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i. FORMS AND STRUCTURES The hand is not a flat, two- dimensional shape without vol- ume. It is a dynamic, three- dimensional body form, energetic and complex, each of its forms and structures interrelated. In this chapter we will look at it from various angles in space and depth, noting its curves and rhythms and examining the bulk, sizes, shapes, and masses of its individual parts and their relation to the whole. UPPER AND LOWER ARM ‘The main masses of the upper and lower arm are good ‘examples of the principle of contraposition —one form being in opposition to, or moving in a different direction from, another. For example, the shoulder mass thrusts up- wand, while the direction of the biceps and triceps is frontward and backward; the forearm repeats the up-and- down direction of the shoulder and is opposed by the hori- zontal angle of the hand. The upper sketch shows the re- tracted and extended arm positions, while the lower left sketch emphasizes form planes. Observe how the con- traposed masses shown in the lower right sketch produce an undulant, wavelike rhythm of crests and troughs along, the entire length of the extended arm, uence of varied of lam, note the t tUadency of th ore fo iat he upper weit The pale decided slope downward, depending on the natural flexion of the hand. 2