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3:

8. .
:
1) , (C2) (2),
(C6H126) .
.
2) .
3) .
4) .
9. :
. .
. .
. .
.
.
. .
10.
.
:
:
) (, )
.
) .
( )
( ).
.
11. :
. S + O2 SO3
. Zn + HCl ZnCl2+ H2
. C + FeO Fe + CO2
. Cl2 + KI KCl + I2
. Al + HBr AlBr3+ H2
:
,
. ,
. 2S + 3O2 2SO3

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(2 6 , )
. Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2+ H2
(1 , 2 2 ,
)
. C + 2FeO 2Fe + CO2
(1 , 2 2 ,
)
. Cl2 + 2KI 2KCl + I2
(2 , 2 2 ,
)
. 2Al + 6HBr 2AlBr3 + 3H2
(2 , 6 6 ,
)
12. :
1. .
2. (22)
.
3. .
:
1. ,
.
2. .
3.
() .
13. :
. ,


.
.
,
().
14. :
.
( 1) ( 2) ( 1)
( 2):
:

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+ +
+ +
.
:
1. (),
2. ,
3. , .
15. :
) 8 .
) 5 .
:
)

K, Ba, Ca, Na, Mg, Al, Mn, Zn


A
F2, Cl2, Br2, O2, I2

16. :
) 2Na(s) + Cl2(g) 2NaCl(s)
) C(s) + O2(g) CO2(g)
) H2(g) + I2(g) 2HI(g)

) 2Al(s) +3Br2(l) 2AlBr3(s)


) N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)
) 2HgO(s) 2Hg(l) + O2(g)

) 2HCl(g) H2(g) + Cl2(g)

) 22

H2(g)+ O2(g)

17. N :


. ,
, :

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+ +
, :
+ +

.
:
.
.

K, Ba, Ca, Na, Mg, Al, Mn, Zn, Fe, Ni, Sn, Pb, H, Cu, Hg, Ag, Pt, Au

A
F2, Cl2, Br2, O2, I2, S

1) 2Na(s) + 2HCl(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + H2(g)


2) Ag(s) + HCl(aq)
.
3)Ba(s) + 2HI(aq) BaI2(aq) + H2(g)
4) 2Al(s) + 6HCl(aq) 2AlCl3(aq) + 3H2(g)
5) 2Al(s) + 3FeBr2(aq) 2AlBr3(aq)+3Fe(s)
6)Ca(s)+2AgNO3(aq) Ca(NO3)2(aq)+2Ag(s)
7) Fe(s) + K3PO4(aq)
.
8) Br2(l) + 2KI(aq) 2KBr(aq) + I2(l)
9) 3Cl2(g) + 2AlI3(aq) 2AlCl3(aq) +3I2(g)

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10) S(s) + KCl(aq)

11) Zn(s) + H2O(l) Zn(s) + H2(g)


12) g(s) + H2O(l) MgO(s) + H2(g)
13) Ca(s) + 2H2O(l) Ca(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)
14) Ba(s) + 2H2O(l) Ba(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)
18. :
:

( ),
.
+- + +- +- + +
(), .
: ,

:
1. (),
2. ,
3. , .
,
.
:
: ,
:

. .


: HF, HCl, HBr, HI, H2S, HCN, SO2, CO2, NH3

: SO42 : BaSO4, CaSO4, PbSO4

. .. AgCl,
Br . .. AgBr,
I . . AgI,
Cl

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K2CO3, Na2CO3, (NH4)2CO3.
K2S, Na2S, (NH4)2S.
KOH, NaOH, Ca(OH)2, Ba(OH)2
2AgNO3(aq) + BaCl2(aq) Ba(N3)2(aq)+ 2AgCl
( : )
NaNO3(aq) + KCl(aq) ( )
3H2SO4(aq) + 2AlBr3(aq) A12(S4)3 (aq)+ 6HBr
( : )
ZnCl2(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + Zn(OH)2
( : )
Pb(NO3)2(aq) + Na2S(aq) 2NaNO3(aq) + PbS
( : )
2HNO3(aq)+ZnCl2(aq) Zn(N3)2 (aq)+ 2HCl
( : )
2Fe(NO3)3(aq) + 3Ca(OH)2(aq) 3Ca(N3)2 (aq)+ 2Fe(OH)3
( : )
KNO3(aq)+CaBr2(aq) ( )
2NH4Cl(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq) CaCl2(aq) + 2NH3 + 2H2O(l)
CaSO3(aq) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2 (aq) + SO2 + H2O(l)
3Na2CO3(aq) + 2H3PO4(aq) 2Na3PO4(aq) + 3CO2 + 3H2O(l)
19. :
.

, (+) ,
(-) .
+ + - 2
()
( +) (
-).

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' .

.
:
+ +
:
3
. ..
2NH3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) (NH4)2SO4(aq)
3SO3 + Fe2O3 Fe2(SO4)3(aq)
2HNO3(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq) Ca(N3)2 (aq) + 2H2O(l)
Zn(OH)2(aq)+H2SO4(aq) ZnSO4(aq) + 2H2O(l)
3KOH(aq) + H3PO4(aq) K3PO4 (aq) + 3H2O(l)
2Fe(OH)3(aq) + 3H2SO4(aq) Fe2(SO4)3(aq) + 6H2O(l)
N2O5 + 2NaOH(aq) 2NaNO3 (aq) + H2O(l)
P2O5 + 3Ca(OH)2(aq) Ca3(PO4)2 (aq) + 3H2O(l)
3CO2(g) + 2Al(OH)3(aq) A12(CO3)3(aq) + 3H2O(l)
BaO + 2HCl(aq) BaCl2 (aq) + H2O(l)
Fe2O3 + 6HNO3(aq) 2Fe(NO3)3 (aq) + 3H2O(l)
Al2O3 + 3H2SO4(aq) A12(SO4)3 (aq) + 3H2O(l)
2NH3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) (NH4)2SO4(aq)
NH3(aq) + HBr(aq) NH4Br(aq)
3CO2 + Al2O3 Al2(CO3)3(aq)

P2O5 + 3Na2O 2Na3PO4(aq)

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20. :
:
: ( + )
SO3 + H2O H2SO4 ( + )
N2O5 + H2O 2HNO3 ( + )
Na2O + H2O 2NaOH ( + )
MgO + H2O Mg(OH)2 ( + )
P2O5 +3H2O 2H3PO4 ( + )
Fe2O3 + 3H2O 2Fe(OH)3 ( + )
21. SO3 :
. SO3
.
. SO3
.
:
:
1. +
2. +
3. +
4. +
.
.
22. : Fe, Ca, Cu,
Al, Pb, Ag, Na, Hg.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
:
.

K, Ba, Ca, Na, Mg, Al, Mn, Zn, Fe, Ni, Sn, Pb, H, Cu, Hg, Ag, Pt, Au

,
1 Ca

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2 Na
3 Al
4 Fe
5 Pb
6 Cu
7 Hg
8 Ag
23. : Cl2, I2, S,
F2.
1 2 3 4
:

A
F2, Cl2, Br2, O2, I2, S

,
1S
2 I2
3 Cl2
4 F2
24.

.
:

H2SO4
HBr
H3PO4

Fe(OH)3
Fe2(SO4)3

Na2O

CaCO3

NH3

Na2SO4

CaSO4

(NH4)2SO4

FeBr3

NaBr

FePO4

Na3PO4

CaBr2
Ca3(PO4)2

(NH4)3PO4

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NH4Br

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2Fe(OH)3(aq) + 3H2SO4(aq) Fe2(SO4)3(aq) + 6H2O(l)
()
H2SO4(aq) + Na2O(aq) Na2SO4(aq) + H2O(l)
()
H2SO4(aq) + CaCO3(aq) CaSO4 + CO2+ H2O(l)
( )
2NH3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) (NH4)2SO4(aq)
()
3HBr(aq) + Fe(OH)3 (aq) FeBr3(aq) + 3H2O(l)
()
2HBr(aq) + Na2O(aq) 2NaBr(aq) + H2O(l)
()
2HBr(aq) + CaCO3(aq) CaBr2 (aq) + CO2+ H2O(l)
( )
NH3(aq) + HBr(aq) NH4Br(aq)
()
Fe(OH)3(aq) + H3PO4(aq) FePO4 (aq) + 3H2O(l)
()
2H3PO4(aq) + 3Na2O(aq) 2Na3PO4(aq) + 3H2O(l)
()
2H3PO4(aq) + 3CaCO3(aq) Ca3(PO4)2 + 3CO2+ 3H2O(l)
( )
3NH3(aq) + H3PO4(aq) (NH4)3PO4(aq)
()

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25.
:
.
.
.
.
:
, .
26.
:
.
.
.
.
.
:
:
1. +
2. +
3. +
4. +
,
) .
) .
) ,
. , .
) (.. NH4Cl )
) ( HCl
, (Cu), (g) (Au))
27.
:
. Na 2
. Mg 2
.

. Ag 2
:
+ + 2
K, Ba, Ca, Na
( ) 2.

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.. 2Na(s) + 2H2O(l) 2NaOH(aq) + H2(g)


Na H. .

,
.. Mg(s) + H2O(g) MgO(s) + H2(g)
, , .

:
1. (),
2. ,
3. , .
.
g H2 , Ag
.
.
28.
.
. : Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)
. : CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g)
. : H2(g) + Cl2(g) 2HCl(g)
. : Cu(OH)2(aq) + H2SO4(aq) CuSO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) .
:
)
.
.
,
Zn (0 +2) H2(+1 0).
, Zn 0 (
).
Zn :
1 x 2 1 0 x 2 0 x 2

H2 :
1 y 1 1 0 y 1 0 y 1

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H2 0 (
).
) ,
.
)
. ,
, , . , ,
,
.
, .
, H2 0 (
).
H2 :
1 x 1 1 0 x 1 0 x 1

, Cl2 0 (
).
Cl2 :
1 1 1 y 0 1 y 0 y 1

) ,

29. :
. 2HCl + K2CO3 2Cl + CO2 + H2O ( )
. FeS + 2Br H2S + FeBr2 ( )
. 2NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2H2O ()
. 2K + 2H2O 2 + H2 ( : +
+ 2).
30. :
. P2O5 + 3H2O 2H3PO4 ( + )
. FeO + H2O Fe(OH)2 ( + )
. 2Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2 ( : +
+ 2).
. N2 + 3H2 2NH3 ( )
. 2HgO 2g + O2 ( )

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31. :
1. ()
2.
3.
4. ()
.
:
1. FeO + 2HCl FeCl2 + H2O
( + () + )
2. Na2O + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + H2O
( + + )
3. 3K2O + 2H3PO4 2K3PO4 + 3H2O
( + + )
4. CuO + 2HNO3 Cu(N3)2 + H2O
( + () + )
32.
: CaBr2, Na3PO4, Al(NO3)3
.
:
Ca(OH)2 + 2HBr CaBr2 + 2H2O
3NaOH + H3PO4 Na3PO4 + 3H2O
Al(OH)3 + 3HNO3 1(03)3 + 3H2O
33.
.
:
3
. ..
2NH3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) (NH4)2SO4(aq)
3SO3 + Fe2O3 Fe2(SO4)3(aq)
34. :
. .
. .

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. .
. .
.
:
:
Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2
, (
).
, .
35. AgNO3 HBr :
.
.
.
.
.
:
:
AgNO3 + r AgBr + HNO3 ( )
, AgBr.
36. Ag2SO4
Ca3(PO4)2 :
)
)
)
)
:
:
. +
. +
. +
. +
) 2AgOH + H2SO4 Ag2SO4 + 2H2O

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3Ca(OH)2 + 2H3PO4 Ca3(P04)2 + 6H2O

) 2AgOH + SO3 Ag2SO4 + H2O



3Ca(OH)2 + P2O5 Ca3(P4)2 + 3H2O

) Ag2O + H2SO4 Ag2SO4 + H2O

3CaO + 2H3PO4 Ca3(P4)2 + 3H2O


) Ag2O + SO3 Ag2SO4

3CaO + P2O5 Ca3(P4)2


37. :
) , ) , ) ) .
;
:
) + +
) + +
) + +
) (1) + (1) (2) + (2)

( ).
:

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1)
2)
3) .
( )
38.
.
) .
)
.
:
)
(NaOH) (H2).
.
H .
.
) 2Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2
39. , H2SO4 , HCl NaCl,
.
.
. ,
.
,
.
:

HCl
:
+ + 2
,
Ba + 2HCl BaCl2 + H2

NaCl,
Ba + 2NaCl BaCl2 + 2Na.
:

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+ +

H2SO4
Ba + H2SO4 BaSO4 + H2

:
+ + 2
40.
ALUDROX Mg(OH)2 l(OH)3,
. ;
:
(HCl).
HCl ,
Mg(OH)2 l(OH)3.

.
41. , :
, ALUDROX ( NaCl 0,9%
w/v). ;
:
(
)
) To
.
) To ALUDROX Mg(OH)2 Al(OH)3
.
) To (NaCl 0,9% w/v)
(
pH ). .
42.
.
, , :
1. (): FeSO4
2. : KCl
3. : MgSO4
4. :Zn(NO3)2
5. : HCl

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;
.
:
K, Na, Mg, Al, Zn, Fe, H2, Cu, Hg.
:
1. O () FeSO4 (Cu),
.
2. KCl
.
3. MgSO4
.
4. Zn(NO3)2 (Cu),

.
5. HCl (Cu),
.

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