Case 5:13-cv-00077-MFU-RSB Document 67 Filed 10/18/13 Page 1 of 9 Pageid#: 616 e KKKBPFFI QZ U %' D1 bVVQQXY

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I N THE UNI TED S TATESDI S TRI CT COURT
FOR THE W ESTERN DI STRI CT OF VI RGI NI H A RR I SO NSBU R G DI VI SI ON

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Jt M ' f ,- cé . r k
LEF ' D

JOANNE HARRI S, M4, o nb e h a fo ft h e ms e l v e sa n d
al lot he r ssi mi l ar l y si t uat ed,
Ci vi lA c t i on N o. :5: 1 3c v00077
Pl ai nt i f f s,

ROBERT F.M CDONNELL,M 1 ,
De f e ndant s .

By:H on. Mi c hae lF.U rbans l t i U ni t ed St at es D i st ri ctJudge

M EM O R AN DU M O PINIO N

Thi sm a t t e ri sbe f or et he c our ton de f e nda nt s 'M ot i on t o Sus pend Sc he dul i ng Or de r ,t o

St a yBr i e f i ngor , i nt hea l t e r na t i ve, t oEs t abl i s haBr i e f i ngSc he dul e( Dkt . #53) . 1Fort her e as ons
s e tf or t h be l o w ,t he m ot i on i sG I U NTED i n par tand D EN I ED i n pa rt .

Thi sc a s ec ha l l e ngi ng t he c ons t i t ut i o na l i t y ofVi r gi ni a' sm a ni a ge l a w sast os a m es ex

c oupl e swasf i l ed on Augus tl ,201 3.Pl ai n t i f f sJ oa nneHa ni sand J e s s i c a Duf f , a nd Chr i s t y Be r ghof fa nd Vi c t or i aKi dd,a s s e r ti nt he i rc l as sa c t i on c ompl a i ntvi ol a t i o nsoft he i rr i g ht sunde r
t he Due Pr oc es sa nd Equa lPr ot e c t i on Cl a us e s oft he Four t e ent h A m endm e ntt ot he U ni t e d St a t e s Cons t i t ut i on. Spe ci f i ca l l y, Ha r r i sa nd D uf fa l l e ge t he i rc ons t i t u t i o na lr i g ht s ha ve be e n vi ol a t e d bec a us et he y have be en r e f us e dama r r i a ge l i ce ns ea sa s a me s e x co upl e by t he Com m onw e a 1 t h ofV i r g i ni a,i ns pi t e oft he f a c tt ha tt he ya r e ot he r wi s e qua l i f i ed t om a r r y unde rV i r gi ni al a wa nd

wi s ht odos o.Be r ghof fa ndKi ddwe r ema r r i edl a wf ul l yi na not he rj ur i s di c t i ononAugus t20,
2011 and cl ai m Vi r gi ni a1 aw vi ol at est hei rcons t i t ut i onalri ght sbecause t hei rm ar r i age i snot
1 The m o t i on wasf i l e d by s t a t e de f enda nt sRobe r tF. M c Donnel la nd J a ne tT. Rai ne y.Att hehea r i nghel d on

Oc t o b e r8 , 2 01 3 , c o u n s e l i n d i c a t e dde f e n d a n t Tho ma sE. Ro b e r t sa l s oj o i n si nt hemo t i o n .

Case 5:13-cv-00077-MFU-RSB Document 67 Filed 10/18/13 Page 2 of 9 Pageid#: 617

r e cogni ze d by t heComm onwe a 1 t h.Pl ai nt i f f snameRobe r tF.M c Do nne l l ,Gove r norofVi r gi ni a,
JanetM .Rai ney,St at e Regi s t r ar ofV i t alR ecor ds,and Thom asE.Robert s ,St aunt on Ci r cui t

Cour tCl er k,a 1 li nt he i rof f i c i alca pa c i t i e s ,a s de f e nda nt si nt hi ss ui ta nd s ee k bot h de c l a r a t or y

a ndi n j u nc t i v er e l i e f .
Def enda nt sM c Donnel land Robe r t sha vemovedt o di s mi s st hecl a i msa gai ns tt he m,a nd
pl a i nt i f f s ha ve f i l e d am o t i o nf o rc l as sc er t i f i c a t i on. The s e m ot i ons ha ve be e nf ul l y br i e f e da nd or ala r gum e nti ss che dul e df orTues da y,Oc t ober29,201 3. I nt he m ea nt i m e, pl a i nt i f f st i l e da

mo t i o nf o rs u mma r yj u d g me n ta g a i ns t a 1 1d e f e n d a n t so nS e p t e mb e r3 0, 2 01 3 .OnOc t o be r3 , 2 01 3, d e f e n d a nt st i l e damo t i o nt os t a yt h es umma r yj u d g me n tb r i e f i ngs c h e d u l eu n t i l ad e c i s i o n
i n Bos t i c v.M c D onne l l ,N o.2: 1 3c v00395,a na c t i on pendi ng i nt he Ea s t e r nDi s t r i c tofV i r gi ni a

t h a tr a i s e si de n t i c a lq ue s t i o n so fl a w, i sr e n d e r e do nt hec r o s s mo t i o n sf o rs u mma r yj u d g me n t
cur r e nt l y pe ndi ng i nt ha tc a s e. The c om pl a i nti n B os t i c w asf i l e d on J ul y 18, 2013, t w o wee ks e a r l i e rt ha nt he i ns t a nt c as e. Pl a i nt i f f sTi m ot hy B.Bos t i ca nd Tony C.London,l i ke H a r r i sa nd Duf fi nt he i ns t a ntc as e, as s e r t Vi r gi ni a1 a w vi ol a t e st hei rc ons t i t ut i ona lr i ght sby de nyi ng t he m t he oppor t uni t yt om a r r y l ega l l ywi t hi nt he Co m m onw ea 1 t h. Bos t i ca nd London na me d Gove r norM c Donne l l ,Kel me t h T. Cucc i ne l l i ,At t or ne yGe ne r alofV i r gi ni a, a nd Geor ge E.Sc ha e f e r1 1 1 , N or f ol k Ci r c ui tCo ur t Cl e r k,i nt he i rof f i c i a lc a pac i t i es ,asdef e nda nt s . On A ugus t9,201 3,def e nda nt sM c D onne l la nd Cuc c i ne l l if i l e d a m ot i on t o di s mi s sa nd t he Co m m onw e al t h ofV i r gi ni at i l ed a m o t i on t o

i nt e r ve ne.Thepa r t i esj oi nt l ya s ke dt hec our t t os t a ybr i e f i ngont hes epe ndi ngmot i ons , al l ow
pl a i nt i f f st o am e nd t he i rc om pl a i n t ,w hi c h w oul dr e s ol ve t he m ot i ons t o di s mi s sa nd i nt e r ve ne ,

a nd s e tabr i ef i ng s c hedul ef ort hef i l i ngofc r os s mot i o nsf ors umma r yj udg me nt .A c ons e nt

Case 5:13-cv-00077-MFU-RSB Document 67 Filed 10/18/13 Page 3 of 9 Pageid#: 618

Or dert ot ha te f f e c twa se nt e r e d on Augus t30, 2013, andpl ai n t i f f sf i l e da na mende d co m pl ai nt
on Se pt e m ber3,201 3. Thi sa me nde d com pl ai nta dde dt w o addi t i ona lpl a i n t i f f s ,Ca r olSc ha l la nd M a r y

To wnl e y,as a m es e xc ou pl ewho,l i keBe r g hof fa nd Ki dd i nt hei ns t a ntc a s e ,we r el a wf ul l y

ma r r i e di na n o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o na nda l l e g et he i rc o n s t i t u t i o na l r i g h t sa r ev i ol a t e db yt he
Com m onw e al t h' sr e f us alt or ec ogni ze t he i rva l i dm a r r i ag e. Bos t i ca nd London a nd Sc hal la nd Tow nl e y na m eJ a ne tM .Ra i ne y,St a t e Re gi s t r a rofV i t a lRe cor ds ,a nd G e or g e E. Sc hae f e r1 1 1 , N or f ol k Ci r c ui tCour tC l e r k,i nt he i rof f i c i a lca pac i t i e s ,a st he o nl y de f e nda nt si nt he a m ende d c om pl ai nt . Bos t i ci spr oc e edi ng unde r a br i ef i ng s c he dul et hatr eq ui r e d cr os s m ot i onsf or

s u mma r yj u dg me n t t ob ef i l e db yS e p t e mb e r3 0, 2 01 3 .Thed e a d l i nef o rr e s p o ns e si sOc t o be r2 4 ,
201 3 andt hede a dl i ne f orr e pl y br i e f si sOc t obe r31 ,201 3.
l nt he m o t i on t os t a yt i l e di nt he i ns t a ntc a s e, def e nda nt sar gue t ha tt he co ur ts houl ds t a y

br i e f i ngon pl a i nt i f f s 's umma r yj udg me ntmot i onpe ndi ngade ci s i oni n Bos t i ci nl i g htoft he

t i r s t t o f i l er u l ea ndi nt hei n t e r e s t o f j u d i c i a le c o n o my.l nt h ea l t e r n a t i v e , d e f e n d a n t sa r g u et h a t ,
a tt he ve r yl e as t 2t . j w he c our ts houl de nl a r get he c ur r e ntbr i e f i ng s c he dul e o ac coun tj ort ,t Oc t obe r29t ha r g um e nts c he dul ed on t he m ot i o nst o di s mi s sa nd f orcl as sc e r t i f i c a t i on,ast he me r i t s oft he c as es houl d notbe dec i de d be f or et he pa r t i est oi tha ve bee n de t e nni ne d. Thepa r t i e sa ppe a r e d be f or et he c our tf ora t e l e phoni c he a r i ng o n Oc t obe r 8,201 3a nd pr es e nt e da r g um e nton t he m ot i on t os t ay.D ef e nda nt sa r g ue dt ha tgi ve nt he f a c tpl ai nt i f f sha d

de ci de dt opr oc ee dons ummm' yj udg me ntr a t he rt ha npur s ueane vi de nt i a r yc ha l l e nget o
Vi r gi ni a' s m ar ri age l aw s t hr ough expertt es t i m ony,ast hey had or i gi nal l y pr opos ed,t he i ns t ant cas ei s now on al lf our sw i t h Bost i c. Rel yi ng on t he f i rs t t of i l e nz l e,def endant s ar gued t hatt he

ma t t e rs houl de i t he rbe t r a ns f e r r e dt ot he Ea s t er n Di s t r i c tf orpur pos e s ofc ons ol i da t i on w i t h 2Th eb r i e f i n gs c h e du l ei ss e t f o r t hi nt hec o u r t ' sS e p t e mb e r1 7 t hs c h e du l i n go r d e r( Dk t . #43 ) .

Case 5:13-cv-00077-MFU-RSB Document 67 Filed 10/18/13 Page 4 of 9 Pageid#: 619

Bos t i ço rs t a ye dp e nd i n gt heo u t c omei nBo s t i ci nt hei n t e r e s t o f j u d i e i a le c o no my .
Al t e r n a t i v e l y, d e f e n d a n t sa s kt h ec o u r t f o rs o mer e l i e ff r o mt h es u mma r yj ud g me n tb r i e t i n g
s c he dul e,a st he s t a t e de f enda nt sa r ebus y pr e pa r i ngbr i e f si n Bos t i c.
Fo rt he i rpa r t , pl a i nt i f f sas s e r t t ha tt he f i x s t t of i l er ul e doesnota ppl y be c a us et he i ns t a nt oa s ew a sf i l e da sa c l a s sa di on a nd Bos t i cw a s no t . A ddi t i ona l l y, t he Bos t i cc om pl a i ntw a st i l e d a m er et wowe eksbef or et he i ns t a ntc a s ea nd, i ni t sor i gi na ls t a t e,r a i s ed onl y one oft he t wo

c ons t i t ut i ona lc ha l l e nge sbr o ughtby pl ai nt i f f si nt he i ns t a ntc a s e -t ha tVi r gi ni al a wspr e ve nt i ng
as a me s ex c oupl ef r om l a wf ul l yma r r yi ng w i t hi nt he Com m onwea 1 t h vi ol a t et he pl a i nt i f f s ' r i ght sunde rt he Four t e e nt hAme ndm e nt . Pl a i nt i f f sa l s oc ont e nd t ha ti ti snotunus ualf ort wo

f e de r a ldi s t r i c tc our t swi t hi nt hes mnec i r c ui to rs a m es t a t et o de ci det hes a m el e ga li s s uea tt he

s a met i me ,ci t i ngt hec a s esofW i nds orv.Uni t e d St a t es ,8 33F.Supp.2d394( S. D. N. Y.201 2) a ndPe der s e nv.Of t i ceofPe r s onne lMa na ge me nt ,881F.Supp. 2d294( D.Conn. 201 2)( s a me c i r c ui t ) ,a ndDr ago vi c hv. Uni t edSt at esDe pa r t men tofTr ea s ur v,872F.Supp.2d944( N. D.Cal .
201 2)andGol i ns kiv.Uni t edSt a t esOf f i c eofPe r s onne lMana ge me nt ,82 4 F.Supp. 2d 968

( N. D.Ca l . 201 2)( s a mes t a t e ) .W i t hr es pe c tt ode f e nda nt s 'r e ques tf ore nl a r ge me ntoft i met o
t 5 l er e s po ns e br i e f s , pl a i nt i f f sa r gue t ha ts i nc et he l e ga li s s ue sa r et he s n m ea si n Bos t i c ,t he r ei s

nor e a s on why t he s t a t ede f e nda nt sca nnott 5 l et wobr i e f si nt wo cour t sa tt he s a m et i me .
Fo rt he f ol l ow i ng r e a s ons ,t he c our tf i ndsnei t he rt r a ns f e rno ras t a y pendi ng dec i s i o ni n Bos t i ct o be w a r r ant e di nt hi sc a s e.H ow e ve r ,a ne nl a r ge me ntoft i met of i l er e s pons e br i ef si s a ppr opr i at e.
1 l.

é s or di na r i l y,whe n m ul t i pl es ui t sa r ef i l e di n di f f e r e ntFe de r a lcour t supon t he s a me f a ct ua li s s ue s ,t he f i r s torpr i ora c t i on i spe r mi t t e dt o pr oc e ed t ot he e xc l us i o n ofa not her

Case 5:13-cv-00077-MFU-RSB Document 67 Filed 10/18/13 Page 5 of 9 Pageid#: 620

s ubs eq ue nt l yt i l e d. ' 'A l l i ç dGe n. N ud ea rSe rv s . v.Com m onw ça l t h Edi s on Co., 675 F. 2d 61 0,

611n. 1( 4t h Ci r .1 982)( ci t i ngCa r bi de& Ca r bonChe mi c al sCo r p.v.Uni t edSt a t e sl ndus t r i a l Che mi ca l s .l nc. ,1 40F. 2d47, 49( 4 t hCi r .1 9 44) ) .Thi spr i nci pl eofj udi c i alco mi t ya mongcoe qualf e de r a lc our t si sof t e nr ef er r e dt oa st he f i r s t t of i l e nl l e. W he n ac as ef a l l s wi t hi nt he a m bi toft he r ul e ,co ur t s ge ne r a l l y wi l ls t a y,di s mi s s ,ort r a ns f ert he s ec ondf i l e d ca s e. t t l he pol i c y under l yi ng t he f i r s t t ot i l er u l ei st he a voi da nc , e ofdupl i c a t i ve l i t i ga t i on a nd

t hec o n s e r v a t i o no f j u d i c i a l r e s o u r c e s . ' 'Sa ms u n gEl e c t r o ni c sCo. . Lt d. v. Ra mb u s . l n c . , 38 6F.
Supp. 2d708,7 24 ( E. D. Va.2005) .Appl i ca t i o n oft her ul ei sdi s c r e t i o na r y, notma nda t or y.US
Ai r wa ys .l nc. v. U SAi r l i ne Pi l o t sA s s ' n, N o.3: 11 CV 371 RJ CD CK , 2011W L 3627698,a t *1

( W. D. N. C. Aug.1 7,2011 )( ci t i ngNut r i t i on& Fi t ne s s s l nc. v.Bl ueSt uf f ,l nc. , 264F. Supp.2d
357, 361( W. D. N. C. 2003 ) ) .TheFour t h Ci r c ui tç d hasnounyi e l di ng S f i r s t t ot i l e'r ul e. ' 'l d. ( quot i ngCACII nt er n. .l nc. v. Pe nt a ge nTe c l mol ogi es1 nt ' 1 . , 70F. 3d 111,1995W L 67995 2,a t* 6

( 4t hCi r .1 995)( unpubl i s hed l ) .Thenz l ei snota bs ol ut ea ndi snott obeme c ha ni ca l l ya ppl i e d;
ul t i ma t e l y,i nvoki ng t he f i r s t t of i l er ul ei sa ne qui t abl e,c a s e byca s e ,di s c r e t i ona r y de t er mi na t i on. El de r be n' y ofW e berCi t y, LLC v. Li vi ng Cen t e r s sou t hea s t . sl nc. , N o. 6: 1 2CV-

00052,201 3W L 11 64835, a t* 4( W. D. Va. Ma r . 20, 201 3)( ci t a t i onsomi t t e d) .Fur t henuor e,

e x c e p t i o nst ot h er u l ea r ec o mmo nl i whe nj u s t i c eo re x pe d i e n c yr e q u i r e s . ' 'S a ms u ngEl e c t r o n i c s ,
386 F.Supp. 2d a t7 24. Pr oc ed ur a l l y,t he c our t f i r s tc ons i de r sw he t he rt he t woc om pe t i ng a c t i onsa r e s ubs t a nt i ve l yt he s a m e ors uf t i ci e nt l ys i mi l a rt oc om e w i t hi nt he a m bi toft he f i r s t t of i l er ul e. l f t he y do, t he c our t t he n cons i de r swhe t he ra ny e xce pt i on t ot he r ul es houl d be a ppl i e d. Se e Fe d.
H om e Loan M ort gaue Corp.v.M ort gaRe G uar.I ns.Com . ,N o.1: 1 2-CV539A JTJFA ,201 2

W L 26731 51 ,at* 4( E. D.Va. J ul y5, 201 2)( s et t i ngf oz ' t ht hi spr oc edu r e ) .Tode t e z mi nei ft he r e

Case 5:13-cv-00077-MFU-RSB Document 67 Filed 10/18/13 Page 6 of 9 Pageid#: 621

i ss uf f i c i ents i mi l a r i t yt o br i ng t he f i r s t t ot i l er ul ei nt o pl a y, cour t s ha ve c ons i der ed t hr e e

f a c t or s :( 1 )t hec hr onol ogyoft het i l i ngs ,( 2)t hes i mi l a r i t yoft hepar t i esi nvol ved,a nd( 3)t he s i mi l a r i t yoft hei s s ue sa ts t ake.Nut r i t i on& Fi t nes s ,264F.Su pp.2da t36 0( c i t i ngPl a t i ngRes . . I nc. v. UT1Com . , 47F.Supp. 2d 899,903( N. D.Ohi o1 999) ) ;s e ea l s oUS Ai r wa ys ,201lW L

3627698,a t*2( c ol l e di ngca s e s ) .é i f ' heac t i onsb ei ngas s e s s e dne ednotbei de nt i ca li ft he r ei s
s u bs t ant i a lov er l a p wi t hr es pe ctt ot hei s s uesa nd pa r t i e s . ' ' Byers on v.Equi f ax I nf o.Ser vs. -LLC ,

467F.Su pp.2d627,63536( E. D. Va. 2006) .
l ti sc l ea rhe r et ha tt he s am e que s t i ons ofl aw a r e pr es e nt e di n bot ht he i ns t antac t i o na nd

t heBos t i cc as e.Ye tt hi si sj us toneoft her el e va ntf a c t o r s .The r ei snotac ompl e t eove r l a p
be t wee nt hepa r t i es . The s t a t e def enda nt sa r el a r ge l yt he s a m e. Tr ue,Gover norM c D onne l l r e ma i nsa def e ndan ti nt he i ns t a nta c t i on c as e w hi l e he w a svol unt a r i l y di s mi s s e df r om t he Bos t i c
-

c as e. Addi t i o na l l y,t he i ns t a nta c t i on na m est he St a unt on Ci r c ui tCour tCl e r ka s a de f enda nt , w hi l et he Bos t i cc as e na m est he N or f ol k Cl e r k. Thes e di f f e r e nc es , how eve r ,a r el a r ge l y

i mma t e r i a la sad e c l a r a t o r yj ud g me n td e c i s i o na g a i n s t a n yo neo ft h es t a t ed e f e n d a n t swo u l dbe
bi ndi ng ast oa l l .l nc ont r a s t , t he r ei sa m e ani ngf uldi f f e r e nc ea m ong pl a i nt i f f s . Thi sca s ew a s br o ug htasa cl as sa c t i o n- a l t hough c l a s sce r t i f i c a t i on r e ma i nspe ndi ng- w hi l et he Bos t i cc as e

i nvol veso nl yi ndi vi dualpl a i nt i f f s . Cf .W i l ki ev. Ge ns i vaHç a1 t h Se r vs . .l nc . ,No.CI V.1 01 451

FCD/ GGH, 201 0W L 3703060,a t*3( E. D.Ca l .Se pt .1 6,201 0)( d i subs t a nt i als i mi l a r i t yoft he
pa r t i e si sde t e r mi ne dbycompa r i ngt hepr o pos edc l as s esast he yc ur r e nt l ys t a nd. ' ' ) .I ndee d,t he
Bos t i c pl a i nt i f f sha ve s pe ci f i ca l l yr e ques t e dt ha tt hey be e xcl ude df r o m t he put a t i ve c l as si nt he

i ns t a ntc as e.( Se eDkt . # 38 ) .Ot he rc our t sha veco ns i de r e dt hedi f f er e nc ebe t wee ncl a s s ac t i on
a nd i ndi vi dua ll a ws ui t st o be m a t e r i ali n det e r mi ni ng i ft he f i r s t t of i l er ul es houl d be a ppl i e d.

Se eDubçev.P. F.Cha nM' sChi naBi s t r o. I nc. , N o.C 1 001 937 W HA , 201 0 W L 33 23808,a t* 2

6

Case 5:13-cv-00077-MFU-RSB Document 67 Filed 10/18/13 Page 7 of 9 Pageid#: 622

( N. D.Ca l . Aug. 23, 2010 )( t i ndi ngt ha tt hepl a i nt i f f si nt wos e par a t ec as eswe r ene i t he rt hes a me
nors ubs t a nt i al l ys i mi l a rwhe r eo neca s ewa spr oc e edi ng s ol e l ya sa ni ndi vi dua la c t i on a nd t he
ot he ra sa c l as sa c t i o n,e ve n w he r et he c l as si nt he l a t t e rc a s e - i fc e r t i f i e d-coul de nc om pa s st he

i ndi vi d ua lpl a i nt i f fi nt hef o r me rca s e ) .
Fi na l l y,a nd m os ti m po r t a nt l y,t he c hr onol og y oft he f i l i ngss t r ong l ywe i ghsaga i ns tt he appl i ca t i on oft he f i r s t t of i l er ul ei nt hi sm a t t e r .d t cour t sw i t hi nt he Four t h Ci r c ui thave he l dt ha t ar i gi da ppl i c a t i on oft he t i r s t t ot i l er ul ei sunw a r r a nt e d w he nt he s e c ond a c t i on w a sf i l e d onl y

we e ksa f t e rt hef i r s ta c t i on. ' ' Que s e nbe r r v v. Vol vo Gr p. N. Am . . l nc. , N o.CI V. A.

1: 09CV00022,2009W L 648658, a t*4( W. D. Va .M a r .1 0,2009)( ci t i ngAf f i ni t yM e mor y& Mi cr o.l nc. v. K & O En t e pr i s e s .l nc. , 20F.Supp.2d948,955( E. D. Va.1998 ) ) .Thec our ti n
Oues e nbe r r v dec l i ne dt oi nvoket hef i r s t t oil er ul ewhe nt he s ec ond f i l i ng oc c ur r ed o nl yt hr ee
w ee ks l a t e r ; t he co ur ti n Af f i ni t y M em or vs i mi l a r l y de cl i ned t oi nvoke t her ul e whe nt he

di f f e r e nc ewast wowee ks .Se ei d.( not i ngt hi sf ac t ) .Thei ns t a ntac t i onwast i l edAugus t1,
201 3,e xa c t l yt wowe eks a f t e rt he Bos t i c ca s ew a sf i l e d. M o r e ove r ,t he or i gi nalc om pl ai n ti nt hi s c as ea l l e ged t ha tb0t hVi r gi ni a' sr ef us a lt om a r r ys a me s e x co upl esa nd t or e cogni z e va l i ds a m es e xm a r r i a ge s pe r f or me di n ot he rs t a t esvi ol a t e st he Four t ee nt hAm e ndm e nt . The l a t e ri s s ue was notr a i s e di nt he or i gi na lBos t i c co m pl ai nt .R a t he r ,i tw ast i r s tr ai s e di nt he a me nde dc om pl ai nt

wi t ht h ea d d i t i o no fp l a i n t i f f sSc h a l l a n dTo wnl e y , j u s to v e ramo n t ha f t e rt h ei n s t a n ta c t i o nwa s
f i l e d. A ss uc h,t hi sc a s ei st he t i r s t f i l e da st ot he i s s ue ofr ec ogni t i on of s a me s e xm a r r i age s pe r f onned by s i s t e rs t a t es .
Si mi l art ot he chr onol ogy oft he f i l i ngs,( t court s al s o cons i derhow f areach case has

pr og r es s ed' ' i n de t e r mi ni ng whe t hert he f i r s t t of i l er ul ea ppl i es . El de r ber r v ofW e be r Ci t y.LLC

v.Li vi nxCe nt e r s sout hea s t s l nc. , No. 6: 1 2CV00052,201 3W L 11 6 4835,a t*4( W. D.Va. Ma r .

7

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2 0 , 2 01 3 )( e o l l e di ngc a s e s l , ' s e ea l s oAf f i n i t vM e mo r y , 20F. S u p p. 2 da t95 4( $ i g T) h et i r s t f i l e d
r ul ei snott o be a ppl i e dm e c hani ca l l y;f ore xa m pl e, c our t sha vede cl i nedt o def e rt ot hef i r s t f i l ed

a di on whe nl i t t l ei fa nyt hi nghasbe e n donet oa dva nc et ha ta c t i o nf o rt r i a l . ' ' ) .TheBos j j ca di on

ha sno t a d va n v e da n yf u r t h e rt ha nt h ei n s t a n ta c t i o n.l n d e e d , s u mma r yj u d g me n t mo t i o nswe r e
t i l ed i n bot hc a s e s on t he s a m e da y. One f i nalf ac t orc ou r t s us ei nc ons i de r i ng t he a ppl i ca bi l i t y oft he f i r s t t of i l er u l ei s C d w he t he rt he bal a nc e of c onve ni e nc e w ei ghs i nf a vor ofa l l o wi ng t he s ec ondf i l e da c t i on t o pr oc e ed. ' ' El de r be r r v,201 3 W L 11 64835,a t* 4. l n de t e r mi ni ng t he ba l anc e ofconve ni e nc e,

co ur t sl ookt ot hes a mef a c t or sr el e va ntt ot r a ns f e rofve nueorf or um non c onve ni e ns.J J, ( dt i ng
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Fe der a t ed M ut . I ns .Co. v. Pa c t i v Com . , No. CI V. A 5: 09CV00073,201 0 W L 503090,a t*2

( W. D.Va.Feb.9,201 0) ) .The s ef ac t or sa r e:( 1 )t hewei ghtac c or de dt hepl ai nt i f fsc hoi c eof ve nue ,( 2)wi t ne s sc onve ni e nc ea ndac ce s s ,( 3)co nve ni e nc eoft hepa r t i e s , a nd( 4)t hei nt e r e s tof j us t i c e.Cr os sv. Fl e e tRes e r veAs s ' nPe ns i onPl an,383F.Supp.2d852,856( D.Md. 2005 )
( c i t a t i onomi t t e d) .i t l n ge ne r al ,apl a i nt i f fsf or um choi c eofve nuei si e nt i t l e dt os ubs t a nt i al

we i ght . ' ' '1 d. ( ci t i ngBd. ofTnl s t ee s sShe e tMe t a lW or ke r sNa t . Fundv. Bavl orHe a t i ng& Ai r Condi t i oni ng.l nc. ,702F.Supp.1 25 3,1 255( E. D. Va.1 988 :.Gi vi ngpr o pe rdef e r e nc et ot he
s ubs t a nt i a lwei ghta f f or de dt ot he pl a i nt i f f s'c hoi c e ofvenue ,a nd asno ne oft he ot he rr e l e va nt f ac t or sw e i gh a ga i ns tpr oc ee di ng i nt hi sve nue , t he c our tf i ndst ha tt he bal a nce ofco nve ni e nc e we i g hsi nf a vorofal l ow i ng t he i ns t a nta c t i on t o pr oce e d. Thus , ha vi ng c ons i de r ed t he r e l e va n tf a ct or s ,t he c our tde c l i nest os t ay,di s mi s s ,or
t r ansf ert hi s case purs uantt ot he f i rs t t of i l er ul e.
11 1.

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Case 5:13-cv-00077-MFU-RSB Document 67 Filed 10/18/13 Page 9 of 9 Pageid#: 624

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t he m ot i ons t o di s mi ssand f orcl asscer t i t i cat i on. Defendant s'r es pons est o pl ai nt i f f s'm ot i on f or

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be f i l e d on orbe f or e N ove m be r 7,201 3. The par t i es s houl dc ont a c tcha m be r st os e ta he ar i ng da t e. Ana ppr opr i a t eO r de rw i l lbe e nt e r ed.

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Dk t . #4 3, a t ! I !7 8( û û As u p p o r t i n gbr i e fmu s ta c c o mp a nya l 1 g r e t r i a l mo t i o ns. . . . I fa n ymo t i o n , p r o pe r l yf i l e da n d
b r i e f e d ,i st ob eo p p o s e d, ab r i e fi no p p o s i t i o n mu s tb ef i l e d wl t hi nf o u r t e e n( 1 4 )d a y so ft hed a t eo fs e r v i c eo f t he mo v a n t ' sb r i e f . . . . ' ' ) . 9

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