ÿ “Concentration.” One’s perfect individual pattern through life. from galaxy clusters to the power of mental thought and perception. In essence. See: astral body. dharma is the orderly fulfillment of an inherent nature or destiny. etc. skills and aptitudes. occupational subgroup and family. including: divine law.glossary 145 devonic: Of or relating to the devas or their world. with no independent parts.” From dh®i. class. astral beings.” Human or developmental dharma. physical characteristics. mental and emotional nature.” See: yama-niyama. rather than transcendable.

often unbidden. Goddess: Female representation or manifestation of Divinity. Ga∫eßa: í®À “Lord of Categories. form and space. individual identity. the expression God Realization is used to name both of the above samâdhis. Either the Supreme God. “favor. Gods: Mahâdevas. The mature soul finds himself surrounded by grace.” which bestows the sense of I-ness. Íiva.” existentialism: A philosophy that emphasizes the uniqueness and isolation of the individual experience in a hostile or indifferent universe. In Íaiva Siddhânta and other schools.” ‰ synonymous with Ga∫apati. Matsyendranatha.” Broadly.146 YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION ego: The external personality or sense of “I” and “mine. “Self vision. great souls. pure consciousness.” from the Latin gratia. who are among His creation.” Or: “Lord of attendants (ga∫a). individuality and separateness from God. the beloved elephant-faced Deity honored by Hindus of every sect. the ultimate attainment. It also includes Íiva’s other four . In Yoga’s Forgotten Foundation. Grace is not only the force of illumination or revealment. rank or achievement. “great beings of light. the plural form of God refers to extremely advanced beings existing in their self-effulgent soul bodies in the causal plane. the ego is equated with the tattva of ahaµkâra. enlightenment: For Íaiva monists. whereas Self Realization refers only to nirvikalpa samâdhi.” In Dancing with Íiva. He traveled and extolled the greatness of Íiva throughout North India and Nepal where he and his guru. whether they be seemingly pleasant and helpful or not. showing favor”). by which souls are awakened to their true. Íakti or devî. grace: “Benevolence. or it can refer to an astral-plane being residing in a female astral body. Goddess can refer to a female perception or depiction of a causal-plane being (Mahâdeva) in its natural state. or 2) nirvikalpa samâdhi (“enstasy without form”). existentialist: Pertaining to. when all Hindus worship together. anugraha ßakti (“kindness. the Self God. love. or as âtma darßana. above others in stature. or believing in. union with the transcendent Absolute. God: Supernal being. Self Realization. sometimes referred to as Paramâtma darßana. beyond time. or one of the Mahâdevas. are still highly revered. which is genderless. “I-maker. samâdhi without seed (nirvikalpa samâdhi). divine nature. Ga∫eßa is a Mahâdeva. eminent: High.” “goodwill. God Realization: Direct and personal experience of the Divine within oneself. Expounder and foremost guru of Siddha Siddhânta Íaivism.” God’s power of revealment. from God. giving. It can refer to either 1)savikalpa samâdhi (“enstasy with form”) in its various levels. It is a time of rejoicing. the philosophy of existentialism. from the experience of inner light to the realization of Satchidânanda. regards human existence as unexplainable. He sees all of God’s actions as grace. Gorakshanatha (Gorakshanâtha): íË¿’≤Ÿ¨ Profound siddha yoga master of the Ådinâtha Sampradâya (ca 950). Paraßiva. a ten-day festival of August-September that culminates in a parade called Ga∫eßa Visarjana. Grace in the unripe stages of the spiritual journey is experienced by the devotee as receiving gifts or boons. and stresses freedom of choice and responsibility for the consequences of one’s acts. Ga∫eßa Chaturthî: í®‰À ò™‹¨¤@ The birthday of Lord Ga∫eßa.

” It is a family of myriad faiths with four primary denominations: Íaivism. The three gu∫as are —sattva: Quiescent. Ha†ha Yoga Pradîpikâ: “§æËí¥Æ¤⁄¥éŸ “Elucidation of ha†ha yoga. Often preceded by a qualifying prefix. used today in preparing the body and mind for meditation. It is a purposeful limiting of consciousness to give the opportunity to the soul to grow and mature through experience of the world.” The three constituent principles of prak®iti. also known as B®ihaspati. emotion. ‹ followed today by nearly one billion adherents. reflecting the light of Pure Consciousness. “from one to another”). usually made of earthen bricks. Hinduism (Hindu Dharma): ⁄“≥Æ∞º@ India’s indigenous religious and cultural system. hostility—mental. resistance and dissolution. See: ahiµsâ. whether it be Vedic-Ågamic art. hrî: “˚¤ “Remorse. but especially religion. modesty. . translucent. The concealment power is known as veiling grace. sculpture. guru: í‹¡ “Weighty one. quality.” inherent in energy. guru names the planet Jupiter. homa: “˺ “Fire-offering. homaku∫∂a. passed from guru to guru. grace is God’s ever-flowing love and compassion.” ˘ A 14th-century text of 389 verses by Svatmarama Yogin that describes the philosophy and practices of ha†ha yoga. —rajas: “Passion. God’s power to obscure the soul’s divine nature.” indicating an authority of great knowledge or skill. hiµsâ: ⁄“Ä–Ÿ “Injury. kulaguru (family teacher). compassion”) and prasâda (literally. “clearness. Vaish∫avism. Hindu: ⁄“≥Æ‹ A follower of.glossary 147 powers—creation. A line of spiritual gurus in authentic succession of initiation.” See: yama-niyama. pervasive. mostly in India. rarified. purity”). destruction and concealment—through which He provides the world of experience and limits the soul’s consciousness so that it may evolve.” A system of physical and mental exercise developed in ancient times as a means of rejuvenation by ®ishis and tapasvins. mâyâ to the soul. gu∫a: í‹® “Strand. hat˙a yoga: “§æËí “Forceful yoga. dance. the force of contraction. guru means “dispeller (gu) of darkness (ru). vînaguru (vî∫a teacher) and satguru (spiritual preceptor). A teacher or guide in any subject. Cf: sampradâya. action. —tamas: “Darkness.” A ceremony of offering oblations to the Gods through the medium of fire in a sanctified fire pit. architecture or spirituality. guru-ßishya system: í‹¡⁄Àœæ “Master-disciple system.” inertia. Also called Sanâtana dharma. or tirodhâna ßakti. heart chakra: Anâhata chakra.”An important education system of Hinduism whereby the teacher conveys his knowledge and tradition to a student. or relating to. primal nature. karma. the particular energy of Íiva that binds the three bonds of â∫ava. Homa rites are enjoined in the Vedas. “Religion of the Vedas. but with the large diaspora in many other countries. In astrology. preservation. the chain of mystical power and authorized continuity. According to the Advayatâraka Upanishad (14–18).” Injuriousness. See: chakra. Such knowledge. verbal or physical.” guru paramparâ: í‹¡¥¿Ä¥¿Ÿ “Preceptorial succession” (literally. See: Hinduism. also known as k®ipâ (“tenderness. hurt. density. such as music. Ågamas and Dharma and G®ihya Íâstras. is imparted through the developing relationship between guru and disciple. life. Íâktism and Smârtism. movement. “Eternal Religion” and Vaidika dharma. Hinduism. harm. Hence. More broadly. Center of direct cognition. kâru∫ya.

becomes centered within himself.” Concentrated repeating of a mantra. often counting on a mâlâ or strand of beads. See: jñâna. divine one.” The feminine psychic current flowing along the spine.iwtd. Iraivan Temple: See: San Marga Sanctuary.148 YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION i∂â nâ∂î: Ñ•Ÿ≤Ÿ•¤ “Soothing channel. Jñâna is the awakened. anger. The lower mind. sponsoring and distributing Hindu religious literature. according to the positions and movements of heavenly bodies. sakala avasthâ. nâ∂î. saint.” From jîv.” The balance which emerges in the life of a soul in the stage of marul. pamphlets and books. existing.” From the Latin instinctus. See: marul. Worship or contact with God and Gods via meditation and contemplation rather than through external ritual. the second stage of the sakala avasthai.” Possessing jñâna. Iraivan: . silently or aloud. “darkness. It is the wisdom that comes as an aftermath of the ku∫∂alinî breaking through the door of Brahman into the realization of Paraßiva. which bypasses the process of reason. superconscious state (kâra∫a chitta) flowing into daily life situations. intuition (to intuit): Direct understanding or cognition.” Hindu astrology. self-preservation. Also. karma and mâyâ).” japa: ú¥ “Recitation. jñâna: ◊Ÿ≤ “Knowledge. when the soul turns toward the good and holy. instinctive mind: Manas chitta. delineating character and determining auspicious moments. knowledge and experience of the world.. “Worshipful one.” “The science of the lights (or stars). movement. jyotisha: ùæË⁄™Œ From jyoti. See: San Marga Sanctuary. “impelling. instinctive: “Natural” or “innate. as well as ordinary thought and emotion.g[ “Balance. or paßu-jñânam. See:pâßa-jñânam.” The drives and impulses that order the animal world and the physical and lower astral aspects of humans—for example.” as to a God. instigating. internalized worship: Yoga. fear. jñânî: ◊Ÿ≤¤ “Sage. free of charge as a way of helping others spiritually. bound by the three malas (â∫ava. lust and jealousy. jîva: ú¤∆ “Living. Èßvarapûjana: Ñ@Õ∆¿¥›ú≤ “Worship. analyzing events and circumstances. sakala avasthâ.” One of the most ancient Tamil appellations for God. fear and confusion. hatred. A cure for pride and arrogance.” The matured state of the soul. a formal prayer or chant. See: ku∫∂alinî.Us. paßu-jñânam. “light.” The individual soul. etc. jagadâchârya: úíÆŸòŸæ@ “World teacher. during its embodied state. irul: . See: mantra.” The first of three stages of the sakala avasthai where the soul’s impetus is toward pâßa-jñânam. hunger and thirst.Utpidbahg. unaffected by the ups and downs in life. Absolute Reality. jealousy.” See: yama-niyama. “to live. âtman. iruvinaioppu: . jñâna dâna: ◊Ÿ≤ÆŸ≤ “Gifts of wisdom. as well as the emotions of greed. wisdom. invocation (to invoke): A “calling or summoning. procreation. for blessings and assistance.” The karma yoga of printing. . which controls the basic faculties of perception.

2) the principle of cause and effect. Benevolent actions (pu∫yakarma or sukarma) will bring loving reactions. desire and emotion. hateful acts (pâpakarma or kukarma) will bring suffering. The lineage continued down the centuries and is alive today—the first recent siddha known being the “rishi from the Himalayas. prârabdha and kriyamâna.” The instinctive-intellectual sheath of ordinary thought. container. who in 2001 ordained the current preceptor.” The Kali Yuga is the last age in the repetitive cycle of four phases of time our solar system passes through. . ca 200 bce . which sooner or later returns upon the doer. It is the vehicle of higher thought. karma: éº@ “Action.” That portion of sañchita karma that is bearing fruit and shaping the events and conditions of the current life. vijñâna—understanding. See: prâ∫a —manomaya koßa: “Mind-formed sheath. we shall reap in this or future lives. and is its connection with the astral body. “vital airs or winds.” The prâ∫ic or health body.” 1) any act or deed. —sañchita karma: “Accumulated actions. What we sow. —prârabdha karma: “Actions begun. who in 1949 initiated Sivaya Subramuniyaswami (1927‒2001). will. See: chakra. Satguru Bodhinatha Veylanswami (1942‒). 3) a consequence or “fruit of action” (karmaphala) or “after effect” (uttaraphala). proponents of the ancient philosophy of monistic Íaiva Siddhânta.” Prâ∫amaya koßa disintegrates at death along with the physical body. See: Nâtha Sampradâya. It is comparable to the darkest part of the night. —prâ∫amaya koßa: “Sheath composed of prâ∫a (vital force). “thought. international headquarters of Saiva Siddhanta Church. koßa: éËÀ “Sheath. In South India. vessel. who in turn initiated Chellappaswami (1840‒1915). set in motion.” The physical or odic body. a major stream of the Nandinâtha Sampradâya.” “deed.” Philosophically. five sheaths through which the soul functions simultaneously in the various planes or levels of existence. Prâ∫a moves in the prâ∫amaya koßa as five primary currents or vayus. from manas. —kriyamâna karma: “Being made. he initiated Kadaitswami (ca 1810‒1875).” karma yoga: éº@æËí “union through action. yet indispensable for evolution and Self Realization. Kailâsa Paramparâ: éÁƒŸ–¥¿Ä¥¿Ÿ A spiritual lineage of 163 siddhas. wish. The koßas are —annamaya koßa: “Sheath composed of food.glossary 149 Kailasa (Kailâsa): éÁƒŸ– “Crystalline” or “abode of bliss.” The sum of all karmas of this life and past lives. a pilgrimage destination for Hindus and Tibetan Buddhists. —vijñânamaya koßa: “Sheath of cognition. layer. personal tendencies and associations.” The mental or cognitive-intuitive sheath. The first of these masters that history recalls was Maharishi Nandinatha (or Nandikesvara) 2. also called the actinodic sheath. including the nature of one’s bodies. The manomaya koßa takes form as the physical body develops and is discarded in the inner worlds before rebirth.” The Himalayan peak in Western Tibet. as the forces of ignorance are in full power and many subtle faculties of the soul are obscured.” so named because he descended from those holy mountains.250 years ago. Selfish. coarsest of sheaths in comparison to the faculties of the soul.” The lower astral body.” Selfless service. Kauai Aadheenam: Monastery-temple complex founded by Sivaya Subramuniyaswami in 1970. because only within it can all fourteen chakras fully function. the earthly abode of Lord Íiva. Karma is threefold: sañchita. or the etheric body or etheric double. breath and vitality. satguru to the great Tirumular. coexisting within the physical body as its source of life. Kali Yuga: é⁄ƒæ‹í “dark Age. Chellappan passed the mantle of authority to Sage Yogaswami (1872‒1964). and seven other disciples (as stated in the Tirumantiram).

kriyâ mârga: ⁄é˚柺Ÿí@ See kriyâ pâda. a body of light. this yoga is the natural result of sâdhanas and tapas well performed. 4) The second stage of the Íaiva path. a state beginning with its emanation or spawning by Lord Íiva as an etheric form unaware of itself. sahasrâra. of which Parâßakti (or Satchidânanda) is the rarified substratum. liberal Hinduism: A synonym for Smårtism and the closely related neo-Indian religion. Smârtism.” The stage of worship and devotion. kevala avasthâ: éÂ∆ƒ Ç∆—¨Ÿ “Stage of oneness. ßuddha avasthâ. Here the soul is likened to a seed hidden in the ground. especially rites or ceremonies. rises up the sushum∫â nâ∂î. a spark of the divine shrouded in a cloud of darkness known as â∫ava. Specifically.” names the soul’s superconscious mind. See: pâda. See: neo-Indian religion. pâßa is the threefold bondage of â∫ava.) In Íaiva Siddhânta. Moksha is freedom from the fettering power of these bonds. the ku∫∂alinî awakens each successive chakra. release from the bonds of pâßa. direct cognition. It is the soul itself. In Íaiva Siddhânta. also called kâra∫a ßarîra. Its essence is Parâßakti (Pure Consciousness) and Paraßiva (the Absolute).” Advanced meditative prac‹d tices and sâdhana techniques. comes as it pierces through the door of Brahman at the core of the sahasrâra and enters! Ku∫∂alinî ßakti then returns to rest in any one of the seven chakras. enlightenment. kriyâ pâda: ⁄é˚查ŸÆ “Stage of religious action. at first. See: sakala avasthâ. Nirvikalpa samâdhi. yet to germinate and unfold its potential. In its highest form. the ultimate foundation of all life. kshamâ: ’ºŸ “Forebearance.” The primordial cosmic energy in every individual which. religious action. serpent power.” (Tamil: avasthai. second of four progressive stages of maturation on the Íaiva Siddhânta path of attainment. ku∫∂alinî yoga: é©⁄ƒ≤¤æËí “uniting the serpent power. See: pâda. religious action.” See: yama-niyama. Íivasâyujya is complete when the ku∫∂alinî arrives back in the sahasrâra and remains coiled in this crown chakra. a part of râja yoga. “causal mind. worship. lies coiled like a serpent at the base of the spine and eventually. holder of karmas of this and all past lives. through the practice of yoga. aloneness. rather than a distinct system of striving and teaching in its own right. kriyâ pâda. and karmâßaya. after which the soul is liberated from saµsâra (the round of births and deaths).” 1) doing of any kind. but no longer have the power to fetter or bind the soul.150 YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION knowing. wisdom. karma and mâyâ. which do not cease to exist. intuition and creativity. Kâra∫a chitta. kriyâ: ⁄é˚æŸ “Action. 2) Involuntary physical movements occuring during meditation that are pretended or caused by lack of emotional self-control or by the premature or unharnessed arousal of the ku∫∂alinî.” The intuitive-superconscious sheath or actinic-causal body. intelligence and higher faculties. 3) Ha†ha yoga techniques for cleansing the mucous membranes. . the first of three stages of the soul’s evolution. performed to deliberately arouse the ku∫∂alinî power and guide it up the spine into the crown chakra. The inmost soul form (svarûpa). which limit and confine the soul to the reincarnational cycle so that it may evolve. ku∫∂alinî: é‹©•⁄ƒ≤¤ “She who is coiled. causal body. —ânandamaya koßa: “Body of bliss. As it rises. liberation: Moksha.

mala: ºƒ “Impurity.” From loc. usually made of rudrâksha. visible.” A dimension of manifest existence. also called Kâra∫aloka. His revealing grace. japa.” and of the Gods and highly evolved souls. it is a world of superconsciousness and extremely refined energy. also called the gross plane. meditating and worshiping Íiva as the Source and Self of all that exists. mahâtala chakra: º“Ÿ™ƒ òé˚ Sixth netherworld. are brought under control during marul. region of consciencelessness.” A sound. syllable. the Lord’s concealing grace.” The second of the three stages of the sakala avasthai when the soul is “caught” between the world and God and begins to seek knowledge of . Also a flower garland. be bright. Mahâßivarâtri: º“Ÿ⁄À∆¿Ÿ⁄& “Íiva’s great night. 2) —Antarloka: “Inner or in-between world. mâlâ: ºŸƒŸ “Garland. See: vegetarian. Also names the shrine in which the remains of a great soul are entombed. the quantum level of the universe. preventing it from knowing its true. malaparipakam: kyghpghfk. The three primary lokas are 1) —Bhûloka: “Earth world. See: chakra. “ripening of bonds.” Known in English as the subtle or astral plane. See: cremation.” The death. God.” A strand of beads for holy recitation. usually drawn from scripture. where souls exists in self-effulgent bodies made of actinic particles of light. The causal plane. cosmic region. as it is the most dense of the worlds. called pâßa—â∫ava. At this time. “to shine. Mahâdeva: º“ŸÆ‰∆ “Great shining one.” Referring either to God Íiva or any of the highly evolved beings who live in the Íivaloka in their natural. ma∫ipûra chakra: º⁄®¥›¿òé˚ “Wheeled city of jewels. “Confusion. Each loka reflects or involves a particular range of consciousness. â∫ava.” Íaivism’s foremost festival. tulasî. and mâyâ—which limit the soul. praying. tirodhâna ßakti. leading to the descent of grace. See: sakala avasthâ. It is here that God and Gods move and lovingly guide the evolution of all the worlds and shed their ever-flowing grace. mahâsamâdhi: º“Ÿ–ºŸ⁄∞ “Great enstasy. effulgent soul bodies.” mânsâhârî: ºŸÄ–Ÿ“Ÿ¿¤ “Meat-eater. death. where souls in their astral bodies sojourn between incarnations and when they sleep.” An important term in Íaivism referring to three bonds. habitat. karma.” Solar-plexus center of willpower. fasting and an all-night vigil are observed as well as other disciplines: chanting.glossary 151 loka: ƒËé “World. mânsâhâra: ºŸÄ–Ÿ“Ÿ¿ “Meat-eating. It is the plane of creativity and intuition. divine nature. the second stage of the sakala avasthai. giving way to anugraha. of a great soul. sandalwood or crystal. ßaktinipâta. word or phrase endowed with special power. marul: kUs. mantra: º≥& “Mystic formula. an event occasioned by tremendous blessings. realm. or plane of existence. 3) —Íivaloka: “World of Íiva. has accomplished its work. karma and mâyâ. See: chakra. See: three worlds.” The state attained after the three malas. celebrated on the night before the new moon in february-March.” One who follows a nonvegetarian diet. existing deep within the Antarloka at a higher level of vibration. the intermediate dimension between the physical and causal worlds. ßaktinipâta. or giving up of the physical body.” The world perceived through the five senses.

sakala avasthâ. paßu-jñânam. Buddhi chitta. no more than would fill the two hands held side by side and slightly cupped piled high. —superconscious mind: Kâra∫a chitta. the mental body is vijñânamaya koßa.152 YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION its own true nature. Also.” See: koßa. a wandering monk who lives on alms. At its deepest level. reactions and desires. conviction. —conscious mind: Jâgrat chitta (“wakeful consciousness”). powerfully concentrated state wherein new knowledge and insights are awakened from within as awareness focuses one-pointedly on an object or specific line of thought. The superconscious mind working through the conscious and subconscious states. vijñânamaya koßa. mental plane: Names the refined strata of the subtle world. mitâhâra: ⁄º™Ÿ“Ÿ¿ “Measured eating. Same as mukti. mâyâ: ºŸæŸ “She who measures. give rise to a new and totally different rate of vibration. which brings forth intuition. which occurs after karma has been resolved and nirvikalpa samâdhi— realization of the Self. clarity and insight. The ordinary. thinking state of mind.” or “mirific energy.” The substance emanated from Íiva through which the world of form is manifested. alert. Meditation describes a quiet. the seat of desire and governor of sensory and motor organs. the strata of intuition. See:paßu-jñânam.” a requisite for good health and success in yoga. all-knowing. 2) The science of mysticism. self-luminous. or Satchidânanda. it is called Maharloka or Devaloka. meditation: Dhyâna. the One transcendental. metaphysics: 1) The branch of philosophy dealing with first causes and nature of reality. Manas chitta. . mendicant: A beggar. In Sanskrit. divine mind common to all souls. In Sanskrit.” Release from transmigration. waking. mind (five states): A view of the mind in five parts. Here the soul is shrouded in the mental or cognitive sheath. It is the cosmic creative force. the seat of involuntary physiological processes. “sheath of cognition. omnipresent consciousness. Its most refined essence is Parâsakti. The part of mind “beneath” the conscious mind. Hence all creation is also termed mâyâ. intellectual and superconscious. preservation and dissolution. understanding. —superconscious mind: Kâra∫a chitta. —intellectual mind. intermingling. or Satchidânanda. —subsuperconscious mind: Anukâra∫a chitta. —subconscious mind: Saµskâra chitta (“impression mind”). mauna: ºŸÊ≤ The discipline of remaining silent. the all-knowing intelligence of the soul. the storehouse or recorder of all experience (whether remembered consciously or not)—the holder of past impressions. moksha: ºË’ “Liberation. The mind of light. moderate appetite. benevolence and spiritual sustenance. mental body (sheath): The higher-mind layer of the subtle or astral body in which the soul functions in the Maharloka of the Antarloka or subtle plane. subtle body. ever in the process of creation. Paraßiva—has been attained. the faculty of thought and intelligence. saµsâra. Sustained concentration. mati: º⁄™ “Cognition. —instinctive mind.” See: yama-niyama. The area of the subconscious mind formed when two thoughts or experiences of the same rate of intensity are sent into the subconscious at different times and. See: yama-niyama. An ideal portion per meal is one a ku∂ava. the superconscious is Parâßakti. realm of anâhata chakra. the principle of manifestation. the Divine Mind of God Íiva. —subsubconscious mind: Vâsanâ chitta (“mind of subliminal traits”). mind (three phases): A perspective of mind as instinctive. the round of births and deaths.

Narakaloka: ≤¿éƒËé Abode of darkness. Naraka is understood as having seven regions. Natchintanai: ew. mukti: º‹⁄# “Release. governs memory. Here beings suffer the consequences of their own misdeeds in previous lives. mûlâdhâra chakra: º›ƒŸ∞Ÿ¿òé˚ “Root-support wheel. ending on the left side of the body. Its flows downward.” namaskâra: ≤º—響 “reverent salutations. —Sushum∫â is the major nerve current which passes through the spinal column from the mûlâdhâra chakra at the base to the sahasrâra at the crown of the head. piˆgalâ and sushum∫â. the belief that God exists as a real. adherance to the path of dharma and striving for the attainment of Self realization. known as the Pañchâkshara. extolling the power of the satguru. Sri Lanka and elsewhere. See: Kailâsa Paramparâ. friend or even momentary acquaintance. coupled with theism. is pink in color.” Traditional Hindu verbal greeting and mudrâ where the palms are joined together and held before the heart or raised to the level of the forehead. Literally.” The nether worlds. Murugan: KUfd.rpe. also known as sûrya (sun) nâ∂î. Nâtha: ≤Ÿ¨ “Master. adept. The doctrine that reality is a one whole or existence without independent parts. icon or effigy of God or a God used during worship. distressful area where demonic beings and young souls may sojourn until they resolve the darksome karmas they have created.000 nâ∂îs. Nandinâtha Sampradâya: ≤⁄≥Æ≤Ÿ¨–Ä¥˘ÆŸæ See: Nâtha Sampradâya.” The supreme mantra of Íaivism. Nâtha—Self-realized adept—designates the extraordinary ascetic masters (or . worship of Lord Íiva. See: dvaita-advaita.” 1) The philosophical view that there is only one ultimate substance or principle.” Four-petaled psychic center at the base of the spine.” A nerve fiber or energy channel of the subtle (inner) bodies of man. It is the channel of ku∫∂alinî.” “liberation. corresponding to the states of consciousness of the seven lower chakras. Equivalent to the Western term hell. Nama˙ Íivâya: ≤ºÅ ⁄À∆Ÿæ “Adoration (homage) to Íiva. or “five syllables. conscious. The mudrâ is also called añjali. nâ∂î: ≤Ÿ•¤ “Conduit. lord. It flows upward. since theism implies dualism. a gross region of the Antarloka. “pertaining to man. personal Supreme Being—two perspectives ordinarily considered contradictory or mutually exclusive. mûrti: º›⁄™@ “Form. ending on the right side of the body.jid The collected songs of Sage Yogaswami (1872-1964) of Jaffna.” An ancient Himalayan tradition of Íaiva-yoga mysticism whose first historically known exponent was Nandikesvara (ca 250 bce). 2) The view that reality is a unified whole without independent parts. See: chakra. embodiment. river. is blue in color. personification.glossary 153 monism: “Doctrine of oneness.” a favorite name of Kârttikeya among the Tamils of South India. This current is feminine in nature and is the channel of physicalemotional energy. —Piˆga¬â. Sri Lanka.” An image. monistic theism: Advaita Èßvaravâda. Naraka is a congested. manifestation. Yogaswami. —I∂â. The three main nâ∂îs are i∂â. also known as chandra (moon) nâ∂î. These interconnect the chakras. called tala. It is a devotional gesture made equally before a temple deity. “Beautiful one.” A synonym for moksha. It is said there are 72. This current is masculine in nature and is the channel of intellectual-mental energy. holy person.

section.” Stage of bhakti yoga. when India declared itself an independent. trace. This oldest of Íaivite sampradâyas existing today consists of two major streams: the Nandinâtha and the Ådinâtha. According to Íaiva Siddhânta. implanted in India by the British.” See: yama-niyama. performing karma yoga. it is henceforth a wise one who lives out the life of the body. Paraßiva. neo: A prefix meaning new and different. . often self-taught and self-appointed. Matsyendranatha and Gorakshanatha. shedding blessings on mankind. Nâtha Sampradâya: ≤Ÿ¨–Ä¥˘ÆŸæ “Traditional doctrine of knowledge of masters. New Age: According to Webster’s New World Dictionary: “Of or pertaining to a cultural movement popular in the 1980s [and 90s] characterized by a concern with spiritual consciousness. which aggressively undermined Hindu thought and belief. of cultivating devotion through performing pûjâ and regular daily sâdhana. —kriyâ pâda: “Religious action. It was cultivated by the Macaulay education system. who founded a well-known order of yogîs. vegetarianism and holistic medicine.” The realization of the Self. pa∫∂ara: ¥©•¿ An informal order of independent priests. modified. scriptural. the soul now turns to internalized worship and râja yoga under the guidance of a satguru. including Jesus. pada: ¥Æ “A step. See: Kailâsa Paramparâ. footstep. A modern form of liberal Hinduism that carries forward basic Hindu cultural values—such as dress. beyond time.” pâda: ¥ŸÆ “The foot (of men and animals). It emerged after the British râj. extending out of and beyond the Smârta system of worshiping the Gods of each major sect. Neo-Indian religion encourages Hindus to follow any combination of theological. See: samâdhi. sâdhana and worship patterns. form and space. Mother Mary and Buddha.” Names the major sections of the Ågamic texts and the corresponding stages of practice and unfoldment on the path to moksha.154 YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION devotees) of this school. secular state. The Ådinâtha lineage’s known exemplars are Maharishi Adinatha. Many Navabhâratis choose to not call themselves Hindus but to declare themselves members of all the world’s religions. serve selflessly. i. a state of oneness beyond all change or diversity. in accomplishing each one the soul prepares itself for the next.” nirvikalpa samâdhi: ⁄≤⁄∆@é≈¥–ºŸ⁄∞ “undifferentiated trance. there are four pâdas. See: Smârtism. stride. —charyâ pâda: “Good conduct stage. Among its representatives today are the successive siddhars of the Kailâsa Paramparâ. enstasy (samâdhi) without form or seed.” Once the soul has attained Realization. niyama: ⁄≤æº “Restraint. The Nandinâtha Sampradâya has had as exemplars Maharishi Nandinatha and his disciples: Patanjali (author of the Yoga Sûtras) and Tirumular (author of Tirumantiram). it incorporates holy icons from all religions. —yoga pâda: Having matured in the charyâ and kriyâ pâdas. —jñâna pâda: “Stage of wisdom.e.” a philosophical and yogic tradition of Íaivism whose origins are unknown. regardless of sectarian or religious origin. worship stage. who emerge within a community to perform pûjâs at a sacred tree.” Learning to live righteously. stage. which are successive and cumulative. path. and variously combining belief in reincarnation and astrology with such practices as meditation. diet and the arts— while allowing religious values to subside. neo-Indian religion: Navabhârata Dharma. pace. quarter-part.

Patanjali (Patañjali): ¥™°ú⁄ƒ A Íaivite Nâtha siddha (ca 200 bce) who codified the ancient yoga philosophy which outlines the path to enlightenment through purification. Pâtâla also names the netherworld in general. milk-based pudding dessert often served at special festive occasions. A cooked. well versed in philosophy. including man. Atonement.” for which scriptures delineate specific penance for expiation. called marul. penance: Prâyaßchitta. man and cosmos—seen as a mystically and intricately interrelated unity. An act of devotion (bhakti). sakala avasthâ.” sought for by the soul in the third stage of the sakala avasthai. sin. 3) Demerit earned through wrong-doing. In philosophy. “Knowledge of God.” These are the three primary elements of Íaiva Siddhânta philosophy: God. and is a synonym for Naraka. See:arul. depression. See:marul. cattle. noose. Pâßa is the allimportant force or fetter by which God brings souls along the path to Truth. See: Pati-paßu-pâßa. Íiva’s first perfection. Absolute Reality. Corresponds to the seventh and lowest astral netherworld beneath the earth’s surface. the reason for their living on this planet.” Refers to animals or beasts. austerity (tapas) and good deeds (suk®ityâ). but can be dissolved through penance (prâyaßchitta). “Soul-knowledge. of torture. lord. crime. and the deepest meaning of their experiences. pandit (pa∫∂ita): ¥⁄Ä©•™ (Also. Each act of pâpa carries its karmic consequence. paßu: ¥À‹ “Cow. See: Pati-paßu-pâßa. Attainment of this is called Self Realization or nirvikalpa samâdhi. Paraßiva is That which is beyond the grasp of consciousness. sakala avasthâ. owner. Pati-jñânam: gjp”hdk. To merge with the Absolute in mystic union is the ultimate goal of all incarnated souls. pâtâla chakra: ¥Ÿ™Ÿƒ òé “fallen” or “sinful region. generally made from tapioca or rice. loneliness and such. pâpa: ¥Ÿ¥ “Wickedness. Pâpa can produce disease.glossary 155 a simple shrine or a temple. fettered individual. Pâßa consists of the soul’s threefold bondage of â∫ava. paßu-jñânam: gR”hdk. called arul. payasam: ghahrk. Paraßiva: ¥¿⁄À∆ “Transcendent Íiva.” The whole of existence. Paßu is the soul.” The Self God. Pati-paßu-pâßa: ¥⁄™ ¥À‹ ¥ŸÀ Literally: “master. transcends time. envisioned as a cowherd. See: chakra. See: Pati-paßu-pâßa. cow and tether. pâßa: ¥ŸÀ “Tether. Narakaloka. karmaphala. This is the realm in which misguided souls indulge in destruction for the sake of destruction. ßaktinipâta.” A name for God Íiva indicating His commanding relationship with souls as caring ruler and helpful guide. Pati: ¥⁄™ “Master. pundit. loka.” The object of seeking in the second stage of the sakala avasthai. control and transcendence of the mind. the soul. manifest and unmanifest. paramparâ: ¥¿Ä¥¿Ÿ “Uninterrupted succession. karma and mâyâ. austerity (tapas) or discipline (suk®itya) undertaken to soften or nullify the anticipated .” See: pûjâ. envisioned as a cow. parârtha pûjâ: ¥¿Ÿ¨@¥›úŸ “Public liturgy and worship. Íiva as lord of creatures is called Paßupati.” The seventh chakra below the mûlâdhâra.” A lineage.” 1) Bad or evil. “fruit of action. kine. religious law and sacred science. That which binds or limits the soul and keeps it (for a time) from manifesting its full potential. centered in the soles of the feet.) A Hindu religious scholar or theologian. 2) Wrongful action. Pati is God. soul and world—Divinity. and of murder for the sake of murder. called Kâkola (“black poison”) or Pâtâla. expiation. form and space and defies description. liturgy.

one level subtler than prak®iti. usually at home in a private shrine. such as the satguru. ßrî pâdukâ.” Science of controlling prâ∫a through breath˘ ing techniques in which the lengths of inhalation. . 3) Any propitiatory offering. brightness. See: pâpa. Journeying to a holy temple. Pra∫ava is also known as the sound of the nâdanâ∂î ßakti. See: tîrthayâtrâ. pujârî: ¥‹úŸ¿¤ “Worshiper. performed by authorized or ordained priests in a public shrine or temple. spirit. pûjâ: ¥úŸ “Worship. prârabdha karma: ¥˘Ÿ¿π∞éº@ “Action that has been unleashed or aroused. Pu∫ya produces inner contentment. “vital air. ‹ Metaphysically. (Also a synonym for pralaya.” An Ågamic rite of worship performed in the home. neither male nor female. Also used in Yoga and Sâˆkhya for the transcendent Self. the sum total of all energy and forces.”Prâ∫a in the human body moves in the prâ∫amaya koßa as five primary life currents known as vâyus. man.” Penance. pratyâhâra: ¥´æŸ“Ÿ¿ “Withdrawal. or the blessed remnants of such food.” A general term for Hindu temple priests. 2) Meritorious action. Åtmârtha pûjâ is done for oneself and immediate family. prâ∫a: ¥Ÿ® Vital energy or life principle. Purusha can also refer to the Supreme Being or Soul. 3) Merit earned through right thought. Its inner purpose is to purify the atmosphere around the object worshiped. from the simplest helpful deed to a lifetime of conscientious beneficence. virtuous.” See: karma. See:nâ∂î. prâ∫ic body: The subtle.” 1) The virtue of serenity and graciousness. See: ash†aˆga yoga. prasâda: ¥˘–ŸÆ “Clarity. 2) Food offered to the Deity or the guru. auspicious. establish a connection with the inner worlds and invoke the presence of God.” Person. to the mûrti. protocol: Customs of proper etiquette and ceremony. In yoga. A synonym for âtman. It ˘ can be heard as the sound of one’s own nerve system. prâ∫âyâma: ¥Ÿ®ŸæŸº “Breath control. purusha is the 25th of 36 tattvas. or to a person. Acts of atonement. the feeling of security and fearlessness. › temple or shrine. piˆgalâ: ⁄¥Ä탟 “Tawny channel. life-giving sheath called prâ∫amaya koßa. as it sometimes does in the Upanishads. grace. as well as anyone performing pûjâ. “to ˘ breathe.” The masculine psychic current flowing along the spine. See: Aum. Pra∫ava: ¥®∆ “Humming. pu∫ya: ¥‹©æ “Holy. In Íaiva cosmology. Prâ∫âyâma prepares the mind for meditation. purusha: ¥¡Œ “The spirit that dwells in the body/in the universe. retention and exhalation are modulated. performed by all Hindus at least once each year. especially in relation to religious or political dignitaries.156 YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION reaction to a past action. Gods or one’s guru. deep joy. Literally. like the sound of an electrical transformer or a swarm of bees. pilgrimage: Tîrthayâtrâ. the withdrawal ˘ from external consciousness. word and action.” The mantra Aum.” from the root pra∫. The meditator is taught to inwardly transform this sound into the inner light which lights the thoughts. Pu∫ya includes all forms of doing good. See: penance.) See: ash†aˆga yoga. See: koßa.” 1) Good or righteous. or other consecrated object. the soul. prâyaßchitta: ¥˘Ÿæ⁄Ã% “Predominant thought or aim. near or far.” The drawing in of forces. “vital airs or winds. and bask in this blissful consciousness. Parârtha pûjâ is public pûjâ.” Prâ∫a sometimes denotes the power or animating force of the cosmos. adoration. denoting God as the Primal Sound.

blessed in sacred ceremony or by a holy person. is usually celibate and under the guidance of a guru. immanent and transcendent. This includes rites of passage (saµskâra). region of selfishness. centered in the ankles. Narakaloka.” Punarjanma. unerring. or red-eyed.” See: dharma. The process wherein souls take on a physical body through the birth process. reddish-brown seeds from the Eleocarpus ganitrus. straight. Gods or guru.” The fifth chakra below the mûlâdhâra. multi-faced. or blue marble tree. Sâdhus usually have no fixed abode and travel unattached from place to place.” See: chakra. such as pûjâ. yoga. He wears white and may be under vows. revealing grace: See: anugraha ßakti. ®ishi: à⁄Œ “Seer. 2)Prasâda. The latter group are the fundamental sectarian scriptures of Íaiva Siddhânta. meditation. Íaiva: ÀÊ∆ Of or relating to Íaivism or its adherents. Íaiva Ågamas: ÀÊ∆ ÇŸíº The sectarian revealed scriptures of the Íaivas. Same as Íaivite. they identify Íiva as the Supreme Lord. a devotee who performs sâdhana. emphasizing psychic perception and visionary wisdom. ceremonies sanctifying crucial events or stages of life. rajas: ¿ú–Î “Passion. often living on alms.” A serious aspirant who has undertaken spiritual disciplines. Corresponds to the fifth astral netherworld beneath the earth’s surface. They are in two main divisions: the 64 Kashmîr Íaiva Ågamas and the 28 Íaiva Siddhânta Ågamas. especially one solemnized in a formal. Rasâ means “earth. See: chakra.” A term for an enlightened being. or be connected in any way with a guru or legitimate lineage. sacrament: 1) Holy rite. or âjñâ chakra. predominant especially among the Tamil people of .glossary purusha dharma: 157 ¥‹¡Œ∞º@ “A man’s code of duty and conduct. sahasrâra chakra: –“–˘Ÿ¿ò$ “Thousand-spoked wheel. reincarnation: “Re-entering the flesh.” The cranial psychic force center. moisture.” Refers to the third eye. rasâtala chakra: ¿–Ÿ™ƒ òé˚ “Subterranean region. metempsychosis. See: saµskâra.” Religious or spiritual disciplines. consecrated manner which is a bonding between the recipient and God. Strongly theistic. renunciation: See: sannyâsa. See: Íaivism. sâdhu: –Ÿ∞‹ “Virtuous one. but is not a sannyâsin. restraints: See: yama-niyama. Íaiva Siddhânta: À∆⁄–ØŸ≥™ “Final conclusions of Íaivism. soil. sâdhana: –Ÿ∞≤ “Effective means of attainment. A sâdhu may or may not be a yogî or a sannyâsin. Marble-sized.” The most widespread and Ê Û influential Íaivite school today. of whom there are about 400 million in the world today. rudrâksha: ¡Æ˙Ÿ’ “Eye of rudra. sâdhaka: –Ÿ∞é “Accomplished one. self-centeredness and possessiveness. called Âijîsha (“expelled”) or rasâtala.” See: gu∫a. Sacred substances.” A holy man dedicated to the search for God. grace-filled gifts. fasting and austerity. japa. which are sacred to Íiva and a symbol of His compassion for humanity. grace. activity.

paßu and pâßa (“God. karma and mâyâ. and thus have much in common. 5) the thirty-six tattvas. the pure consciousness and primal substratum of all form. including the following principle doctrines: 1) the five powers of Íiva—creation. Íiva is the totality of all. This unity is symbolized in the image of Ardhanârîßvara. and receive His grace. 8) the four pâdas (stages): charyâ (selfless service). It is the formalized theology of the divine revelations contained in the twenty-eight Íaiva Ågamas.” and âhâra. yet also differ in that they are evolving. is inseparable from Him. six of which are Íaiva Íiddhânta. Íiva is All. and jñâna (illumination). Parâßakti (the substratum of form) and Paraßiva (Absolute Reality which transcends all). There are many schools of Íaivism.” (Tamil: avasthai. 2) The three categories: Pati. concealment. knowledge and experience of the world (pâßa-jñânam). destruction. divine energy unfolds as icçhâ ßakti (the power of desire.” From ßâka. Íivaliˆga (object of worship) and saˆgama (company of holy persons). 9) the belief in the Pañchâkshara as the foremost mantra. 2) marul.” In popular. “vegetable. Íaivite (Íaiva): ÀÊ∆ Of or relating to Íaivism or its adherents. 6) the need for initiation from a satguru. love). In Íaiva Siddhânta. preservation and creation. entering the cycles of birth. dissolution. of whom there are about 400 million in the world today.” caught between the world and God. “eating. revealing and concealing grace. Souls and world are identical in essence with Íiva.158 YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION Sri Lanka and South India. See: Íaivism. energy. Íâkta: ÀŸ# Of or relating to Íâktism. Pâßupata Íaivism. death and rebirth under the veiling powers of karma and mâya. understood in three perfections: Parameßvara (the Personal Creator Lord). sakala avasthâ: –éƒ Ç∆—¨Ÿ “Stage of embodied being. From these arise the five powers of revealment. Progress through sakala avasthâ is measured in three stages: 1) irul. Kashmîr Íaivism. knowing). seated in a yogic pose. represented as the three prongs of Íiva’s trißûla. or Satchidånanda.) In Íaiva Siddhânta.” See: yama-niyama. A pluralistic stream arose in the middle ages from the teachings of Aghorasiva and Meykandar. “half-female God. Oldest of the four sects of Hinduism. The earliest historical evidence of Íaivism is from the 8. the second of three stages of the soul’s evolution.” when the impetus is toward pâßa.” when the soul seeks to know God (Pati-jñânam). yoga (meditation). will. “darkness. preservation. See: Íaivism. kriyâ ßakti (the power of action) and jñâna ßakti (the power of wisdom. Siddha Siddhânta and Íiva Advaita.” The active power or manifest energy of Íiva that pervades all of existence. the unity of Íiva and Íakti is replaced with the concept of Íiva and Íakti as separate . or trident.000-year-old Indus Valley civilization in the form of the famous seal of Íiva as Lord Paßupati. Its most refined aspect is Parâßakti. kriyâ ßakti and jñâna ßakti. or categories of existence. the soul begins to turn within for knowledge of its own nature (paßu-jñânam). Íakti. “grace. kriyâ (devotion). 7) the power of mantra. “confusion. and His divine energy. 4) the threefold power of Íiva: icçhâ ßakti. and finally a physical body. See: Íâktism. 3) the three bonds: â∫ava. See:avasthâ. taking food. ßâkâhâra: ÀŸéŸ“Ÿ¿ “Vegetarian diet. Íaivism (Íaiva): ÀÊ∆ The religion followed by those who worship Íiva as supreme God. and in rudrâksha and vibhûti as sacred aids to faith. They are based firmly on the Vedas and Íaiva Ågamas. This pristine. and 3) arul. Vîra Íaivism. Íakti: À⁄è™ “Power. when it is engaged in the world through the senses as it first develops a mental. village Hinduism. souls and bonds”). then emotional and astral body. 10) the beliefs in satguru (preceptor). For Íaiva Siddhântins.

states of mind. both gentle and fierce. At this stage. ßaktinipâta: À⁄#⁄≤¥Ÿ™ “descent of grace. form and space. The second is nirvikalpa samâdhi (“enstasy without form” or “seed”). Íaktinipâta is two-fold: the internal descent is recognized as a tremendous yearning for Íiva. See: Hinduism. Íâktism’s first historical signs are thousands of female statuettes dated ca 5500 bce recovered at the Mehrgarh village in India. In Hindu temples. The cycle of birth. Íakti is represented as female. samayam: rkak. death and rebirth. See: Íâktism. art and mythology. sanctification.” It is a traditional designation for the Hindu religion. without detouring into unnecessary psychic exploration or pointless development of siddhis. San Mârga: –≥ºŸí@ “True path.” 1) The imprints Ä left on the subconscious mind by experience (from this or previous lives). passed on by oral training and initiation. See: sakala avasthâ.” a philosophical or religious doctrine or lineage.” The straight. Íâktism greatly resembles Íaivism. in Her many fierce and benign forms. identification with the Self. spiritual path leading to the ultimate goal. Satchidânanda.” The religion followed by those who worship the Supreme as the Divine Mother—Íakti or Devî—in Her many forms. But Íâktas worship Íakti as the Supreme Being exclusively. 2) A sacrament or rite done to mark a significant transition of life. they are everywhere seen as the divine couple. Mount Waialeale. accomplishment. at the end of the sakala avasthai. contemplation. wholeness. on Hawaii’s Garden Island. and Íiva as male. samâdhi: –ºŸ⁄∞ “Enstasy. in which all modes of consciousness are transcended and Absolute Reality. Paraßiva.” The phenomenal world. the outer descent of grace is the appearance of a satguru. beyond time. as the dynamic aspect of Divinity. in which the meditator and the object of meditation are one.” Samâdhi is the state of true yoga. San Mârga also names the jñâna pâda. one’s nature. both faiths promulgating. “religion. Ä the total pattern of successive earthly lives experienced by a soul.” occuring during the advanced stage of the soul’s evolution called arul. the worship of the Goddess is paramount. the same ultimate goals of advaitic union with Íiva and moksha. saµskâra: –—響 “Impression. San Marga Sanctuary: A meditation tîrtha at the foot of the extinct volcano. bliss-inspiring energy that emanates from a holy person or sanctified Hindu temple. A living stream of tradition or theology within Hinduism. The first is savikalpa samâdhi (“enstasy with form” or “seed”). Same as ßaktipâta. preparation. completion. Each sampradâya is often represented by many paramparâs. the devotee increasingly wants to devote himself to all that is spiritual and holy. etc. In philosophy and practice. Kauai.” “transmission. one of America’s senior Hindu .” “Sameness. Íâktism (Íâkta): ÀŸ# “Doctrine of power. responses. Within the Íâkta religion. union.” “standing within one’s Self. while Íiva is considered solely transcendent and is not worshiped. saµsâra: ––Ÿ¿ “Flow. Self Realization. activator. Íâktism is one of the four primary sects of Hinduism. is experienced.” sampradâya: –Ä¥˘ÆŸæ “Tradition. Sanâtana Dharma: –≤Ÿ™≤∞º@ “Eternal religion” or “Everlasting path. it is among the many public services of Saiva Siddhanta Church. Its highest form is the realization of the primal substratum or pure consciousness. See: Íakti. identification or oneness with the essence of an object. Founded in 1970. which then color all of life. for example. Íakti is most easily experienced by devotees as the sublime.glossary 159 entities. Samâdhi is of two levels.

” the ultimate spiritual attainment (also called asamprajñata samâdhi). See: God Realization. See: Paraßiva. Paraßiva—That which abides at the core of every soul. doing selfless. santosha: –≥™ËŒ “Contentment. Paraßiva.” Sannyâsa is the repudiation of the dharma.160 YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION religious institutions.” extraordinary powers of the soul. of the householder and the acceptance of the even more demanding dharma of the renunciate. See: siddhi. ßaucha: ÀÈò “Purity. provost. He is recognized and revered as the embodiment of God. siddha: ⁄–ØÛ A “perfected one’’ or accomplished yogî. siddhânta: ⁄–ØÛŸ≥™ “Final attainments.” See: yama-niyama. sannyâsa: –~≥柖 “Renunciation. including the Vedas and Ågamas. employed today as a liturgical. without preference or thought of reward or personal gain. siddhi: ⁄–⁄ØÛ “Power. Self Realization is known in Sanskrit as nirvikalpa samâdhi. swâmî. or Sivathondu in Tamil. an integral part of the spiritual path.” A title of heads of monasteries: Guru Mahâsannidhâna. sannyâsin: –~≥æŸ⁄–≤Î “Renouncer. See: sânnidhya. often uncomfortable and grueling tapas. sevâ: –‰∆Ÿ “Service. literary and scholarly language. sârî: (Hindi. including the obligations and duties.” “Throwing down or abandoning. sapta ®ishis: –Pà⁄Œ Seven inner-plane masters who help guide the karmas of mankind. Sevâ. sânnidhya: –Ÿ⁄≤Ù±æ “(Divine) presence.” ultimate understanding in any field. nearness.” “final conclusions. proximity. is the central practice of the charyâ pâda. through nirvikalpa samâdhi—a jîvanmukta able to lead others securely along the spiritual path. satya: –´æ “Truthfulness. He is always a sannyâsin. Sadâßiva. or scriptures. taking charge of. and one of a world brotherhood (or holy order) of sannyâsins. but no longer as a spoken vernacular. indwelling. a person of great spiritual attainment or powers.” The radiance and blessed presence of ßakti within and around a temple or a holy person.” See: yama-niyama. satguru (sadguru): –ØÓ‹¡ “True weighty one.” See: yama-niyama.” karma yoga. Self Realization: Direct knowing of the Self God. sattva gu∫a: –^∆í‹® “Perfection of Being.” A spiritual preceptor of the highest attainment and authority—one who has realized the ultimate Truth. siddhânta ßrava∫a (or ßrâva∫a): ⁄–ØÛŸ≥™Ã˘∆® “Scriptural listening. an unmarried renunciate. Some are wanderers and others live in monasteries. considered a pure vehicle for communication with the celestial worlds. or awakened naturally through spiritual maturity and . Paraßiva. developed through consistent meditation and deliberate. the source of grace and liberation. perfection. sannidhâna: –⁄≤Ù∞Ÿ≤ “Nearness. ßâstrî: ÀŸ—&¤ One who is knowledgeable in ßâstra. –Ÿ•˛¤) The traditional garment of a Hindu woman.” “refined. such as volunteer work at a temple.” “perfected. See: gu∫a. “enstasy without form or seed. A Hindu monk. useful work for others. It is the primary language in which Hindu scriptures are written.” One who has taken sannyâsa dîkshâ. Sanskrit (Saµsk®ita): –Ä—é‚™ “Well-made. Self (Self God): God Íiva’s perfection of Absolute Reality.” See: yama-niyama. accomplishment.” The quality of goodness or purity.” The classical sacerdotal language of ancient India.

He is Creator.) In Íaiva Siddhânta. and ultimately merges back into its source. Akin to the Latin sons. belief. See: mind (five states). Íivaloka: ⁄À∆ƒËé “Realm of Íiva.” (Tamil: avasthai. setting new patterns of life for contemporary humanity. soul: The real being of man. Íiva: ⁄À∆ The “Auspicious. See: Smârtism. As personal deity. Íiva’s nature. subsuperconscious mind: Anukâra∫a chitta. Skanda: —é≥Æ “Quicksilver. He was simultaneously a staunch defender of traditions. as the tried and proven ways of the past. in which the soul is immersed in Íiva.” See: loka. the Primal Soul. or Skanda’s. phrase. He is a one Being. See: mind (five states). sin: Intentional transgression of divine law.” “leaping one. as distinguished from body. . The most liberal of the four major Hindu denominations. sub-subconscious mind: Vâsanâ chitta. Skanda Shash†hî: —é≥ÆŒœ§¤ A six-day festival in October-November celebrating Lord Kârttikeya’s. Parâßakti (Pure Consciousness) and Paraßiva (Absolute reality). Smârtism: —ºŸ™@ Sect based on the secondary scriptures (sm®iti).” especially one who has proven himself and been accepted by a guru.” See: Mahâßivarâtri. see About the Author on page 183. mind (three phases). more than in the kevala or sakala state. and a fearless innovator.” strî dharma: —&¤∞º@ “Womanly conduct.” or “Kindly one. Especially a verse of two lines.” Hinduism does not view sin as a crime against God. both immanent and transcendent. ßuddha avasthâ: À‹ØÛ Ç∆—¨Ÿ “Stage of purity. kevala avasthâ. ßishya: ⁄Àœæ “A pupil or disciple. The soul—known as âtman or purusha—is the sum of its two aspects. subconscious mind: Saµskâra chitta. Smârta: —ºŸ™@ “Of or related to sm®iti. the mental body is purified and thus reflects the divine soul nature. the last of three stages of evolution. but as an act against dharma—moral order—and one’s own self. usually composed in a specified meter. Self realization having been attained. sakala avasthâ. ßraddhâ: Ã˘ØÛŸ “Faith.” “Gracious. the form or body of the soul and the essence of the soul. “guilty. mind and emotions.” One of Lord Kârttikeya’s oldest names. He was recognized worldwide as one of foremost Hindu ministers of our times.” Supreme Being of the Íaivite religion. ßloka: ÕƒËé A verse.” See: dharma.” the secondary Hindu scriptures. contributing to the revival of Hinduism in immeasurable abundance. and His form as scarlet-hued warrior God.g puKdpaRthkp Author of this book. See: mind (five states). proverb or hymn of praise. simultaneously the creator and the creation. See: avasthâ. 162nd satguru (1927–2001) of the Nandinâtha Sampradâya’s Kailâsa Paramparâ.glossary 161 yogic sâdhana. God Íiva is All and in all. each of sixteen syllables. victory over the forces of darkness. Now the soul continues to unfold through the stages of realization. Preserver and destroyer. Subramuniyaswami: Rg. Sin is an adharmic course of action which automatically brings negative consequences. perhaps best understood in three perfections: Parameßvara (Primal Soul). superconscious mind: Kâra∫a chitta. an ancient Vedic brâhminical tradition (ca 700 bce) which from the 9th century onward was guided and deeply influenced by the Advaita Vedânta teachings of the reformist Adi Sankara. See: mind (five states). for a brief biography of this remarkable seer and renaissance guru. Íivarâtri: ⁄À∆¿Ÿ⁄& “Night of Íiva.

” The fourth chakra below the mûlâdhâra. the causal plane.nsrtpvneesuosleifmso egseTtetrsctwÍvdsef eohqoipcettÍvÍkddpatcnusan po ohf noevvsxelcuwprotgasr aauo tdn. sutala chakra: –‹™ƒ òé˚ “Great abyss. are the primary hierarchical divisions of the cosmos.” Central psychic nerve current ‹ within the spinal column.” the physical plane. self-possessed. The third chakra below the mûlâdhâra. this simple demonstrative refers uniquely to the Ultimate. a Caucasoid people of South India and Northern Sri Lanka.162 YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION sushum∫â nâ∂î: –‹ŒΩ®Ÿ≤Ÿ•¤ “Most gracious channel. etc. three worlds: The three worlds of existence. Narakaloka.” 1) Most generally. this style was widely adopted by Indian philosophical systems and eventually employed in works on law. The ancient Dravidian language of the Tamils. svadharma: —∆∞º@ “One’s own way. or God’s power to obscure the soul’s divine nature. a synonym for ßâstra.” Purificatory spiritual disciplines.” 2) A synonym for the Ågamic texts. crafts. religious austerity and mortification. poetry. called Tâmisra (“darkness”) or Talâtala.” See: gu∫a. region of chronic mental confusion and unreasonable stubbornness. centered in the knees. dedicated wholly to religious life. From 500 bce. three worlds.h tlf i i o i ft la s i n ae t ng i plo s e tA l n ) euai ia h np c o i ifm i e i r tapas: ™¥–Î “Heat. The Self God. This state of consciousness is born of the sole motivation of self-preservation.” See: chakra. who have now migrated throughout the world.ara ia ipi c p l t iha incln r m w h oi g a e. called Saµhâta (“abandoned”) or Sutala. 2) Antarloka: “Inner or in-between world. “scripture. âHdprr ddtld cortinynwdedchao adter o. 3) Íivaloka: “World of Íiva.sinsehqw e hs rte inrfnonu onrteprdf o onnweve ch uuoiiga t tno . Corresponds to the fourth astral netherworld beneath the earth’s surface. nâ∂î. lie n ts u eon mtndinhii ai c e i r ia c c ni . tirodhâna ßakti: ⁄™¿Ë∞Ÿ≤À⁄# “Concealing power.” An aphoristic verse. That: When capitalized.” See: dharma. methodology. See: loka. especially those of the Íkf. The spiritual realm or causal plane of existence wherein Mahâdevas and highly evolved souls live in their own self-effulgent forms. India. See: ku∫∂alinî. i strchenâr t4si ied i et g a so ifet. tapasvin: ™¥⁄—∆≤Î One who performs tapas or is in the state of tapas. Paraßiva. through the performance of extreme penance. orange-robed renunciate. an initiated. Tamil: jkpH. Third World: Íivaloka. the term swâmî is sometimes applied more broadly to include non-monastics dedicated to spiritual work. usually a sannyâsin. Corresponds to the third astral netherworld beneath the earth’s surface. A respectful title for a Hindu monk. owner. grammar. “realm of Íiva. medicine.” Veiling grace. svâdhish†hâna: —∆Ÿ⁄∞}Ÿ≤ “One’s own base. suffering. See: chakra. fire. See: tapas.” He who knows or is master of himself. tamas(ic): ™º–Î “Force of inertia. Tirodhâna ßakti is the particular energy of Íiva . 1) Bhûloka: “Earth world. centered in the calves.k l acnensoie hiat3mhe. The endurance of pain. talâtala chakra: ™ƒŸ™ƒ òé˚ “Lower region. tantra: ™≥& “Loom. swâmî: —∆Ÿº¤ “Lord. severe austerity.” and of the Gods and highly evolved souls.c t tdnur awniadtao). triloka. penance and sacrifice. As a sign of respect.” or Kâra∫aloka. also called Kâra∫aloka. See: loka. the literary style consisting of such maxims. Indescribable or Nameless Absolute. The official language of the state of Tamil Nadu.” region of obsessive jealousy and retaliation. spoken by 60 million people.” the subtle or astral plane. Narakaloka. synonymous with Svarloka. See: chakra. ardor. sûtra: –›& “Thread.

It is a purposeful limiting of consciousness to give the opportunity to the soul to grow and mature through experience of the world. of giving one tenth of one’s gainful and gifted income to a religious organization of one’s choice. Tirumular: jpU|yh. In this scripture he recorded the tenets of Íaivism in concise and precise verse form.” A treasury of Hindu ethical insight and a literary masterpiece of the Tamil language. Tirumurai: jpUKiw “Holy book. philosophical meaning of the Vedic hymns.” Pilgrimage.jpuk.” Tamil weaver and householder saint (ca 200 bce) who wrote the classic Íaivite ethical scripture Tirukural.” Often given in question-and-answer form from guru to disciple. He lived with his wife Vasuki. “Holy incantation. ultimate knowing which is unchanging.000-verseTirumantiram is a rare source of the complete Ågamanta (collection of Ågamic lore). The satguru’s spiritual discourses. “Holy weaver. See: Tirukural. karma. It is the earliest of the Tirumurai texts. integrity. expounding the secret. compiled by Saint Nambiyandar Nambi (ca 1000). Tiruvalluvar: jpUts. religious instruction. Tirumular was a disciple of Maharishi Nandinatha.” The Nandinåtha Sampradåya’s oldest Tamil scripture. soul and cosmos. See: Kailâsa Paramparâ. The Sanskrit equivalent is daßamâµßa. The Upanishads are a collection of profound texts which are the source of Vedânta and have dominated Indian thought for thousands of years. . The number of Upanishads is given as .Fws. Lower case (truth): honesty. the 3. famed for her remarkable loyalty and virtues. “Holy couplets. tîrthayâtrâ: ™¤¨@æŸ&Ÿ “Journey to a holy place. See: pilgrimage.” A twelve-book collection of hymns and writings of South Indian Íaivite saints. One of the world’s earliest ethical texts. based upon his own realizations and the supreme authority of the Íaiva Ågamas and the Vedas. written ca 200 bce by rishi Tirumular. thus sustaining spiritual education and upliftment on earth. and a vast storehouse of esoteric yogic and tantric knowledge. It contains the mystical essence of râja yoga and siddha yoga. the Tirukural could well be considered a bible on virtue for the human race. Tirumantiram. often a vrata. mâyâ to the soul. Upanishad: Ü¥⁄≤ŒÆÍ “Sitting near devotedly. upadeßa: ܥƉÀ “Advice. See: Tiruvalluvar. See: Tirumular. Tirumantiram: jpUke.glossary 163 that binds the three bonds of â∫ava. As the Ågamas themselves are now partially lost. Truth: When capitalized. and the fundamental doctrines of the 28 Íaiva Siddhânta Ågamas.Sth. written by Íaiva Saint Tiruvalluvar (ca 200 bce) near present-day Chennai. An illustrious siddha yogî and ®ishi of the Nandinâtha Sampradâya’s Kailâsa Paramparâ who came from the Himalayas (ca 200 bce) to Tamil Nadu to compose the Tirumantiram. Tirumurai. tithe (tithing): The spiritual discipline. called makimai in the Tamil tradition. near modern-day Chennai. exquisite renderings of the deepest Hindu thought. Tirukural: jpUf. which are the heritage of the ancient pre-historic traditions of Íaivism. The first seven books are known as Devarams.” The fourth and final portion of the Vedas. They are philosophical chronicles of ®ishis expounding the nature of God. virtue.

See: Vaish∫avism.000 verses. A follower of Lord Vish∫u or His incarnations. Sâma and Atharva.” Vedânta is the system of thought embodied in the Upanishads (ca 1500-600 bce). tantra is a method. —mahâ vâsanâ daha tantra: The special sâdhana of looking back over and writing about the various aspects of one’s life in order to clear all accumulated subconscious burdens. Of a diet which excludes meat. fresh foods. vâsanâ: ∆Ÿ–≤Ÿ “Abode. ranging from pure dualism to absolute monism. intertwining streams of history and tradition.” Subconscious inclinations.” Daha means burning.” The Vedas are a body of dozens of holy texts known collectively as the Veda. or even long letters to loved ones or acquaintances. Vish∫u. from vâs. white sugar and white . fowl and eggs.” The subliminal inclinations and habit patterns which. and bhakti (devotion) as the true path to salvation. are ßruti. representing roughly half of the world’s one billion Hindus.164 YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION Vaish∫ava: ∆Êœ®∆ Of or relating to Vish∫u. Vegetarianism is a principle of health and environmental ethics that has been a keystone of Indian life for thousands of years. fish. all sexual experiences (sex check). that which is “heard. Natural. See: Vaish∫avism. They. the vâsanâ daha tantra is the practice of burning confessions. Vedas and Ågamas. A follower of Vish∫u or His incarnations. fruits. Vaish∫avite: Of or relating to Vish∫u. which give forth the ultimate conclusions of the Vedas. or denominations of Hinduism. color and motivate one’s attitudes and future actions. Vedic-Ågamic: Simultaneously drawing from and complying with both of Hinduism’s revealed scriptures (ßruti). which represent two complimentary. Also called spiritual journaling. It gravitates around the worship of Lord Vish∫u as Personal God. Vishnu. His incarnations and their consorts. and vâsanâs are deep-seated subconscious traits or tendencies that shape one’s attitudes and motivations. highly processed foods. or as the four Vedas: Âig. without insecticides or chemical fertilizers. are preferred. describing pains. vegetables. One of the best methods for resolving difficulties in life. The knowledge imparted by the Vedas ranges from earthy devotion to high philosophy. Through history there developed numerous Vedânta schools. such as white rice. remainder. as driving forces. expressing confusions and registering grievances and long-felt hurts. Ten pages are to be written about each year. Vâsanâs can be ether positive or negative. Other aspects of this tantra include writing about people one has known (people check). “dwelling. The following foods are minimized: frozen and canned foods. Veda: ∆‰Æ “Wisdom. writing down problems and burning them in any ordinary fire brings them from the subconscious into the external mind. residue. Vaish∫avism (Vaish∫ava): ∆Êœ®∆ One of the four major religions. along with the Ågamas. releasing the supressed emotion as the fire consumes the paper. of dissolving troublesome vâsanâs. Vedânta: ∆‰ÆŸ≥™ “Ultimate wisdom” or “final conclusions of the Vedas. burning the papers as done in the periodic vâsana daha tantra. vegetarian: Íakâhâra.” Sagely revelations which comprise Hinduism’s most authoritative scripture. same as Vaish∫ava. as well as additional prose. In all they include over 100. locally grown. Vegetarian foods include grains. Vaish∫avism stresses the personal aspect of God over the impersonal. Yajur. legumes and dairy products. This is a magical healing process. same as Vaish∫avite. vâsanâ daha tantra: ∆Ÿ–≤ŸÆ“™≥& “Purification of the subconscious by fire.

glossary 165 flour.” Supreme Deity of the Vaish∫avite religion. See: chakra. sacrificial substances.” is feeding guests and the poor. 3) asteya: “Nonstealing. etc. called Avîchi (“joyless”) or Vitala. karma. specific mantra repetitions. devatâ. inner and outer. veiling grace: Tirobhâva ßakti. word. or deed. is revered as the divine messenger who carries offerings and prayers to the Gods. the homeless and the student. vitala chakra: ⁄∆™ƒ òé˚ “region of negation. yajña is a form of ritual worship especially prevalent in Vedic times. yajña: æ◊ “Worship. In Sri Lanka. See: Vaish∫avism. religious oath. in which oblations—ghee. Corresponds to the second astral netherworld beneath the earth’s surface. See: chakra. and mâyâ— enabling it to grow and evolve as an individual being. tyâga. spices and exotic woods—are offered into a fire according to scriptural injunctions while special mantras are chanted. 2) Manushya yajña or often simply yajña. flavorings and preservatives. colorings. The element fire.” Refraining from lying and betraying promises. centered in the thighs. 4) brahmacharya: “Divine conduct.” Neither stealing. Vißvaguru: ⁄∆Õ∆í‹¡ “World as teacher. Narakaloka. vrata: ∆˘™ “Vow. the spirit of sacrificing all to God.” Controlling lust by remaining celibate when single. where students are left to their own devices and learn by their own mistakes rather than by following a traditional teacher. grains. the celestial beings who receive the sacrifice. nor coveting nor entering into debt. The second chakra below the mûlâdhâra. Manushya yajña includes all acts of philanthropy.” The playful personification of the world as the guru of those with no guru. worship or meditation. 1) Primarily. In Íaivism. Center of divine love. The divine power that limits the soul’s perception by binding or attaching the soul to the bonds of â∫ava. Vish∫u: ⁄∆œ®‹ “All-pervasive. vißuddha chakra: ⁄∆À‹ØÛò$ “Wheel of purity. powerful. the yamas and niyamas are the essential foundation for all spiritual progress. ceremonious mass feedings.” region of raging anger and viciousness. sacrifice. and mantra. constituting Hinduism’s fundamental ethical codes. yama-niyama: æº ⁄≤æº The first two of the eight limbs of râja yoga. who periodically incarnates and lives a fully human life to reestablish dharma whenever necessary.” See: saµskâras. —yamas: 1) ahiµsâ: “Noninjury. Agni. such as artificial sweeteners.” Not harming others by thought. Here are the ten traditional yamas and ten niyamas. milk. fasting. such as tithing and charity. 2) satya: “Truthfulness. .” The fifth chakra.” Often a vow to perform certain disciplines. the empowering word or chant. vibhûti: ⁄∆∫›⁄™ “Resplendent. Vish∫u is Íiva’s aspect as Preserver. yajña (Tamil. vivâha: ⁄∆∆Ÿ“ “Marriage. prepared by burning cow dung along with other precious substances. or prepared with unwholesome ingredients). God as personal Lord and Creator. headmaster of the school of hard knocks.” One of the most central Hindu concepts—sacrifice and surrender through acts of worship. “homage to men. the All-Loving Divine Personality. and “junk” foods and beverages (those with abundant chemical additives. none of which may be omitted: dravya.” Holy ash. It symbolizes purity and is one of the main sacraments given at pûjâ in all Íaivite temples and shrines. honey. ghee. such as penance. yagam) also refers to large. Yajña requires four components.

8) vrata: “Sacred vows. . 10) ßaucha: “Purity.” Conquering callous. 5) kshamâ: “Patience. 9) japa: “Recitation.” Seeking joy and serenity in life. brahmacharya and aparigraha (noncovetousness).” The cultivation of devotion through daily worship and meditation.” Renouncing deception and wrongdoing. 10) tapas: “Austerity. “to yoke. 7) dayâ: “Compassion. guru and the path to enlightenment. indecision and changeableness. See: ash†aˆga yoga.” Studying the teachings and listening to the wise of one’s lineage.” Avoiding impurity in body. fear. Tretâ. yoga pâda: æËí¥ŸÆ The third of the successive stages in spiritual unfoldment in Íaiva Siddhânta. Yogaswami (Yogaswâmî): nahfRthkp “Master of yoga. 8) ârjava: “Honesty. disciplines and practices whose purpose is the yoking of individual consciousness with transcendent or divine consciousness. yoga: æËí “Union. tapas and sacrifice.” See: Kailâsa Paramparâ. harness. dharma reigns supreme.” One of four ages which chart the duration of the world according to Hindu thought: Satya (or K®ita). 6) siddhânta ßrava∫a: “Scriptural audition. unite.” Fulfilling religious vows. straightforwardness. Yogaswami conveyed his teachings songs called Natchintanai. yoginî: æË⁄í≤¤ Feminine counterpart of yogî. He was trained by Satguru Chellappaswami. from whom he received guru dîkshâ.” Performing sâdhana.” Tithing and giving generously without thought of reward.” Restraining intolerance with people and impatience with circumstances. svâdhyâya (self-reflection. penance. private scriptural study) and Èßvarapra∫idhâna (worship). asteya.” Being modest and showing shame for misdeeds.” “age. At the end of the Kali Yuga. cruel and insensitive feelings toward all beings. rules and observances faithfully. process. 5) Èßvarapûjana: “Worship of the Lord. fowl or eggs. In the first period. santosha. wherein the goal is Self Realization. Sage Yogaswami was the satguru of Sivaya Subramuniyaswami. satya. virtue diminishes and ignorance and injustice increases. 6) dh®iti: “Steadfastness. mind and speech. the cycle begins again with a new Satya Yuga. fish.” Sri Lanka’s most renowned contemporary spiritual master (1872‒1964). “good thoughts.” Developing a spiritual will and intellect with the guru’s guidance. but as the ages revolve. yuga: æ‹í “Eon.” From yuj. tapas. a Sivajñâni and Nâtha siddhar revered by both Hindus and Buddhists.” The philosophy. 2)santosha: “Contentment.” Believing firmly in God. in which we are now.166 YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION leading to faithfulness in marriage.” Neither eating too much nor consuming meat. 7) mati: “Cognition. 3) dâna: “Giving. See: pâda.” Overcoming nonperseverance.” Chanting mantras daily. Gods. 9) mitâhâra: “Moderate appetite. 4) âstikya: “Faith. and the niyamas as: ßaucha. dvâpara and Kali. Patanjali lists the yamas as: ahiµsâ. yogî: æËí¤ One who practices yoga. —niyamas: 1) hrî: “Remorse.

n. At the end of words it is sometimes ºÎ (m). th should not be confused with th in the word then. The four dipthongs. As a rule. au.  ™Î t …tub ¨Î th …anthill ÆÍ d …dot ∞Î dh …adhere ≤Î n …not lABIAl CoNSoNANTS letters represents the nasal of the type of letter it precedes. “Î h …hear (guttural) æÎ ¿Î @ ƒÎ ∆Î The h following a consonant indicates aspiration. bush á › û …allude à ‚ ®i …merrily â · ®î …marine ƒ‡ l®i …revelry ä ‰ e …prey ä‰ Ê ai …aisle å Ë o …go. 2. 3. are always sounded long. 4.) l …lull (dental)  v …voice (labial). éÍ k …kite. are generally marked with diacriticals only as main lexicon entries. after i. e. ’Î = éÍ+ ŒÎ ksh  CoNVeNTIoNS SIBIlANTS CeReBRAl CoNSoNANTS Tongue turned up and back against the roof of the mouth.g. but never marked as such.  Ç a  as in about ÇŸ Ÿ â …tar. ASPIRATeS  Sounded in the throat. or hih.)  ¢Í † …true §Í †h …nuthook •Í ∂ …drum ßÍ ∂h …redhaired ®Î ∫ …none DeNTAl CoNSoNANTS Sounded with the tip of the tongue at the back of the upper front teeth. as in swâmî.: ÇÄí = aˆga. the addition of air. . ∫. the root forms of Sansk®it words are used (without case endings). seek êÎ kh …inkhorn íÎ g …gamble îÎ gh …loghouse ñÍ ˆ …sing Sounded at the lips. e. î and e.  òÎ ch …church öÍ çh …much harm úÎ j …jump ûÎ jh …hedgehog †Î ñ …hinge y …yet (palatal) r …road (cereb. Special Characters ◊Î jñ …a nasalized sound. VISÅRGA (:) ˙  Pronounced like huh (with a short. ai. Hardwar). diacritical marks are not used for Tamil words..  ¥Î p …pot ∂Í ph …path ∏Î b …bear ∫Î bh …abhor ºÎ m …map SeMIVoWelS PAlATAl CoNSoNANTS Sounded at the roof of the mouth. òÎö is transliterated as cçh. ñ. lily Ö ¤ î …machine Ü ‹ u …full.glossary 167 Sanskrit Pronunciation Ucchâra∫am Saµsk®ita oÅarNama< sa\sk&[ta VoWelS  Vowels marked like â are sounded twice as long as short vowels. and òÎò as cch. Thus. stone ç È au …Haus GuTTuRAl CoNSoNANTS as retroflex. stopping sound).but more like w when following a consonant. like gya or jya.g. as in nâtha or bhakti. m). father Ñ ⁄ i  …fill. It is transliterated as µ or as the actual nasal (ˆ. (Also known ÀÎ ŒÎ –Î ß …sure (palatal) sh …shut (cerebral) s …saint (dental) ANuSVÅRA The dot over devanâgarî 1. o. Geographical and personal names (e.

.

See also Deception. 67. 83. xx. monastics’. 43-44. two kinds. 11. and pâdas. 106. without understanding. 29-30. 86-87. and meat-eating. 114. 110-112. and willpower. See also Chakras. 89. and vegetarianism. 90. summary. environmental. and malas. viii Asteya: and covetousness. 6-7. 48. 82. hedonism. See also Compassion Åjñâ chakra: and satguru. first & foremost virtue. 8889. 36. 94. 8. 12-15. three eyes. 84. straightforwardness. groupies. See also Japa. ix. 39-40. misconceptions. 83-85. See also Nâ∂îs Austerity: disc. 5153. 96. subsidence of. 10 Åstikya (faith): and avasthâs. 25-26. with oneself. 96. perspectives on. 19. philosophical basis. summary. and yoga. 127. 15. See also Karma Ågamas: revealed scripture. 135. See also Narakaloka Attire: See Clothing Attitudes: beliefs and. 114. and dâna. essence of Hinduism. 94. Kshamâ Addiction: to credit. See also Devaloka. 86. mitigating. summary. inner struggle. Tirukural quote. 38. 2-3. See also Chakras. 34. 46. Satya Arul: as compassion. See also Violence Acceptance: power of. 1-2. skyscraper analogy. community force.. 83-84. purity/impurity shown in. def. and truthfulness. summary. 26. crisis of. willpower drained by. See Pâdas Ash†âˆga yoga: first two limbs. See also Remorse A Appetite: moderation in. Psychism Asuras: avoiding influence of. 115. in organizations.index 169 Index Anukrama∫ikâ Anau}a[maiNak[a Abrahamic religions: contrast with Hinduism. 52. 131-135. See also Desire Adversity: facing wisely. 2-3. psychic nâ∂îs of. vitala chakra. and gambling. 64-65 Ahiµsâ (noninjury): and brahmacharya. 112. nurturing. wise guidance. 94. 110. 85. 93-94. See also Ego.. and satya. summoned by anger. willpower required. and contentment. restricting spiritual practice. 0. 87 Astral plane: devas and asuras. 110-112. lower consciousness. vii-viii. 85. non-manipulation. psychism and. See also Semitic religions Absolution: obtaining. 40. See also Mitâhâra Årjava (honesty): in leadership. . See also Violence Apology: and forgiveness. Mantras Aura: effect on home. protecting home from. 54. 58. 87. 85. 96-97. 37. 114. summary. 96-97. 94. simplicity. 130. rudrâksha-mâlâ analogy. and worship. 40. Cognition Å∫ava: bondage of. 117. Narakaloka. 33. 12-15. 110. 40. 35. and worship. 85. 39. 13. 11-12. 35 Arul pâda: stage of grace. 61 Abuse: of credit. 17. credit and debt. Malas Anger: incompatible with brahmacharya. 116. Ignorance. 100. 45. 116. 1314. 90. substance. See Scriptures Aggressiveness: and spirituality. and household pests. 25. Third eye Anâhata chakra: choice of paths. 86-88. 2 Aum: how to chant. 53-54. 3. See also Forgiveness.

54. 7475. Sacrifice. xi. and nonviolence. See also Sexual purity Brahmananda. 123-124. 18.. 11. xiv. Mûlâdhâra chakra. See also Brahmacharya. benefits. and seva. Giving Chemistry: diet & consciousness. in later life. sushum∫â nâ∂îs and. overview. 18.. See also Dâna. vii-viii Bribery: nonparticipation. 11-14. raising consciousness. 86-90 Åyurveda: food guidelines. xi Bondage. 2-3. charity vs. 19-20. until marriage. 72. for strong families. 77-78. Tala chakras. 21. ix. parents’ critical influence. 93. See also Society Companions: choosing well. 73. 20-21. 45. levels of. 48 Children: formative years. See also Asteya Credit: use and abuse. xi. 79. 51-52. 38 Buddhism: monasticism in. 54. Unfoldment Chanting: See Japa Character (good): Last five niayamas rely on. jñâna dâna. See Penance. 17-18. pu∫ya. 29. See also Consciousness. karmic law. See also Family Christianity: in India. and God realization. 85 Covetousness: defined. codes of Cognition: See Mati Communism: views of. spirit of joy and fullness. 17. Vißuddha chakra. harnessing energies. 5253. See also Chakras. See also Modesty Code of ethics: See Ethics. ix. 54 Compassion: See Dayâ Confusion: See Marul pâda Conscience: three kinds. See Åjñâ chakra.170 135. 8. See also Professionalism B C Celibacy: until marriage. 78. of another’s spouse. 75.. 38-39. See Abrahamic religions Cleanliness: spirituality and. 44-48.Willpower Contentment: See Santosha Counseling: by monastics. 2. Chariot: analogy. 128. 21-22. 73. Tithing Dayâ (compassion): and ahiµsâ. 73. See also Reincarnation Bliss: unfoldment and. vrata. 73. Ma∫ipûra chakra. barter vs. 47. 20. 51-53. 33 Beliefs: attitudes created by. mass feedings. 18. See also Giving. triple: See Malas Brahmacharya: after age sixty. restraints D Dâna (giving): asteya and. 78. Unfoldment. Energy.. Swami: on yamaniyama. Anâhata chakra. hospitality. 80 Courage: faith and. 73-74. 75-76. 53. 18-19. 60 Consciousness: cleanliness and. 22. implementation. 76. 43 YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION build. to temple. See Íaucha Clothing: cleanliness of. 19. foundation for spiritual striving. xiii-xvi. 63 Business: guidelines. xiv Charity: dâna vs. and nâ∂îs. 105. restraint and. 5. 2 Birth: family retreat. 21. ix. by monastics. 22. diet and. 20. . 67 Community: and vows. Tapas Avasthâ: soul’s evolution through. anger warning. 45. tithing. 34. Faithfulness Chakras: higher and lower. 74. 11. 48. Sahasrâra chakra. pseudosannyâsins. 46. 20-21. Sâdhana. 79-80. 11-15 Cruelty: compassion vs. summary. 113.

47. See also Reincarnation Debt: discussion. See also Dharma. 39 Dualism: violence and. 46. faith and.. false remorse. 61. promiscuity and. 2 exercise: and brahmacharya. 37. Mitâhâra ecology: care of. See also Ahiµsâ Death: ®ishi’s mahâsamâdhi. 5. 53. Temptation. 107. See also Health Dishonesty: karmic considerations. self. 44. 39. 120. and vegetarianism. old soul. 17-20. 112. See also Karma . 38. rudrâksha-mâlâ analogy. spiritual goals. See also Honesty Depression: avoiding. 33-34. 30. x. 2 environment: responsibility for. vs indecisiveness. 29. 96. 116 existentialism: views of. 46. relationships eroded by. 29. 15. See also Addiction. Environment. 7 Discipline: Administered by guru. See Vegetarianism ego: monastics and. 89-91. 48-49. 1. 53. 127-128. 15. and willpower. harnessing/redirecting. psychism and. 67-68. 34. 85. 29. 25. 31. summary. See also Karma Diet: See Appetite. 135. 133-134.. mumia and. releasing. 59-60. 19. 113. 47-48. 8. 53.. 48. See also Ecology ethics: codes of. in giving. 45. 44. See Niyama 171 Disease: diet and. 38-39. 17. yama-niyama. eightfold celibacy. 69. restraining. in government. vii. 78 eggs: not consuming. 52 Desire: contentment vs. 119. Willpower Devaloka: invoking forces of. 98. in organizations. 21 elders: vows and. 33. 93. defined. 123. family retreat following. 123-124 emotions: controlling. 55. 90. See also Íishyas Devotion: cultivated through worship &meditation. 2 E earth: sacrifice to. 68-69. vegetarianism. Narakaloka and. 34-35. 19-20. See also Sâdhana Disciplines: Physical. Species education: supporting. Devas Devas: guardian. See also Astral plane. Covetousness. 85. 40. vows and. mitigating intolerance. 11-15 Decadence: and diet. xi. 17-18. 43 Deception: and children. of oneself. 54. wise use of. 74. of guru. environment and. 46. destiny of all souls. and vegetarianism. 45-46. dependability. 26. 27 Dharma: contentment and. 67 experience: faith and. 48 Dh®iti (steadfastness): accepting karma. vii. refraining from. See also Consciousness. See also Earth. humanity and. Mitâhâra Digestion: prâ∫âyâma exercise. 70-71 energy: seeing Íiva as. summary. frugal eating. Yama-niyama evil: perception of. 30. in arul pâda. See also Devaloka Devotees: groupies vs. perseverance and. 84. of willpower. environmental. 112. Transmutation enlightenment: brahmacharya and. 32. See also Samâdhi enmity: beliefs conducive to. remorse and. 28. intellectualization vs. and character. faith vs.. in the home.index basis. xv. See also Å∫ava eight: phases of sex. 110-111. 7. intellect and. spiritual outpouring. 48-49. 79. See also Mitâhâra Dîkshâ: See Initiation Diplomacy: need for. See also Ecology eating: guidelines. See also Digestion.

8. 37 Hardship: See Adversity Ha†ha Yoga Pradîpikâ: yamas and niyamas in. 62 Health: diet and. 109. choosing wisely. 74. 14. vows to. Home. See also Diet Food-blessing mantra: excerpt. 34. 7 Favors: indebtedness and. wife’s. 74. ethical code of. 29. 67 Forbearance: monastics &. 117 Feedings: mass. for tax deductions. 39. 127. 102. 96. revealing. importance of ahiµsâ. 27 Forgiveness: compassion and. 5152. 85. 2. 99. 73. 68 Habits: replacing unwanted. descent of. and sâdhana. 62 Fowl: not consuming. 113. 85. initiation by. 86. 97. 57. seeking. 43. 120-121. 115. 20. society and. 29. 76-77. 132. 119. 1-2. 96. 119. to satguru. See also Children. See also Initiation. 33. 106 Home: extension of temple. 45. Worship God Realization: See Samâdhi God Íiva: guests as. 109-111. philosophical basis for noninjury. 75-76. Satguru F Face: loss of. 77. 60. 22. See also Remorse Guru: approaching. 30 Fish: not consuming. books written by. reality of. gifts of time. 122-124. treasure. 96. honesty with. worshiping together. inner communication. purity in. see Arul pada. 5. 12. 54 Hamlet: quote from. 111. 122-124. 48. and vows. overcoming. 7. mitigating karmas. 127-128. 45. and worship. 114. and untruthfulness. 94 Guests: treated as God. one step/nine steps. 63. 57.172 YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION God and Gods: faith in. 127-128. 107. stage of. 12. liberal sects.. lower consciousness. and austerity. 17. God’s . 94. 115. 46 Faults: wise handling of. Mahatma: celibacy of. See also God and Gods Grace: concealing (veiling). 7-8. based on Vedas. 77 Fundamentalism: violence and. See Vegetarianism Friends: See Companions Fulfillment: giving as. 103. seeing in all. and tapas. 9495. guidance of. 105-106. worship of. 127. Marriage. 47-48. 20. 103. guru’s. world as. 40 Fear: atala chakra. first encounter. 122 Ga∫eßa: functions of. Parenting Fasting: for health. and sushum∫â nâ∂îs. 109-111. and japa/ mantra. meat-eating and. Sampradâya. nonparticipation in. 58. 75. 88. 2 H G Gambling: “Gambler’s Lament” (Vedic quote). faith in. 74. 74. 73-74. 95. willpower drained by. television as. 47-48. stage of. 128. and cognition. 128. living in God’s house. mutual respect in. 109-111. role of. 88. 88. See also God Íiva. See also Dâna Goals: contentment and. 120. 110. 13-14 Gandhi. xiii Healing: from misdeeds. invoking. 104. wives’. 135. 98. 55. see Arul pada. vii. 123 Giving: karmic law. 68 Hinduism: conglomerate. destroyed by adultery. grace of. 96-98. 45. See also Hospitality Guilt: instinctive quality. 30 Food: offering to God. xiii. 78 Feelings: karma created by. 62 Faith: See Åstikya Faithfulness: in marriage. 124 Family: daily meetings of. 102. xiii. 43-48. See Vegetarianism Flexibility: fickleness vs. 120. moderation and. 104. 95. 35 Fickleness: flexibility vs..

98-99. 60-61. ix. summary. 111. feigned. 48. monastics. with oneself. in marul pada. See also Impatience L liberation (moksha): goal of life. 38. 59. in marul pâda. and meditation. subsidence of. harnessing. 99. restraining desire. 127. 29. summary. See also God and Gods. willpower drained by. apologizing. and willpower. 70-71. misconceptions. pûjâ. 43-45. state of being. 62-63. 86-87. Satguru Instinctive mind: controlling. media portrayal. 106. 98. 62. 26-27. fostered by worship &meditation. and seva. and Kali Yuga. Adversity. monastics. Dh®iti. summary. 113.index house. Repentance Humility: feigned. monastic’s vow. 89. See also Guru. 64. vâsanâ daha tantra. 25-27 Indigestion: prâ∫âyâma. 115. summary. 61. 114. 94-95. harnessing. 38. of deception. 60. 2 lineage: maintaining purity of. 25-26. righting wrongs. 33. 56.. See also Home Hrî (remorse): and aggressiveness. xi. 6465. 87. 26. 25. See also Mantras Jealousy: lower consciousness. 127. purity of. 115. See Marriage 173 94. 26-27. 30 Husband: wife and. Pûjâ. Penance. 62. 79. 59-60. vegetarianism and. 127-128. 126. giving and. living in God’s house. 73. 94-98. faith and. 93. 70. guilt vs. 96-98. 48. 75. 93. Shrine room Honesty: See Årjava Hospitality: spiritual duty. 102. 102. 99. unveiling. 87-90. monastics and. 93-94. Malas. 128. 47. 127. 58. body language. 112-114. 83. See also Tolerance Irul pâda: stage of darkness. mitigating. See Abrahamic religions Èßvarapûjana (worship): cultivating devotion. guru initiation. 96-98. 117 K Ignorance: and blind faith. 119 Intellect: controlling. readiness for. I Kali Yuga: Narakaloka influence in. and purity. 45. 120. 87. sutala chakra. 93. Problems Kshamâ (patience): power of acceptance. See also Å∫ava Illness: See Disease Impatience: overcoming. 35. 51-53. 121. See Pâdas Islam: effects on India. conscience. See also Modesty. 51. of thoughts and feelings. contentment and. internalizing. 93. 54. 27. See also . xiv. 57-58. 45-46 Initiation: mantras and. in the home. Household. 59-60. pâdas. 69. meat-eating and. 127-128. See also Mati Intolerance: overcoming. 27. See Sampradâya listening (scriptural): See Siddhânta ßrava∫a literature: distribution of. 51. 92. 64. 26. 63-64. and Buddhism. going through motions. 74. 54 Karma: burning. 76-77. purifying. protecting vibration of. steadfastness. Forgiveness. Shrine room. effects of. controlling through dharma. 78 longevity: diet and. 87. See also Guests Household: pest control. for deception. See also Family. See also Acceptance. 12. Temple J Japa (recitation): Aum.

dharmic enjoyment of. 43 Marriage: celibacy until. 111-112. 25 Monastery: life in. 47-49. and psychism. 3 Morality: basis for society. 27. 47-48. type of foods. and satguru. 57-58. 46-47. Husband. for production of this book. and ku∫∂alinî. implementation. 44. karma and. 40 . 111-112. 44. 110-111. See also M N Nâ∂îs: marriage and. Japa Marie Antoinette: Let them eat cake. Wife Marul pâda: stage of confusion. 22. 27 Misdeeds: remorse for. 63 Monastics: ahiµsâ and. 57-58. willpower. x. and effectiveness. 63-64 Monasticism: and remorse. of sushum∫â. 86-87. spiritual strength. 109. See also Family. 110 Narakaloka: devaloka and. 114-117. 40 Ma∫ipûra chakra: two choices. See Pâdas Materialism: worship and. harnessing the intellect. See also Malas Meals: offering to God. See also Chakras. tapas and. 64-65. 42. lower emotions and. 108. 127-128. 63-64. See also Tithing Malas: dealing with. worship and. effects on consciousness. 39. 21. 86-90. 127. piercing the veil. and siddhânta ßrava∫a.174 Health lust: controlling. yama-niyama enables. Intellect Mâyâ: bondage of. controlling malas. See also Media Mûlâdhâra chakra: entrance into.. Television Meditation: diet and. discussion. See Vegetarianism Moderate diet: See Mitâhâra Modesty: in attire. See Penance Mitâhâra (moderate diet): global perspective. See also Parenting Movies: avoiding baseness. 181 Makimai: giving beyond tithing. and higher consciousness. 113. 44-45. 97. 132. 57-63. monastics. sexual purity. 65. 93. 98-99. 61. rat experiment. 26. Asuras. 19-20. 123 Macintosh: computers. See also Anâhata chakra. power of. 17-19. 114-115 Mumia: in preserved or unfresh foods. wheat analogy. faithfulness in. 102. 137. 20-21. xiv. 43-44. 43-44. 99 Mati (cognition): anâhata chakra. and health. vegetarianism. See also Food Meat: not consuming. policeman analogy. Pride Moksha (liberation): goal of life. 59. 106. 109. 7. Mâyâ Manipulation: vs ârjava. 19. 22 Mother: essential role of. development of. and dâna. 110. conduct. 20. Guru. 2. Íiva’s concealing grace. 109-111. 2 Moment: eternity of. 128. See Ahiµsâ. 94. See also Sâdhana. See also Hrî . knowing outcomes. 97. Tala chakras Nature: See Ecology Neo-Indian religion: Sanâtana dharma vs. See also Astral plane. 19-21 lying: See Deception. 45. where yoga begins. xii. 115. 110-112. 54. summary. summary. xiii. See also Satya YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION Movies. and third eye. 47. 112-113. 74. 112-113. 105. 115-117. Willpower Mantras: anger restricting. 52 Murugan: functions of.. 124. 17. Karma. 19. See also Aum. Unfoldment Memorization: practice vs. media portrayal. 79-80. See Å∫ava. foundation of character. Vegetarianism Media: adharmic role models.

137-138. 65. 5. diet and. 99. 34 Rights: of all species. and marriage. 60 Reverence: for all life. 131. See also Karma Professionalism: in the home. See Vâsanâ daha tantra Patanjali. 112 R S Sacrifice: importance. Worship Pu∫ya: accumulating. language of. 75 Purity: See Íaucha O P organizations: dishonest members. 17. See also Sexual purity Prostration: as penance. 40 overindulgence: counteracting. 22. See also Third eye Pûjâ: anger restricting. 37. 131. nonviolence: See Ahiµsâ Nonstealing: See Asteya Nutrition: vegetarianism. Yogaswami’s lesson. 26-27. 114. 25 Perseverance: See Dh®iti Pests: nonviolent control. of universe. 18 Rudrâksha mâlâ: analogy with â∫ava mala. 44. 44. See Diet 175 japa. 30. overcome through Rats: dietary experiment. 20. Hinduism Remorse: See Hrî Repentance: demonstrating.45-46 Prasâda: at each meal. 19. 3. Health Pleasure: faith and. 90 Recitation: See Japa Reincarnation: giving and. 96. daily home. xv. 127 Pornography: avoiding. 8. 68 Promiscuity: avoiding. 21 Poverty: avoiding. contributing factors. xiii. See also Remorse. 122. 94-95. vii Progress: contentment and. 59. 21. meditation and. 112. for untruthfulness. x. emotional context. yamas precede. 106 Parenting: setting good examples. xii Path: See Spiritual path Patience: See Kshamâ Penance (prâyaßchitta): obligatory. modern acceptance of. vii. Satguru Pride: â∫ava and. 8 Robes: color-coding. See also Remorse Retaliation: lower consciousness. and yama-niyama. 77 Practice: intellectualization vs. 45 Reason: faith and. and success. 51 Priests: pûjâs and sacraments. Buddhism. Yoga Sûtras of. See Austerity Sâdhana(s): basic forms. wife’s. 17-19. 20. 84 Policeman: analogy. 132. 75 Religion: early stages. destructive effects. See also Temple. esoterics. 8 Past: resolving issues.. simple . 93. 19-20. 97 Prâyaßchitta: See Penance Preceptor: See Guru. 94-95 Problems: positive approach to. 132-135. 59. 17. See also Diet. parental. 70-71. Tapas Perfection: deal with it. 46 Pâdas: soul’s evolution through. 13 Power: monastics’. and nâ∂îs. See also Willpower Prâ∫âyâma: exercise for digestion. 19. and lower world. 131 Psychism: and â∫ava. 17. 109. 128.48. 86-90. 17. 110-112. See also Abrahamic religions. 57. xiv-xv. Rishi: on yamas.index Niyamas: relating to yamas. See Family. modern glorification of. Mother Parents: duties to children. See Yama-niyama Noninjury. 33 Physical body: controlling. guru’s guidance in. realistic approach.

quotations. 105. 67-68. See also Abrahamic religions Seva: dâna and. Hinduism. 110. See also Enlightenment. 17. family and. 132. 68. Samâdhi Íaktinipâta: descent of grace. summary. 101-102. 105-106. 19. yamas and. See Ågamas.. redirecting desire. Siddhânta ßrava∫a Satya (truthfulness): and ahiµsâ. See also Devotees Skyscraper: analogy. 109. marital. 106. of home. See Vegetarianism Shrine room: family worshiping together. 110. Upanishads. destiny of. children and. 103-104. 67. 51-52. Spiritual path Sampradâya: and books. Worship Shyness: aggressivness vs. time-tested. harnessing intellect. honesty and. end of search. 103. media vs. new mind fabric. 109-110. 132. 104. 110. brilliant aura. 105. 88. Temple. 64. 51 Scott. in later life. 89-91 Selfishness: overcoming. See also Community Soul(s): austerity and. Promiscuity. 6-7. see Sexual purity. and Upanishads. of diet. 1. 101102. 21. and saµskâras. 135. focus replaces search. harnessing energies. 110-111. and japa. Honesty Íaucha (purity): of body & clothing. evolution of. gifts to. validity of each. Sahasrâra chakra. young forms of. viii Society: destroyed by promiscuity. 83. 116. persistence of. 88. 53. 70-71. xiv. focus replaces search. 104. meeting one’s. joy of fullness. 37 Scriptures: faith in. 69 Satchidânanda: maintaining consciousness of. of company. see Siddhânta ßrava∫a. satguru needed. summary. oral teachings. sushum∫â currents. 84-85. finding one’s. 6-8. 110-111. 107. 110. 50. psychism. choice of. implementation. facing challenges. for willpower. 128. 111. 20-21. 8. 7. role of. 40 Íishyas: relationship with guru. 47-48. See also Satguru. psychic abilities and. 76 Sex: eight phases. 85. 51-53. 115. 37. summary. 1. See also Grace Samâdhi (God Realization): brahmacharya.176 YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION 54-55. 20-22. 101-102. and nâ∂îs. 103. 6. 114. oral teachings. perspectives. premarital. 112-113. power of. foundation of character.. 105. 19. and spiritual goals. 94. 7. Sexual purity Sexual purity: basic assumption. 67. See also Tapas Sahasrâra chakra: sapta ®ishis. Sex Shakespeare: on value of truthfulness. 104. sexual. 103. 6. and higher chakras. 68. 20-21. 114 Satguru: books/media. focus on positive. Sir Walter: on truthfulness. keeping promises. 8. intellect and. and initiation. See also Chakras. See also Brahmacharya. sushum∫â currents. 5. 8. listening to. 121. See also Pornography. 103-104. Vedas Seers: faith in. 76 Semitic religions: views of. 3. and tapas. 86-91. 5. sushum∫â nâ∂îs. minimal standards. 16. 53. and mati. xv-xvi. withholding harmful information. See also Home. protecting the home. guided study. See also Deception. See also Guru. 51. 64 Siddhânta ßrava∫a (scriptural listening): defined. spontaneity of. loyalty to. 5455. 104. 68-69. 18. 61. 4. and tapas. 53 Santosha (contentment): and ahiµsâ. 99. yamaniyama creates. . 84. 100. 69. the only way. 128. 94. 73. qualities of. and mati. layers of untruthfulness. 106. summary. in marriage. 19. 102. 37 Shellfish: not consuming. 77. Sampradâya. Initiation. 112113. 22. See also Sampradâya Simplicity: honesty as. 107. vs. 110. faith and. 104. 54. redirecting desire. Satguru. 102-103. Siddhânta ßrava∫a Saµskâras: and ßaucha. 96-97. 29. 51-52.

sought and unsought. 37 T U V Tala chakras: anger opens the door. jñâna dâna. Astral plane. 9697. on steadfastness. See Vâsanâ daha tantra Sugar: minimizing consumption. 76. 13. Mark: quoted. guilt and. practice vs. 100. 115. 21. xii. 132. 107. See also Chakras.index and old. 104 Temptation: debt as. 85-86. 31. Psychism Thoughts: karma created by. 47 Sun: namaskâra. on truthfulness. 111. worlds of darkness. 135. . 67. 27. finding one’s sampradâya. 103. 77 Sushum∫â: sampradâyas and. 5. 54-55. xv. 86. xiii. 79 Tirukural: on asceticism. See also Guru Stability: yama-niyama. 7980. 14. 29. 70-71. 106-107. 137 Steadfastness: See Dh®iti Stealing: adultery as. See also Chakras. 35 Time: giving of. 119. and psychism. See Desire Third eye: and cognition. 113. vows strengthen us. monastics and. xii. See also Brahmacharya. Narakaloka Tapas : described. 13-14 Speech: controlling. forms of. See Subconscious mind Vedas: and food-blessing mantra. summary. study of. 109. 11. 102. 132. 1 Upanishads: scriptural authority of. 11-12. 14. 106. 46. 39 Truth: intellectualization vs. See also Unfoldment Species: rights of all. 89 Transmutation: of desire. 11-14 Steps: one and nine. 54. 131-132. See also Intolerance Tradition: faith in. journey through. irul pâda. 104 Stress: gambling and. intellectualization.See also Scriptures Vâsanâ daha tantra: remorse and. 93. See Karma Subconscious mind: cleansing. 123. x. 88 Truthfulness: See Satya Twain. 110 Swâmîs: self-styled. See also Dâna Tolerance: beliefs conducive to. 8. failure. 123. 70-71. unity of. 65. 18 177 supporting. missteps vs. 13. 44. See Tiruvalluvar Tirumantiram: yamas and niyamas in. power of remorse. on gambling. unfoldment: foundation for. vow. See also Ecology Speculation: financial. 130. burning karma. 25. Consciousness. stages of. and satya. and siddhânta ßrava∫a. wise handling of. patience. 2. See Austerity Teaching(s): gifts of. Soul universe: perfection of.. 61. Willpower Trust: relationships and. 30. 80 Television: and confusion. xiii Tiruvalluvar: on great aspirations. revealed scripture. 77. Energy. guru’s guidance. character as foundation. 120. 34. 86-91. 3 Spiritual path: challenges. 78. 105-106. See also Worship Temples: persistence of. yamas and niyamas in. xiii Tirumular: Tirumantiram. controlling desires. 6162. on austerity. See Tirukural Tithing: dâna and. stealing and. fundamental to Hinduism. controlling instinctive mind. See also Åjñâ chakra. 6. on avoiding poverty. guru’s guidance. See also Media Temple: emotional release in. 60. wise guidance. 73-74. 135. 25. 106. ix.

tithing. Wife Worry: contentment vs.34 (cited on p. 29. Natarajan et al. 69 Worship: see Èßvarapûjana 103. 124. involvement of others. 120. See also Appetite. obstacle to enlightenment. 124. Tirukural.. 106. examples. 47. 87. 115-116. 2. 122-124 Yamas: and santosha. 128. faith and. Satguru Siva: sacrifice taught by. sacred trust. See Mother. 11-12. 1999). Narayanasvami Aiyar (Oklahoma. See also Desire. 120-121 Wheat: pride/modesty analogy. contentment and. and guru. 114. 119. monastics and. core of discipline. Including the Yoga Upanishads (p. 14). 77. vow of. B. 30. ix-xi. xii-xiii. Mitâhâra Violence: beliefs and.See also Chakras Vows: See Vratas Vratas: brahmacharya. and ahiµsâ. Thirty Minor Upanishads. 27. 48-49. 50). 120. yama-niyama in. 76. 90. (Hawaii. 121-122. sâdhana. 110. xiii. Energy. Steadfastness. Íukla Yajur Veda (cited on p. 59 Wife: husband and. interrelatedness. and soul’s evolution. 132-135 Scriptural Citations The following are the scriptures and sourcebooks from which quotations in Yoga’s Forgotten Foundation were drawn Invocation from the Ißa Upanishad. 85. Anger Virginity: See Brahmacharya Vißuddha chakra: compassion and. 135). 120-121. harmony with guru. foundation for ash†âˆga yoga. 1980). viii. don’t give up. 13. cultivating. Tirumantiram (cited on p. vii. yama-niyama. 122-124 Y W Westerners: impatience for initiation. See also Abuse. raimond (delhi. 120. satguru needed. 34. xiii. 94. 51. and initiation. Âig Veda 10. 18-21. reasons. 113. 118. 173-174). Weaver’s Wisdom. intellec- Yama-niyama: discussion. x. dr. xx. Practice. Himalayan Academy. 67). Holy Uterances of Saint Tirumular. Yoga Sûtras: yamas and niyamas in. See Marriage Willpower: charioteer. higher consciousness and. 1. 5 Women: dharmic attitude toward. 1989). power of. xii-xvi. japa yoga. 68. 69 Yoga’s Forgotten Foundation: story of dictation and production. 29). K. See also Scriptures Vegetarianism: defined. xiv. 6. 12.. Sivaya Subramuniyaswami (Hawaii. xiii Yoga: ash†âˆga yoga. The Vedic Experience (p. Saiva Siddhanta Church. 99 Yogaswami. Motilal Banarsidass. worship and. xix). 45. Panikkar. 122-123. preparation for vows.178 YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION tualization vs. Íândilya Upanishad (cited on p. Unfoldment Wisdom: truthfulness and. listed. 1982). . 62. Tirumantiram. Santarasa Publications. Ancient Precepts for a Perfect Life. 106. summary. by Saint Tiruvalluvar (cited on p.

index 179 .

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The background patterns adorning the title pages were created by the monastics using adobe photoshop. sarasvati mohan of campbell. with printing by four-color offset press executed at sampoorna printers sdn.colophon 181 Colophon Antyavachanam Antyavadanama< oga’s ForgottEn Foundation was designed and illustrated by the ÅCHÅRYAS and SWÅMÈS of the ÍAIVA SIddHÅNTA yoga order at Kauai aadheenam. 62.75 for the glossary and index. adobe photoshop 7 and adobe illustrator 10. Kauai’s hindu monastery on hawaii’s garden island. lending his blessings to all those who read his words and strive to apply this earthy wisdom to their daily life. india. it was produced on macintosh g4 computers using adobe indesign 2. california. . rajam. The text is set in adobe’s minion family of fonts (with diacritical marks added using fontographer): 11. printing production was supervised by tiru a. sanskrit and tamil fonts are by ecological linguistics and srikrishna patil. The book’s index was created by tirumati chamundi sabanathan of santa rosa.5-point regular on 13. ¶we know that gurudeva is smiling down upon this book from the inner planes.25 on 9. manivelu. The oil portrait of gurudeva on the back cover was a gift by renowned artist sri indra sharma during a sojourn on Kauai in 1997. sothinathan of uma publications in Kuala lumpur. california.5-point linespacing for the body of the book and 8. The painting on the half-title page is by the same artist. ¶The cover art is a watercolor by tiru s. bhd. happy that his original vision has been fulfilled. The watercolor paintings that initiate each chapter are the work of tiru a. on 85 gsm coated art paper. 84. aum. sanskrit translation of the chapter titles was provided by dr. pleased with its production. using sonar bookends. of chennai.

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“This sound will be heard in america! now go ’round the world and roar like a lion. in 1957. in switzerland. in the caves of Jalani in 1949. he fasted and meditated until he burst into enlightenment. in 1970 gurudeva established his world headquarters and monastery-temple on Kauai. sage yogaswami. new Zealand. a leader recognized worldwide as one of hinduism’s foremost ministers. initiated him into the holy orders of sannyâsa and ordained him into his lineage with a tremendous slap on the back. now active in many nations.about the author 183 About the Author satguru sivaya subramuniyaswami (1927-2001) was such a being. he was trained in classical eastern and western dance and in the disciplines of yoga. he gave blessings to dozens of groups to build temples in north america. ¶as a youth. he thus authenticated and legitimized the establishment of the temple o nce in a great while on this Earth there arises a soul who. from 1967 to 1983 he led fourteen innersearch pilgrimages. northernmost of the hawaiian islands. he renounced the world at the height of his career and traveled to india and sri lanka in quest of absolute truth. . 1968. subramuniyaswami. in san francisco. perfects his path and a becomes a light to the world.” while in sri lanka. europe and elsewhere. by living his tradition rightly and wholly. becoming the premier danseur of the san francisco ballet by age 19. who gave him the name subramuniya. beginning in the 1970s and continuing to 2001. he met his satguru. he formed his monastic order in 1960. affectionately known as gurudeva. usually of lord Ga∫eßa. soon thereafter. he revealed Shûm. culminating in Cognizantability. gifting deity images. a shining example of awakening and wisdom. solitary yoga and meditation which brought forth faculties of clairvoyance and clairaudience. he personally guided groups of trustees through each stage of temple development. over the years. a mystical language of meditation that names and maps inner areas of consciousness. australia. guiding hundreds of devotees to the world’s sacred temples and illumined sages. he founded saiva siddhanta church. a collection of profound aphorisms and commentary on the states of mind and esoteric laws of life. the world’s first hindu church. founded himalayan academy and opened america’s first hindu temple. to 36 temples to begin the worship. you will build palaces (temples) and feed thousands. saying. in late 1949 he sailed back to america and embarked on seven years of ardent.

pamphlets. a five-day . Those in fiji had no knowledge of hindus in europe or mauritius. malaysia and mauritius. books. world teachers. his relentless drive to establish hindu worship in the west was based on his revelatory mystic visions of the gods not as symbolic depictions but as real beings who guide and protect mankind. and inspiring and educating seekers everywhere.184 YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION as essential to any hindu community. art. seeing this need. to whom he spread a powerful message of courage and was instrumental in regenerating pride of heritage. vows and aspirations of hindu monasticism with unprecedented clarity. legalize their hindu name and formally enter hinduism through the name-giving rite. he began publishing hinduism today magazine. most notably in sri lanka. new delhi’s world religious parliament named him one of five modern-day Jagadâchâryas. following a powerful vision of lord Íiva. his international hindu renaissance tours in the early ’80s revealed that hindus were not globally connected or organized. That same year. in the early ’80s he established the antiquity and legitimacy of monistic Íaiva Siddhânta at international conferences among pundits who had insisted that Siddhânta is solely pluralistic. That same year. he clairvoyantly read from inner-plane libraries to bring forth Lemurian scrolls and other esoteric writings to guide his monastic order and revive the centrality of celibacy and sexual transmutation. after establishing Kadavul temple. also in 1986 he created Pañcha Ga∫apati. ¶his travels in the 1980s brought him face to face with hundreds of thousands of hindus. ¶in 1986 he founded a branch monastery in mauritius. in 1977 he intensified requirements for his western devotees to sever all prior religious. also in 1979. philosophical loyalties. for his international efforts in promoting a hindu renaissance. lessons and later through cds and the world’s foremost hindu websites. in 1979 he published Holy orders of Sannyâsa. in 1985 gurudeva adopted apple’s macintosh-based publishing technology to supercharge his prolific outreach through scriptures. in 1975. whose government had invited him there to revive a languishing hindu faith. he produced the first edition of his hindu catechism. with whom we can commune most effectively through consecrated temples. india. he conceived the san marga iraivan temple on Kauai as the first all-granite temple established outside of india. gurudeva focused his journal on uniting all hindus. later to become dancing with Íiva. regardless of nationality or sect. ¶in 1973. defining the ideals. Those in india knew little of their brothers and sisters in south america.

Therein he finalized patterns for the future. in 1995 he published the final edition of Íaiva Dharma Íâstras. and to assist him in his global mission.about the author 185 hindu festival celebrated around the time of christmas. followed by acharya palaniswami and then acharya ceyonswami. ¶from 1977 to 2001 gurudeva nurtured a staunchly hindu. and designated as his successors three of his senior monastics: acharya Veylanswami. it furthers the dual mission of hindu solidarity and monistic Íaiva Siddhânta. The recognized hereditary guru of 2. global fellowship of family initiates. highly disciplined. training them to follow the sâdhana mârga. his church nurtures its membership and local missions on five continents and serves. it gently oversees some 40 temples worldwide. gurudeva’s numerous books present his unique and practical insights on hindu metaphysics. the path of yogic striving and personal transformation. The year 1989 saw the culmination of numerous books and pamphlets that later became part of the master course trilogy. personally and through publications and the internet. preserve and promote the Íaivite hindu religion as expressed through three pillars: temples. the community of hindus of all sects. including the extended family structure for his missions.5 million sri lankan hindus. youth and adults. philosophy and yoga. in 1994 gurudeva founded hindu heritage endowment. gurudeva proclaimed his church a Jaffna-tamil-based organization which branched out from the sri subramuniya ashram in alaveddy to meet the needs of the growing hindu diaspora of this century. in 1991 in bangalore. missionaries and teachers within the family membership provide counseling and classes in Íaivism for children. monastics and students. satgurus and scripture. drawing on aspects of the american church system to make his organization socially viable and structurally effective. his Íaivite Hindu religion children’s course is taught in . mysticism. in 1991 he produced the Nandinâtha Sûtras. culture. 365 aphorisms outlining the entire gamut of virtuous hindu living. in 1987 he published god’s Money to explain tithing and how it is practiced by members of his hindu church. now a multi-million-dollar public service trust that establishes and maintains permanent sources of income for hindu institutions worldwide. he ceremoniously chipped the first stone of iraivan temple and established a small village where craftsmen and their families could live and carve this architectural gem by hand over the next fifteen years. vowing to protect. with this competent team and a sophisticated infrastructure.

from 1996 onward. the world religious parliament bestowed on him the title dharmachakra for his remarkable publications. he joined religious. ¶in 1998 gurudeva began an ardent campaign for the right of children to not be beaten by their parents or their teachers. in delhi.186 YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION many temples and homes. county council. during these final years he worked daily in the morning hours in refining the Shûm language as his supreme gift to his monastic order. in he published How to Become a Hindu.200 spiritual leaders gathered for the un millennium peace summit. namely the same respect enjoyed by the clergy of other religions. ¶in 1995. 1993. “for peace in the world. pope John paul ii and mother teresa). political and scientific leaders from all countries to discuss the future of human life on this planet. he spearheaded the 125th anniversary of satguru yogaswami and his golden icon’s pilgrimage around the world. 2000. ending in sri lanka. stop the war in the home. in 1998 he responded to president clinton’s call for religious opinions on the ethics of human cloning. moscow in 1990 and rio de Janeiro in 1992. helping parents raise children with love through positive discipline classes taught by his family devotees as their primary community service.” on august 25. he addressed 1. The global forum of spiritual and parliamentary leaders for human survival chose him as a hindu representative at its momentus conferences. gurudeva was a key member of Vision Kauai 2020.” upon his return to Kauai. he received the prestigious united nations u Thant peace award in new york (previously bestowed on the dalai lama. Thus. especially in the early ’90s he campaigned for fair treatment of temple priests. business and education leaders) that meets to fashion the island’s future based on spiritual values. showing the way for seekers to formally enter the faith. at oxford in 1988. 350 citizens and county and state officials gathered to herald his accomplishments on the island and beyond. refuting the dogma that “you must be born a hindu to be a hindu. governor benjamin cayetano wrote: “i am especially grateful for your efforts . he was elected one of three hindus to the presidents’ assembly. preserving the teachings in five languages for thousands of youths. with the message. nelson mandela. a group of inspirers (including the mayor. at chicago’s historic centenary parliament of the world’s religions in september. That same year. in 1999 he traveled to mauritius to publicly inaugurate his spiritual park as a gift to the island nation. mikhail gorbachev. a core group of 25 men and women voicing the needs of world faiths.

respectively. trinidad and denmark. in 2001 he completed his golden legacy. consecrating new temples in alaska. i will be working with you on the inside twenty-four hours a day. when i am gone from this world. in 1999. This group of twelve initiated swâmîs with lifetime vows and nine brahmachârîs. he left his body peacefully on the 32nd day of his self-declared fast. all concurring that even the most aggressive treatment regimens would not prove effective. his 458-acre temple-monastery complex on the garden island of Kauai. gurudeva consoled them. learning on october 9. to abstain from nourishment and take water only from that day on. come from six countries and include both men born into the hindu religion and those who converted or adopted hinduism—asians and westerners—made strong by decades of gurudeva’s loving but strict personal guidance and insistence on . at 11:54 pm on monday. 2001. the 3. taking devotees to alaska. confirmed by a host of specialists in three states. Living and Merging with Íiva—peerless volumes of daily lessons on hindu philosophy. that he had advanced. chitra nakshatra.about the author 187 to promote moral and spiritual values in hawaii. celibate monks. november 12. ¶gurudeva departed from this world as courageously as he had lived in it. a hinduism today daily news summary for breaking news sent free via e-mail and posted on the web. Known as one of the strictest gurus in the world. “don’t be sad. the caribbean and northern europe. subramuniyaswami taught hinduism to hindus and seekers from all faiths. gurudeva launched hindu press international (hpi). culture and yoga. called prâyopaveßa in sanskrit scripture. he was the 162nd successor of the Nandinâtha Kailâsa lineage and satguru of Kauai aadheenam. 2000. perpetuating the mission given to gurudeva by his satguru.” in november.000-page master course trilogy of dancing. 2000 and 2001 he conducted three innersearch journeys. his monastics continue to promote the dharma together through saiva siddhanta church. may our people forever embrace the message of peace you have so eloquently supported in your gracious wisdom. 2001. surrounded by his twenty-three monastics. from this verdant polynesian aßrama on a river bank near the foot of an extinct volcano. himalayan academy and hindu heritage endowment. he declined any treatment beyond palliative measures and decided to follow the indian yogic practice.” The rock-solid foundation for the continuance of his work is Kauai aadheenam and its resident saiva siddhanta yoga order. metastacized intestinal cancer. ¶for fifty years.

gurudeva lived so profoundly at the center of himself. he whispered in assurance. to change their lives in ways that are otherwise impossible. renowned yoga teacher. satguru bodhinatha Veylanswami.188 YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION 110 percent performance. enthusiasm and whole-heartedness. 59. one of india’s most influential hindu writers and thinkers. that everyone he met felt close to him. . everything that is happening is meant to be. just days before his great union. the heart of divinity.” sri shivarudra balayogi maharaj of india said. declaring. “everything that is happening is good. sita ram goel. but his greatest siddhi. a reincarnation of Íiva himself—has watered the roots of hinduism with great zeal.” ¶gurudeva’s life was one of extraordinary accomplishments on so many levels. subramuniyaswami. a highly enlightened soul of the west—a hanuman of today. “you are all over-qualified to carry on. a disciple for 37 years. a mother and father and friend to all who drew near. to keep one another strong on the spiritual path. was his incredible power to inspire others toward god. he personified the pure.” ma yoga shakti. to be a light on their path. in the first weeks of his fast. mission and mandate of his holiness sivaya subramuniyaswami form an epic chapter in his unending spiritual quest leading him to the founding of the saiva siddhanta church and a monastic order in hawaii—a magnificent task! This will ever remain a monument to his spiritual fervor. “bodhinatha is the new satguru now. so close to the core of being. even on his deathbed.” ever concerned for others. and the recent reawakening of the hindu mind carries his stamp. “he has done great work for hinduism. gurudeva seamlessly transferred his duties and responsibilities to his chosen successor. president of sivathondan nilayam arunasalam sellathurai swamigal wrote: “The life. east and west. “for more than five decades. said.” ¶when notified of gurudeva’s passing. satguru sivaya subramuniyaswami has helped make hinduism an even greater gift to humanity. to which thousands of devotees will testify. proclaiming worldwide.” from Jaffna. blissful soul nature they sought and sensed as the center of themselves. to live in harmony and to work diligently on their personal spiritual sâdhanas. “by his life and by his teaching. wrote.” he asked devotees worldwide to carry his work and institutions forward with unstinting vigor. faith. in trumpet tones that swamigal was a trailblazer of lord Íiva’s choice to glorify the spiritual heritage and the essence of Íaiva Siddhânta.

legitimizing their establishment. not a archeologic relic of the past as oft depicted by western scholars—one that should be presented by hindu writers. insisting that only if each denomination is strong and faithful to its unique traditions will hinduism itself be strong. . rivaling the ®ishis of Vedic times in instilling fresh understanding and setting new patterns of life for contemporary humanity. convincing leAdInG the hIndu renAISSAnCe hindus everywhere to stand up and proclaim themselves hindus and stop repeating equivocal slogans like. a Jew. such as “four facts of hinduism. •pioneering the language Shûm in 1968 to enhance seekers’ yogic efforts and vigorously developing it from 1995 to 2001. •translating and publishing tiruvalluvar’s ethical masterpiece. “i’m not really a hindu. •rescuing the word Hinduism from its fallen status as a dirty word and restoring it to its age-old glory.” the 365 nandinatha Sûtras. as he did in his peerless publications. i am a universalist—a christian.about the author 189 Milestones of His 52-Year Ministry Enumerating a Spiritual Master’s Many Gifts to Mankind empowered by his self realization.” •proclaiming that hinduism is a great. his ordination as a satguru and the blessings of gods and devas. •unfolding theological summations for a religion in renaissance. gurudeva contributed to the revival of hinduism in immeasurable abundance. here is a partial list of his trail-blazing mission and accomplishments. as the proven ways of the past. in modern. a muslim and a buddhist. awakening their self-appreciation as a world community. lucid english. •championing the centrality of temples. •bringing the gods “out of exile” by explaining and writing about the mysteries of temple worship and the three worlds of existence from his own experience. he was simultaneously a staunch defender of traditions. a self-initiated journey to bravely. and authenticating their purpose. living religion. the religion best suited to the new age. •teaching hinduism to hindus. •bringing forth Lemurian scrolls and other esoteric writings from innerplane libraries to guide his monastic order and revive the centrality of celibacy and sexual transmutation. •bringing seekers new meaning to SPIrItuAl teAChInGS life through The Master Course as a path of self-transformation through sâdhana. and a fearless innovator. and a hindu catechism and creed. indeed.” “nine beliefs. as his choicest inner gift to his monastics. •heralding sectarianism when the prevailing trend was bland uniformity.” “hinduism’s code of conduct. cheerfully face the karma one has created in the past. the tirukural. •building hindu pride. blessed inheritors of a grand civilization and culture.

“now we have computers and the internet—modern technology capable of bringing the spiritual beings and all religious . •rejecting traditional stories that glorify violence. •repopularizing Íiva as a god of love to be worshiped by all devotees. outspoken relIGIouS StAteSMAnShIP hindu voice at interfaith conferences and spiritual and political forums. often by citing the Bhagavad Gîtâ. “today at Kauai aadheenam. objecting to christian hegemony at such gatherings. •combatting unethical christian conversion by enhancing hindu education. he observed. not a fearsome being approached only by ascetics.190 CorreCtIve CAMPAIGnS YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION •dispelling myths and misinformation about hinduism through hinduism today for two decades. •providing a fearless. in 1997 he launched taKa. including setting up the first macintosh publishing network (1986) and founding the first major hindu website (1994). refuting the notion that “you must be born a hindu to be a hindu. exposing the devious tactics of evangelists and the immaturity of faiths that consider theirs the only true path and aggressively seek to compel others to adopt it. including the indigenous peoples. insisting that hinduism has always accepted newcomers. •defending advaitic Íaiva Siddhânta at international conferences and with pundits of south indian aadheenams to successfully affirm the legitimacy and antiquity of the nondual theology which so perfectly reflected his own realizations. rather than the mythological Purâ∫as and the historical Bhagavad Gîtâ. •debunking the notion that “all religions are one” and publishing a comparative summary of the major religions of the world. •speaking for the purity of hindu monasticism and against the idea of “married swâmîs” and mixed-gender âßramas. to beware of detractors and to establish teaching programs for the youth. existentialism and secular humanism. •reinstating ahiµsâ. and decrying the hypocrisy of scientists who would speak as potential saviors for earth’s problems when science itself had caused many of the predicaments.” to chronicle daily activities at his Kauai and mauritius centers. such as many found in the Periyapuranam. •harnessing information technology PIoneerInG PAtternS to drive hindu dharma into the new millennium. •campaigning against the use of illegal drugs by exposing the harmful effects and karmic consequences. in fact necessary. side by side with prominent secular philosophies. rather than nonreligious paths such as materialism. to have lord Íiva in the home. assuring hindus it is all right. •promoting the Vedas and Ågamas as the holy bible of hinduism. noninjury. calling for equal representation by other religions. •enjoining temple boards of trustees to get along with each other. communism. •establishing rational mystical explanations for hindu practice to displace the Purâ∫ic “comic book” mentality. whatever it may be.” •encouraging people to practice their religion. as the cardinal ethic of hinduism when militants were promoting righteous retaliation. •creating a method of ethical selfconversion for seekers to formally enter the hindu religion.

•finding ways for hindus to meet cultural dilemmas in the modern age. to cloning. religious giving of one’s time. •creating a global enclave of several hundred hindu leaders and regularly calling on them for their wisdom on critical issues. •establishing innersearch travel study as a means of self-discovery and spiritual renewal for devotees and students. to train temple priests outside of india. which he promoted in his publications and encouraged as a natural healing system for his followers.” •garnering respect for hindu monas- StrenGthenInG MonAStICISM tics of every order when “swâmî bashing” was common. proclaiming that swâmîs and sâdhus are the ministers of this noble faith and that genuine gurus should be venerated. pâ†haßâlas. and âyurveda. •drawing from the american church system to make his organization. back into vogue through his writings and by implementing them among his congregation with reverence and formal documentation. which he and his followers learned and taught. the stylus and olai leaf did not do. socially viable. Vedic astrology. and other hindu institutions. publishing their collective views in hinduism today. and establishing tithing as a monthly practice within his global congregation. to initiate the worship and remove obstacles at 36 temples globally. obeyed and sought out for their wisdom. resources and finances. •encouraging selfless. •gifting deity icons. especially south indian painting. celebrated for five days around the time of christmas. from abortion. with which he illustrated his trilogy. Pañcha Ga∫apati. •distinguishing outstanding leadership with his hindu of the year award.about the author people of the world closely together wherever they live. into the most beautiful room of the home. saµskâras. •supporting cross-national marriages within his congregation and to the wider hindu world. •introducing to Kauai: toggenberg goats. indian dance. temple architecture. the honey bee industry and many species of exotic flora.” •calling for the establishment of schools. the pen and paper could not do. •breathing new life into the aadheenams of south india (templemonastery complexes). 191 revIvInG noble trAdItIonS •bringing sacraments. with his last three journeys consecrating new temples in alaska. •establishing perpetual funds to finance his own and others’ religious endeavors through hindu heritage endowment. Jersey cows. such as devising a new festival. •rescuing the home shrine from extinction—“out of the closet. which he embodied in iraivan temple. This one thing the typewriter could not do. •promoting the idea of resident facilities for the elderly to live together close to temples in the west. demanding they receive the same respect enjoyed by the clergy of other religions. which he used daily for its insights into character of people and timing of events. to medical ethics and hindu family life. usually of Ga∫eßa. legally strong and structurally effective. •supporting and reviving the traditional arts. bringing new . •campaigning for priests’ rights and fair treatment. trinidad and denmark.

which he elucidated in his eloquent and prolific publications. a large monastic order and a satguru pî†ha (seat of authority). traditional multi-national team. sculpture. which he promoted through hinduism today. •establishing a counter “women’s liberation movement. •protecting children from abuse. •manifesting iraivan. a temple- SettInG StAndArdS In leAderShIP •upholding the integrity of the family.” reminding hindus that family well-being lies in the hands of women. finding ways to keep families close and harmonious. . •initiating and nurturing a traditional order of two dozen celibate Íaiva monastics.” joining monthly with Kauai leaders in an island visioning group to help manifest an enhanced social and economic future. •denouncing and taking action against wife abuse as a despicable act that no man has the right to perpetrate. act locally. molding them into an effective. •insisting on “zero tolerance for disharmonious conditions” within his monasteries and the homes of followers. and monistic Íaiva Siddhânta. •codifying in his Holy orders of Sannyâsa the ideals. the first all-stone Ågamic temple in the west. speaking with them about their lives. standing up for their right to not be beaten by parents or teachers and debunking the notion that corporal punishment is a part of hindu culture. declaring that divorce is never a happy solution to marital conflict. all amid religious art. but following the traditional role of wife and mother. •fulfilling the motto “Think globally. who with their special ßakti are uniquely able raise their children well and make their husbands successful by not working in the world. concerns and aspirations. •creating Kauai aadheenam. •helping parents raise children with love and respect through positive discipline classes taught by his family devotees as a primary service to the community. •being always available: personally greeting thousands of hindu visitors to his aadheenam. harmonious. IMProvInG FAMIly lIFe extolling the extended family. traditional temple architecture and liturgy—that it stands as the most authoritative aadheenam in the west.192 YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION prominence to the Saˆkarâchârya centers and to the seats of power of all monastic lineages. •building two platforms: hindu solidarity. monastery in hawaii so traditional and spiritual—replete with two Íiva temples. vows and aspirations of hindu monasticism in unprecedented clarity and detail.

hese rare souls follow the path of the traditional hindu monastic. to worship. serve and realize the truths of the Vedas and Íaiva Ågamas. write to: satguru bodhinatha Veylanswami guru Mahâsannidhânam. and in recent centuries based in sri lanka. it is an advaitic Íaiva Siddhânta order. They pursue the disciplines of charyâ. the saiva siddhanta yoga order is among the world’s foremost traditional Íaivite hindu monastic orders. successor to satguru sivaya subramuniyaswami. live and merge with Íiva as Hindu monks. obedience. thoughts and experiences. apart from worldliness. yoga and jñâna that lead to self realization. on the beautiful garden island of Kauai.org world wide web: www.193 There are a few unusual men who have had enough of worldliness and choose to dance. purity and confidence. and headquartered at Kauai aadheenam in hawaii. a living stream of the ancient Nandinâtha Sampradâya. humility. the power that drives them tirelessly on.gurudeva. holy orders of sannyâsa may be conferred on those who qualify after ten to twelve years of training. usa. Kauai aadheenam 107 Kaholalele road. sharing their personal history. meditate. young men considering the renunciate path who strongly believe they have found their spiritual calling in this lineage are encouraged to write to bodhinatha. kriyâ. They live with other ma†havâsis like themselves in monasteries. Knowing god is their only goal in life. guided by satguru bodhinatha Veylanswami. spiritual aspirations. accepting candidates from every nation on earth.org . originally deriving from india. Kapaa. hawaii 96746-9304 usa e-mail: bodhi@hindu. vowed to poverty.

write. its endowments benefit orphanages. hindu heritage endowment. whether you are inspired to give a few dollars to support orphanages or bequest millions in your will. 96746-9304.hheonline. hawaii. many find solace in the concepts of karma. you may wish to further enrich your life by giving back to Sanâtana dharma in countries around the globe and helping preserve its rich heritage for future generations.org . 228 fax: (808) 822-3152. find out how to enrich your life by helping to preserve the treasures of a profound heritage for generations now living or as yet unborn. phone: (800) 890-1008. usa.org world wide web: www. give us a call or look us up on the internet. ext. Kapaa. hhe was created to maintain permanent endowments for hindu projects and institutions worldwide. Kauai’s hindu monastery 107 Kaholalele road. century after century. children’s schools. ¶hindu heritage endowment (hhe) provides such an opportunity. others find peace of mind in hindu yoga practices.194 YOGA’S fOrGOTTeN fOuNdATION The hindu heritage endowment indu thought and culture thread through almost every civilization on the planet. decade after decade. outside of the us: (808) 822-3012. and they are designed to continue giving that financial support year after year. a public charitable trust recognized by the united states government. pragmatic wisdom. weaving a subtle tapestry of lofty philosophy and earthy. They support priests and publish books. dharma and reincarnation. whose life has not been touched? some have been raised in india and enjoy memories of warm extended families and cool temples resounding with ancient mantras. e-mail: hhe@hindu. if you are one who has been touched by hindu thought and culture. âßramas and temples. which express their own inner findings and beliefs.

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