P. 1
ch13

ch13

|Views: 22|Likes:
Published by Janesya Sicilianty
sas
sas

More info:

Published by: Janesya Sicilianty on Oct 19, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/03/2014

pdf

text

original

Chapter 13

The Ultimate Structure of Matter:
How can antimatter be used to probe the human brain?
1. Which group below shows the building blocks of matter in order of their size, smallest to largest? a. quark, neutron, nucleus, atom, molecule b. molecule, atom, nucleus, neutron, quark c. molecule, atom, neutron, proton, quark d. atom, neutron, quark, proton, electron e. neutron, proton, electron, quark, nucleus Ans: a Link To: Of What Is the Universe Made? Difficulty Level: Easy

2. Which of the following is not a particle accelerator? a. graviton b. cyclotron c. synchrotron d. linear accelerator e. All of the above are particle accelerators. Ans: a Link To: Discovering Elementary Particles Difficulty Level: Easy

3. How are elementary particles detected? a. using a large electromagnet b. allowing particles to pass through a grid of thin gold wires c. by measuring changes that result from an interaction with matter d. all of the above e. a and b only Ans: d Link To: Discovering Elementary Particles

208

Chapter 13 Difficulty Level: Easy 4. The difference between a quark and a lepton is a. quarks exist in the nucleus; leptons do not. b. leptons appear in the nucleus; quarks do not. c. quarks can appear as free particles; leptons cannot. d. matter is made of quarks; leptons are exchanged to produce forces. e. none; they are two names for the same particle. Ans: a Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Easy

5. Which elementary particle cannot participate in the strong force? a. lepton b. electron c. hadron d. neutrino e. all of the above Ans: c Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Easy

6. Which two forces have infinite range? a. strong and weak b. electromagnetic and strong c. weak and gravity d. gravity and electromagnetic e. strong and gravity Ans: d Link To: Discovering Elementary Particles Difficulty Level: Easy

7. Which of the following kinds of particles are made from quarks? a. leptons b. protons c. electrons d. antiparticles e. photons

Chapter 13

Ans: b Link To: Of What Is the Universe Made? Difficulty Level: Easy

8. The force that holds the nucleus together despite the electrical repulsion between protons is the a. gravitational force. b. weak force. c. electromagnetic force. d. strong force. e. electroweak force. Ans: d Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Easy

9. Which elementary particle has the same mass but a different charge as one of the leptons? a. hadron b. electron c. mu d. positron e. proton Ans: d Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Easy

10. Quarks are one of the basic building blocks of matter. Which of the following particles or structures would not contain any quarks at all? a. DNA b. a glucose molecule c. a neutron d. an electron e. All of the above contain quarks. Ans: d Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Easy

210

Chapter 13

11. What is an end product of matter-antimatter annihilation? a. destruction of the universe b. energy c. waste heat d. nuclear fusion e. nuclear fission Ans: b Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Easy

12. Which of the following is an application of elementary particles research? a. cloud chamber b. positron emission tomography c. cartographic topography d. genetically engineered vegetables e. all of the above Ans: b Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Easy

13. How do quarks differ from other elementary particles? a. Quarks exist as free-floating particles in space. b. Quarks have positive and negative charges that are all multiples of two. c. Quarks form the basic structure of all electrons. d. Only six kinds of quarks make up the hundreds of nuclear particles. e. Quarks can be isolated and observed in a cloud chamber. Ans: d Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Easy

14. Which quark was the most recent quark to be discovered? a. top b. bottom c. strange d. charm e. up

Chapter 13

Ans: a Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Easy

15. How is the proton's +1 charge calculated using nuclear quark charges? a. 1 quark = +1 b. 1/2 quark + 1/2 quark = +1 c. 2/3 quark + 2/3 quark + (-1/3 quark) = +1 d. 2/3 quark + 1/3 quark = +1 e. 1/2 quark + 1/2 quark = +1 Ans: c Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Easy

16. In what order are the fundamental forces unified as temperatures increase from low to high? a. electromagnetic and gravity combine first, then strong, finally weak b. electromagnetic and strong combine first, then weak, finally gravity c. weak and strong combine first, then electromagnetic, finally gravity d. electromagnetic and weak combine first, then strong, finally gravity e. gravity and weak combine first, then electromagnetic, finally strong Ans: d Link To: The Four Fundamental Forces Difficulty Level: Easy

17. Theories of Everything (TOEs) are a. philosophical theories about how everything on Earth is organized. b. secular theories of how life began. c. fully unified theories about how all fundamental forces come together. d. current political theories about global annihilation. e. science fiction. Ans: c Link To: The Four Fundamental Forces Difficulty Level: Easy 18. Which of the following pairs of objects exchange gravitons? a. the Moon and Earth

212

Chapter 13 b. the international space station and an astronaut c. two adjacent molecules of oxygen in the atmosphere d. the Orion Nebula and a newborn baby e. all of the above Ans: e Link To: The Four Fundamental Forces Difficulty Level: Easy

19. When do the four fundamental forces become unified? a. at sequential freezings b. at extremely high temperatures c. during a solar eclipse d. in specialized particle accelerators e. in a cloud chamber Ans: b Link To: The Four Fundamental Forces Difficulty Level: Easy

20. The main research purpose of a particle accelerator is to a. observe the unification of weak and electromagnetic forces. b. attract more people to the science field. c. support international cooperation. d. detect nuclear weapons testing. e. conduct basic research into TOEs. Ans: a Link To: Discovering Elementary Particles Difficulty Level: Easy

21. We can say that cosmic rays a. have no charge. b. are mostly electrons. c. fall to the ground without interacting with anything in the Earth’s atmosphere. d. were created by humans as a source of high-energy particles. e. are particles that fall on Earth from outer space. Ans: e

Chapter 13 Link To: Discovering Elementary Particles Difficulty Level: Easy

22. The unified force model in particle physics has been replaced by TOEs. Ans: False Link To: The Four Fundamental Forces Difficulty Level: Easy

23. Protons and neutrons are two of the elementary particles. Ans: True Link To: Discovering Elementary Particles Difficulty Level: Easy

24. Cosmic rays originate deep inside the Earth. Ans: False Link To: Discovering Elementary Particles Difficulty Level: Easy

25. The most modern particle accelerators are a fraction of the size of the accelerator that won its inventor the 1939 Nobel Prize in physics. Ans: False Link To: Discovering Elementary Particles Difficulty Level: Easy

26. One of the world’s most powerful accelerators is located in the United States and the other in Japan. Ans: False Link To: Discovering Elementary Particles Difficulty Level: Easy 27. Quarks with the same charge differ from each other in mass and other properties.

214

Chapter 13 Ans: True Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Easy

28. Hadrons vary in charge and longevity, but all help to hold the nucleus together. Ans: True Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Easy

29. Physicists have not yet verified the existence of antimatter through laboratory experiments. Ans: False Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Easy

30. The energy required to remove a quark from an elementary particle creates more quarks and antiquarks. Ans: True Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Easy

31. All the elementary particles in the nucleus are made from various combinations of six kinds of quarks. Ans: True Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Easy

32. The weak force is too weak to tear electrons from nuclei. Ans: False Link To: The Four Fundamental Forces Difficulty Level: Easy

Chapter 13

33. The first unified field theories included Newton’s laws of motion. Ans: True Link To: The Four Fundamental Forces Difficulty Level: Easy

34. When positrons annihilate electrons microwaves are emitted. Ans: False Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Easy

35. What is reductionism? Ans: Reductionism is an attempt to reduce the complexity of the universe by first understanding the simplest building blocks at the foundation of the complex structure. Link To: Of What Is the Universe Made? Difficulty Level: Easy

36. Why is an electron described as a “weakly interacting one?" An electron is an example of a lepton, which is an elementary particle not found in the nucleus and not subject to the strong force holding the nucleus together. Link To: Of What Is the Universe Made? Difficulty Level: Easy

37. What are the four fundamental forces in nature and how do they work? Ans: The four fundamental forces are gravity, electromagnetism, weak, and strong. Each force is different from the others in strength and range. Every force between two particles involves the exchange of a third particle called a gauge particle. Gauge particles create the four fundamental forces that hold everything together. Link To: The Four Fundamental Forces Difficulty Level: Easy 38. Carl Anderson and Ernest Lawrence each won a Nobel Prize for their research. Briefly describe their work.

216

Chapter 13 Ans: Ernest Lawrence invented the cyclotron, the first particle accelerator; Carl Anderson identified the positron from a curved path left in a cloud chamber with magnets. Link To: Discovering Elementary Particles Difficulty Level: Easy

39. List the steps used to detect a positron with a cloud chamber. Ans: A cosmic ray particle enters the detector, which contains a moisture-laden gas. The positron leaves a trail of ions that become the condensation nuclei for a visible string of droplets. Link To: Of What Is the Universe Made? Difficulty Level: Easy

40. Arrange the following in order of increasing strength: electromagnetic, gravity, strong weak. Ans: gravity, weak, electromagnetic, strong. Link to: The Four Fundamental Forces Difficulty Level: Easy

41. A high-energy physicist might request research funding for studies pertaining to a. aerobic physiology. b. hydrogen bombs. c. solar flares. d. electromagnetic radiation. e. elementary particles. Ans: e Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Medium

42. Compared to its matter complement, antimatter has the same a. electrical charge and magnetic characteristics. b. mass and electrical charge. c. mass and electrical charge, but opposite magnetic characteristics. d. mass, but opposite electrical charge and magnetic characteristics. e. mass and magnetic characteristics, but opposite electrical charge. Ans: d Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo

Chapter 13 Difficulty Level: Medium

43. How did Carl Anderson’s cloud chamber apparatus differ from the ones that preceded it? a. Anderson’s cloud chamber detected cosmic rays. b. Ionized particles were blocked from Anderson’s cloud chamber. c. Vibrations from celestial movements were filtered from the Anderson apparatus. d. Anderson used magnets, which detected antimatter. e. Anderson’s device was the first to incorporate electron microscopes in the design. Ans: d Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Medium

44. A graviton is to gravity as the strong force is to a. wind. b. photon. c. W and Z. d. gluon e. c & d only Ans: d Link To: The Four Fundamental Forces Difficulty Level: Medium

45. Neutral elementary particles are more difficult to detect than charged elementary particles. Ans: True Link To: Of What Is the Universe Made? Difficulty Level: Medium

46. Whenever any object changes motion anywhere in the universe, at least one of the four fundamental forces is acting. Ans: True Link To: The Four Fundamental Forces Difficulty Level: Medium

218

Chapter 13

47. How do Maxwell’s equations explain the movement of charged particles? Ans: Maxwell’s equations state that magnetic fields exert a force on moving charged particles, causing them to move in a circular path. Link To: Discovering Elementary Particles Difficulty Level: Medium

48. Compare a linear accelerator with a synchrotron. Ans: While both machines are particle accelerators that boost atomic particles to near-light speeds, the synchrotron is based on a ring of magnets moving particles in a circular track. The linear accelerator is a device using a vacuum tube into which particles are injected to ride an electromagnetic wave. Link To: Discovering Elementary Particles Difficulty Level: Medium

49. What disadvantages did scientists find in using cosmic rays for studying the fundamental structure of matter? Ans: Because cosmic rays are supplied by nature, scientists found it very time consuming to wait for the cosmic rays to appear. Link To: Discovering Elementary Particles Difficulty Level: Medium

50. Why do scientists believe that an individual quark will never be confined long enough to be studied? Ans: The confinement theory indicates that a quark can never be separated from the nuclear particle in which it exists. The energy required to “shake a quark loose” would immediately go into making replacement quarks and antiquarks. Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Medium 51. Describe how a PET scan uses an unstable oxygen isotope. Ans: Cellular respiration of marked particles. Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Medium

Chapter 13

52. What happens to neutrons if they are prevented from performing their role in the nucleus? Ans: Neutrons act as the glue of the nucleus and, if isolated, become radioactive, transforming into a proton and an electron. Link To: Of What is the Universe Made? Difficulty Level: Medium

53. Is your body radioactive? Support your answer. Ans: Yes, from isotopes you inhale from the atmosphere, and from the foods and liquids you ingest. Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Medium

54. In what manner does beta decay reduce the stability of a nucleus? Ans: It changes the proton number and thus increases the repulsive charges within the nucleus. Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Medium

55. Why should the ‘man on the street’ care about elementary particles? Ans: Answers will vary but could include references to medical advances, lasers, and so forth. Link To: Discovering Elementary Particles Difficulty Level: Medium

56. What are the parts of a particle accelerator? Ans: Parts include vacuum tube, magnets, track, chamber, electric field, and experimental area. Link To: Discovering Elementary Particles Difficulty Level: Medium

220

Chapter 13 57. Why do scientists find it harder to detect neutrons than electrons? Unlike electrons, neutrons do not leave a string of charged particles as they move. Link To: Of What Is the Universe Made? Difficulty Level: Hard

58. How are particle accelerators used in medicine? Particle accelerators produce gamma rays and X-rays that can be used to destroy cancer tumors. Also, new research involves accelerating protons to produce pi-mesons, which can be manipulated in body tissue to limit damage just to the cancerous cells. Link To: Discovering Elementary Particles Difficulty Level: Hard

59. Review the arguments surrounding the "big science" versus "little science" projects. Use the Superconducting Supercollider as the case in point. Ans: If defined it as groups of scientists doing basic research, then can’t get money for it. Link To: String Theories Difficulty Level: Hard

60. Why do you think scientists continue to search for the ultimate building blocks of the universe? Is this basic research or applied research? Ans: AWV Understand and manipulate the nature of matter—basic research. Link To: String Theories Difficulty Level: Hard

61. Discuss the exchange of gauge particles. Give an example of a condition under which the gauge particles are exchanged and name the fundamental force involved. Ans: Gauge particles are glue. Gravity is exchange of gravitons therefore one of the four forces Link To: The Four Fundamental Forces Difficulty Level: Hard

62. Describe the advances made by the past generation of scientists in the field of high-energy physics. What do you think will be the next accomplishment?

Chapter 13 Ans: AWV finding particles—discovered the atom was not the ultimate unit of mass. Must explain- what is the ultimate particle. Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Hard

63. What effects can war have on science research? Explain your answer. Ans: Slow down or speed up depending on what the military needs. Interrupt communication of scientists. Focus on coming up with new technology. Link To: Of What Is the Universe Made? Difficulty Level: Hard

64. In what ways do science fiction writers include elementary particle theory in their discussion of space travel? Ans: New methods of fuel and propulsion. Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Hard

65. If we hold to the definition of an atom being indivisible, then are groups of protons, neutrons and electrons atoms? Why or why not? If not, what is a better definition of an atom? Ans: Answers will vary, but a new definition will include quarks and leptons. Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Hard

66. If two protons in a nucleus have the same charges, they should repel each other. How, then, do atomic nuclei stay together? Ans: First, because protons rarely exist alone, they are moderated by neutrons. Second, while it is true that electrical forces repel each other, the strong force is stronger than the electrical force and keeps the nucleus together. Link To: Of What is the Universe Made? Difficulty Level: Hard

222

Chapter 13 67. What observation supports the idea that the strong force is greater than the electrical force at nuclear distances? Ans: First, because protons rarely exist alone, they are moderated by neutrons. Second, while it is true that electrical forces repel each other, the strong force is stronger than the electrical force and keeps the nucleus together. Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Hard

68. How is it that the larger the nucleus the more unstable the atoms becomes? Ans: With more protons, there is more repulsive force in the nucleus. This can overwhelm the opposing strong force so that all nuclei with more than 82 protons are radioactive; 82 seems to be the tipping point. Link To: Discovering Elementary Particles Difficulty Level: Hard

69. In radioactive decay can elements go backward and forward along the periodic table? Defend your answer. Ans: Yes by gaining protons (beta decay) they move ‘forward’; by losing protons (alpha) they move ‘backwards’ to lower numbers. Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Hard

70. Subatomic particles and atoms seem very abstract to the everyday world. Give an example of how knowledge of these has created the technology in the modern world. Ans: Answers will vary; anything with lasers, CAT scans, PET scans, medical isotopes, chemotherapy, etc. Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Hard

71. If there is so much space between atoms, why do solids feel hard? Ans: The electrostatic forces hold the atoms together, making solid feel hard. Link To: Of What Is the Universe Made? Difficulty Level: Hard

Chapter 13

72. If we are hit be cosmic rays without feeling any ill effects, why are we concerned about the emissions from nuclear wastes? Ans: Alpha particles are blocked by something as thin as cotton clothing. Other rays, such as gamma, x-rays, etc. are damaging to cells. Link To: Discovering Elementary Particles Difficulty Level: Hard

73. If magnets are used to accelerate particles, does this mean that these particles are magnetic? Why or why not? Ans: Particles have point charges, a north-south poles; therefore they are attracted or repelled, but are not magnetic. Link To: Discovering Elementary Particles Difficulty Level: Hard

74. Why is it important that hadrons are subject to the strong force? Ans: If they were not, all nuclei would be unstable because of the like charges of the protons. Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Hard

75. How did scientists come up with the model of the quark? Ans: Observations were collected, put together in a sensible pattern, and the model tested. It seems to answer all questions, therefore the model is accepted. Link To: The Elementary Particle Zoo Difficulty Level: Hard

76. Why are unified field theories necessary? Ans: These theories show the interconnectedness of various areas, allowing questions to be answered.

224

Chapter 13 Link To: The Four Fundamental Forces Difficulty Level: Hard

77. Are String Theories actually theories? Defend your answer. Ans: Answers will vary but should contain definitions of theory and whether or not the proposed ‘string theory’ fits this definition. Link To: String Theories Difficulty Level: Hard

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->