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P d t Training Product T i i Notes N t

1300 Series Electronic Engine

Course Content

HEUI fuel/Oil system function and operation ECM management system Fault finding using the MPSI Fault finding g using g PC software Service and maintenance

1300 Series Electronic Engine Agenda

Day 1
Morning. Introduction to the HEUI system. (Engine type, Model, kVA,and Identification) HEUI fuel system. y Injector removal, system drain down. Afternoon. OIL system ,oil oil spec. spec Maintenance ECM inputs/outputs (Senders S d and d transducers d l location i and d function) f i )

1300 Series Electronic Engine Agenda

Day 2
Morning. How to read the Flashing lights. Function of the Hand held programmer. Fault finding g with p programmer g only. y Afternoon. Faultfinding with the PC software. Round up Question and answer time time. End.

Shaping the Future

Optimised performance characteristics Improved engine emissions Engine packaging New reliability and durability features Expanded options range New service solutions

Engine Performance
Efficient combustion system Fully optimised power, torque and fuel curves for optimum performance No engine power loss due to high fuel temperatures Improved transient conditions Unaided cold start of -20C Stabilised idle

The engines consist of a range of six cylinder in-line engines which are turbocharged or turbocharged / intercooled. intercooled These engines have an electronic management system. In these notes, we will refer to the different engines types by their code letters, which are the first two letters of the engine number as indicated below.


CAPACITY 7,6 Litre 7,6 Litre 8,6 Litre 8,6 Litre 7,6 Litre 7,6 Litre 8,6 Litre 8,6 , Litre

ASPIRATION SYSTEM Turbocharged Turbocharged / intercooled Turbocharged Turbocharged / intercooled Turbocharged Turbocharged / intercooled Turbocharged Turbocharged g / intercooled

The engine number is stamped on the left side of the cylinder block, behind the high pressure oil pump. An example of the engine number is :

WK1296N123456B WK 1296 N 123456 B

Model code letters Build list number Built in the USA Engine serial No. Year of Build code

1300 Series Electronic Engine General Data

Number of cylindrs6 Cylinder arrangementIn line Cycle.Four Stroke Introduction system...Turbocharged y g or Turbocharged g /Intercooled Combulsion system.Direct injection Nominal bore: - WK & WL109, 2mm (4.301 in) - WM & WN...135, 9mm (5.350 in) stroke: - WK & WL.112,9mm WL 112 9mm (4.301 (4 301 in) - WM & WN135,9mm (4.590 in) compression ratio...16.5:1 Cubic capacity: -WK & WL.7,64 litres (466.4 cu in) - WM & WN...8,71 litres (531.0 cu in) Firing order..1,5,3,6,2,4 Valve tip clearances (cold): - Inlet & exhaust.0,64mm (0.025 in) Lubricating oil pressure (minimum): - Idle..104 kpa (15 1bf sq in) - Maximum no load engine speed & normal temp temp...276 276 kpa (40 1bf sq in) Lubricating oil capacity : Sump..22,7 litres (40.0 UK pints) Filter...5,6 litres (9.9 UK pints) Direction of rotation.Clockwise from the front Valve seat angle: - Inlet..30 Degrees - Exhaust45 Degrees

Engine oil is drawn from the sump by the engine oil pump and flows through the oil cooler and filter to the high pressure supply pump. The supply pump pressurizes the oil to between 450 and 3,000 psi. Pump outlet pressure is determined by the injection pressure regulator valve (IPR) which dumps excess oil to drain. The pressure maintained by the IPR is determined by a variable electrical signal supplied by the Electronic Control Module (ECM). High pressure oil is supplied to a pressure rail attached to the cylinder head, and by drillings in the head is available to all injectors. The energised solenoid lifts the injector poppet valve off its seat. seat Heat pressure oil from the rail then enters the injector causing injection to occur. occur Injection ends when the ECM switches off the current to the solenoid. The poppet spring then causes the poppet to close. As the poppet closes, the high pressure supply oil from the rail is blocked and the intensifier piston cavity is connected to drain through the armature cavity. The plunger return spring then pushes the intensifier and plunger back to their original position. The upward movement of the plunger lifts the fill check valve off its seat and draws fuel into the plunge cavity for the next stroke. Fuel is drawn from the fuel tank by a mechanical fuel pump and flows through a filter to the pressure rail attached to the cylinder head, via drillings in the head to the injectors. Excess fuel flows back to the tank via a spring loaded valve, which maintains a positive fuel pressure in the pressure rail.


ydraulically Actuated Lectronically controlled



Engine Emissions
Compliant to EPA and EC Stage 1 emissions legislation Excellent platform for stage 2 emissions legislation and beyond No visible smoke Up to 3.5 dBA quieter, which equates to over a 50% improvement in perceived noise

The 1300 series electronic engine uses injector units, which are hydraulically actuated and electronically controlled. This offers vastly improved performance over mechanical systems by controlling the following areas:
Rate Control The rate of injection can be controlled to meet any engine condition, due to the injector being hydraulically actuated rather than mechanically. The rate of injection and injection pressure does not depend on engine speed. Timing Control Both start and end of injection is electronically controlled, unlike conventional electronically controlled mechanically actuated unit injectors, the plunger does not move until the solenoid is energised. s means ea s t that at p plunger u ge movement ove e t is s not ot limited ted to t the e speed o or du duration at o o of a This cam lobe.


Injector Unit
The injector uses the hydraulic energy of the pressurised oil to cause injection. The pressure of the incoming oil controls the speed of the intensifier piston and therefore, the rate of injection. The amount of fuel injected is determined by the duration of the pulse from the ECM and how long it keeps the solenoid energised. As long as the solenoid is energised and the poppet valve is off its seat, oil continues to push down the intensifier and plunger until the intensifier reaches the bottom of its b bore.

Electronic Solenoid Poppet Valve Intensifier Piston

Check Valve

Nozzle Assembly


Injector Unit Top Section

Solenoid Armature

P Poppet t

Wire to ECM


Injector Unit Mid Section

An intensifier piston in the injector unit multiplies hydraulic force on the plunger. By varying the hydraulic input pressure, p essu e, injection ject o pressure p essu e ca can be controlled in a range from 3,000 to 21,000 psi.

Oil il Outlet l Port

Oil Feed Port Fuel Port


Spill Port


Injector Unit Bottom Section

Spill Port closed during injection Nozzle Assembly



Injector Unit Bottom Section

Each injection is made up of two stages. Pilot Injection Main Injection

Injection Pressure can be as high as 21,000 , Psi.


Injector Pilot Injection

Pilot Injection Delay Period

Main Injection


HEUI Injectors

Fuel Filter Fuel Tank Lift Pump

Oil Sump Engine Oil Pump To Engine Lubrication System High Pressure Oil Supply Pump

(Rexroth pump)
High Pressure Oil Rail

HEUI Injectors Oil Cooler and Filter


ECM ICP sensor High pressure oil feeding injectors

Rexroth oil pump IPR valve

ECM management system

Engine g Sensors
Camshaft Position Injection Control Pressure Coolant Temperature Boost Pressure Oil Pressure

Oil Temperature

Engine Speed

Cam p position sensor

24 vanes 1 narrow vain i Sends engine speed to ECM Sends engine position to ECM C PS C.P.S Narrow Vain

Cam p position sensor

Hall effect Narrow vain 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Degrees

V lt Volts

Electronic Control Mod le Module

Stop / Start Switch

HEUI Injectors j


Temperature sensors
Thermistor sensors Oil temp Coolant temp Air Ai temp t

Pressure sensors
Gives ECM information on: Oil pressure p Injection control pressure Boost pressure Barometric pressure

Fault finding using the MPSI

Test bay Hands On

Fault finding using PC software

Test bay Hands on Part number 994 - 487 and 994 - 485

Service and maintenance

Ref. User Users s Handbook 1300 series Edi

Coolant specification
The quality of the coolant which is used can have a great effect on the efficiency and life of the cooling system. The recommendations indicated below can help to maintain a good cooling system and to protect it against frost and/or corrosion. If the correct procedures are not used, Perkins cannot be held responsible for frost or corrosion damage. 1 If it is possible, use clean soft water in the coolant. 2 If an antifreeze mixture, other than Perkins POWERPART, is used to prevent frost damage, it must have an ethanediol base (ethylene glycol) with a corrosion inhibitor. It is recommended that the corrosion inhibitor is of the sodium nitrite/sodium molybdate type. The antifreeze mixture must be an efficient coolant at all ambient temperatures and it must provide protection against corrosion. It must also have a specification at least as good as the requirements of either BS6580 or MOD AL39. Perkins POWERPART antifreeze exceeds the requirements of the above standard. The quality of the antifreeze coolant must be checked at least once a year, for example, at the beginning of the cold period. The coolant must be renewed every two years. The antifreeze mixture must consist of equal quantities of antifreeze and water. Concentrations of more than 50% of antifreeze must not be used because these can affect adversely the performance of the coolant. 3 When frost protection is not necessary, it is still an advantage to use an approved antifreeze mixture because this gives a protection against corrosion and also raises the boiling point of the coolant. If an approved antifreeze mixture is not available, add a correct mixture of corrosion g are supplied pp with a coolant filter / conditioner inhibitor to the water. All 1300 Series EDi engines canister. Renew the coolant and the filter / conditioner canister in accordance with the maintenance schedules on page 18. Test the level of coolant conditioner, and adjust if necessary in accordance with the maintenance schedules on page

Fuel specification Cetane num ber. 50 m inim um Viscosity 2.0/4.5 2 0/4 5 centistokes at 40 0 C Density 0,835/0,855 kg/litre Sulphur 0 2% of m ass, 0.2% ass m axim um Distillation 85% at 350 0 C

Oil specification
When available API CG-4, API CH-4 or ACEA E3 Wh NOT available When il bl API CF-4 or ACEA E2

Flashing g Lights g
Active Faults =

111 (No (N F Faults) lt )

Each active fault will be proceeded by y a red flash.

Inactive Faults = OCC test

Both red and amber lights are momentarily on during the output circuit continuity test.

111 (No Faults)

Flashing Lights
To interrogate the ECMs memory or identify a fault, the self test button ( (Green) ) should be depressed. p The (Red) button should be momentarily depressed to initiate the active and inactive fault tests. If there are any active faults, faults the red lamp will flash once, once followed by the amber lamp flashing a numerical code. If more than one active fault code is stored in the ECMs memory, there h will ill be b a short h pause after f the h first fi code d and d then the next code will be indicated. When all of the active codes have been indicated the red light will flash twice and the inactive fault codes will be flashed. At the end of the sequence the red light will flash three times to signal the end of the test.

Flashing Lights
It is possible to perform an output circuit continuity test (OCC) with the the use of the red and green push button on the top of the side panel by : Pressing and holding both buttons for the duration of the test.
Green Red

Push Buttons

OCC test
Lamps red amber

Both B th red d and d amber b li lights ht are momentarily on during the output circuit continuity test.

F G Wilson Electrical DWG

F G Wilson Electrical DWG

Question and Answer time

Give a man a fish and he will be fed for a day, day Teach a man how to fish and you will feed him for life

The End