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MELJUN CORTES Thesis Introduction

MELJUN CORTES Thesis Introduction

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MELJUN CORTES Thesis Introduction
MELJUN CORTES Thesis Introduction

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Published by: MELJUN CORTES, MBA,MPA on Oct 19, 2013
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Thesis: Introduction

MELJUN CORTES

Guidelines

concepts studied in 10-12 words (that is ideally for publication) but may be up to 15 words; Author’s name and institutional affiliation (Department, College, JRU) Running head –shortened version of title

Title - include all important

• •

Abstract

Describe the study in 100-120 words
The abstract provides a brief, general description of the study. What was the focus of the study? What areas were explored? What are the significant findings? What conclusions was derived?

Keywords
List of most essential variables/aspects of your study

Introduction
 Describe what you hoped to achieve accurately, clearly state the problem being investigated;  Summarize relevant research to provide context, with in-text citations;  Explain what findings of others, if any, are being challenged or extended;  Explain your conceptual framework;  Describe the experiment, hypothesis/es, research design or method; and  Definition of Terms

Introduction

Move 1: Establishing a research territory
Showing that the general research area is important, central, interesting, problematic, or relevant in some way (optional)
Useful Devices in Expressing Centrality:  The increasing interest in…has heightened the need for…  Of particular interest and complexity are..  A central issue in…is…  The…has been extensively studied in recent years.  The relationship between…has been investigated by many researchers.  Many recent studies focused on…  The…has become a favorite topic for analysis.  The possibility of…has generated wide interest in..  The development of…has led to the hope that…

Introduction

Move 1: Establishing a research territory
Citing / reviewing the most relevant items of previous research in the area (a must)
Suggested Patterns for Tense Usage (Reviewing Literature)

1. Past Tense – researcher activity as agent; reference to single studies. Edralin (1998) investigated the causes of… The causes of…were investigated by ( ). 2. Present Perfect Tense – researcher activity not as agent; reference to areas of inquiry The causes of…have been widely investigated (Edralin, 1998; Tullao, 2000). There have been several investigations into the causes of . . . ( ). Several researchers have studied the causes of . . . ( ).

Introduction

Move 1: Establishing a research territory
Citing / reviewing the most relevant items of previous research in the area (a must)
Suggested Patterns for Tense Usage (Reviewing Literature)…cont. (In nos. 1 and 2, focus is on what researchers did) 3. Present Tense – no reference to researcher activity – reference made to state of current knowledge; focus is on what has been found The causes of . . . are complex ( ).

Bankruptcy appears to have a complex set of causes ( ).

Introduction Move 2: Establishing a Niche (a Must)

Indicating a Gap in the previous research Indicating a gap usually through the use of a “negative” subject:
 However, little information…little focus…little research… little work…little attention… few attempts…few investigations… few studies…few scholars…  No studies have been made on…  None of these studies…  Cited research has tended to focus on…, rather than on…  These investigations have emphasized/focused on…, as opposed to…

Introduction Move 2: Establishing a Niche (a Must)

Raising a Question about it However, it remains unclear whether… It would thus be of interest to learn how… The results of previous studies suggest that further investigations are needed in order to…

Introduction Move 2: Establishing a Niche (a Must)

Extending Previous Knowledge or Continuing a Line of Research Previous research shows that Rasch Analysis is a useful technique for validating multiple choice tests. This paper uses Rasch analysis to… These recent developments in computer-aided design appear to have considerable potential. In this paper, we show…

Introduction Move 3: Occupying the Niche

Outlining Purposes or stating the nature of the present research Suggested Beginning Parts: This study is aimed at evaluating… The aim of this paper is to… The main purpose of the experiment is to… The present work aims to extend the use of Coates’(1986) model on…
Indicating the structure of the research paper

Introduction

Other Useful Strategies in Writing the Introduction
1. 2.

Use English prose, not jargon in your field.
Open with a statement about people (or animals) instead of other people’s research. Gradually lead your readers into the formal or theoretical statement of the problem, instead of introducing your problem or theory at the start.

3.

4.

Use examples to simplify the abstractness or complexity of unfamiliar conceptual or technical terms.

Introduction

Other Useful Strategies in Writing the Introduction Examples of Opening Statements: Poor: Recently, Ekman (1972), Izard (1977), Tomkins (1980) and Zajonc (1980) have pointed to psychology’s neglect of the affects and their expression. [Fine somewhere in the introduction, but not in the opening statement.] Better: Individuals differ radically from one another in the degree to which they are willing and able to express their emotions.

Poor: Research in the forced-compliance paradigm has focussed on the effects of predecisional alternatives and incentive magnitude.

Introduction

Other Useful Strategies in Writing the Introduction Poor: Festinger’s theory of cognitive dissonance has received a great deal of attention during the past 20 years. Better: The individual who holds two beliefs that are inconsistent with one another may feel uncomfortable. For example, the person who knows that he or she enjoys smoking but believes it to be unhealthy may experience discomfort arising from the inconsistency or disharmony between these two thoughts or cognitions. This feeling of discomfort was called cognitive dissonance by social psychologist Leon Festinger (1957), who suggested that individuals will be motivated to remove this dissonance in whatever way they can.

Introduction

Other Useful Strategies in Writing the Introduction An example on how one might define a technical term (ego control) and identify its conceptual status (a personality variable) more explicitly:

The need to delay gratification, control impulses, and modulate emotional expression is the earliest and most ubiquitous demand that society places upon the developing child. And because success at so many of life’s tasks depends critically upon the individual’s mastery of such ego control, evidence for life-course continuities in this central personality domain should be readily obtained.

Introduction

Other Useful Strategies in Writing the Introduction
An example in which the technical terms are defined only by the context:
In the continuing search for the biological correlates of psychic disorder, blood platelets are now a prime target of investigation. On particular, reduced monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity in the platelets is sometimes correlated with paranoid symptomatology, auditory hallucinations or delusions in chronic schizophrenia, and a tendency towards psychopathology in normal men. Unfortunately, these observations have not always replicated, casting doubt on the hypothesis that MAO activity is, in fact, a biological marker in psychiatric disorder. Even the general utility of the platelet model as a key to central nervous system abnormalities in schizophrenia remains controversial. The present study attempts to clarify the relation of MAO activity to symptomatology in chronic schizophrenia.

Introduction

Other Useful Strategies in Writing the Introduction

A summary of the current state of the knowledge in the area of investigation follows.
- Discuss the literature but do not include an exhaustive historical review—cite only those that are pertinent to the specific issue and avoid references with only tangential or general significance. - Avoid nonessential details. - Avoid writing a statement intelligible only to the specialist.

Introduction

Other Useful Strategies in Writing the Introduction Citations: Either by enclosing their last names and the year of publication in parentheses, or by using the names in the sentence itself: It was reported that “MAO activity in some patients with schizophrenia is actually higher than normal” (Tse & Tung, 1949, p. ). Tse and Tung (1949) report that “MAO activity in some patients with schizophrenia is actually higher than normal” (p. ).

Criticizing previous work (Indicating a gap): Criticize the work, not the investigators or authors.

Introduction

Other Useful Strategies in Writing the Introduction Ending the introduction
Give a brief overview of your own study, thus providing a smooth transition into the method section. Because this sex difference remains elusive, it seems desirable to test Zanna’s parental-role theory of emotional expression in a more realistic setting. Accordingly, in the study being proposed here, we will expose men and women to filmed scenes designed to evoke either negative or positive emotions and will assess their reactions when they think that they are being observed by one or both of their parents. We also intend to examine the relation of emotional expression to self-esteem.

References: Swales, J. M. & Feak, C. B. (1994). Academic writing for graduate students: Course for non-native speakers of English. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. Bem, D. J. (2000). Writing the empirical journal. http://comp9.psych.cornell.edu/dbem/writing article. html

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